THE German barrage was at its height to soften up the
defenders before the first assault. At 0640, C Company
was under attack. The Germans were advancing rapidly in
groups of five Panzers with supporting infantry. Machine guns and snipers raked
the slit trenches at close quarters. C Company took heavy machine gun
casualties, but hung on as the Panzers rolled on towards B Company.
By 0655 the Tyneside Scots were frantically firing non-stop
to withstand the onslaught.
Stretcher bearer DW Jarvis: ‘Jerry opened fire with
everything he had. I watched the tanks coming through, followed by the
AFTER barely 20 minutes, the frontline troops had been
severely mauled, but the Germans had not managed to achieve their primary
objective of bursting through the British front. The hard-pressed B Company put
up a spirited fight. Sergeant David Watson’s six-pounder gun
detachment stopped the Panzers in their tracks, knocking out at least
five and, by some accounts, ten.
The initial attack had been blunted, although C Company was
dangerously short of men. A Company was also in need of urgent assistance.
Sgt D Watson: ‘Someone shouted
"Tanks" and everyone got to their positions. My Bren gunner was severely
wounded, but we kept on firing at the tanks. Then my aimer was struck in the
face and blinded. I took on his job and with the speed that the loader kept
pushing the shells in, we managed to take a few of the tanks
- but we were running short of ammunition. Then I was hit In the leg and
my loader on the hand. We were bleeding but just carried on firing until we, had
no ammunition left. As we were both wounded, we had nothing else to do but leave
Sgt Watson was later awarded the Military Medal.
DESPITE the sterling work by the anti-tank guns, the outer
defences had been penetrated and Panzers were threatening to enter Rauray.
By 0822, C Company’s position was looking pretty hopeless,
with some men already taken prisoner. The order was given to fall
back and make a stand on the
southern edge of the village. B Company had become disjointed, but Captain HP
Calderwood was still sending radio messages back to direct the British armour
and artillery fire. The scattered sections of A Company were drifting towards
the KOSB on their left.
Lt SF McLaren: ‘All the Jocks I could see were
banging away, but the enemy tanks were more or less on our position and I had no
contact with Company HQ.
‘I could see little sign of life and ordered the few troops I
was in contact with to fall back.’
PANZERS had infiltrated deep into the territory defended by
the Tyneside Scottish. What was left of B Company had been completely pinned
down by machine gun fire and could only wait and hope for reinforcements. In
reserve, D Company made ready for action.
Pte (Acting Cpl) J W Barnes: ‘Word was passed on
that they had smashed up B Company with tanks and infantry, had partially
overrun A Company ‘s perimeter and were heading our way.’
WITH the first phase of the battle over, the Durham Light
Infantry’s situation was reasonably under control to the west, but the state of
affairs with the Tyneside Scottish on the eastern flank was less certain. There
was no news of A Company and B Company was once more being encircled.
Virtually isolated, its position was very serious.
Reinforcements from D Company were ordered to fight their way through to join
what was left of B Company, but met with stiff resistance.
Pte (Acting CpI) J W Barnes: ‘Lt J McAllan’s Bren
carrier was movin forward when it was hit by a tank shell. A large plume of
smoke went up. The driver was very badly injured or dying and Lt McAllan
seriously wounded. As we attempted to staunch some of the blood, I saw the tank
commander climb out of the turret and sit down on the front. He lit a cigarette
and watched us through binoculars as we carried our wounded men away.’
THE battle had reached a crisis point for the Tyneside
Scottish. It was crucial B Company was reinforced or it could not hope to hold
out much longer.
At 11.15, the second German attack was launched, under cover
of a heavy mortar bombardment. Under attack from enemy tanks, the KOSB, with
only one anti-tank gun left operational, were in a similar plight to their
Tyneside Scottish comrades.
Reinforcements were still edging forward, but losses were
high, including D Company commander, Major S Brewis, who was very seriously
wounded attacking an enemy machine gun.
Gunner P Moss (55th Anti-tank Regiment): ‘We saw a
young Scot crawling along a hedgerow. His hand was severed and hanging at the
wrist. I carried him back to the Aid Post. He seemed more bothered about his pal
who he had left behind than himself.’
THE Germans’ second serious push had been held, but the
Panzers and infantry were already reforming for another effort.
