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From Shetland to British Columbia, Alaska and the United States
Being a Journal of Travels, with narrative of return journey after three years exploration by Sinclair Thomson Duncan (1911)


I left Hoswick, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, on Monday, the 21st day of October 1907, in company with my daughter Christina Agnes, the wife of William J. Manson, M.P.P., British Columbia, and their four children, who had been home on a visit from America, and were now on their return voyage.

On leaving by a carriage at the gate in front of my house, we were surrounded by a number of kind friends, principally women, evidently sorry to part with us. After bidding them all good-bye, we proceeded to Lerwick, 14 miles distant.

On our way north through the parish of Sandwick, we often had to stop, in order to bid farewell to friends who had come from villages, anxious to get—as no doubt they thought—a last look of us; and now as I am writing in a far-away land, I am aware that their thoughts have been verified, as some of them have passed away into the eternal world. Almost the last one in the parish we parted with was my youngest daughter Emily—Mrs George W. Goudie—and as her mother had passed away only a few months before, I had enough to do to suppress my feelings, which were of a painful nature. The day was fine, and having left early in the forenoon, and the steamer on which we had to embark was not to leave Lerwick for Leith till 8 o’clock at night, we had plenty of time to journey on in a slow, sure way. We halted now and again to shake hands with friends who wished to bid us goodbye as we passed along the road. On arriving at Lerwick we were received in a very friendly way by my nephew, Mr Charles J. Duncan, and his wife, and hospitably entertained. A few hours were spent in the town seeing friends and making purchases, and our berths having been secured and our luggage on board, we were soon comfortably placed in our respective cabins in the good s. s. St Rognvald. We arrived at Kirkwall, in the Orkney Islands, the following morning at 7 o’clock. This was Tuesday, the 22nd October, and we left this port, the capital of Orkney, at 8 a.m., the sea being quite smooth. As we moved out, I noticed a number of fishing smacks in the harbour laden with salted wet cod fish from Iceland, and I was told by one of the officers of the steamer that the fish was sold to Messrs Chalmers & Co., merchants in the town. The principal of that firm I used to know as a merchant in Leith when I was in business there a number of years ago. On our way to Aberdeen we called at St Margaret’s Hope, a few miles from Kirkwall, and I had a walk on the pier recently built there. It had been raised about the same time that the much-talked-of large pier at Broonie’s Taing, Shetland, was constructed. I may mention here that I was not long a member of the County Council of Shetland before I began to agitate as to the necessity of getting a pier built at Broonie’s Taing, and, in order to show what perseverance can do, the building of the pier, mostly by Government money, became an accomplished fact, after fighting fiercely for about twelve years all opposition both in the County Council and outside of it. The Council was composed of men—at least some of them— who took more care of their selfish interests than the good of the community at large. It was rather a strange coincidence that I met on the pier at St Margaret’s Hope the gentleman who first proposed the scheme. We shook hands and congratulated each other 011 having lived to see both our projects carried to a successful issue at the same time.

After bidding good-bye to this gentleman, I stepped 011 board the boat. She steamed on her way to the granite city, Aberdeen, and after a fine passage we arrived there the same day at 11 o’clock at night. We had to take another steamer for Leith, as the St Rognvald had to be put in dock for repairs. There was some trouble in getting ourselves and luggage properly secured in the sister steamer, St Giles, at such a late hour, but once on board we were all right, having as good berths in the cabin as we had in the other boat. There is a restaurant in connection with the North of Scotland and Orkney and Shetland Steam Navigation Company near by the wharf where the steamers lie, thus giving passengers an opportunity to rest and take refreshments. Mrs Manson and I had coffee and something to eat, after which, the night being fine, and as the boat would not leave till 4 o’clock next morning, we had a short walk. On our return we got on board and retired to rest. After a refreshing sleep we had a hearty breakfast, and enjoyed a chat now and again with passengers. We arrived at Leith between 1 and 2 o’clock in the afternoon, and on nearing the quay 1 noticed it to be covered with men, women, and children, some of them evidently looking out for friends who had come by the steamer, but many, as I imagined, were there for no other purpose than to see and be seen. We had nine trunks, some of them large, and as we had to take steamer to London in the course of a few days we got them all placed in the Company’s store close by, so that they would be ready for being readdressed and brought to the steamer. There were a number of vehicles and men in charge of them on the wharf, and we were very fortunate in employing a man named M‘Leod to drive us to our hotel in Edinburgh. He turned out to be one of the most obliging, punctual, and careful of cabmen, and we engaged him to take us from our hotel to the London boat, Fingal, at Leith Docks on Saturday, the 26th day of October. He came at the time arranged, and we got him to bring our luggage from the Shetland steamer’s store to the Fingal. This he did to our satisfaction, and we had pleasure in paying him what he charged.

We had spent by this time nearly four days in Edinburgh, seeing friends and making purchases.

My nephew, Mr Robert Duncan, and my grand-nephew, Mr Richard T. Johnson, and his wife, came on board to see us leaving. I may mention that Mrs Johnson had brought with them their baby boy, Sinclair—named after me—so that I might see him a second time while on my way to British Columbia. We left Leith about 7 p.m., and, now that we were on our way direct to the capital of the United Kingdom, we felt thankful that the sea was so smooth that no feeling of sickness annoyed us, and that for a time we were out of the whirling and exciting commotion of city life. Shortly after we withdrew from the company of the other passengers, in order to refresh ourselves by getting rest and sleep.

Sunday morning, the 26th October, dawned as the large steamer was ploughing the deep along the English coast towards the great city of London. As the weather was continuing fine, everyone on board appeared to be in good spirits. I had slept well, feeling much better both in regard to relaxation, appetite, and temper of mind, and I heard nothing to the contrary as to the condition of mind and body of those travelling along with me.

We all enjoyed a good breakfast of ham, eggs, and tea, also fish and other kinds of food, so that, although I was lengthening the distance between me and my old home in Shetland, I was cheerfully looking forward to getting a sight of London for the third time.

I had conversation with Captain Dawson, who had command of the steamer. Owing to many vessels, large and small, sailing along the coast, he kept far to seaward to avoid collision. We arrived at Gravesend on Monday morning about 8 o’clock, being the 28th day of October, and we were 21 miles from London. Up to this time we had steamed from Leith about 400 miles, and enjoyed the voyage very much. Before I leave making remarks about the steamer, I may mention that there was a painted map on the side of the galley naming the places along the coast which we passed, and I found it to be very interesting and instructive. The usual scenes on land and water, as we neared the great city of commerce and learning, met our gaze, while we carefully moved amongst the shipping at Hermitage Wharf, where the London and Edinburgh Shipping Company berth their steamers. We saw our luggage carefully warehoused there, and readdressed per rail to Liverpool, thence to the s.s. LaTce Erie, to sail for Montreal on the 6th November. I forgot to mention that as we entered the river Thames we were enveloped in a dense fog, thereby being under the necessity of lying at anchor and keeping the bell ringing almost every minute for several hours. This detained us so long that we lost the tide, and the passengers in consequence had to land in a small boat about 2 o’clock in the afternoon of the following day, and call for their luggage at the wharf in the evening, when the steamer would be alongside.

This was on Monday the 28th October, and during the interval we went to the Stanley Dining Rooms, 99 Minories, E.C.—Walter J. Bugden, proprietor—and had dinner. The charges were moderate and the food bountiful and excellent.

It was shortly after this that we saw our luggage secured in the Company’s warehouse, after which we first took a train and then a cab to see an English family with whom my daughter was acquainted, tlieir residence being 48 Harburton Road, Highgate, London, W.

On arriving there we were received with the greatest kindness, so much so that my daughter and her four children were not allowed to go to other lodgings.

I put up in the Angel Inn, Highgate Hill, close by, where I received every attention, and enjoyed a refreshing sleep. After breakfast I called to see my daughter and grandchildren, where, to my surprise, I met the Rev. H. B. Oddy, who was at one time a Methodist preacher in Shetland, and had married a daughter— Helen—of the late William Hay of Sandfield, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, and grand-daughter of the late Rev. John Tulloch, who was Congregational minister in the same parish for a great many years. Mr Oddy had Mrs Oddy with him, and, as it happened, they were acquainted with the same people as my daughter was, namely, Mr and Mrs Smith, and meeting as we did, it made us all very happy. I may mention here that Mr Oddy had seen his way to become a Congrega-tionalist, and was now pastor of a church of that denomination at Southminster, Essex.

He turned out to be one of my best friends while in London, taking me round as he did to see as much of it as time would allow. The following are some of the places we visited. Tube railway to Leicester Square, National Gallery, Portrait of W. E. Gladstone, and many famous pictures, Trafalgar Square, Nelson Monument, Whitehall and St James’s Palace, Government Offices, Downing Street with residence of Prime-Minister, Houses of Parliament, St Margaret’s Church, Westminster Abbey, W. E. Gladstone’s grave, Poets’ Corner with graves of Tennyson and Browning, Westminster Bridge, St Thomas’s Hospital, The Embankment, National Liberal Club, Strand, Law Courts, Fleet Street with all the newspaper offices, Ludgate Hill, Memorial Hall, St Paul’s Cathedral, St Paul’s Churchyard, where are some of the best shops in London, such as drapers, etc.; Cheapside, Bow Church, with day service, the preacher being Rev. Marcus Rainford; Guild Hall—had luncheon with Mr Oddy here; Mansion House, Royal Exchange, Bank of England, London Wall, London Bridge Monument, Covent Garden, Hotel Cecil—one of the largest hotels in the world.

We travelled to and from the city by the underground railway, 125 feet below the surface, at the rate of 30 miles per hour. We also visited Waterloo Park, in which is St Joseph’s Roman Catholic Church, and we both went into it and heard some one groaning. At the same time a clergyman told me that there are 80,000 women of a certain questionable class in London, and I wondered if that person groaning was one of them getting a priest to pardon her sins.

My daughter, her children, and I visited the Crystal Palace on Wednesday, 30th October, and on the following day we called at the London and Edinburgh Shipping Company’s Office to see about our luggage, and make it ready to be lifted by a cart to the station where the train leaves for Liverpool. We found the man in charge of the luggage very civil and obliging, and, in course of conversation, I came to know that he was a member of a Baptist Church, that his name was George Bright, and that he was married a sccond time. He said he had seen much of the world, spoke highly of his deceased wife as having been a devoted Christian, and now in the evening of his life he had been entrusted to do duty as a servant of the Company.

I shook hands with him as we parted, and he asked God to bless me and bring me safe to the land of my destination. We thereafter called at the Canadian Pacific Railway Office to make sure that our tickets were all right, and, after getting these papers marked as being correct, we returned to our respective lodgings, where I enjoyed a third sleep in the Angel Inn. It is a nice old-fashioned house, and, being near the suburbs of the city, it is in a healthy situation, the proprietor and his servants being most attentive in every respect. They said they would be very pleased to see me in their house again.

The month of November had now dawned, and, after bidding my hotel friends good-bye, I walked the short distance of about one mile to Mr Smith’s residence to accompany my daughter and her children to St Pancras Railway Station, where we were to take train for Liverpool at 10 a.m. Taking a conveyance we were in good time at the station, and arrived at Liverpool about 2 o’clock p.m. We immediately thereafter called at the Canadian Pacific Railway Office to arrange some matters in connection with the passage across the Atlantic, and shortly after proceeded by ferry-boat to Birkenhead in order to see Mr John Stewart, 32 Howard Avenue, Liscord. On arriving there we were received with a very hearty welcome, several of his daughters and his son John, a commission agent, being present. We were pressingly asked to take tea with them, and after that was over, Mr Stewart, being an old intimate friend, and a native of Shetland, showed me through his house, which is a very fine one. Shortly after that we six guests bade the family good-bye. I may mention here that Mr John Stewart is a brother to Mr William Stewart, woolbroker, Leith, and to Mr George Stewart, author of the book entitled Shetland Fireside Tales, who resides in British Columbia. While taking tea with Mr Stewart he reminded me of an incident in our young days which I had entirely forgotten. He told me that when I was in my teens in charge of a day school in Levenwick, Shetland, 1 hit him on the side of his head for being unruly, and that I was the only man who had ever done that. Mr Stewart told the story in such a jocular way as to make all at table enjoy a hearty laugh. One of his daughters accompanied us to the car which was to take us near to the ferry. We crossed to the other side of the water and took the boat Carlow, lying in Nelson Dock, which was to leave for Dublin, Ireland, at 9 p.m.

After a fine passage, we arrived there at 6 o’clock the following morning. Mr W. Davidson, my grand-nephew by law, came on board to meet us, and in a very accommodating vehicle we drove to his house, and were received kindly by Mrs Davidson, Alice Johnson, and her two sisters, Helen and Lyla, who chanced to be there at the same time. Some years before I had been in Belfast when engaged in business in Leith, but this was my first visit to Dublin. This being the capital of Ireland, I felt much inclined to see through the city and get a view of the principal things worthy of observation. I therefore procured a guide and saw the following:—Sackville Street, Nelson’s Pillar, Trinity College, Bank of Ireland, Archway at Steven’s Green erected in memory of soldiers who fell in South Africa at the time of the Boer war, College of Surgeons, Dublin Castle, Christ Church Cathedral, Four Courts, Custom House, and the International Exhibition, which was being held there at the time. I also went to see Guinness’ Brewery, which was founded about the year 1759, by the ancestors of the Guinness family. In order to give an idea of the quantity of stout or beer of all kinds sent out every year from this great source of the brewing interests, I may say that no less than 591,000,000 gallons of water are used annually, most of which come from the springs feeding the upper level of the Grand Canal in the County of Kildare. The total number of staff and employees is 3240.

An official of the Company, who is employed for the purpose of showing all visitors through the brewery, pointed out to us the various departments, and ultimately we were asked to step into a small neatly furnished room, where, if we were so inclined, we could have a glass of stout free of charge. The view I got of this wonderful establishment was very interesting, and to give anything like a full description of it would fill an ordinary sized volume. That being so, I shall now proceed to give an account of our future movements. My visit to the brewery was on 4th November, previous to which I had been visiting other places of interest, and now to-morrow being the 5th of the month, and our boat, the Lake Erie, to leave Liverpool for Montreal on the 6th, I felt somewhat anxious about getting ready to leave Dublin, so as to be in time for the liner. The evening of the 4th had given us time to pack up our traps. After a refreshing sleep and taking breakfast early next morning, we were in good time at the side of the steamer Wicklozo, bound for Liverpool. We were accompanied by Mrs Davidson and other friends to the boat to see us away ; but as she did not sail till 1 o’clock, and the Lake Erie was to leave Liverpool the following day, I again began to get greatly solicitous about our being in time for the liner. Glad was 1 when the pealing of the bell announced our leaving the wharf, and so onward we bounded, the steamer making good way. We arrived late at night, so that we slept on board, and the steward having supplied us with a good breakfast, and not having overlooked the charge for allowing us to sleep in the steamer after our arrival, we hurriedly made for the shore. We made some calls in great haste, and at last were ready to embark on board the big steamer, with the hope that she would carry us safely across the Atlantic Ocean. She was so large and the tide so far out, that she could not come alongside the wharf. A small steamer called a tender by several trips took the passengers off', and just as I was setting my feet on the gangway, a gentleman tapped me on the shoulder, and asked if I were Mr Duncan. I replied by saying, “Yes, that is my name,” at the same time putting the question, “Who are you, please.” The reply was, “My name is Williamson from Sandness, Shetland.” He accompanied me on board the small steamer, and, as we had a few minutes to talk, he told me that he had been a sea captain and was now retired, and was living in Liverpool. Being a reader of the Shetland Times, he had always read my notes in that paper with great pleasure, and, having learned that I was to leave by the Lalce Erie, he had addressed two or three gentlemen before he spoke to me, because he was very anxious to see the writer of the notes referred to. As I have said, we only had a few minutes to speak to each other, and after getting his address I promised that, if I returned home by way of Liverpool, I would call to see him. So we bade each other good-bye with a Norse grip of hands, hoping to meet again.

After all the changes I had passed through since leaving my house at Hoswick, I felt thankful to get on board the big steamer. I was not long on her deck before I began to make friends.

My daughter, her four children, our luggage, and myself now being safely on board, I was much relieved in mind. I had selected one of the best berths in the first cabin—now second—just opposite the chief steward’s office, and he turned out to be a gentleman from Scotland, of the name of Taylor, but had resided in Liverpool for a number of years. I got to be very friendly with Mr Taylor, partly arising from the fact that I had spent 25 years of my life in Leith and Edinburgh, near which he had resided, and, as he was a bit up in years like myself, we had much to talk about in common.

There were about three hundred passengers, more than the half of them emigrants in the steerage. We in the best second cabin received our first meal of roast beef, etc., seated at tables such as one can see in a first class hotel. The stewards and stewardesses were everything that could be desired, always ready to carefully serve, and it was noticeable that passengers occupied at all times the same seats at the tables, where they were first placed when they came on board. At all the tables the same rule was observed, and there were four meals of excellent food served every day. I think that the passengers in the steerage were supplied in the same way, but those in the first-class cabin were not allowed to mingle with the other class either in their apartments below, or when they assembled on the deck. I noticed, however, that the steerage passengers were cheerful, and often had sportive games on that part of the deck allotted to them.

On arriving near Belfast, a steamer came off with goods. She had a number of people on board to see the big liner, and some of them to meet friends as well. Among these were my grand-niece—Agnes Rockliffe—and her husband, Mr Cleland, who is a partner in the publishing business of William W. Cleland, Belfast. Although a young man, he has travelled abroad, and was very desirous to see me, which would be for the first time. The desire was strengthened by the fact that his mother-in-law, my late brother Robert’s daughter, was named after my late wife and myself, her name being Catherine Sinclair Duncan, now Mrs Rockliffe. Although a widow, she is wonderfully cheerful. She is much given to travelling, and I think she has a notion of visiting British Columbia. Mr Cleland kindly made me a present of a volume, entitled The Old Book Tested, by the Rev. John White, Belfast, and published by William W. Cleland, 61 High Street of that city. I have enjoyed the reading of it very much.

This being the morning of the 7th November and being near Belfast, a number of passengers are writing letters to be taken to the shore to be posted, and goods are being taken on board from the steamer referred to. Our boat is to leave at 1 o’clock p.m. Conversation is going on among the passengers as they begin to get acquainted with each other; the children accompanying their parents and guardians to the other side of the ocean are all in great glee, running hither and thither on the deck. Everything is being made as secure as possible against storms, life-boats in particular being lashed with strong ropes to unmovables. On the deck, prepared for fastening, life-belts in great numbers are already placed so as to be easily obtained, and in fact all kinds of preparations are made and being made for emergencies. The time is nearing when those for the shore must leave the Lake Erie, and so there can be heard the word good-bye, as a number make their way to the small steamer. Immediately thereafter the big one began to move, and we were fairly under way to the Western world. About 3 o’clock p.m. we were passing along the coast of Ireland not far from Belfast, and on Friday the 8th November we were ploughing the Atlantic Ocean at the rate of twelve miles an hour.

The wind was blowing a nice breeze from about south-west, and the sea was smooth. At about 11 o’clock in the forenoon, the wind freshened up from the same direction, making it comfortable for passengers to have a walk on the deck. In this way, gentlemen began to get acquainted with each other, and, as time went on, the ladies had a chance to form a friendly feeling, the one with the other, in the same way. When the boat was rolling a little, it was no rare thing to see gentlemen assisting ladies. Sometimes one could be seen so gallant as to take a lady in each arm for a walk, and occasionally I did that myself, so as to steady them, because at times when by themselves there was a tumble, a thing everybody dislikes, especially the ladies. I may mention here that one day when it was very inviting as to weather, a stout, fine-looking young lady was walking alone, when on a sudden the steamer lurched, and down went the lady. She was hurt, but not seriously. I chanced to be on deck at the time, and rushed to her assistance, and ever after that when the steamer was rolling, she seemed quite pleased when I asked her to take my arm. But tumbling was not altogether confined to the ladies, as sometimes a gentleman could be seen to stagger. One day as I was walking at the heels of a very tall fellow of uppish bearing, down he went, fortunately falling on the soft part of his back. He was not injured, but his haughty gait was altered on a sudden, and he looked rather queer as he lay on his back on the deck of the steamer, surrounded by a number of spectators, some of whom were unable to refrain from laughing.

It may be well to notice at this stage of the voyage that all the passengers appeared to be well satisfied as to the suitability of their berths, and the meals were served punctually as follows:—Breakfast at 8.30 a.m., luncheon at 1 p.m., dinner at 6 p.m., and supper at 9 p.m. Each table was attended by two stewards. At the end of the voyage the passengers acknowledge their attention by placing ill their hands a piece of money. At least I did so to the one who served me, and I think all the other passengers acted in a similar way. Up to about 1 o’clock, or a little after noon, those who had been enjoying a walk began to disappear to prepare for luncheon. I was told, however, that two or three of the Indies were sea-sick, and would therefore be absent from the table.

As the evening neared and the night came on, the sea got somewhat rough. Just where I was sitting musing on the past, the present, and what I may have to pass through in the future, the captain,of the Lake Erie and the medical officer were walking arm in arm on the deck. Now and then they took a glance at me, as I did at them, as they passed. Captain F. Carey, to whom I have just referred, appeared to be a very smart gentleman, as also did the medical officer, Dr M. J. Johnson. The latter ^ave one the impression that we had a doctor in our midst on whom we could depend in limes of sickness.

Now after supper it is getting near to ten o’clock, and Miss Madge Rodgers is playing some fine pieces of music on the piano, a thing she often did to amuse the company.

Saturday morning, 9th November, the wind was blowing strong from north-west, and at noon we had run 665 miles. The Lake Eric is a fine boat* slow but sure, giving accommodation of a comfortable nature to passengers, officers, crew, and all classes of servants employed on board. Seats and sheds on the deck were provided here and there, so that anyone could rest, read, or talk at pleasure, and many took advantage of the privilege. A rather large number of children were playing on the deck to-day, and my four grandchildren are among them, racing about in great glee. I heard one passenger say that the more slowly the boat went the better, so that enjoyment might be lengthened. It was understood, however, that she would take 12 days from Liverpool to Montreal, the opinions giving an opportunity to induce people to bet. No doubt, on the quiet, that was done, the sum staked being spent in the purchase of beer or something stronger, there being plenty of all sorts of drink for sale on board.

As the hours passed, it began to blow strong from about west, the sea appeared to rise more than it had done since leaving the land, now many miles to the east of us. In the evening stars began to twinkle, and the new moon made her appearance in the south-west sky. It was now getting near 11 o’clock at night, when in other vessels carrying passengers I have seen too much drinking and quarrelling going on. Up to the present time I have pleasure in saying that there has been nothing but order and friendly greetings on board the Lake Erie since leaving Liverpool. The stewards and stewardesses have been most exemplary. I had conversation with the chief steward, Mr Taylor, to-day, who tells me that he has under his charge seventy-five stewards, stewardesses, cooks, and others. After he had listened to a small part of what I had experienced, he suggested, in great sincerity, that I should deliver a lecture on the Shetland Islands. I told him that I would think over the matter and let him know. He was so much in earnest, however, that before we bade each other good-night I said that if the captain and purser were agreeable to it, I would not object. Afterwards I was informed that I should get the use of the largest saloon in the steamer, and that either the captain or the purser would occupy the chair.

Sunday, 10th November.—I slept well last night, and after breakfast I went on deck, and found that it was blowing strong from west. The sea had become rather boisterous, making the boat plunge a good deal, but she was keeping steady, and going at the rate of 12 knots an hour. Church service was conducted by the captain in one of the large saloons, commencing at 10.30 a.m. Immediately after breakfast I could see many dressed in Sunday attire, and the worship was conducted in accordance with the rules of the Church of England. A large number of ladies and gentlemen attended the service, and I think they all took part in the praise. The worship continued for an hour or more, and at the conclusion a collection was taken in aid of the Montreal Seaman’s Orphanage. I was informed that on the eastward voyage, the collection is taken in favour of the Liverpool Seaman’s Orphanage. A few of the young lady passengers were on their way to get married, which in conversation came to be known in course of time as the young ladies got acquainted with each other. Occasionally they were asked in a friendly way by young gentlemen to take a walk on the deck, and many a joke passed between them. In the evening a religious meeting was held in a saloon at 7.30, when a young lady presided at the piano, the captain being present, and there was a fair attendance. There were a good many children on board, and they had tables prepared for them at which they took their food an hour before the older people. It was a fine sight to see them all so beautifully dressed, attended to by stewardesses, as also to see them at their games in a room set apart for the purpose. A good many of the steerage passengers assembled on that part of the deck set apart for them, on this day appearing very happy, and I was told that they were mostly from Wales. I went to bed early and slept well, no doubt a good deal owing to the steady way the boat had been going during the time I was in dreamland. On the morning of 11th November, about an hour before breakfast, I went on deck, where I met two young ladies ready for a walk. Offering them both my arms, they accepted, and so an old man had an hour of enjoyment of conversation with a young lady in each arm, while at the same time he gave commendable pleasure to others, and that is what I think should be done in such circumstances. A black board was hung up in a prominent place, on which was marked the distance we ran every twenty-four hours. This was seen every day at 12 o’clock noon, which helped to break the monotony often experienced in passing over a wide expanse of ocean, such as the Atlantic. At first I found the Lake Erie to be very similar to a large hotel, the passages being so numerous, the stairs at so many places, the saloons and smaller dining-rooms, berths, and other conveniences so difficult to find; but after a while I got to know the different windings and cross passages, but even to the end of the voyage I noticed that some of the passengers were at times a little bewildered.

I had sometimes taken a rest in the smoking room, so to-day after dinner I went into it, and sat down in a quiet comer. The room is large and well furnished with comfortable upholstery seats, while small fixed tables are placed here and there, to be used by those who feel inclined to patronise the liquor seller, who was behind his bar close by.

A good many gentlemen were present, some of them lounging lazily, others in small groups at tables having their beer or other kinds of drink, and occasionally a smoke, while at the same time various subjects were being discussed.

Others were playing games on the check er-board, the domino game not being overlooked. I was at times conversing with some one, but oftener jotting down my notes. This went on in the smoking room day after day without a quarrel, and at the end of the voyage a few who had formed friendships met in front of the bar to have a drink, and, with the shaking of hands, bid each other good-bye. Just as I was observing what was going on, and thinking of how to write down my notes, a messenger, about 8 p.m., interposed, informing me that a select company had been formed to spend an hour or two in conversation and music in one of the saloons, and he had been sent to ask me if I would join them, and I consented. But before leaving the smoking room, I think it right to say that the man who had charge of the sale of drink at the place mentioned was not allowed to commence selling it till 11 o’clock in the forenoon, and I think that was a suitable hour, because by that time it would be understood that every one on board would have had their breakfast. Returning to the social meeting, I found that the company had a cheerful appearance, and that singing, aided by a lady presiding at the piano, was the principal part of the entertainment.

I was asked to favour the company with a song, a request I fully expected,^although, taking into account my age of eighty-one years, I thought they might have let me off.

I however endeavoured to let them hear my voice as best I could, singing in my old-fashioned style, and it seemed by the way it was received that I had not altogether lost the method—if ever I had it—to please a few friends with a song. It turned out that before the conclusion of the different parts of the entertainment I had to sing another.

One of the amusements on board was staking a small sum as to the distance run every 24 hours, and the individual guessing the number of miles nearest would be the winner—the sum, as I understood, to be spent in treating friends to a drink.

Shortly before midnight, the wind was blowing strong from about west, the sea getting up very fast, and inducing the sailors to see that everything oil deck was made secure in case the boat rolled or shipped heavy lumps of water.

All who can are now getting to their berths to sleep, but, heavy weather being expected, there is not the same cheerfulness among the passengers as usual. Some are talking about being half across the Atlantic, of getting nearer and nearer the eastern shore of America with west wind to smoothen the sea, and so on, while some of the passengers tattle and speak about other things.

Tuesday morning, 12th November, the wind is still blowing from the west, but not so strong as it was last night. The sea is also down, and the passengers look cheerful with the exception of a few ladies who are sea-sick. There are some fowls resembling gulls flying about the steamer. After breakfast I took a walk arm in arm with a Mr Froud, a young gentleman from the south of England on his way to British Columbia to purchase land to clear and form a homestead. He has a brother and sister along with him. They got acquainted with my .daughter, Mrs W. J. Manson, when she along with her children were spending a few months in England. Now they are looking forward to the time when their parents, also a brother and sister, may join them, and so form a new home. About midday we were enveloped in a thick fog, so that the steam whistle had to be often used in order to avoid colliding with other vessels; but strange to say, notwithstanding the great amount of shipping on the Atlantic, up to this time we have not sighted either a steamer or a sailing vessel since leaving the coast of Ireland.

A number of steerage passengers were on deck to-day amusing themselves by means of various kinds of sports, and their children at times danced with ioy, using their skipping ropes to give them still more pleasure, little thinking that they were on their way to heavy toil, some of it likely to be the cutting down of trees in clearing land for cultivation.

The chief steward, being aware that it was pretty well known in the steamer that I had delivered a lecture on Shetland in Edinburgh and other towns in Scotland, thought that, in accordance with our previous talk on the subject, I should deliver the same lecture in one of the saloons. As the captain and other officers were agreeable to it, I arranged to give it on this day at 7.30 p.m. Accordingly the chief steward put up a notice in a conspicuous place so that all the passengers might know that the lecture would be delivered, and it being something new to be talked about, it was in that way well advertised.

While slowly walking on the deck, pondering in my mind some things in connection with the lecture, I could see that many eyes were turned towards me, and I had therefore to withdraw to a quiet corner for a while to look over notes in connection with the lecture. I was informed by two or three parties that there would be a good many people present to listen to what I had got to say, and so it turned out to be. The saloon, which was more like a hall than a room, was filled with richly dressed people. As I took my place at the head of a long table, Mr Carruthers, the purser, came forward to take the chair, the captain having to be on special duty on account of foggy weather. The usual respectful salute greeted me and my chairman as we took our respective places. The audience were evidently quite pleased, for the delivery of the lecture would be a change from ’the ordinary routine of a voyage on the ocean.

The chairman in introducing me told the people that I had been a member of the County Council of Shetland for fifteen years, and that the subject of my lecture was such that he had no doubt it would give satisfaction. I took nearly two hours to deliver the lecture, even after curtailing more than I cared to do, and at the conclusion, the chairman rose to propose a vote of thanks to me, at the same time expressing his appreciation of what he had listened to. He said he felt sure that everyone present had been much pleased. The proposal was responded to heartily, and, after an enthusiastic expression of thanks had been awarded to the chairman, a very social meeting came to a close. I may mention here that Mr Taylor, who seconded a vote of thanks to me, said that he understood that I intended to return from British Columbia, and that, if I did so, he hoped that I would cross the Atlantic by the Lake Eric, and if possible bring friends with me of the same class as those accompanying me now, meaning my daughter and her four children.

The fact is, I had been accustomed to much travelling both at home and abroad, especially throughout the various towns in Scotland, and on meeting Mr Taylor, a Scotsman, we had got well acquainted, and therefore he appeared very glad to have the chance to express himself towards me in the friendly way he did. Although I was feeling the effects of bereavement very severely, I took good care not to show it, either when talking to an individual or to any assemblage. I have found long ago, that however much sorrow a man may experience, he should never when in public appear melancholy, because as a rule the world does not sympathise with people in trouble, and, more than that, I think undue serious reflection leads to disarrangement of the mind. Up to this stage, I have had to converse with men and women of almost every country under the sun, and yet only a small portion of the journey I have undertaken has been accomplished, and as far back as I can remember, notwithstanding adverse circumstances at times while connected with public affairs (some of them rather alarming and apt to bring me into much trouble), I have nevertheless always endeavoured to make myself as agreeable as possible when in company, and meet every body with a smile. Yes, I admire the words of the poet on the subject as follows:—

“If the sky’s by clouds o’ercast,
And your feet grow weary,
Still look onward, upward,
Still be cheery.

“If you are by care oppressed,
And no help seems near thee,
Do not be downcast,
Still be cheery.

“If the road be rough and steep,
And the days be dreary,
Face the world with sunny smile,
Still be cheery.”

In replying to the very kind remarks made by Mr Taylor and Mr Carruthers, I said that if, on my return to Scotland, I take a steamer for Liverpool, I would, if at all possible, be a passenger again on the Lake Erie, with the expectation of meeting the same officers and crew. I also referred to the excellent accommodation there was in the boat, not only as to berths and private conveniences, but as also how well the boat was fitted up and properly furnished with the most modern appliances for safety and comfort, including electric bells and electric lights, and servants ready to attend on a moment’s notice.

I often went on deck to enjoy the fresh air, and to have a look at the wide waste of water which was at times wonderfully smooth, and to-day, while the steamer was keeping her course head a-wind, I began to think of my trip round the world long ago in sailing ships. When there was a head-wind, they often had to be put on the other tack, and the great commotion that took place among the passengers, when pots, pans, dishes, yea, even youngsters, and many things movable of a light nature would take a race to the other side of the ship.

The morning of Wednesday, 13th November, dawned, and the movements of the large vessel apprised me, as I lay in my berth, that the sea had got up. Oil getting to the breakfast table, I noticed that there were a few absentees. The wind had increased, raising the sea to such an extent that some of the passengers had become sea-sick, which accounted for their absence when the morning meal was placed on the table. Although the vessel kept rolling, some of the young people would venture on deck to have a walk in twos and threes. Ladies old and young tried this too, and there were several tumbles, inducing others to lose their gravity in laughter, but none would admit at the time that there was any injury done, such as bruises, until the following day when a lady confessed that she had been a little hurt by a fall on the deck the day before. A gentleman, who listened to my lecture, has just called on me, saying that a concert is to take place this evening, and that the purser would be glad if I would take the chair. I consented. A number of people assembled, songs were sung by ladies and also by gentlemen, a lady presided at the piano, and for two hours, during which time we had got about 30 miles nearer our destination, we had enjoyed English, Scotch, and Irish songs. All appeared to be pleased from time to time, as the different pieces were rendered, and the violin music was much appreciated.

One of the amusements at this time was the getting up of a “Limerick,” more especially for the purpose of giving pleasure to the ladies, and the words were poetically put together as follows by some one of the passengers or crew:—

A passenger on the Lake Erie,
Boarded the boat bright and cheery
But when he saw pork on the end of his fork,

The fourth line had to be supplied by twenty ladies, each of whom had given a small sum of money to some one of the officers as treasurer, and after a gentleman, appointed as judge, had decided which line was the most suitable to complete the verse, the lady who was the author of that line was to receive the money. I was asked to be the judge, and reluctantly consented, because, as a rule, it is well understood that it is not easy to please the ladies.

I was, however, told by one of the officers that my decision was received by all the ladies with satisfaction, and, strange to say, the winner was Miss Carrick, a young lady from England on her way to Canada to get married. She spoke to me afterwards, and was quite pleased of course, and said it would be something to speak about when meeting with her intended.

When in conversation with passengers they came to know that I had visited Australia, and that I had written a book called A Journal of My Trip round the World, I came to learn that I could have sold many copies on board the boat. As midnight drew near all became quiet except the ponderous engines, the noise of which did not annoy, but in connection with the wind it created a kind of loud humming noise not at all disagreeable to the ear. During the day the sea had been somewhat lumpy, sending a spray now and again in over the deck.

Between 11 and 12 o’clock noon of the 14th November I noticed the captain and the first officer, sextants in hand, standing close to each other on a certain part of the main deck about half way between the stem and stem of the vessel, looking at the sun as he appeared from under a cloud.

The sky was cloudy at the time, and therefore they had to watch their chance of seeing him. They applied their eyes to the proper place on the sextant at the very moment two or three times, and then both went to their respective rooms to make their calculations and compare notes, with a view to ascertaining the latitude we were in and the direction of Montreal. By another calculation they ascertained our longitude, and thereby learned the distance we had still to run.

A short time after this there appeared on the board, to which I have referred, a run of 221 miles during the last 24 hours. We had advanced on our voyage 1787 miles. In the afternoon the wind became rather stormy, the sea began to appear like so many little hills breaking over each other, but the liner went through it with ease as if she were passing over big wreaths of snow. At the same time some of the passengers could steady each other in walking, and often one could hear the remark—“ The Lake Erie is a fine boat.” At the conclusion of the concert to which I have alluded, the captain was present for a while seemingly enjoying the music, recitations, and speeches, and, as it was got up to aid the Montreal Sailor’s Institute, a lady with a plate in her Hand took the contributions at the door of the saloon.

Next morning, the 15th November, I got up in good time, as it was said we might see land during the day, always a welcome sight to those who travel by sea, and it was not long before we sighted Capo Clear, Newfoundland, which has a lighthouse on it. As we got nearer to the coast, many like myself strained their eyes and used their magnifying glasses to get a look of the land that some of us had never seen before. Those who had come to settle in this new country looked thoughtful as we passed from one prominent part of land to another along the Newfoundland coast, no doubt meditating as to what they might have to experience in the land of their adoption. I thought of the time when I used to sell tons of Newfoundland codfish in Scotland.

Books and maps for the passengers were plentiful in the steamer, and in a certain room there was a library where every opportunity was given to those who had an inclination to read to select a volume, and peruse it at leisure.

Being anxious to see the land, I was on deck early this morning, the 16th November, but the air was very cold, there being snow on the hills, as I could see, and we were going ahead very fast, being not far from the shore. The breakfast tables were at the proper hour always loaded with the best of food, there being porridge and milk for the first course, and so on ; what anyone preferred was brought by stewards ready to attend.

About 3 o’clock in the afternoon we passed Cape Ray, a very bold headland, where there is a fog-signal, and the principal headlands we passed were Cape Race, Cape Cod, Cape Pine, Cape St Mary, and Platte Point; Cape Ray I have mentioned. As we crossed the sea between Newfoundland and the mainland of America, I noticed some gentlemen very carefully taking notes of some sort, but I did not see anything very special demanding great attention.

On the afternoon of this day notice was given that a social meeting would be held in one of the saloons in the evening at 7.30, when anyone who might feel inclined could favour the company with a song. Mr Carruthers, the purser, and Mr Taylor, the chief steward, took a great interest in the matter, all with a view to keep the passengers in a cheerful mood. It was expected that voluntary performers, able and willing to sing, recite, and speechify, would not be wanting.

The meeting turned out to be quite a success, the saloon being filled from the beginning. The performances were excellent, one young lady after another presiding at the piano and giving the greatest satisfaction. So the entertainments in connection with a pleasant voyage came to a close.