Captain Shaw, of the KOSB, alerted HQ to the threat and
within a short space of time every available British gun was brought to bear on
the enemy build-up. The assault still came, however, and the Tyneside Scottish
bore the brunt. Still B Company held out, in anticipation of the imminent
arrival of reinforcements.
At 1230, disaster befell A Company. The battalion’s left
flank began to crumble as the encircling Panzers swung round to blast the slit
trenches from the side. Cut off from the KOSB, the shell-shocked and confused
soldiers staggered back towards Rauray.
Pte JLR Samson: ‘We saw the remnants of A Company
coming back, some without weapons some without helmets, practically all without
There were no NCOs and no anti-tank weapons. We attempted to
rally the boys, but even the threat of being fired upon by us could not halt
them. They were finished - and I for one could not
THE arrival of reinforcements gave B Company a much-needed
boost. But the Germans, having overrun A Company; were making a determined
strike at the battalion’s left flank. At 13.43, more Panzers passed B Company,
heading straight for C Company’s front.
Pte P Lawton: ‘Within minutes of my leaving a slit
trench a shell hit it. I went back to see what could be done and found Pte Hamer
had been virtually cut in half by the shell. Pte Holt didn’t appear to have
suffered any physical damaqe at all, but he was taken off suffering from shock.
I never saw him again, but I have no doubt he has felt the effects of that
moment ever since.’
THE Panzers were queuing up to attack what remained of the
Tyneside Scottish, but Captain Calderwood managed to call down another artillery
B Company came under renewed attack, but Major W K Angus
somehow rallied 30 survivors from C Company who had been cut off. Following the
fourth attack, the battalion’s position was even more unstable. Losses had been
appalling and reinforcements, of whatever calibre, were urgently required.
L/Cpl K Taylorson: ‘I was issuing petrol behind the
lines, but we all knew it was something big by the number of wounded that were
coming back. At one point there was a rumour that all cooks, clerks and drivers
not really needed were to be sent up the line.’
AFTER nine hours of fighting and four major assaults, the end
was in sight. At 16.05, the enemy prepared to make one last attack.
Once again Capt Calderwood called for artillery. Radio
procedure had been abandoned and he increasingly shouted: ‘For mercy’s sake,
give us fire.’ Again a great barrage came down and the fifth and final German
attack failed before it really started.
The captain was awarded the Military Cross for remaining at
his critical forward post throughout the battle, under more or less constant
bombardment. Then British flame-throwing Churchill tanks, known as Crocodiles,
Pte J Munro: ‘Everyone was tired and flaky. Our
initial relief came in the form of Crocodiles. These proceeded to flush out any
pockets of enemy activity.’
BY late afternoon, enemy snipers and machine gunners were
being cleared from the fields around Rauray. At 18.10, the counterattack began.
B Company was relieved and A Company’s original position was retaken, while the
remnants of C Company joined in an attack to flush the enemy from the company’s
initial position. To the left, the Royal Highland Fusiliers moved forward to
straighten the line held by the KOSB. After dark, the guns fell silent. Rauray
had been held and the Panzers repulsed.
Pte (Acting CpI) JW Barnes: ‘The company areas were
a mass of debris, bodies and burning tanks. At the risk of sounding
melodramatic, it was a kind of Armageddon.’
Cpt G Cowie: ‘The next day, the survivors paraded
and the RSM called the battalion roll. More than 850-strong. Perhaps the same
number answered their names as those that did not.’
The Tyneside Scottish CO, Lt Col RWM de Winton, received the
following message from Maj-Gen EH Barker, Commander of 49th Division: ‘Will you
please pass on to your troops my congratulations on the magnificent stand made
by you today. You have made a great name for yourselves. I deplore the
casualties you have sustained, but it is most gratifying to know that the
gallant band who remained were successfully relieved.’
Weeks after Rauray, the ‘Tyneside Scottish received a
stunning blow when it learned it was to be disbanded. Due to the desperate
manpower shortage, the brigade was to be broken up and used to reinforce the
rest of the Army.
Although some went to the Argylls and the Royal Highland
Fusiliers, most joined their parent regiment, The Black Watch. With them they
brought a major battle honour that remains on The Black Watch Colours to this
day: The Defence of Rauray, July 1, 1944.