Oil Sunday, 17th November, it was expected we would see land on entering the Gulf of St Lawrence. I got up early, and I found many others, having the same thought in their minds, had done so too. As we proceeded up this wonderful arm of the ocean, I looked in the direction where Canadian land would likely be seen, and I observed a lighthouse on the left. As time passed, houses and farms came in sight, studding the shore for many miles, the steamer going at the rate of 15 knots an hour. More farms and houses came into view, and now and again a mansion magnificently large and architecturally beautiful. I was told that a number of these smaller houses were occupied by fishermen ; but as this was Sunday no boats were seen on the water engaged in fishing. It was said that in a short time we would see a small steamer making for us having the pilot on board, who would take full charge of the Lake Erie, and bring her to Quebec.

Divine service was conducted in the large saloon in the forenoon, the place being filled. Great attention was observable, and no doubt a feeling of thankfulness to the Giver of all good pervaded the minds of many. About 4 o’clock in the evening, we passed the island Anticosti, when we were heading onwards at a great rate, and about 7 o’clock the moon was shining in a clear sky, her beams, as it were, dancing on a slightly ruffled sea. As the night wore on, the cold became intense, inducing all the passengers to put on their overcoats and walk with quick step to keep themselves warm. At the same time the ladies secluded themselves in their respective berths, and so avoided the exposure to the cold air. A few ladies and gentlemen rested in a saloon where a lady was playing sacred music on the piano, occasionally singing as her fingers touched the notes, and others joining in, the meeting became a service of praise. A young lad dressed in regimental attire announced by bugle that the supper was ready. This method of notice was followed at the time of every meal, the lad having been appointed to fill this department.

Monday morning, the 18th November, the weather is not so cold as it was yesterday. Two pilots have come on board; a large quantity of luggage owned by passengers leaving at Quebec is being taken out of the hold, the sea is smooth, the vessel is steaming at the rate of 15 miles an hour, and she is nearing the quarantine station named Rozile. About 12 noon I noticed a small steamer coming from that direction, and she soon became known to be the boat bringing the doctor, and, as she neared us, there was a rush to the side of the Lake Erie to see the stranger as he came on board to examine the emigrants. Immediately after stepping on deck, and shaking hands with some of the leading officials, he took his place at the entrance of that part of the liner where the emigrants had their berths. The opening was only so wide as to allow one person to come out at a time, thus giving him an opportunity to examine them one by one. I stood a few yards from where the process was going on, noticing carefully the men, women, and children as they made their appearance. I noticed that all the doctor did was to look at their eyes, and ask them to open their mouths. He tucked their chins, as I thought, pretty strongly, and took a good look at their tongues, as they shoved them out to be seen. Out of a large number of emigrants, only two or three were found to require re-examination, which after being done they passed. So the doctor left, and we stood on for Quebec. At the same time the thought amused me as I recalled how the doctor iiad tipped up the hats of the maidens and married women, and with his right hand had felt about their heads to make sure that they were free of disease.

We arrived at Quebec about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, where I witnessed a tremendous commotion, as the big liner moved slowly to the side of the pier which extended a long way out in the river. A great many people rushed to that side of the deck next to the pier. A quantity of luggage was being landed by men and boys working like slaves, and some one was heard saying, “ Much need for machinery here.” While I was watching how the luggage was being tossed about, a gentleman tapped me on the shoulder, and said that the Dominion doctor wished to see me in a room close by. On appearing before him, I noticed that one of the officers of the vessel was sitting alongside of him, and, as the doctor looked up at me, he said, “Mr Duncan, as a passenger, I see you are down in this list aged eighty-one. I am sure you don’t look more than sixty.” I thanked him for the compliment, and told him that nevertheless the figures were correct. He then said, “Do you intend to reside in Canada, or are you a tourist?” I replied, saying, “I am a tourist;” but it was on my tongue to add, “If I find the Canadian people kind, and anxious that I should become a member of the Dominion Parliament, I might change my mind.”

I did not care, however, to make so free with a Government official in a strange land, but I was told afterwards that had I done so the doctor would have taken it as a good joke. In coming up the River St Lawrence to Quebec, my attention had been drawn to several objects of interest, some of them historical, but the ruins of the awful bridge collapse on 29th August 1903, when 60 men were killed, was specially pointed out to me. It was a sight I shall never forget.

I was informed that apart from the loss of human life, the financial loss amounted to about one and a half million dollars. I looked hard and very thoughtfully at the wreckage, as it lay in a dreadfully confused heap under and above the water.

On getting under way for Montreal, we steamed up the river, getting a fine view of the grand scenery on and beyond the banks on each side, the most of it being beautifully laid out farms and handsome residences. As night came on, buoys could be seen on the water lighted up by electricity on the right and on the left, but in order to keep out of danger the anchor was let down, and a move was made to get up a service of song to commence at 8 o’clock. Several of the passengers allowed their names to be put on the programme as willing to take part in the entertainment. The time for meeting was looked forward to with much

Eleasure. The weather was fine, the moon shining rightly, the air rather mild, thus giving every inducement for the people to walk on the deck. Nevertheless a goodly number attended the service of song, and a lady presided at the piano. . I was asked to take the chair. The large saloon was well filled with old and young, the songs were favourably received, and at the conclusion one of the passengers, a Mr Dunsmore, moved a vote of thanks to all the officers of the Lake Erie for the great kindness the passengers had received from them while crossing the- Atlantic Ocean. The motion was seconded and responded to with great enthusiasm, much being said in favour of all those employed on board the vessel, and a very happy meeting was brought to a close by singing the National Anthem. After this supper was served, then we had a walk on the deck. As parties met each other they talked about Montreal and the likelihood of being there to-morrow afternoon.

Tuesday, the 19th November, was enjoyable, the weather being fine. From about 11 o’clock last night till near the time to take breakfast, the boat lay at anchor in mid-channel of the river, but shortly after that we M ere again proceeding up through this wonderful stream, which to look upon was more like a gulf of the ocean. Sure enough, however, we were now in fresh water, which was coming from the mountains and lakes of America. At some places the liver was much narrower than at others, but it often widened, forming openings like small bays. On each side, as we moved on, the scenery was still more beautiful, and I imagined would be even more beauteous in summer when the leaves of the trees are green, and the flowers and fields are in blossom. We arrived at Montreal at 4 p.m., where I witnessed an enormous quantity of luggage put on the wharf. Each passenger was expected to be present to claim his own, and the warehouse close by for accommodation formed an area of hundreds of square yards covered with people and goods of all sorts. In the midst of all this, a richly-dressed lady came to me, and said, “ Sir, I wish to say that I was much pleased with what you said and sang, when you were in the chair at the concerts and service of song on the Lake Erie.” While thanking her, we shook hands, and she left to proceed on a land journey.

During this interview, I was at the same time endeavouring to keep close by my four grandchildren, while their mother was looking after our luggage. The trunks, numbering nine, along with packages of a lighter nature, were brought to one place. These had to be seen and examined by a Government official, and the nine large pieces of luggage made ready to be lifted to the station of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

From that station, we had to commence our land journey of about 3000 miles across the continent of America to Vancouver City on the Pacific coast, and, as the train was not to leave till 10 minutes past 10 the following night, the next thing we had to do was to look out for an hotel, where we could put up. We were directed to the Queen’s, which we found to be suitable, the accommodation being excellent, but we had to pay accordingly.

The dining-room of the hotel was very large, measuring, as I imagined, about 60 feet long by 50 wide, covered with tables and chairs almost all occupied by ladies and gentlemen, attended to (as I saw at the time.

I was there by waiters dressed up in the most modern style. In order to serve with punctuality, they were racing from one place to another, evidently willing to please all comers, because, as I was told, many came to dine who were strangers like ourselves, just for a day or two passing through the city.

While dining, instrumental music was supplied, there being an orchestral gallery for musicians at one of the ends of the dining hall. As I experienced, the music proved to be a good appetiser.

On getting to this hotel, we were shown to our bedrooms, and so my first sleep in Montreal was on the 19th November 1907, and I enjoyed the refreshing rest.

The morning of Tuesday the 20th was fine, giving me a good impression of the weather at the west side of the Atlantic. But let me begin with the day’s proceedings. On opening my eyes, I found myself in a bed so large that it could easily have accommodated four people. The furnishings of the large room were superb and beautiful. The room was lighted up by electricity. There was a very neat arrangement supplied for telephoning, also a wardrobe, dressing table, a large square mirror, a very suitable easy chair constructed upon the most convenient spring principle, covered with velvet, and everything else required in a bedroom, such as a washstand and all the furnishings therewith. To give a full description of the hotel would fill pages of an ordinary sized book, but I may mention that the large building has a front entrance of a most imposing structure, inviting as it were visitors and guests to a hall as they enter. There are a number of seats on the left where any one frequenting the house can rest, read the newspapers, and converse with each other if so inclined.

Fronting the door, at about 20 feet distant, there is a counter about 15 feet long, at the back of which clerks are employed in connection with the business being done in the hotel. The most part of this consists in keeping an account of bedrooms occupied and unoccupied, and transacting money matters, such as giving receipts for payments, as also selling postage stamps, receiving letters to mail, giving instructions as to rooms into which luggage may be safely placed, and giving general information to enquirers.

On one side of the entrance hall, there is a room for ladies requiring to write letters, the paper, pens, and ink at their hands on the desks for their use, all free of charge. There was a similar room close by for gentlemen upon the same principle. From this same hall, near the counter to which I have referred, is a stair of white marble steps, leading to hundreds of bedrooms, all numbered. The different flats can also be reached by a hydraulic lift, which is moved up and down to accommodate all those who do not care to ascend and descend by means of steps. This connection is from the lowest floor to the top flat of the building, stopping as any one in the lift may require, free of charge. This is a great convenience for people having apartments in such a large hotel. I several times went up and down on it myself, and the guard was always careful as we came to the different floors to nicely steady the lift.

After breakfast, and the day being favourable as to weather, I endeavoured to see as much of Montreal as time would allow me. One sight in particular surpassed all the others, and that was a view of the great city from the top of Mount Royal. From this very beautiful elevation I saw how the city was laid out, and how the flat, bright iron roofs of thousands of large massy buildings glanced with impressive effect, a sight which very vividly presents itself to my inner vision as I now write. During the few hours I had at disposal, I could only get a glance at the public buildings which lay in my way as I passed through some of the streets. The thought ot getting settled down in the train, which M as to be my home for five or six days, very much occupied my mind. I had therefore to hurry through, and, at the time mentioned, my daughter, her four children, and myself were in our places in a train said to be 1000 feet long. On getting to the railway carriage, I found it difficult to find my sleeping berth, but at last got fairly snugged down in a comfortable enclosure, furnished with sheets and blankets, also cushions and cover. These made a good bed in what is called a sleeping car, a number of which were provided for first-class passengers. In connection with this there was every necessary convenience, and a cooking stove for their use as well. The other part of the train, called the colonist, was not so well furnished, but the accommodation was fairly good. I may mention here that on each side of the sleeping cars, the seats were so constructed as to form beds at a certain hour at night, there being another tier of beds above the lower ones. These were fixed up in a way during the day so as not to be seen.

By this arrangement an aisle or walk from the one end of the train to the other is formed. There is one car fitted up as a dining-room, where any passenger can dine, but the charges are high, and over and above that, it is understood that when leaving the table after having breakfast, dinner, or supper, the individual served will place a small bit of money under one of the plates as a perquisite to the waiter.

At the commencement of the journey, each passenger was shown to his own special seat, wnich was numbered. Family groups and parties had seats fronting each other as required, with a table between, the leaf of which could fold down when not wanted. The passengers in these cars appeared to be very respectable, and we soon began to get acquainted with each other, so that the time did not lie so heavy on us as one would be inclined to imagine.

The first night in the train M as, as a matter of course, a little troublesome, but a very nice, obliging man as porter put all the passengers in their proper places, and, when the seats were made into beds, heavy brown coloured curtains were hung up in front of each every night, and taken down in the morning.

Our heavy luggage had all been checked and put in the luggage car, but several packages such as valises had to be taken in our berths. As we noticed passengers going out at some of the stations at which the train stopped, we had to be careful to see that none of it was lifted. .

At such times I heard of nothing being lost except a watch belonging to a young lady, who entered the train as others were going out. Just before she sat down, she exclaimed, “Oh, I’ve lost my watch!”

At the same moment I had been in the colonist car to see a passenger who had come with me in the Lake Erie. As I was shaking hands with him, I, having just been reading, was holding my glasses loosely in my left hand, when on a sudden I missed them. Although I searched about the floor of the car, they were not to be found. I was told afterwards that a suspicious looking man had just gone out as the train stopped, and it was thought that he had snatched my glasses and the lady’s watch, for after searching over the floor again and other parts of the car, neither the watch nor the glasses could be found.

I fortunately chanced to have another pair of glasses with me, otherwise I Mould have been very much put about by being prevented from writing, reading, and taking notes satisfactorily. The suspicious man, to whom I have referred, had been sitting in the colonist car, the fares being much less than those in the other; and as it happens at times that questionable characters take advantage of the low fares, there is some risk connected with that M ay of travelling. Apart from other danger, when asleep on a hard wooden seat one is apt to be robbed of his watch, or perhaps something more valuable.

People travelling from Montreal to the Pacific coast have, from the one ocean to the other, an exceptional chance to increase their knowledge of the interior of America. In fact, to have been in Montreal or any other place merely on the coast, is almost not to have been in America at all. While proceeding west, a stop is made from time to time at stations on the railway, and, at some of them, a little while is given to passengers to look round to see a bit of the country at their leisure. At the same time, this is a privilege to any one who may be taking notes of what is worthy of observation.

From the American millionaire down to the poorest class, human beings of all nationalities can be seen. Especially in the great expensive dining-car one can get a glance of the valuable jewellery and dress which decorate rich people. I did not visit that car often, but many did, the most of them, as I supposed, of what is called “ the upper ten ” in the Old Country. In talking to them, I felt quite at home, and some of them were fond of conversation.

As we were nearing the Rocky Mountains, many eyes Mere fixed on the high hills and deep valleys along which we were passing—at last getting a view of snow-clad peaks of mountains high up in the air, along the sides of which ledge-like roads had been made for the rails. At some places the height above the train and the depth below were such as to fill the mind with fear and awe.

At places like that, we moved very slowly, and now and again, when looking out of the window of the cur,

I could see the fore-end of the train in a serpentine-like form enter a tunnel, seeking, as it M ere, her way through hills and mountains, along zigzagged precipices and curves, with the greatest of caution exercised by the official in charge of the engine.

The same care was needful on the other side of the mountains when descending, the thought of which occupied my mind, and I have no doubt many others were experiencing the same feeling.

There being no concerts, such as we had on the steamer, the journey was sometimes wearisome, and there being no room for a walk, we had to keep our seats day after day. Of course, the scenery and stoppages to some extent broke the monotony. Passengers coming in at almost every station created considerable stir, they looking at us and we looking at them. There was no want of babies of many colours and shape to increase the matrimonial music. One day, when we were more than half across the continent, a gentleman was pressed to sing a Scotch song, because he was a Scotchman. When he had just commenced some one reminded him that it was Sunday, but he got out of his kind of embarrassment by informing his interrupter that the Scotch Sunday was past.

Sometimes we saw buffaloes, and at a station where the passengers had liberty to leave the train for a while, I came to a place where a man was playing with a black bear, just as one would play with a young dog. At times I thought that he was making too free with the animal, and we, the spectators, kept a respectful distance from the pair.

When stopping at a station a few hundred miles from the Pacific coast, I noticed that some friends met each other with kisses, again and again embracing each other, leading me to imagine that they had been separated for years. It was quite apparent that with them affection and joy were mutual. As we arrived at another station, to remain for a short time, a young gentleman made his way in the sleeping car, asking for me. Who was this but one of my grandsons, Ernest Manson, whom I had never seen before, and who as a teacher had principal charge of a public school in the district. We clutched each other’s hands as father and son would do, feeling for a moment as if we were speechless. Then we began to talk, but alas! the time was short, notice being given that the train was about to start. So we had to part with the hope that we would soon see our way to meet again, and have more time to converse. At a stage farther on, where we had a few minutes to allow some passengers to go out and others to come in, two young ladies came in haste asking for me. One of them was my granddaughter Catherine Manson, from Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, who had visited Shetland lately, and a Miss Mercer, a grand-daughter of Mr William Manson, who had left Setter, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, many years ago, and settled in Nanaimo, British Columbia. The young ladies were teaching in schools not far from the station, and being aware that Mrs Manson, her four children, and myself were in the train, they had come to see us, and the meeting was very pleasant.

The lengthy and crowded train arrived at last at our destination—the large flourishing Vancouver city and terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The time of our arrival was on Monday, the 25th November 1907, at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. The time we had taken to cross the continent was 5 days 12 hours. My daughter’s husband, Mr W. J. Manson, who had come more than an hundred miles from the coast to meet us, was in the train, and on getting out he brought two vehicles, each drawn by two horses, to convey us and part of our luggage to his residence not far distant. A Chinaman, in his service as cook, had prepared a good dinner, which we all enjoyed. The house was situated in the suburbs of the city, surrounded with trees which skirted the border of a large garden studded with plants and flowers, some of them very beautiful. My first sleep in Vancouver City was in this house, a room having been prepared for me, most suitable in every way. My son-in-law, W. J. Manson, gave me a hearty welcome and asked me to make myself at home in his house. He placed for my use a valuable library, there being a large collection of books. A few days after this, my daughter, Mrs Laurence Manson, and her son, Douglas, arrived from Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, purposely to see me and ask me to accompany them to their home in that western part of British Columbia, where the great industry of coal-mining is carried on, and where her husband is largely connected with commerce as a general merchant. He is owner of houses and much land in the colony, and also has many investments.

After a few days seeing through Vancouver City, we took the S.S. Joan for Nanaimo at 1.30 p.m. The weather was fine, the scenery all around most attractive, and to describe what I have seen of the place during the last few days, and what I now see on leaving it, would require the pen of a much more able observer and writer than I am. To think that during the last 20 years, the commercial city of Vancouver has risen so rapidly as to have public buildings, churches, stores, wharfs, and shipping, with a population of more than 80,000, and many more people pouring into it, is something wonderful. But such is the case, and houses are in demand more than the supply can meet, a thing which is encouraging trade in the way of building. Carpenters in particular are well employed, and that leads to employing men in other departments. The passage to Nanaimo was a very pleasant one, passing as we did a number of islands, some of them inhabited partly by Indians, who live by hunting and fishing, caring for nothing more than they can eat and drink. It so happened that a number of them of both sexes were on board, and I had a good look at them. Some of them M ere half-breeds, of whom I was told that there was a very large number at one time, arising from the fact that, in the early days of the colony of British Columbia, there were hundreds of strong white men who settled down in family life with Indian women.

Some of the white men at that time, however, were coarse and wicked, never hesitating to draw aside Indian women from moral goodness, so that by disease of a foreign nature, small-pox included, hundreds of the women, not knowing what was the matter with them, rushed into the sea to be cured, as they thought. The result of this was often death, and in some cases decease was instantaneous. There are efforts made by the Canadian Government now in force to civilise and Christianise the Indians, but I have it from the lips of those who are engaged in the work, that in many cases it is almost impossible to get many of them to give up their savage mode of^ living. Although they somewhat withdraw from it for a time, the very least temptation draws them aside to their old customs.

It took the steamer about three hours to bring us to Nanaimo wharf, and there we were met by my son-in-law, Mr Laurence Manson, who had a carriage waiting for us. We drove to his residence, and I could scarcely believe that I was at last in my daughter Catherine’s house in British Columbia, and away from home in Shetland about 8000 miles. Though far advanced in years, sure enough it was a reality, and at this time, one by one, three of my grandchildren I had never seen, now grown up to manhood and womanhood, came forward to shake hands with me, while their father and mother stood by my side smiling.

It was a picturesque sight, and I may mention here that when in Vancouver City, my daughter—Mrs W. J. Manson—and I were taking a walk in one of the most fashionable streets, when she entered a large establishment in the drapery line to make a purchase. She asked me to wait at the door till she should come back. This I willingly did, and just as I was standing looking round at what I had never seen before, a tall young lady came out of the door, and, looking up in my face, said “Grandpa, how are you?” This young lady, taller than I, was Margaret Leisk, my grand-daughter, whom I had not seen from the time that she was an infant on her way in Glasgow, Scotland, to British Columbia, along with her mother and brother. Now she was in charge of one of the departments in this place of business, and my daughter had planned to ask her to go to the door and give me a surprise. This' she certainly did, as I would not have at first look recognised her as being a relative of mine.

Being on a public sidewalk, where there were so many people passing, I could not take the girl in my arms, and salute her as my feelings induced me to do, but I confess that I almost lost the controlling power while grasping the hand of her who was next to being my own daughter, especially I having come, as it were, from another world to see her. This meeting with one of my many grandchildren, and other near relatives I had to see in a country so far away from my native land, gives a good idea of the numerous friendly interviews I have had, not only with relatives, but with many others, some of whom came from a great distance to see me. I received invitations by letter from various individuals to call, some of them strangers to me, but who for many years had been reading my reports of news from Sandwick Parish in the Shetland Times newspaper. They apparently had a great desire to have a while of my company.

I therefore visited many places and many people, it being a mutual pleasure to give and get news.

As Shetlanders are scattered over almost all parts of the world, many of them return from far away homes to visit their native land. But as I think very few, if any at all, at my age, namely 81 years; leave Shetland to travel over as I did more than 8000 miles to see relatives so far away. Before setting out, I began to wonder how I would be received by them in their homes. Well, I can with pleasure say in all truthfulness that during my travels, and that is not little, I have never experienced such kindness and

hospitality as that which has been shown me in British Columbia, not only by kith and kin, but by others. One gentleman—a relative—said to me, when talking over the subject, “My dear friend, you ought to be paid for coming so far to see us.” I have received kindness in many places, but that surprised me much, and it just demonstrates the fact that there is a yearning desire on the part of not a few to see any one newly come from the Old Country.

Yes, several with whom I had conversation would willingly spend the money in order to get only a glimpse of the heather hills and pebbly beaches, on which they rambled in their young days, if they could only get away from business engagements and family cares. Often the question was put to me, “What do you think of this country?” As also I have been now and again asked, “Are you going to remain in this country?” But oh! the questions which have been put to me by Shetlanders are very numerous, and glad was I to answer when I was able in accordance with my knowledge. A few friends tried hard to persuade me to remain in this new country, where so many near and dear to me were residing in happy homes and in comfortable circumstances. I had, however, arranged in a way so as to be back to Shetland in November 1908, and could not think of departing from my resolution. After a while in British Columbia, becoming aware that I would have to go to Alaska to see my son there, I had to plan anew and communicate accordingly with my friends at home.

But I must now return to my surroundings in the house of my son-in-law, in the city of Nanaimo. I had been in the dining-room to replenish the “ inner-man,” there being a bountiful supply of different kinds of food on the table for the family group and myself. It was my own blame if I did not partake freely of the good things that were set before me. Indeed, I saw at a glance that along with my son-in-law, daughter, and grandchildren, I could make myself at home, and I did it in my old-fashioned, cheerful way. Many expressions of congratulation came from the hearts and lips of all present while the dinner was being enjoyed. One could easily see that the meeting was a mutually pleasurable enjoyment. After dinner, I took a rest in one of the easy chairs close by the fire which was blazing in a grate, the heat being more than I thought was safe. My mind and eyes were fairly well exercised, and one thing that specially attracted my attention was the gasalier hung from the ceiling, lighted by gas manufactured on the premises. Sometime after I was shown the simple process of producing ^as-light for their seven-roomed house, and a large store, cellars, and warehouse. It was explained to me that upon this principle the lighting up of the whole premises can be done much cheaper than by using gas from any other source.

After having a look through the house, and the supper over, I was shown to my bedroom, and for the first time I slept on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

I had a sound refreshing sleep without disturbing dreams, but, on awakening, naturally enough I thought of old times and some of the steps I had taken in my long, wilderness journey. While musing on the past, the present, and what might happen in the future, someone tapped at my bedroom door. Who was this but my daughter Catherine, with a cup of tea and a fine biscuit, which she handed to me with a smile, wishing to know if I had slept well. My thoughts rushed back to the time when she was an infant in the arms of her mother, now in heaven, and to many of the associations therewith connected in our home at that time in Leith, Scotland. Well, 1 was left alone to enjoy my cup of tea, and meditate about more than home affairs. I was fully aware of the fact that I had set out on a journey I had resolved to carry through with a cheerful spirit, and that in all circumstances nothing should be allowed to interfere with my usual lively deportment, meet whom I may, be he clergyman or layman, merchantman or labouringman. Ladies and all should see that I had made up my mind to be happy, and endeavour to make others enjoy the same benefit, quite in accordance with the spirit of the poet who composed the following lines:—

“So we will sing and banish melancholy;
Troubles may come, we’ll do the best we can
To drive cares away, for grief it is a folly;
Put your shoulder to the wheel is a motto for every man.

After a short rest, I got up and put myself in trim for the breakfast table, where Mr Manson and the other members of the family were taking their seats. There I was asked to take the chair prepared for me, and to make myself at home. Now seated as a family group, there was no restriction as to putting and answering questions, and while the teeth were busy masticating the food, the tongues were well employed in conversation, especially about Shetland. As there are a good many Shetlanders in Nanaimo, some of them soon began to call in order to see me, and so my talking began in earnest, often resulting in several invitations to dine and spend an evening with them at their homes.

After a while I got on the streets of the city, taking in my hand the silver-mounted walking-stick, with which I was presented as a token of respect by the people of Sandwick, Shetland, when I set out on this journey. I found that with this ornamental prop I was quite prepared, having such a weapon to defend myself against any attack which might be made on me by dogs, which the Indians keep in great numbers on their reserve in the neighbourhood. Just as in Vancouver City, the streets of Nanaimo are very broad, mostly laid out in such a way as to cross each other, so as to form rectangles. Some of the stores are very large, but a number of others are small, and almost all of them are constructed of wood. My son-in-law took me through his business premises one day^ showing me all the different kinds of goods he had in stock, and I think that, in accordance with the old saying, everything wanted “ from a needle to an anchor1 was to be seen in that store. I was told that the value of the stock would be about £3000 sterling.

Much is sold to people who call at the store, but the business is mostly done by travellers calling on the customers every week soliciting orders. When made ready for delivery, the goods are put in waggons drawn by horses. I noticed that Mr Manson keeps three fine ones, w hich are also used for a carriage. In this way customers are regularly supplied with goods, the waggons taking them to their places of residence. This is a great convenience, and I was led to understand that mostly all the other merchants in Nanaimo act upon the same principle. There are some very fine houses in the city, and also in the suburbs, and churches with their spires, school-houses, theatres, drinking saloons, hotels, halls, and a number of other public buildings of considerable size. Some of them are built of stone, others partly of bricks, but mostly all the structures, including the wharves, are constructed of wood, there being any quantity of that material obtainable in the district. Indeed, Vancouver Island is thickly wooded, some of the trees being about 300 feet high, and many of them 6 feet or more in diameter. Hundreds of families are now living in comfort on farms, which have been taken from the forest by their own labour—many of the trees I have described having been cut down and cleared away by them, principally by the older members of the households. Then in regard to roads, it is wonderful to think of the progress made in that way. There are hundreds of miles of broad, well-made highways and trails, constructed through forests. In order to see as much of bush life as possible, I travelled long distances, sometimes alone, but often with a guide.

One day as I was passing over a part of the road, where there was a forest on the one side and a farm on the other, I noticed a great number of cattle on a grassy field close by, and also swine of a big size eating grass. I said to my guide, “But swine go loose like that?" “Oh, yes,” he said, “that farmer allows his pigs to suck his cows.” I lifted up my arms in astonishment, and said, “Surely not"; but he declared that it as a fact, and I could not but believe him, because I knew him to be a member of a Christian church. I learned afterwards that as pigs sell to good advantage, they get all the buttermilk to drink along with other feeding stuff, but it is not often they get sweet milk. It was a very exceptional thing for a pig to be allowed to suck a cow.

But I asked him how it came to pass that the cow allowed the pig to suck her. He appeared not to know very well how that came about, out as calves are allowed to suck cows, we thought that perhaps the cow would accept the pig as a calf. As a rule, the cows are of a large size, and some of them produce a great quantity of milk, from which the cream is taken by a machine called a separator. At certain times this is sent to a creamery in the district, where the butter is made ready for the market.

It is the men who attend to the milking, and on one occasion I accompanied a milker and his assistant, who went to milk thirty cows. These were standing in a row separated from each other by wooden partitions, and all under a wrater-tight roof in a big warm building.

This I did for the purpose of seeing how the men acted in milking, as that kind of dairy work. is done by women in the Old Country. Carrying an iron pail, the milker entered the door of the building where the hind legs of the cows could be seen in a row, and, placing the iron pail at the side of one of the hind legs of the cow, he began to milk, and continued doing so for a few minutes. On a sudden she struck the pail with her foot, and the milk was lost. As it went, I said to myself, “There is loss in dairying as well as in buying and selling, as I know by experience.” I said to the milker, “That is a loss ; perhaps the cow does not want me here.” “Ah,” he said, “she has a prank of doing that, but there is plenty more in her big bag.” So he righted the pail and commenced to milk again. I left him to finish the work he had commenced, but I thought the milking was a thing more suitable for women. But perhaps where there are such a large number of cows, more women would have to be employed than two, and my view of the matter that the milking should be done by women may arise from prejudice, I never having seen it done by men before.

Having received a letter from my son-in-law in Vancouver City, asking me to spend Christmas evening in his house along with a few friends, I took steamer leaving Nanaimo on the 25th December 1907, at 7 a.m. There were a number of passengers, no doubt many of them going, as I was, to the big city to enjoy Christmas with their friends, and, as the people in a new country very soon get acquainted with each other, I began to meet gentlemen fond of conversation, so that the few hours steaming across this part of the Gulf of Georgia was pleasurable. The sea being smooth, there was no one annoyed with sea-sickness.

As we neared the wharf at Vancouver City, I noticed Mr Fred Froud, who came from Liverpool in the Lake Erie when I came, waiting to accompany me to Mr Manson’s residence. He (Mr Froud) was one of the party who were to be at the Christmas festival.

A good many ladies and gentlemen were invited to this entertainment, some of them of political distinction. This no doubt arose from the fact that Mr Manson, the host, is a member of the Provincial Parliament of British Columbia. I may mention here that all the members of that body are paid for their services, and are allowed to travel on several lines of railway in Canada free of charge. When we were all seated at the festive table, it formed a very friendly appearance, and my daughter and her husband seemed quite pleased to have so many guests to welcome and entertain.

While making remarks about things in general, we avoided talking on religious and political subjects, bringing to mind what a Shetland mechanic, who settled in Ireland, told me long ago, “If you keep clear of arguing about religion and politics, you will get along in Ireland well enough." One course after another was placed on the table by the hands of a Chinaman, employed in the house principally as cook, but who might be called a general servant. It looked as if no one thought that strange but myself. I came to know, however, that it is no rare thing in British Columbia to have Chinamen in respectable houses to cook and serve at table. I must say that the one to whom I have referred knew his business exceedingly well, and I think I am a fairly good judge, because a great portion of my time in Scotland, and sometimes abroad, I have had to put up at hotels and sometimes in private houses, where great attention was given to the rules of etiquette. In course of conversation, much was said about Shetland, there being so many in the company from that far north part of the world. Although during my commercial career I had been absent from it for about twenty-five years, I nevertheless always did what I could during that time to further the welfare of the people of that country. Latterly, when again living among them,

I had taken a great interest in getting some of their grievances redressed, especially during the fifteen years I represented the Division of Sand wick in the County Council. That being so, many questions were put to me about roads, piers, lighthouses, and the famous Hoswick Whale case, all with which I had much to do, and my answers appeared to give satisfaction.

Then it came to my turn to ask questions about British Columbia, and there being gentlemen present quite capable of answering, I received much information, and that in connection with what I have seen of the country is very much in accordance with what I have read in a newspaper, Walker's Weekly—“British Columbia is a land of magnificent opportunity. There is a prodigality of natural wealth everywhere, in the hills, in the fertile valleys, in the huge forests and the rivers, lakes, and ocean that washes its indented shores.

“Few sections can claim pre-eminence over the others in potential wealth. It will be many hundreds of years before the great province is fully developed, and at that time a better idea will be obtained as to which particular localities are the leaders.”

After a little while of conversation, we withdrew from the dining-room to the drawing-room, where innocent games were played. We had also singing, and music from the piano and violin. In this way a few hours were spent in a happy spirit both by old and young, a good many of the latter being present. Mr and M •’s Manson enlivened the company with their genial smile of welcome till a late hour, and after an enjoyable entertainment the guests left for their respective homes.

The people of Vancouver City are much given to fine ornamental dress and sociality, but especially on Christmas and other holidays. They turn out in great numbers to enjoy sight-seeing on the broad, beautiful streets, also in the public parks. They also engage in boating and bathing, which they do promiscuously, but of course, particularly well dressed for the occasion. It is no rare thing to see a gentleman at such times alongside a lady teaching her to swim. I noticed that on a certain holiday when on English Bay beach, and I made the remark to some one near, “What an excellent thing it is to know how to swim when so many people are travelling by sea, even though it were to have no more knowledge than to be able to float for a few minutes in cases of accident on the water.”

There are various sources of amusement for young people, but parents in general are very careful in keeping their children out of danger and questionable company, especially their daughters; and, if it so happens that anyone is assaulted or drawn aside so as to lose her character, woe betide the guilty destroyer. At any moment a bullet may pass through his skull, even at a time when he would least expect it. That may sometimes be done by a brother of the injured girl, or it may happen that the fiend as they call him may be mobbed and wounded.

I often had the privilege of being in the company of leading public men, clergymen included, and I learned that strict measures are in force to preserve order and good discipline, so that the people of British Columbia shall be a blessing to themselves and to the world at large. Their great desire is that the children should be well educated, that family life be made sacred, and that anyone found disturbing the peace of a home or that of a community should be severely punished. The almost universal rule is that master and servants at meal-time sha1! sit at the same table, so that it often happens that a gentleman of an aristocratic family and his lady have their servants at table with them, a Chinaman being an exception to serve as a tablemaid would do. To show how little employers of labour think of rank, many of them prefer to be addressed by the name as it is found in the register of their births, than to be designated master, and that kind of brotherly feeling seems to predominate among the people of the colony.

On the 21st December 1907 I met Captain Thomas Halcrow, a native of Stove, Sand wick Parish, Shetland, whose ship was lying at a port on the Pacific coast. By rail and walking, he travelled many miles to see me, and as I met him unexpectedly, he said, “Do you know me?” I took a good look at him, and then said, “O yes, you are Captain Thomas Halcrow from Stove, Shetland.” For hours we enjoyed each other’s company, newsing principally about the people of the parish and the improvements made there in late years, especially the construction of the pier at Broonie’s Taing. Almost all the Shetlanders I met were interested in hearing about that pier, and when I told them that it and the boat-slip alongside of it had cost about £6000 sterling, they were perfectly amazed, wondering where the money had come from. Thus they bade me on several times to give them some particulars of how the scheme was proposed, and through all its stages how it was ultimately brought to a successful issue. I may mention here a part of what I told them. Some years previous to the constitution of the County Council of Shetland, a Government Commission had been appointed to inquire into the state of affairs existing in the Western Highlands and Islands of Scotland, of which the Shetland Islands, numbering about an hundred, are the most northern. On finding their way to Lerwick, the capital, they held meetings in the Sheriff Courtroom, to hear what representatives of districts in Shetland had to say in regard to grievances and the necessity for improvements, especially in connection with the development of the fishing. A meeting was held in my mission hall at Hoswick, when leading Sandwick parishioners discussed the state of affairs, and when I brought under their notice the great necessity for a pier at Broonie’s Taing. The late Mr Malcolm Goudie of the Linds with those present supported me in that suggestion, and I was appointed to bring the matter before the Commission at their first sitting. When my turn came to speak, I did my best to demonstrate the fact that for various reasons, it was of great importance to have a pier constructed at Broonie’s Taing, and of such dimensions as to allow large steamers to come alongside. I next gave a description of the site with an outline of the coast, the entrance to Hoswick Bay on the east side of which lay Broonie’s Taing, and, on concluding what I had got to say, I was thanked by the chairman for the clear and interesting way I had brought the matter under the knowledge of the Commissioners. I then began to write about the proposal in the Shetland Times newspaper, and, having been elected to represent the Sandwick Division of the County in the Shetland County Council, I from time to time brought the scheme up for discussion in the face of mucli opposition, until at last, after several years of pleading tlie case, it was taken up by others who came to my assistance. The leaders of these were Bailie Malcolm Smith of Leith, and Mr George R. Jamieson, merchant, Edinburgh, both being natives of Sandwick Parish. With the valuable assistance of the late John Bruce, Esq., of Sumburgh, who was Convener of the County Council, an application was made to Government, resulting in obtaining a Provisional Order. So from stage to stage of procedure, taking years from the start, the pier and boat-slip were constructed, and there are a number of herring fishing stations near, at which are employed hundreds of people. The successful issue of the undertaking has proved to be a great benefit to the community. There is a strong heavy parapet of concrete built on the most exposed side of the pier, in which is placed a tablet of dressed freestone, upon which is engraved my name along with others as trustees who acted with me as promoters of the scheme.

I shall now turn my attention to British Columbia; and to begin with, I may mention that on one occasion I was invited to attend the examination of an Indian day school, the teacher a white gentleman who was also a missionary among the Indian people. The inspector of Indian missions was present, also his wife. The school building was constructed of wood, and very well seated, also a good platform at one end, where there was a writing desk and some chairs.

There was also a blackboard on the left-hand side of the teacher as he stood up at the desk. The scholars in front of him were so seated that the boys were on the one side of the room and the girls on the other. I was asked to come to the platform, the dark coloured children taking a good look at me as I went. As I sat down, there seemed to be a rustling among them. No doubt they were wondering what sort of a white man I was. There was a dark-coloured interpreter sitting near the desk, and as the teacher rose to introduce me —which in a way he could do in the Indian language —I noticed the interpreter looking hard at me. He— the teacher—told the children that I had come from a far-away land, Scotland, about which they had heard so much, and that I would say a few words to them. I had been told by the teacher that if I would speak to them slowly, in very simple English words, they would understand me, but of course the interpreter was there to explain the meaning of any word or sentence they did not know. I endeavoured to speak to them as plainly and slowly as I possibly could, informing them about the place I had come from, the sort of people who lived there, and the distance I had travelled to come and see them. I also told them that I had been a teacher of boys and girls when I was a young man, and they appeared to be very pleased to listen to me. I then took my seat down amongst them, so that I might see the figuring and writing on the blackboard about which they were examined. I was more than surprised to hear them answering so quickly and correctly, adding up sums without scarcely ever making a mistake. After the examination was over, the Inspector spoke in very favourable terms as to the proficiency the scholars had shown in reading, writing, counting, and reciting, and, as he delivered his address, he stopped at the end of every few sentences, to allow the interpreter time to repeat the words to the scholars in the Indian language.

After the address, the Inspector and his wife handed round sweetmeats, all returning thanks with smiling faces. As the service drew to a close, I proposed a vote of thanks to the Inspector and his lady for the great interest they were taking in advancing the civilisation and instruction of the Indian children. To see the young folks so heartily clapping their dark hands in response was very amusing. After dismissal, the teacher asked me to accompany him to the Indian reserve close by, which I did, thereby getting a good view of their dwellings. They are erections of rough wood, both outside and inside being of the same undressed material. Several families live under the same roof, separated from each other on the earthen floor by a very coarse kind of wooden partitions.

Their fuel, which consists of branches of trees cut or broken in pieces, was lying here and there in small heaps on the floor, near the fires which were smouldering on the hearths. These were surrounded by old and young human beings sitting on the earth, not such a thing as a chair or a table to be seen.

The house, or rather shelter, was about 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, and roofed with shingles. The smoke from the fires sought its way out through fissures as best it could, because I saw no other kind of openings such as holes in the roof as outlets. On one side of this dwelling I saw something in the form of beds raised about 2 feet from the ground, filled with rags and other kinds of rubbish, but I did not go so near these bunk-looking places as to ascertain the texture of the blankets. I shook hands with the inmates, both male and female, who were moving about with thick plumpy bare feet, and very indifferently dressed.

They kept chattering to each other, sometimes turning round to me with a strange kind of a laugh, their eyes like to jump out of their sockets. I wondered what they meant, but my friend with me said they were just glad in their own way that I had visited them. At one of their fires they had fish hanging up in the smoke, some of which were herrings. Much of their food is of that sort; but many of them eat what is used by white people, and as they get civilised some of them construct houses of a much better sort than what I have described. They even begin to cultivate land and drive about in their own vehicles. The chiefs as a rule extricate themselves from the heathenish habits of a barbarous life.

One Sunday, as I was taking a walk along the seashore, I saw an Indian woman a little distance off, with some sort of burden on her back, coming towards me. On a sudden, she sprang into the bush close by, and I walked on giving no attention to it. After a little, I turned round and saw her coming out of the bush and renewing her journey. I could not understand what this Indian woman meant, but talking over the matter with a gentleman one day, he informed me that the woman had taken me for a policeman who would have stopped her for carrying a burden on Sunday. When she saw that I took no notice of her, she came to the beach to continue on her way, and he said that the burden she had on her back in a bag would likely be fish. The most the Indians do is moving from place to place in their canoes, fishing along the coast. What they do not require for themselves, they sell. They also search in the sand when the tide is out for a kind of shell-fish, called clam, which in size and shape resemble an oyster. Large quantities of this they secure as part of their food during the year, and I was shown how they cook and preserve this portion of their stores. They dig a hole in the earth about 3 feet square and 2 feet deep, then put in a quantity of small pieces of very dry wood crossing each other, leaving a vacant space, on the top of which they lay a quantity of small pieces of stones. Then setting fire to the whole, the stones as they are heated fall to the bottom, upon which they place a number of clams and cover up for a certain time. By this process the clams are cooked as often as they wish to do it. Then the shells are easily opened, the meat comes freely away, and very large quantities of it are strung up in big bunches to dry. This forms a portion of the edibles Indians feed on, and they appear to relish it very much.

While walking on a beach one fine day, I noticed an Indian standing idly looking at a small object at his feet, and on coming up to him, what I saw sitting on the sand was his wife. Both of them to appearance were very old, and as she sat leaning on her side removing the sand with a stick about 2 feet long, she was by it at times bringing to view one, two, or three clams. She then lifted these with her left hand, and threw them at her husband’s feet to be gathered up. Poor half-dressed creature, she was working very industriously.

I visited the house, or rather shelter, of coarse construction of wood where these two old people lived, but had difficulty in nearing the place, owing to a fierce black dog that appeared to be guarding his master and the woman he called his clootch—which is in English wife. Afterwards I learned that they have sons and daughters grown up to be men and women. I was told that this Indian man was understood to be nearly 100 years old; but he did not look like it, walking about as he did in his thick-skinned, bare feet,

laughing and jumping from one place to another like a young boy. I was told that he had been a great warrior in defending the tribe to which he belongs against the attacks made upon them by other tribes of Indians, and that he had scalped and killed many a man.

I was anxious to know what was the cause of the tribal wars among the Indians, and I was informed that it was very often about their women, and even more so when wicked white men came amongst them who offered to purchase girls for intoxicating drink, such as whisky and rum, or other alcoholic liquor, a thing which Indians are exceedingly fond of. For instance, a chief of a strong tribe might endeavour to pick up a quarrel with a weak tribe, and so pounce upon them with a view to getting some girls to be made slaves of, or sell them or dispose of them for service as one would do with the lower animals.

I was shown places where battles had been fought, the trenches for protection being now hollow parts of the ground where grass is growing, the field with much of the surrounding land now being the property of Mr Michael Manson, M.P.P., son of Mr John Manson, setter, Sandwick Parish, Shetland. It is a very fine locality on the Pacific coast, his house of many rooms being there close by a long sandy beach. The sea is almost always smooth, and at times is teeming with salmon. There is a very pretty lagoon near the place. His brother, Mr John Manson, is equally well situated, his house being near the sea, 3 miles distant. Along with a fine house he owns a considerable quantity of land, both these places being on Cortez Island, which I visited. I shall refer to what I saw and heard there more fully farther on.

At one time all the Indians of British Columbia believed that there are good and bad spirits, and those who are unchristianised believe yet that the Chief Spirit is the creator of all things, of the greatest wisdom, the most powerful, and also their governor, and ever ready to do them good. They, however, don’t think that he is specially interested in their well-being, and they never call upon him for assistance except when they are in great trouble, such as when they know that they are not strong enough to fight an enemy in arms against them. Then the smaller spirits are, as they believe, always ready to do them harm, and they inhabit the deserts and wild rocky, precipitous, and dangerous places along the sea-shore, w here the great waves of the ocean dash and roar often so fiercely as to upset their canoes.

If in a vortical tideway lives have been lost, that spot is looked upon as the dwelling of an evil spirit.

They worship the sun and moon ; they pray to the Chief Spirit to give them success in fishing and hunting and fighting. There are now some native preachers of the Gospel of Christ, and on a certain occasion one of them was heard to say that he remembered his grandmother preparing a big fire at the side of a river, and praying as the wood cracked, asking for safety from everything that would do her any harm. If the smoke went straight up to where the Chief Spirit lived, then she believed he would grant her request; but if the wind blew it hither and thither, then there was no use in praying. This kind of worship has to a considerable extent been abolished by the powerful influence of missionary efforts to induce the natives to become Christians.

Each tribe has a language of its own, so that it is very difficult to leam it all, but the Hudson Bay Company, who had much to do with the Indians in the way of buying fur and selling them goods, connected a certain number of words together for all the tribes, and in such a way as they could easily understand it as a language. This they called “Chinook,” and a good many people, who have lived any length of time in British Columbia, can speak the language, thus enabling them to converse with the Indians, especially in the way of trading with them. The following is the Lord’s Prayer in Chinook, which many of the Indians and white people can repeat:—

“Nesika papa, 'mitlite kopa saghalie, klosh spose konaway tilikum mamook praise mika nem; klosh spose konaway tilikum mamook tyee mika; klaska spose konaway tilikum kopa okook illahee mamook mika tumtum kaw-kwa klaska mamook kopa saghalie-illahie. Okook sun, pe konaway-sun potlatch nesika muk-amuk; pe klosh mika mash okook ma-satchie nesika mamook kopa mika, kaw-kwa nesika mash okook ma-sa-tchie hul-oi-ma tilikum mamook kopa nesika; pe klosh mika mamook help nesika spose halo-ikta tolo nesika kopa ma-sa-tchie; pe klosbe mika mamook haul nesika spose halo nesika c.hako kla-kow-yu.”

“Klosh spose kaw-kwa.”

The Indians observe many heathen customs, with an ardent desire that they be continued, especially the festival “potlatch,” which has much to do with their mode of family order, such as their marriages, births, naming their children, deaths, burials, rising in position as superiors, and any kind of honour they may covet. The word “ potlatch ” is from the Chinook language, and means “to give,” so that any one of the Indians who wish to be looked upon as a noble, high-minded individual may save up money, and endeavour to get possession of numerous articles of value for years, in order to give away to his friends at a potlatch. The more he gives and the poorer he thereby becomes, the higher he rises in the estimation of the Indian people ; but by doing so he expects to receive perhaps as much if not more from another acting as he has done on a similar occasion. The ambition to be considered great will even lead on an Indian to sell his daughter to a white man, which he calls marriage. He will think nothing of breaking a good canoe into pieces, which was part of the means of his living, and I have been told that some Indians have tom up their blankets and even burned parcels of paper money to show their independence.

But worse than all this, it has been known that women would leave their own homes, and go away for days and nights and mix with bad company, in order to get money in any way they could, so that there should be a good supply for the potlatch.

This abominable custom is very difficult to root out, but the Government will no doubt endeavour by strong measures to get it abolished, and Christian workers will be sure to assist. On the 6th January 1908 I accompanied a gentleman to see a potlatch, but as the Indians do not want white people near them on such occasions, there was I confess a feeling of fear which came over me as we came nigh to the awful place. At about a mile away, I heard the wild roars of the Indians who were in a house constructed of rough boards, and, as we came to the entrance, I imagined the structure to be close upon 150 feet long and about 30 feet wide. A hole in the roof emitted fire in large sparks, and I hesitated for a minute to go inside. I saw, however, two or three white men and a white woman as spectators, so the gentleman and I, leaving the darkness outside, entered without being hindered in any way. To describe what presented itself to my view would tax a much abler narrator than I am. The first that attracted my attention was a fire on the middle of an earthen floor, the size of the blazing heap of wood 10 or 12 feet square, and appearing as if it was 6 feet high. The sparks were flying to the roof in dangerous-like quantities, especially when an Indian threw in a piece of wood 6 feet long by 9 inches square, so as to increase the flame and the dreadful heat. Away at the opposite end of this building, a number of Indian men were seated. All more or less were dressed in grotesque stylish fashion, having feathers of a large size fixed in their headgear. The principally dressed one—the man who was giving the potlatch—and all of them were dancers. Then along each side of the floor, a large number of Indians were seated with sticks in their hands to beat on wood and drums, producing a kind of inciting music to those who stepped to its notes.

Along with other white people, I stood at the end of the floor opposite to which the Indian dancers were seated, and I watched every movement. All was silent for a moment or two, except the roaring blaze of the prodigious fire, when instantaneously a big Indian in savage attire began to groan and twist himself backwards and forwards where he was sitting. On a sudden he made a bound on the floor close by the burning heap of wood, and began to dance violently. I imagined that he would keep away from this awful fire, but instead of that, while dancing in a most furious way, he kept near to it, and danced, continuing at it longer than any one could expect. At last, in an exhausted state, he sat down, and I noticed that he was scarcely able to get to his seat. Immediately after this, an Indian came in carrying a heavy piece of wood, which he flung into the fire with such force that it sent up a mass of sparks frightful to look at. Indeed, it was so dreadfully alarming that I felt as if I would say to my friend, “ Let us get out.” But I stood still and gazed at the clustered pieces or sparks of fire as they ascended to the roof of the place and gradually died away. After the fire was replenished, another dancer came forward, and he acted much in the same way as the other, keeping as he did very close to the fire as he danced. I was informed afterwards that the more the savage can stand the heat when dancing, the more he is applauded. As the Indian feels his strength giving way, he utters wild shrieks as if he were suffering acute pain, and as he sits down his loud roars in his paroxysms would frighten even strong-nerved white people.

There were several Indian women present, and one of them kept clapping her hands apparently in a delighted mood, evidently to encourage the actors.

The heat was so intense, the smell anything but agreeable, and the company so undesirable, that I did not remain long as a spectator. When my friend and I got outside, the heathenish yells were continuing, and that, with hundreds of sticks beating against each other and on wooden benches, made a horrible noise which could be heard a mile distant. At a stated time after the dancing, they eat and drink as savages do, but not often in a peaceable way. This arises from the fact that they struggle desperately to compete with each other as to who shall give most, so as to show their independence. For that purpose they even destroy much of what they possess. In order to appear brave, they will slash their thighs and drink their blood, and in connection with the potlatch all this and much more of a destructive nature is done with as much seriousness as if they were in a church. Really, when I was in that awful place, I had at times enough to do to keep from smiling, but had I been seen deviating from seriousness I do not know what might have happened.

This potlatching is often taking place among the Indians, and it sometimes ends in hatred of a disastrous nature, because he who spends most is envied and abused by those who have been unable to destroy so much property. Cases have been known which show that some of the wildest Indians have destroyed at these potlatches everything they owned, not leaving so much as to enable them to get their breakfast next morning. It is the same kind of spirit which exists in the minds of wicked people of the civilised but unchristianised class. Although they do not show it to the same extent or in the same way that savages do, they nevertheless have it in their hearts toward those who receive more honour, it may be, on account of some good action or actions. The hatred in connection with civilised people sometimes arises from the fact that the man hated occupies a high and respectable public position, or that he enjoys an excellent moral character.

It is somewhat interesting to know how Indians in a savage state court and get married, but much has been done by evangelical effort to change the mode of procedure in a matter of that sort. Now', in British Columbia many Indians are married by clergymen, the ceremony being much the same as it is with Christian people. I may refer to one marriage which took place some time ago, according to the rules of the Church, narrating the proceedings of a heathen wedding.

The bride and bridegroom belonged to a certain tribe, the parents having, as best they could, given up savage customs and become Christians. Their children had been brought up to imitate the wrhite people in what was good. Well, the minister and about twenty natives assembled with their teachers. The heat was intense, so that the door of the building had to be kept wide open. The two dark lovers about to be married stood side by side with their backs to the door. The minister held a book, out of which he was reading, and when he came to the words, “ Wilt thou have this man to be thy wedded husband ? ” the bride was not there, having left for some reason or another. It was suggested that they should sing a hymn till they should see if she would come back. Just as they were finishing, she made her appearance at the door, looking in a way bewildered. Then the minister drew near to the two, taking her hand and placing it in the bridegroom’s. Then with one hand he held both theirs, finishing the ceremony by reading from the book what remained to be said about the union.

The savage matrimonial unions are conducted in an entirely different way. There is no kind of religious ceremony at all. Some day a young man will call and sit down on the earthen floor of the dwelling where the girl he wants lives. If the parents give him something to eat, then it is understood that he is accepted, and perhaps a few days after that he comes to bring her to his own dwelling. There will be some feasting, and gifts of blankets and some other odd things. Then the young couple begin in a savage way what may be called housekeeping, almost regardless of clothing. Both of them go out in canoes fishing salmon, sometimes on one of the largest rivers in the world, namely, the Fraser. They often fish on smaller ones, and at times along the coast, all teeming with fish of various kinds. At many parts of the coast there are abundance of halibut, herrings, polichary, smelts, cod, sturgeons, and others good for food.

Along hundreds of beaches there are oysters and crabs of a large size, also cockles, clams, and other kinds of shellfish. Almost all the Indians go about with their bare feet, and it is no rare thing to see a man and a woman in the same canoe fishing on the rivers and along the coast for hours at a time. The fish they catch are carried round and sold to the white people who in many cases are glad to have the chance by. Indians hunt much, using a certain shape of canoe for going up the rivers. These canoes are made of cedar wood, and called dug-outs, they being logs cut and carved to float like a boat. Some are flat-bottomed, called spoon canoes, which are the most suitable for proceeding far up on shallow rivers, and many of them are hewn' out of cotton wood. But far north on the Pacific coast, and at the fishing villages around the islands in Queen Charlotte Sound, there are canoes of a very large size, some of them 40 feet long and 5 feet beam. These are beautifully shaped out of logs, which can give one a good idea of the thickness of the trees that grow in those regions. For war purposes, there are canoes 60 to 70 feet long by about 8 feet beam, and one of that size w as presented to Lord Lome when he visited British Columbia during his term of administration as Governor-General of Canada. A canoe of that size, with fifty to sixty people on board, is quite safe if properly managed. Sails are used as well as paddles to propel them.

At all the places I visited, I never neglected attending church, if there was one in the locality, and I went to services in the Methodist, Baptist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic places of worship, and got personally acquainted with the pastors, and many a pleasant interview I had with some of them at church and social meetings. On the 7th January 1908, I visited the cemetery at Nanaimo, Vancouver Island. This was a large area of ground well fenced, and I was pleased to see that it was being kept in good order, which speaks much in favour of the authorities of the city.

The walks through it were laid out with careful attention as to arrangement, the breadth such that carriages and other vehicles could be taken over them safely, and mourners and visitors could pass each other in an agreeable way.

The many spaces set apart for interments were in plots almost square, surrounded with narrow* footpaths all systematically laid out, and on richly embellished tombstones I noticed names of the deceased with whom I had been acquainted. Two of them were my cousins, namely, William Duncan and his brother Robert, the former aged sixty-one years, and the other sixty-two, at the time of their decease.

I stood for a little while thoughtfully looking at their graves, and wondered how it had come to pass that I, 81 years of age, should be spared to come so many thousand miles over ocean and land, and stand at the side of the remains of near and highly esteemed relatives. But true enough there I was alone, surrounded with the dead that could not be seen, and left to my own reflections.

These thoughts led me back in retrospective brooding nearly sixty years, when I often had conversation with William as to his leaving home in Shetland to seek his fortune in foreign lands. He carried his intention into effect by first going to sea, sailing in big ships for some years. After this he was a merchant in America, and ultimately purchased land in .Vancouver Island, and settled down there as a farmer. He was never married, and now, as he sleeps in the silent tomb, his nephews and other relatives are in possession of the land and prosperous.

On the 10th January 1908, I was in a city called Ladysmith, a place close by the railway that leads to Victoria, the capital of British Columbia. The population is only about 3000, but nevertheless it is named a city just as all other sites for townships are. The streets, broad and long, are laid out with a view to many houses being built. It is near the sea, where there is a good harbour, and a considerable amount of trade in coal is carried on. There is a sawmill at the place, and there is a fairish amount of business done in lumber, and that with stores and other departments of trade keep the people busy.

It was Here I met Mr Thomas Mouat, a native of Shetland, who is a partner of the company who are owners of the sawmill—at least so I was informed.

He and his wife, a grand-daughter of my cousin, the late Oliver Duncan of Comox, B.C., kindly desired me to remain with them over the night, which I did. Much time was spent in conversation of a very enjoyable nature. On the 8th February 1908, I visited Gabriola Island along with Asa Gordon, K.C., and his lady, and saw a particular and interesting part at the place where we landed. It is called Malaspina Gallery, that part of it near the sea being in form very like a wharf about 100 ft. long and 20 ft. broad. The sea in front appears to be about 30 ft. deep, and a natural ceiling overhead something like 20 ft. high, scooped out of the solid freestone rock, apparently by the force of the ocean at some remote period. At the back of this wonderful place, among the Islands of the Pacific, there is an opening something like the mouth of a cave, and, owing to sharp-edged rocks, very difficult to enter. I persevered, however, and saw what appeared to be hiding places. A few weeks previous I had visited the same island, principally with a view to see a place a few yards above high-water mark in the face of a precipice, where the Indians had been accustomed to conceal their dead amongst the rocks.

Well, in nearing that part of the coast with a launch, I noticed that the master who was at the helm, or rather the wheel, very cautiously drew the craft in along a natural stone pier, where we landed. When getting on this rock, the man in charge pointed to an opening about 6 ft. square in the face of a declivity; and on account of ugly-shaped boulders lying in the way, it was very difficult to enter. By carefully getting to where the dead were lying, the sight was awful. There, in cases made of wood 1 in. thick, and in size something like whole and half tea chests in shape, a little different, they were standing in rows full of the remains of human beings, appearing as if the corpse had been doubled and crushed down in these enclosures. As there were no lids on these boxes the contents were exposed, so to say the least it was a gruesome sight. In some of these boxes the weapons of war and different kinds of implements and other effects were packed and stuck down. I saw the remains of infants in small-sized cases. I may mention here that the gasoline launch to which I have referred is owned by Mr William Brown of Nanaimo, who took charge and was most obliging and kind. I was informed that he is a descendant of ancestors who were natives of Shetland.

On the 6th February 1908, I had an interview with Mr Robert M. Colvin, a native of Levenwick, Shetland, who owns much land cleared and uncleared at a place called Duncans, in Vancouver Island. It is a few miles from a railway station called Cowhichen, and not far from Victoria. We were very glad to see each other, especially as his father, who lives in Levenwick, asked me to try to see him and also his brother, who works on the farm which he partly owns. I was also pleased to see him on account of my connection with Levenwick as teacher of a day school when I was in my teens, and his uncle Robert, now deceased, was one of my scholars. I was pleased to hear him giving a good account of British Columbia, and particularly of the large island on which he owns so much property.

But many people in Canada take over land from the Government at a mere nominal price, for the purpose of clearing and fencing it, so as to sell it, and if possible obtain a big price and thereby a big profit. Although the land is valued and taxed, the assessment is so small that so far as I know it is never called in question or objected to in any way. The fact is the Dominion Parliament of Canada frame their laws in such a way as to induce people to settle on the land, and there is room in Canada for millions of them, only they must be of a suitable class, namely, young, strong, and healthy. In regard to the fair sex, there was a gentleman of much experience in connection with public affairs in the country, who told me that if hundreds of healthy girls were to come out from the Old Country, they could easily get comfortably married, that is to say, if they were so inclined. As it has been said, “Man was made to marry,” I suppose the same sentiment holds good in reference to the girls. While on this subject it may be somewhat interesting to know that the first white man (whose name was Isbister) who entered Nanaimo married an Indian girl. There must have been more marriages of that sort, because as I walked the streets of that city, I noticed a good many of both men and women who were half-breeds, and some of them were fairly good-looking. Some of them were no doubt the children and grandchildren of such marriages.

On the 14th February 1908, I became a great grandfather by a son being born to my grandson, James Leisk, Victoria, British Columbia, and the following day I received word by wire to Nanaimo that Mrs Leisk and child were both doing well. At the same time I was reminded that there are four generations of the family growing in days and years, and that the youngest mother wears the name Armstrong, being, I understand, a descendant of a Scotch family of distinction.

I had fully made up my mind that before leaving British Columbia I would endeavour to see the workings of the Nanaimo coal mine, which is a very large one. On the 20th February 1908, I procured a guide, and on the evening of that day my son-in-law furnished me with suitable clothes, and he and his son William accompanied me to the place, where we had to be lowered down through a shaft. The depth we had to descend was 600 feet, the engineer attending the engine one of the best, because the lowering down and hoisting up of the miners demands the greatest of care, and also special knowledge of engineering on the part of the man in charge of the hoist. We three and the guide entered the cage, and immediately thereafter we began to descend, first very slowly and then a little quicker, and as I had never been in a mine before, I confess I felt somewhat queer as we went down the shaft into the bowels of the earth. As we neared the bottom of the pit, we again moved slowly, and the cage came to rest without our scarcely knowing that it touched the ground at all. That is done by the engineer at the top of the shaft, who knows by a black handle moving on a figured white plate, something like the face of a clock, at what rate the cage is going down. He shuts off steam or puts it on as required.

Of course the hoisting up is done upon the same principle, so that either way there is little or no danger if the man in charge of the engine is competent and steady. We left the cage by stepping on firm ground. A lighted lamp was handed to me, which I carried in my hand as we moved along from place to place. I was told by the guide not to allow my head to touch the electric wire, which was fixed up a short distance from the rooF of the tunnel-like passages through which we were slowly walking, the electricity being there for the purpose of giving light and motive power in connection with mostly all the underground works of the mine.

The guide with a strong-lighted lantern in his hand took the lead, and we three followed at his heels, travelling along iron rails laid for the purpose of bringing the coal from all the different parts of the works in car loads to the shaft, through which it had to be hoisted up in boxes to the surface. There was a good supply of fresh air continually kept in the mine, so that I felt no difficulty as to breathing, thus giving me every opportunity of getting a good view of how the miners were here and there digging out the coal from between strata of stone. Care was taken to secure with timber the roofing above their heads as they tunnelled and drilled at many places and in many directions.

We walked about for hours, and among other things saw horses in their stalls, some of them not having seen the light of day for some years. They looked well fed, and from time to time had to draw cars of coal from strange-looking comers of the mine. We moved on until we came to a point when the guide told us that we were under the sea, and that we had to move on through the mine about half of a mile when we would be under Protection Island, and that we would be hoisted to the surface there up through a shaft similar to the one through which we had come down at Nanaimo. So we travelled along sight-seeing till we came to the place. The guide signalled by wire to the engineer at the top, and in a short time the cage was ready for our reception, and up we went about the same distance wre had come down.

It was now far on in the night, but for the accommodation of the miners and other trading a large vessel-like scow, propelled by steam, was ready to take us over to Nanaimo, and we were soon on board. As she steamed away, we were soon in front of the lights of the city, which shone out in great brilliancy along the shore of considerable length.

The saloon, which was large and well furnished with seats, was soon filled with miners and others, all of whom appeared ready to talk to each other, so that the clatter of foreigners mingling with that of English, Scotch, Irish, and Welsh, sounded strangely in my ears. Glad wras I when we got to the Nanaimo side of the channel. This for the time brought my view of coal mining to an end, and I have pleasure in saying that both in regard to officials and miners they spoke to me in a friendly way, being glad to see me, and with some I exchanged a few remarks.

I was anxious to see Victoria, that city being the capital of British Columbia, and so took the train leaving Nanaimo at 8.15 a.m. on the 3rd March 1908, the distance to travel being 73 miles. My granddaughter, Catherine Manson, wras along with me. The weather was fine, so that I could get a good view of the country as we passed from station to station. Dwelling houses close by, and farms, could now and again be seen; and thousands of acres of land studded with trees, some of these a tremendous height, waiting, as it were, for the axe, saw, and plough. As we began to approach the suburbs of Victoria and saw the fine villas, I felt as if I were nearing the outskirts of the beautiful city of Edinburgh, in Scotland. The country mansions were so stately, the grounds and gardens so systematically laid out. Even the ordinary sized houses, surrounded with fruit trees of great variety, made the places as we passed very attractive, almost exceeding anything I had ever seen. My son-in-law, W. J. Manson, M.P.P., was in the city attending a Session of Parliament, and he met us at the station for the purpose of accompanying us to the Balmoral Hotel, Douglas Street, one of the large hotels in the city, and in which he' had secured us rooms.

On getting there, I saw that the Hotel was situated in a fine healthy locality, the people in the large public room all richly dressed, some of them much engaged in conversation. Others were quite ready to have a talk with me, I having come so lately from Scotland. Altogether I was much pleased with the very respectable appearance of the establishment, and the rooms which had been set apart for my grand-daughter and myself were everything we could desire.

Almost the first public building we visited was the Parliament House, a very large structure situated on a rising ground near by the sea, and surrounded with grounds of a very wide area on which are statues of great men. On entering the building, which we did through a large doorway, the most prominent and noticeable object in the spacious hall was a bust of Sir James Douglas, who founded Victoria and was the first Governor of Vancouver Island, afterwards that of British Columbia. After discovering gold, he built a road to the diggings, and having finished an honourable administration, he died on 1st August 1877.

I have heard it said that Sir James Douglas was either an uncle or grand-uncle of the Rev. C. Naime Baldie, minister of the parish of Sandwick, Shetland, and I being a native of that parish, it made me all the more pleased to have the privilege of looking at the bust. I think the features as delineated somewhat resembles that of the Rev. gentleman to whom I have alluded. I spent nearly eight days in Victoria visiting many places worthy of observation, such as the Museum, the Orphanage, the Old Men’s Home, and also the harbour of Victoria for large vessels at Esquimault, which is three miles distant from the city, and where there is a station of the British Navy.

I was often in the Parliament House listening to the various speakers, and was introduced by my son-in-law to the Premier, the Hon. Richard McBride, who shook hands with me heartily, and afterwards I was asked to take a seat on the floor of the House, and I had the privilege of having conversation with several members.

At the time I was in the city, a large building being put up was finished, namely, the Empress Hotel, to give accommodation to a large number of guests, there being no less than 270 bedrooms. The building is in close proximity to the Parliament House, standing by itself some distance from any other kind of premises and in a most conspicuous situation. I visited most of the churches—-at least I had a good look at them—and in company with my grand-daughter was in a Roman Catholic Cathedral when funer il rites were being carried through by a priest, the corpse in a finely finished coffin resting on seats in front of the Altar. There were a good many mourners present, who gave great attention to what the priest was saying as he proceeded with the ceremony in great solemnity.

On 6th March 1908, I called on my grandson, James Leisk, where I had the unspeakable pleasure of seeing my first great-grandson, and also had an interview with Captain Jackson and his lady in the Balmoral Hotel. He gave me and my grand-daughter an invitation to visit the dock where he was superintending the building of a large steamer for navigating on rivers, and of which he was to get command.

At a certain hour, as arranged, we called, when he pointed out to us all the different parts of the vessel. She was built principally for the accommodation of passengers, and she was to be propelled by a large paddle wheel projecting at the stem. Often, as Captain Jackson said, the ship with large numbers of passengers on board had to go at times hundreds of miles up the country, at some places the waters of the stream running rapidly.

The following day—Saturday—we by invitation had tea and supper with Mrs Macfarlane, at St James Bay, a beautiful part of the coast near the city of Victoria. I may mention that she is a daughter of Mr George Stewart, who was at one time largely connected with trade as a merchant in Leith, Scotland, but who now resides at Bonnie Brae, Saanich, ten miles out in the country from Victoria. Being an old acquaintance, I resolved to see him.

For that purpose we took train the following day— Sunday—for Keating Station, and walked from there about one mile to Bonnie Brae, where Mr Stewart has resided ever since he left Scotland. His house is a very fine one, standing close by the side of an orchard, there being hundreds of fruit trees studding the ground. We were received by Mr Stewart and his son George, as also by his housekeeper, Mrs Denbeigh, with the very greatest of kindness. Mr Andrew Stewart and his brother James, both sons of Mr Stewart, were present.

Another son of Mr Stewart, namely, Robert, and his wife and baby girl, also a grandson of the former—Mr Macfarlane—were there, so that we formed a happy company. After a little while, my old friend, Mr George Stewart, senior—now a widower—author of The Shetland Fireside Tales, began to put questions to me about his old country home and parish. Some of them were very amusing, and at times taxed my memory to answer. I was not long in his company until I found out that he was very dull of hearing, which compelled me to talk loudly, and I noticed without surprise that our conversation was amusing to the other members of the family present, who knew little or nothing of the places and people Mr Stewart was enquiring about. I visited the cemetery in the Saanich district, and when shown the grave of Mrs George Stewart, peculiar thoughts occupied my mind. I thought of the time when she was young in years living in Edinburgh, Scotland, and 1 in the midst of a fashionable company leading her to the hymeneal altar. I had a walk with Mr Stewart over part of his land, and was pleased to see that he had got so much of it cleared, but still a great deal is to be done before all the trees and old stumps standing here and there are taken away. About a mile and a half from Mr Stewart’s residence, his son-in-law, Mr Puckles, has a farm, and in order to fulfil a promise we drove to his house in the afternoon and received a very kind and hospitable welcome. The old gentleman, Mr Stewart, as also his son George, were two of the party, and w e all felt ourselves very much at home with Mr and Mrs Puckles.

It having been arranged that we, the party, and a few friends were to spend the after part of the evening in Mr Stewart’s house, we returned, and in various ways we had much enjoyment, including instrumental music and singing, up to a late hour of the night.

Tuesday, 10th March 1908.—I began to prepare for my return to Victoria, when Mr Stewart came to me and said, “Mr Duncan, I understood you were to be with us longer.” In reply I thanked him for his great kindness, and remarked that my grand-daughter, Kate Manson, who had left a short time before, was to meet me at the Victoria railway station at a certain hour today, and that I would have to go. I also told him that I had arranged with her that we were to call on some friends in the city, also visit a few places I had not seen before, and then take steamer for Saltspring Island, where there are some Shetland people I wish to see. Mr Stewart and I having known each other from boyhood, both of us growing old and not likely to meet in this world again, I very reluctantly bade him farewell, promising in accordance with his instructions to advise the editor of The Shetland Times to forward to him every copy of that paper in which my notes appear from the time I left Shetland for British Columbia until my return—if I am spared to do so.

His son George, who lias travelled much, and who is in full charge of the farm, drove me to the Keating railway station, where I took train at 9.50 a.m. for Victoria. On arriving there, I met my grand-daughter, and we began to call on parties with whom she was acquainted.

We were kindly asked by Mr and Mrs Nicholas to remain with them until we would bo prepared to leave the city, and we acceptcd their kindness and felt very much at home, they being exemplary, Christian people, and glad to have us with them.

After having called on a number of friends, we spent an evening with a select party in the residence of Mayor Hall of Victoria, we having been invited to be there. After arrival we spent an hour or two in conversation and enjoyed some very fine instrumental music. A rather large company of ladies and gentlemen sat down to supper.

On 14th March 1908, my grand-daughter and I took train to a seaport called Sydney, thence per steamer to Saltspring Island, our port of call being Ganges Harbour.

When on board I had a fine view of the smooth sea, and looking eastward, then to the right and to the left, I saw islands in every direction.

While the steamer was moving on her way amongst them, there was a good chance for me having a talk with passengers, and I took advantage of the opportunity. On approaching the first officer, I learned that he was a Shetlander—Mr Jamieson—belonging to a district not far from Scalloway, and we had a very pleasant interview. After this I met a gentleman who seemed willing to enter into conversation, at the same time pointing out to me an island where he resided with his family.

He told me that some years ago he left Glasgow, having little more cash than would pay the passage charges, and now he had a considerable quantity of land on the island he had shown me, giving me at the same time to understand that he was in very comfortable circumstances, a condition he said in which he could not have been in the Old Country.

He appeared to be well acquainted with the various methods of carrying on industrial work in the colony. One thing in particular he told me—that young girls from the Old Country could very soon get married, because there were thousands of well-doing, unmarried men in the country who would be very glad to get settled down in family life. On arriving at Ganges Harbour wharf, where Mrs Thomas Mouat and her sons own a store, doing a rather large general business, we were welcomed very heartily by her and the other members of the family. At their house I met Mr Malcolm Mouat, a native of Levenwick, Shetland, who owns property on the same island.

My grand-daughter and Mrs Mouat being cousins, we naturally felt ourselves at home, more so than if we had been strangers, and we soon came to know that we w ere in a sense looked upon as members of the family. Mr Malcolm Mouat and I got in close conversation, many questions being put to me about the old home affairs, clearly an evidence of the fact that however long an individual may be absent from his native land, the place of one’s birth is more a home than the one adopted. I was several times out for a stroll along the sea-shore, and inland as well, because Saltspring Island is large, and I felt anxious to see as much of it as my time at disposal would allow.

I saw Mrs Mouat’s farmhouse and her land which surrounds it, there being in connection with the property a small loch forming a beautiful sheet of water. One day when she was showing me through the house, she spoke as if she would like to retire to the place, and I was not surprised because the residence with its surroundings of trees forms a very attractive home. And then the Methodist Church is a very short distance from the place, the erection of which, I am told, the Mouat family took a great interest in. As I attended a service in it, I am warranted in saying that it is a very suitable place of worship. I listened to the preacher who had charge of the services, namely, the Rev. Mr Ridland, a native of the north of Shetland, having been trained for the ministry in Cleff College, England. Two or three times. I had conversation with him, when I enjoyed his company. At the time I was at Mrs Mouat’s, preparation was being made for a wedding. Her son Gilbert was just about to get married to a Miss Nightengale, whom I had the pleasure of meeting. It is likely that I would have been one of the guests on the auspicious occasion, but was prevented owing to the reason that I had to leave for Vancouver Island in order to fulfil an engagement in connection with a public meeting in Nanaimo. That being so, my granddaughter and I left per steamer a few days before the wedding day, which gave me another chance to see a number of islands. This time we steamed between two of them, the land being very near us at each side. The tide was against us, powerfully opposing our progress, and I got a good idea of what it is to navigate among the many islands of the Pacific. At such times as that, I enjoyed looking over the bow of the vessel as she sent up the spray with great force from her stem. At some parts, the channel was so narrow, thereby increasing the power of the rushing stream as to almost stop us from making any headway, but steam power prevailed, so that we arrived at Nanaimo in good time.

In order to raise money to help the good cause of Sabbath School work in connection with the Presbyterian Church in Nanaimo, a Scottish musical concert was held in their Mission Hall on the 18th March 1908, and on being asked to assist by playing on the violin, I did not refuse, and before a large assemblage I did what I could to please. I was recalled to give more Scotch music, and so as to make it all the more effective a lady gave me chords on the piano. Then on the following evening, there was a banquet held in the Methodist Church, which is an annual affair for the purpose of increasing the church funds. The different branches of work and those taking charge are proposed and spoken about by certain individuals, and the names of those who have to respond as well as those who have to propose are on the programme. My name was down as having to respond for the ladies, and of course I had given my consent to do so some time before. The meeting was a great success, both in regard to sociality and finance, and every seat of the large building was occupied by a great gathering of happy people, putting me much in mind of a wedding feast in the Shetland Islands, my native land.

At this stage of my travels I may state what has been said about this part of the American continent, and it is as follows :—“British Columbia is a land of magnificent opportunity. There is a prodigality of natural wealth everywhere—in the hills, in the fertile valleys, in the huge forests and the rivers, lakes, and ocean that washes its indented shores.

“Few sections can claim pre-eminence over others in potential wealth. It will be many hundreds of years before the great province is fully developed, and at that time a better idea will be obtainable as to which particular localities are the leaders."

Well, so far as I have seen of British Columbia, I do not think that the country could be better described. Although it is mountainous, yet it must be kept in mind that these mountains are richly covered with trees which form a fountain of wealth both in regard to fuel and wood of many kinds for building and other purposes. This greatly enhances the value of the land. Then the valleys long and broad between the mountains! Just think of the wealth of farm land there to become in time homesteads for many thousands of families, who will in time become owners of the soil. They will be happy in a fine climate, receiving good returns for their labour.

I shall here add a little more to what I have said about Sir James Douglas, and then proceed with my narrative. There is a monument on the grounds in front of the Parliament Buildings in Victoria, and on it I read the following :—“Erected by the people of British Columbia to the memory of Sir James Douglas, K.C.B., Governor and Commander-in-Chief from 1857 to 1864."

I had an interview with one old white man who had been in the service of Sir James, and he told me that he was kind but stern, and very severe in punishing evildoers, especially the Indians, who had to receive many lashes on their bare backs for stealing cattle or guilty of some other crimes. From the time I left the Shetland Islands, to the 30th March 1908, nothing of a serious nature had happened to mar my enjoyment, but next morning a very thick cloud of sorrow darkened the sunshine of a rather pleasurable journey, when I was told that my grandson, John S. Manson, aged 24 years, had died suddenly .in the bedroom adjoining mine. He had been complaining for a few days, but no one imagined that he was seriously ill, and he did not think so himself. But his time was come, and so he passed unexpectedly away in the presence of his parents, brothers and sisters, as also myself. He was a smart business man in connection with his father in business, who is a general merchant in a large way in Nanaimo, Vancouver Island. The deceased young man was very much respected in the city, and hundreds of people accompanied the remains to the cemetery, previous to which it had been lifted out of the English Church, where the minister had conducted the funeral service. It was comforting to hear him speaking so praiseworthy of the deceased. In regard to the sudden demise, the following is from the Nanaimo Free Press :—

“DEATH OF JOHN SINCLAIR MANSON.
“a well-kxown and popular young man of the
CITY DIED YESTERDAY MORNING.

“The death occurred in the city yesterday morning of John Sinclair Manson, eldest son of Mr and Mrs Laurence Manson, Haliburton Street, a native son of Nanaimo, aged twenty-four years. ‘Jack,’ as he was familiarly known to all the boys in town, was a general favourite with all those who had the pleasure of his acquaintance.

“Of a kind and jovial disposition, he was prominent in local sports and in social and musical circles, and his death will cause a widespread feeling of regret among those with whom he was brought into daily contact. He was an active and valued member of the Church Lads’ Brigade Band, the ‘Thirteen’ Club, the Brotherhood of Owls, and several other local organisations, the members of which will lose by his death a faithful and loving member, and one whom to know was to like.

“On Sunday last, Jack was taken ill with ‘la grippe,’ but neither himself nor members of the family realised that the illness was of a serious nature, and were utterly unprepared for the call of the grim reaper, '

Death, which in the form of heart trouble stepped in about 10 o’clock yesterday morning, and took from a home a kind and loving son and brother.

“The deceased leaves to mourn his loss his parents, three brothers, William, Ernest, and Douglas, and two sisters, Catherine and Margaret, who will have the sympathy of the entire community in their hour of sorrow.

“The funeral will take place on Thursday afternoon, at 3 o’clock, from the family residence, Haliburton Street, and will be attended in a body by the Musicians Union, the Silver Cornet Band, the Church Lads’ Brigade Band, and members of the Brotherhood of Owls, under whose auspices the funeral mil be held.”

On Sunday, the 5th April 1908, while going to church in Nanaimo, I met a waggon in which there were twelve Chinamen and some cooked pigs which they were carrying away to the China burying ground near the city. On making enquiry, I was informed that according to their view of spiritual life in the other world, it is necessary to place food on the graves of the deceased from time to time, and the pigs were being brought to some grave or graves to be left there for the spirits of the dead to eat.

Then after a time, the graves would be visited for the purpose of ascertaining if the pigs were eaten, and if so another supply would be sent. Since then I have been told that the reason why the pigs vanished was found to be not owing to the spirits of the dead China people eating them, but that the Indians had been stealing them. That has led to watching at the graves, and when the pigs are not consumed, the watchman takes them back, and I suppose the living China people eat them. I am also informed that after a few years from the time of interment, the bones of dead China people are disinterred by their relatives and exported to their place of birth from which they came.

There are a great many natives of China in British Columbia, a number of them being employed in the laundry business, and some of the young men are engaged by well-to-do white people to be cooks and to serve the table as well. Indeed, when arriving in Vancouver City, I found that my son-in-law had a Chinaman for a cook, as also serving the table, and I know by experience that he knew his duty and was very civil and obliging.

I have also been alongside a Chinaman when with another man they were by axe and two-handled big saw cutting down a tree standing about 200 feet high. I could easily see that he was a powerful fellow. I asked to be allowed to take one of the ends of the big saw used in cutting the tree (some 3 feet above the surface of the ground) so as to be able to say that I had worked with a Chinaman. In a short time down came one of the giants of the forest with a tremendous crash.

On the 7th April 1908 I met my friend, Mr William Duncan, in Nanaimo, lie having come from Vancouver City, and the following day, at seven in the morning, he and I left by steamer for Comox, the district in which he has his home in a locality called Sandwick, and where he owns a considerable quantity of land, most of which he cultivates. On the passage I got acquainted with Captain Brown, who had command of the boat, and in course of conversation I learned that he was acquainted with my son in Alaska. I got a good view of part of the east coast of Vancouver Island, as also a view of smaller islands.

The first place we called at was Union Bay; after that a quarry came in sight, and we were so near that I could see in the face of the high rocky shore large quantities of stones for building purposes. The next stoppage was to deliver goods on board a small boat for a survey party in Hornby Island, and after that we called at Denman Island, and then steamed for Comox. The people I had seen at the places mentioned were by appearance a mixture of all classes of human beings. I may mention here that Mr William Duncan, to whom I have referred, is a son of my late cousin, Robert Duncan, who left Shetland many years ago, and settled on a farm a few miles from Comox harbour. William and his brother Eric are farmers in the district, the land to which I have already referred being their own.

On arrival at Comox harbour wharf, we drove to Mr William Duncan’s residence, and there I met his wife, who at one time was a teacher in a Government school in Shetland and lodged in my house at Hoswick. I also met Mr and Mrs Eric Duncan, Mrs Oliver Duncan, Mrs Robert Duncan, and Mrs Dingwall, the latter being a daughter of the late Mr Oliver Duncan, who was farmer and owner of land in the district.

These relatives and a number of young people, members of the families, were to me a very great pleasure to meet, and I was kindly asked by Mr and Mrs William Duncan to make their house my home while in that part of Vancouver Island. I was also often kindly invited by my other relatives who resided close by to call and receive their hospitality, and many a time I spent a few hours in their company giving and getting news, much of it being about the old Shetland homes. I spent a very happy time among them for nearly four weeks.

Comox valley is of great length and breadth, much of the land on both sides and the wide area at the bottom being cleared farms of considerable size. Also fine large dwelling houses and barns, stables, and other outhouses give the place a healthy, prosperous appearance. There is plenty of room for people to settle in this fertile valley. The people who reside there are very fond of social meetings to be held in their houses, and thereby they become well acquainted with each other. Many an invitation I received to be with them at such times. While I was there, one of such meetings was held in the house occupied by the Presbyterian minister, which residence is called “The Manse ' in Scotland. I received an invitation to be present, and so did Mr and Mrs William Duncan, so that with them I had a fine drive in their vehicle, called a buggy. The road to the place was good, and at some parts trees on each side were standing close by farmhouses and other buildings. The clerg) man and his lady welcomed us with great kindness, the young folks of the family dancing around us with joy. On being introduced to the company, I was looked upon by them as having come from another world.

The lady of the house was in a happy mood, which made everyone in the party cheerful while at a sumptuous table, and after feasting was over, the evening for most part was spent in conversation of a lively nature, now and again a song, as a change, given by either a lady or a gentleman. During the time I was somewhat surprised when the clergyman stepped forward and placed a violin on my knee, at the same time smiling and making everybody in the room do the same thing. I looked at him and said, “Well, sir, what shall I do with this?” and he replied, “You know.” Of course I knew what the company w anted, and I gave them music from the instrument both quick and slow. The last thing done before bidding each other good-night was the clergyman reading a portion of the Scriptures, and then the company all kneeling, he asked the blessing of God on all that had been said and done in accordance with His will. While the select company appeared to be pleased, I believed that the clergyman was quite in order, and what he had done was a good finish to our enjoyment. I had several drives from this locality to various places, sometimes to a considerable distance, because it must be kept in mind that the area of Vancouver Island is about as large as that of England.

One of the cities I visited at this time was Cumberland, where there is a coal-mine giving employment to a great many men. The streets are well laid out, and shops to be seen here and there, one large store in particular, through which I was shown by one of the partners of the firm.

"When there I called on Mr Robert Halcrow, who is a native of Dunrossness, Shetland, but now with his wife and family have made this rising city their adopted home. He and his wife and those of their children present were all glad to see me as I was to see them, as Mrs Halcrow’s father and my late wife were cousins. I may mention here that Mrs Halcrow—Agnes Tait— is a daughter of the late Magnus Tait, Noness, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, and I shall never forget how kindly she came to meet me as the vehicle I was in neared her house. She exclaimed, “Oh, there is Mr Duncan,” and so followed the mutual shaking of hands and happy looks, being another evidence of the fact that Shetlanders are clannish, and much attached to their native country.

I was not long in the house until a table loaded with the best of food stood at my side, it being the dinner-hour, so that eating and drinking, talking and laughing, continued for a long while. I was glad to learn that Mr Halcrow is well employed in connection with the coal-mine, and that the finely-furnished house they occupy is their own, and that they have considerable property in land in the district. Mr Eric Duncan, Comox, had accompanied me to Cumberland, and on our way to the city and returning, he pointed out to me many places of interest.

He has a general store at their home, and also does a little in farming, and is in charge of a branch post-office. His wife gives much assistance in the latter, as also in the store, but besides this they own some valuable land in the district. Mrs Eric Duncan is a smart business lady, and several times accompanied me in their one-horse machine with one or two friends to see part of the country and visit people with whom she was acquainted. Occasionally we had to pass through forests, and one time we came to a place where a family were living in a tent, near which they were building a house. Being glad of our company, they asked us to take tea with them, and while enjoying the invigorating beverage and fancy bread we had a mutual talk.

They had recently come from Africa, preferring the climate of British Columbia to that of Cape Town or even farther north in that country. One evening I met the father of this family at a party in Mrs Dingwall’s residence, when he, having been an officer in the British army, gave me much information about the Boer war. While referring to Mrs Dingwall's entertainment, I may mention that her father was my cousin, and her mother was a daughter of the late Rev. John Tulloch, who was pastor of the Congregational Church in Sandwick, Shetland, for many years. I am informed that Mrs Dingwall’s late husband was a descendant of an ancient and honourable family in the north of Scotland. When in Cumberland, Mrs Robert Halcrow and her daughter Ruth accompanied me to visit the Government School, where I met Miss Robina Dingwall, who was one of the teachers. She had been present at the party to which I have referred, giving us music on the piano. She often comes from Cumberland to visit her mother, who occupies a fine large house of her own, in front of which there is a beautifully laid-out lawn close by the public road and river, which leads to Comox harbour. She prefers renting her land to farmers, the acreage of which is of considerable extent.

By invitation I called on Mr Holms, merchant, Comox harbour, and dined with him and his family, at the same time remaining with them a few hours conversing and being entertained in listening to piano music. I was informed by Mr Holms that my son in Alaska was at one time in his employ, and that I was to convey his compliments to him.

I was also asked to call on Mr M‘Donald, who owns a richly furnished house and hotel in the same locality, in which I enjoyed his hospitality, and at the same time I was introduced to Ms M‘Donald and their children, and one of the young ladies played some fine music on the piano.

21st April 1908.—I have come to a stage of my journey now which demands of me exceptional reflection, this being my birthday, making me 81 years of age. I was informed by Mr William Duncan, in whose house I was making my home, that taking into account the fact that the time mentioned deserved notice, he had invited a few friends to take supper with them, and enjoy a while of social pleasure. I looked upon that move in my favour as a very great kindness both on the part of Mr and Mrs Duncan and the select company that assembled, including the Rev. Mr Menzies and his good lady. The evening was spent in a very happy way, and I felt much honoured, to which feeling I gave expression shortly before our meeting came to a close. I will keep pleasingly in mind with gratitude the friendly notice taken of me in Comox, British Columbia, in my advancing years, and the many invitations I have received from friends in the district to call and spend a while in their company.

A few days after this, I went to the English Church Cemetery in order to see the grave of my cousin, Oliver Duncan, he having been a member of that denomination. The cemetery is only a few hundred yards distant from the church on a rising ground, and there I was alone in that solitary place thinking of the time a great many years ago when the deceased called upon me in Leith, Scotland, when on his way from

Shetland to Vancoaver Island. In order to get there, he had to go round Cape Horn in a sailing vessel, taking several months to accomplish that dangerous voyage. From the spot where I was standing, I got a most magnificent view of Comox valley, also the harbour, farms, and farm-houses, and these, with Indian huts and the mountains surrounding the whole district, made the scene wonderfully gorgeous.

On 25th April 1908, Mrs Eric Duncan, Master Charles Duncan, and I drove several miles out in the country, passing mostly through the bush over a fairly good road, and called on Mr Salmond, a farmer, who was not at home at the time, but Mrs Salmond and their son were there and gave us a hearty welcome.

Shortly afterwards, Mr Salmond was with us, which added to our enjoyment while taking luncheon. We also had a look over his land, which was cleared, that being only a small quantity, but in all he was owner of 160 acres, and clearing would be continued so as to give him a large farm, and the soil, he said, was very good.

In course of conversation, he informed me that he had been eighteen years in the British army, and now he had the satisfaction of receiving a pension of 3s. per day, which, with their farm produce, enabled them to live comfortably in a good house. Part of the furnishing was a fine piano on which Mrs Salmond played some music which we enjoyed very much, and as they had a violin in the house I played a few Scotch airs which they seemed to enjoy. They and my Duncan friends being well acquainted with each other, they were glad to meet, and being a relative come from Scotland I shared in their great hospitality.

After bidding them good-bye, we got seated on our vehicle and in fine weather we drove slowly on our way home, giving me the opportunity of getting a good view of that part of the country. Although thickly wooded, I saw here and there so much of it cleared that a beginning had been made in farming, and the soil being rich every kind of crop grows luxuriantly.

Of course it requires a willing mind and strong arms on the part of young men to make much progress in the way of clearing land, but once that is done it becomes very valuable. According to arrangement, Mr and Mrs Eric Duncan accompanied me on 30th April 1908, to a place on the coast called Point Holmes, and as the distance was somewhat long we started early. We drove in their buggy and arrived at a very long beach, where we walked about for nearly an hour, then kindled a fire, burning dry wood, of which there was plenty at hand.

Tea was then infused, and that along with fine bread made a refreshing meal as we sat around a blazing fire with the sea of the Pacific on the one side and tall trees on the other. All three of us, it is true, were thousands of miles from our native homes, but nevertheless we were happy, and under the bright canopy of heaven we enjoyed each other’s sentiments and humorous jokes. We then took another walk along the beautiful sandy shore, where at places logs of wood were lying, having no doubt drifted from broken-up booms while being towed to saw-mills in coarse weather. It was now getting far on in the day, so that we made ready for our return trip through the bush, which was somewhat different to the others, because most of the way not a house was to be reen either or the one side or the other of the road. At several places, the trees were so thick and tall that their branches met, forming something like a high arch above our heads, and that with the evening quiet led me into a rather thoughtful mood, musing as I did on what I was privileged to see and hear in this strange land.

On our way back among these trees and lonely windings, I as a matter of course enquired if there were any ferocious animals in the bush. I was told that black bears are seen sometimes, but unless they are pursued, they rarely attack people passing, so in peace of mind we continued to move on. Sometimes the road was more like a beaten path on earth mixed with rotten roots of trees, than a highway.

We arrived safely back to the place where we set out, and next morning while I was attending to some correspondence, an old, frail gentleman called to see me. On getting seated, he looked sorrowful, and in a very serious way began to inform me as to the reason why he had come to have an interview.

He had attended divine services in the Presbyterian place of worship where I had taken part at prayer meetings, and being in a grieved state of mind about a son who had become careless, even to withdrawal from attending church on the Lord’s day, he asked me to remember him in prayer. I certainly promised to do that, and I mention this instance to show that while some people have no faith in prayer, others do, and thereby enjoy a peace of mind which prayerless people never experience, and the following lines may be in place to be inserted here :—

“I know not by what method rare,
But this I know, God answers prayer.
I know not when He sends the word
That tells us fervent prayer is heard.
I know it cometh soon or late,
Therefore we need to pray and wait.
I know not if the blessing sought
Will come in just the guise I thought.
I leave my prayers with Him alone
Whose will is wiser than my own.”

On Saturday, 2nd May 1908, I spent a very pleasant evening in Mrs Dingwall’s house, when a number of friends were present. We were hospitably entertained, the piano music being a great part of the enjoyment, kindly rendered by Miss Robina Dingwall.

The following Monday I had a talk for a few hours with Mr William Duncan, principally in regard to whether it would be advisable to encourage people in the Old Country to come out to British Columbia. We came to the conclusion that it would be good for the country and for the people willing to emigrate if a certain class of young men and young women would come and settle in the province, and that the most suitable class would be those who had been born in rural districts, and accustomed to work on the fields.

By information I received from Mr Duncan and others, I came to know that apart from grain of different kinds which the soil and climate of British Columbia can produce in abundance, the following kinds of fruit grow profusely—raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, loganberries, currants, gooseberries, apples, pears, plums, quinces, rhubarb, cherries, peaches, walnuts, grapes, chestnuts, and figs. Then trees that are plentiful over the land are of great value, both for general use in building and furniture, and also for fuel. As for the wealth that is under the surface of the ground, it is immense, especially in the form of coal. The many mines in some parts give employment to thousands of men in the various districts of the country. But without overlooking the precious metal and other minerals, just think of the fishing industry of salmon in the rivers, and the many kinds of edible fish along the Pacific Coast.

At some places the sea at a certain season of the year swarms with herrings, and many other kinds of fish are plentiful, while along many parts of the coast the numerous inlets of the sea give shelter and accommodation to the fishing industry. It is true the country is mountainous, but then there are the valleys furnishing thousands of miles of level land, and much more to a certain distance up on the sides of these high parts of the earth which can be made suitable for home steadings.

It may be well to mention the names of some of the trees, such as the Douglas Fir, which is the most valuable, making as it does excellent lumber. The bark of it is very hot fuel, and has the advantage that many others lack of leaving a good coal. Cedar, the next in importance, is very valuable wood. Hemlock is a species of fir, and not much used except as fuel. Birch is used for firewood, and the bark is useful in the manufacture of canoes. Maple, of which there is not much in comparison with other trees, is used as fuel.

Alder is found in swamps mostly, and makes very good fuel. When dry, Cottonwood is used as fuel, and is very hot. Willow is found in swamps, and, as a rule, indicates a good soil. Barbary is found in certain spots, and the bark is stripped off and used in the manufacture of patent medicines, and it is rather valuable. When travelling on trails through the bush, I saw very large trees lying rotting on the ground, having been uprooted by storms which at times blow with terrific power. On dark nights to hear the trees falling with a loud noise is alarming.

On the evening of the 5th May 1908, by invitation I was one of a company assembled at the house of Mr Mundel, a retired teacher, to celebrate his seventy-second birthday, an anniversary much observed as I think by the people generally. On this occasion I got an idea of the enjoyments experienced at such times. We had a festive supper, after which there was vocal and instrumental music, a friendly conversation with each other, and shortly before the entertainment came to a close, I proposed the health of Mr Mundel, to which he humorously replied with choice words. The following day, Mr W. Duncan and I drove out to a place on the coast of Vancouver Island, called Point Holmes Bay, where there is a Wireless Telegraph Station; Mr Bradbury was the manager, and we were not only shown how the machinery works in transmitting messages, but we were asked by Mr Bradbury to dine with him and his young wife, they having been married only a few months, and his assistant, Mr M‘Intyre, was also there. While in the room where the Wireless Telegraph apparatus was fixed, a message was signalled from a place about an hundred miles distant, and being asked to place my ear at an instrument having a mouth like that of a small horn, I heard a peculiar sound which was coming by a wire fixed to the top of a pole at a great height. There and then I \vas struck with wonder that at long distances apart people can talk to each other through the air.

On our return Mr Duncan pointed out to me a farm belonging to him with a fine house on it, and which was let to a man a native of Japan. He had in his employ a man from the same country doing farm work, to whom he gave 30 dollars per month and his board.

On the 7th May 1908, I had to get up early so as to have breakfast at 5 o’clock and get ready to take a conveyance to Comox harbour, the distance being four miles. We passed several farmhouses and some Indian huts, and outside the door of one of the latter I noticed an Indian lying on what appeared to be a bed, and an Indian woman indifferently clothed poking in a fire with a stick. On making enquiry, I was told that the person lying outside would likely be dying, because when an Indian dies inside the door according to their custom the hut must be burned immediately after the death, and that the fire outside would be kept burning in order to keep the dying person warm. -

My reason for getting to the harbour so soon was because I had to leave by steamer for Nanaimo at 7 a.m., and as I got on board I was recognised by Captain Brown, I having come by the same boat to Comox. He was glad to have me in his private cabin for the purpose of getting my news, and we enjoyed each other's company, and the weather being very fine made our interview all the more pleasant.

When in Nanaimo the following day, I received a letter from Mr Z. M. Hamilton, a Shetlander in Victoria, expressing a strong wish to see me in that city. He stated also that his father, who is in the Real Estate business there, would like me to pay him a visit in order that he might have the pleasure of showing me some hospitality.

Indeed, I was receiving letters very often from other Shetlanders, some of them residing in the United States, all very desirous to see me, they no doubt noticing in The Shetland Times that in my travels I was visiting several places in America, and that I might be in their district.

On the 9th May 1908, I had a long walk with my grand-daughter, Miss Kate Manson, visiting a number of places through the outskirts of Nanaimo. One of these was a floral establishment where Mr Wilson, the owner, showed us through the many divisions of the hot-house. The great variety of flowers to be seen was wonderful, a few of which we purchased for home ornamentation.

On the 13th May 1908, I was at South Wellington, where I was very kindly received by Mr and Mrs Thomas, members of the Baptist Church, and they being aware that I belonged to that denomination made us all the more glad to meet. I had met them before, when I was pressingly asked to visit them in their home if I chanced to be in the district. Once in their house, I felt as if I were in my own dwelling in Shetland, their kindness and homely welcome making me very happy in their company. When leaving, they accompanied me to the railway station, and just as the train was approaching, a fine dog they had with them leaped on the rail next to the side of the platform.

Mr Thomas ordered him back, but, as he did not move, I on the spur of the moment gave him a severe rap on the back with my walking-stick, when there was not a second of time to spare. With that he jumped on the platform, which saved him from being killed by the wheels of the engine.

I was much thanked for saving the life of a favourite dog by my presence of mind, and I may mention that it was done with the same much valued walking-stick which along with a purse of sovereigns was presented to me by the people of Sandwick Parish, Shetland, when I left for British Columbia. The inscription on it upon silver is as follows—Presented to S. T. Duncan, Esq., as a Token of Respect from the People of Sandwick, Shetland, 18/10/07.

On 18th May 1908, I was one of a party invited to spend a while of an evening in the house of Mr William Manson, Nanaimo, and during the time I had the pleasure of seeing the land he farms, which is his own property, and also met amongst others while at a sumptuous table Mr Jamieson and his wife, she having just arrived from a place near Scalloway, Shetland, to get married, as Mr Jamieson, her intended husband, being first officer of a steamer trading on the Pacific Coast, could not get to the Old Country to make the union complete.

We were hospitably entertained, Mrs Manson and Miss Manson doing everything possible to make the company happy, and Mr Manson with his usual smile added to the enjoyment. The party, all Shetlanders, remained till a late hour, and even then were sorry to say good-night.

On the evening of 20th May 1908, I was one of a large assemblage of the public in the Opera House, Nanaimo, where I listened to temperance speeches, and music of a competitive nature. My grand-daughter, Kate Manson, having been appointed one of the judges, made me all the more anxious to be present.

The speeches were good, logical common sense, as also the music, which was vocal and instrumental, and were all given by young people; and as the movement was put in operation with a view to the cultivation of talent, and thereby to make the young and rising generation all the more useful members of society, the inducement to attend was increased. The admission was by ticket at a price considered reasonable, and I was informed that after paying hall expenses there was an encouraging sum over for purchasing prizes.

May 24th, 1908, w as a holiday in British Columbia on account of i t being the day of the month on which the good Queen Victoria was born, and being in Nanaimo I had the pleasure of observing that the people of that city were very loyal. The 24th May being Sunday, it was kept as such, but on Monday the people turned out in crowds in holiday attire to see the various performances going on. Along with my son-in-law, Mr Lawrence Manson, and some members of his family, I enjoyed a few hours of that day in sight-seeing, especially a football match on the cricket field, also fireworks and regatta, the last being very interesting. Among the competing boats, which were propelled by oars, there w ere three large canoes manned with eleven Indians in each, and to see them using their paddles with all the power they could furnish was a grand sight.

On May 26th, 1908, my daughter, Mrs L. Manson, her son Douglas, and I, had a long joumey out in the country driving from place to place until we came to a farm occupied by a brother to the Mr Thomas we visited at South Wellington, and we were received with very great kindness, not being allowed to leave until we had dined with them. We spent a w hile in friendly conversation, some of it of a sort to make us all cheery, one of us relating an anecdote as follows:—A young gentleman said to a young lady who refused to accept of him to be her husband, “ But why did you lead me on to propose if you had no intention of accepting me?" “ Oh,” she replied, “Clara told me how funny you looked when you proposed to her, and I wanted to see for myself.”

On Thursday, 28th May, 1908, I crossed the Gulf of Georgia from Vancouver Island to Vancouver City in the s.s. Joan, and had my daughter, Mrs L. Manson, and her son Douglas and daughter Margaret with me, all of us glad of the trip, and pleased to get another view of the attractive scenery as we passed from island to island on the way. After remaining in Vancouver for a short time, we took train for Mission City, distant 40 miles. From there we drove two miles along the south side of the great Fraser River, bringing us to the residence of my son-in-law, W. J. Manson, M.P.P., and there we soon found that we were at home, but as ni^Jat kept us all in-doors, I had to con tent myself with fireside family association. That I appreciated very much, being happy in the midst of those near and dear to me, namely, two married daughters, a son-in-law, and six grandchildren, all of them enjoying the best of health, and I could easily notice that they were glad to see me among them, recently come as I had from the far distant Shetland Islands, the farthest north of the British Dominions and land of their ancestors. As time for sleep approached, I was shown to my bedroom, which was in every way furnished to supply comfort, and I had a refreshing rest, and wakened feeling thankful to the Almighty, as I do every morning, for His preserving care over me. After breakfast, I began to look through the house and surroundings, never thinking for a moment that I had to see so many rooms, there being no less than 21 apart from closets and other convenient places of an enclosed and private sort. I noticed that the doors of the rooms were so large and heavy that each of them required three strong hinges to fix them securely.

The dining-room is about 28 feet by 20, and the drawing-room is about the same dimensions, the length of the house being about 60 feet, the breadth much the same, and the height from the foundation to the eaves nearly 40 feet. Apart from the front door, which opens out on a large verandah, there are other five entrances to the castle-like building, and thirty-six windows measuring 8 feet by 4. The house is much too large, and built not in accordance with Mr Manson’s views as to a plan, but it had to be sold along with the land adjacent, so that he had to purchase the whole.

It lies close by the Fraser River, which is very broad, at some places 50 feet deep, and at times swarming with salmon. Indeed Fraser River is the chief stream of the Province, forming a fairly good channel for shipping a long way up the country, and the fishing industry is largely carried on at several places near its banks. On each side of this river, there is an extensive level tract of land of r'ch soil, much of which is occupied by an active, well-to-do people, principally engaged in the fruit-trade, and they grow and send large quantities into the market. The best of timber can be had from trees as the land is being cleared, very suitable for building or fuel, and all this with a fine climate makes the place attractive, especially for young people who are looking out for land on which to settle and have homes of their own.

In regard to this wonderful stream, I may further remark that the advantages connected with settling down adjacent to it, either as to fruit-growing or almost any kind of crop, is very considerable indeed, because, apart from soil and climate, railways and other useful roads have been constructed there, and surveying is continued with a view to constructing more.

I may mention here that the land which belongs to Mr Manson, to whom I have referred, is near the side of this river at the top of a gradually rising ground, beautifully laid out in front of his house, where the ground becomes level, and at some distance oil the west side of this flat area a steep mountain abruptly rises, forming a good protection from the stormy weather in winter. Indeed this whole Fraser River Valley is very much sheltered by mountains and hills on each side, and there is room for hundreds of thousands of a population, who can obtain land from the Government in some cases for little money on easy terms.

On the 1st June 1908, I was taking a leisurely walk on the lawn at the side of Mr Manson’s house, when I noticed the stump of a large tree too near the dwelling, and I insisted on getting it uprooted, because it interfered with the amenity of the building. He said that to blow it up might be dangerous in breaking windows or doing other damage about the place. I replied that I could take it away if I had a good axe and a spade. “No, no,” he said, “it would take you a fortnight to remove it.” Well, I had never uprooted the stump of a tree before, but the tools I have mentioned were at hand, and I commenced and kept working at it now and again, and in that way dug it out in the course of a few days, thus enabling me to say that I had uprooted the stump of a large tree in British Columbia with my own hands.

In such a widely scattered population in the Province, it is sometimes necessary to have a private tomb erected somewhere on or near farm land, and I saw one of these which enclosed an area of about 30 feet square, and the only grave in it was that of the farmer’s wife. The ground was enclosed by a wooden fence in the midst of a number of trees, a large house being not far from it. This brought to my mind the fact that however rich and attractive a home may be, it is only temporary. When at a place called Hatzic, I got a good view of that part of the country, the village lying as it does at the head of a wide bend of the Fraser River, the water in front appearing more like an inlet of the sea than part of a river. There are a general store, a saw*-mill, and a post-office, which are great conveniences to the people in the district. Also a river steamer calls at the place at regular times, discharging and taking ^n cargo; often during the summer months there are a number of tourists on board, who, I am told, are delighted to get away from large cities and elsewhere to climb a high ground called the Devil’s Mountain. On the top of this hill it is said that there is a bottomless lake, the water of which comes from springs, and I am informed that the Indians believe that evil spirits reside there, because it is a tradition that one of their ancestors began to climb it and never returned.

12th June 1908.—On this day I was near the mountain just mentioned, standing on high ground which might be called a hill, and from this standpoint I had a grand view of my surroundings as the sun was setting. There were mountains all round, some of them worthy of much observation as they reflected the rays of the great luminary, and at the time I have stated the atmosphere was clear, giving me every advantage as to sight-seeing.

Just as the sun was sinking in the west, I noticed a most glorious refraction along the summit of Mount Baker, which was about 100 miles distant in Washington, United States, the height of which is 11,900 feet above the level of the sea. The top of the mountain appeared to be on fire, and as it is an active volcano I was inclined to believe that the scene was the crater in a blaze, and that the variation and different shades of light were caused by the movements of the flame; but as the sun went down, the phenomenal changing colour of the mountain disappeared, so that the wonderful sight was produced by the setting of the sun.

On the 13th June 1908, I travelled by buggy and rail 42 miles in order to take steamer from Vancouver City to Cortez Island on the Pacific coast. I arrived at the city on the same day late in the evening, when, after having a look through the principal streets, I put up in an hotel and remained there till Monday the 15 th. After breakfast, I boarded the steamer Comox, but we did not get under way till 12 noon.

The leather was fine, so that over a smooth sea we glided along slowly among the many islands that lie near the coast. Some of the islands as we passed were flat and hilly, but others were mountainous, a few of these mountains rising almost perpendicularly from the sea, and all covered with trees, the roots of some creeping down over the faces of rocky precipices. I noticed that a few were tottering and ready to fall in the water of the ocean below. With the ebbing and flowing of the sea, which is at times passing with great force through very narrow straits, the land where it is soft is gradually wearing away, undermining hundreds of trees, some of which fall in the water, and their tremendous weight as they drop often clears their roots clean away from the soil.

So many of them float away and drift hither and thither with the force of wind and tide, that the beaches and sandy shores of the whole group of islands become landing places, and I saw several such parts of the shore, some of them of great length, covered with trees, logs, and other kids of wood driven from the ocean. Some men earn money by securing drift wood of that sort and selling it to saw-mill owners. They gather the timber into a safe inlet of the sea until it has increased in sufficient quantity to employ a steamer to take it in tow to the purchaser, and the number of pieces taken is called a “boom.”

Sometimes these booms are broken up by stress of bad weather while in tow of the steamers, and the timber scattered to become drift wood again. Whether the loss is borne by the purchaser or the seller depends entirely on the terms of the sale. That is to say, if the mill-owner bought the trees and logs where they were lying in the inlet with all risks of conveyance, he would have to stand the loss.

The first stoppage we made was at 2.30 p.m., to deliver the mail a short distance from the shore of an island called Sechelt to a man in a small boat. The man wore nothing on his head but his hair, and he looked very much weather-beaten.

As we passed along the island, I saw smoke coming from small isolated houses or tents, and I was informed that these were occupied by men who cut down trees preparing them for the market, and as the work is very dangerous they get high wages. They are called loggers, and sometimes working on their own account, having procured a license.

But I have been informed that just recently the Government decided not to grant licenses to loggers any longer, one of the reasons for doing so being that hand-loggers, as they are designated, sometimes encroach on claimed forest property in cutting down trees. Special licenses, however, are now granted, which give parties permission to cut down trees on unclaimed land, the sum charged being one hundred and forty dollars yearly, and a very large and profitable trade is done in buying and selling timber, as also lumber, by saw-mill owners.

The next call along this island was at an Indian village, the houses painted white, near a beach of great length, and the most conspicuous building being a Roman Catholic Church.

I understand that at this place missionaries of other denominations are labouring hard among the Indians, doing all they can to disabuse the minds of those deluded people of the heathenish mode of living to which they have been accustomed, and to inculcate Christian principles in their hearts, so that they may love the Lord Jesus Christ, and so love each other as to end the cruel strife that often occurs between tribes. Shortly after leaving this part of the coast, we called at a place where there is a lighthouse in order to let out a lady who had to live there along with her husband. Certainly it was a solitary spot, but lighthouses are much needed, and some people are adapted for that kind of lonely life. After passing some very beautiful mountain scenery, we came to Buccaneer Bay, where the monotony of that part of the island was changed to a lively view of a number of pleasure-boats propelled by oars in the hands of ladies who were cheerily laughing and pulling, and of course we responded to their salute.

On the 16th June 1908, the weather was fine, but there was a quantity of provisions on board for a logger who could not be found at the place where he was understood to be, and the captain was somewhat at a loss to know what he should do. Thinking that he might have made a mistake as to the place, we steamed around islands in a serpentine-like way, taking us nearly a hundred miles out of our course, and although blowing the steam-whistle at every place we had called, there was no answer.

That being so, we resumed our course for Cortez Island, and on our arrival there I met on the wharf at Clytosin harbour Mr and Mrs Michael Manson and some of their children, come to meet us. At this stage I may mention that my daughter, Mrs Laurence Manson, and her son Douglas from Nanaimo were passengers in the same boat with me, having come for the purpose of spending a holiday and to see their relatives, Mr Michael Manson being a brother-in-law to my daughter. It was only a short distance from the landing to Mr Manson’s house, so we passed to the shore over a substantial wooden pier, and were soon in a sense at home. The residence, as I have said, stood near a long sandy beach, in front of which the clear water was balmy and smooth, the place being so sheltered that it is almost always so. Very often salmon are plentiful at this part of the shore, giving Mr Manson or some of his young people a chance to go off in a pleasure-boat in front of his house main door. They often bring home some fine fish caught with line, hook, and bright iron bait called a spoon. At times I enjoyed the same kind of sport, and did not always come ashore empty handed, bat I learned that great dexterity is indispensable in being successful in fishing salmon—they pull so hard and their mouths are so tender.

It is difficult to put in words the kind reception that I received from Mr and Mrs Michael Manson during the time I was with them. I need only mention that at the times of taking my place along with the family at the table, it was always well loaded with the best of food, and when we were all seated, including Mrs L. Manson and her son, we formed a rather large family group, especially when Mr Manson’s eight children were 'present. While taking our first meal, I was surprised that without rap or ring in came an old Indian man with bare feet and his clothes hanging about him as if they had been worn by some one of a larger size. He was heartily welcomed by Mr Manson and the other members of the family, and I was told that his reason for calling was to give me a welcome. I then shook hands with him, he holding my hand so firmly, with such a curious smile, that I began to wonder when the release would take place. After this cordial handshaking was over, he was asked to take a seat, the invitation being given by Mr Manson in words understood by the Indians. I was told that they had named him George, but nobody knew’ his age, neither did he know it himself. It was thought, however, that he might be about a hundred years old, because it was known that some of his sons were getting by appearance far up in years. He often wished to see me, and on hearing music on the violin he got quite elated with joy. He called many times to rest and to hear either slow or quick tunes, but I could see he preferred the latter, and I have been informed that when he heard that I had left, he was very sad. I was also told that he had been a great warrior and had killed many a man in the tribal engagements of warfare.

In looking round the locality in which I was now placed, I could plainly see that Mr Manson had made a good choice in securing by purchase a large quantity of land on this island, not only where his house was built, but some miles inland a farm steading of 176 acres belongs to him. In order that I might see that property, Mr Manson came along with me one morning. By first crossing a lagoon in a small boat, then after travelling along the side of this water among very much rugged rocks for nearly a quarter of an hour, we entered a narrow path called a trail which led through a dense forest. At some places on the way the shrubs and low branches of trees, as also the .uneven surface of the path, made the journey anything but agreeable, and when I sighted the place I felt a pleasing relief. After having a look over the ground, which at that time was only used for grazing, we retraced our steps, I having to be carried on a man’s back across the channel where the sea flows in to flood the lagoon. Mr Manson has more land and keeps cows and pigs, but his attention is almost entirely given to the sale of eggs, and for that purpose he keeps a thousand or more of hens and roosters. In order to enlarge the business, he has incubators which supply him with chickens from time to time.

The eggs, for most part, are sent to Vancouver City, where a good price is obtained, the demand being greater than the supply. This encourages others to go into the trade, amongst whom is Mr Manson’s brother John, whose place is on the same island a few miles distant along the coast, called Sunny Brae. It is nearly four miles from Clytosin, through a forest of very large trees, the road having been so constructed that a strong horse can drag a sleigh with a fairly heavy load over it.

On the 17th June 1908, I walked from Clytosin to Mr John Manson’s house, and it was one of the most lonely journeys I ever experienced, there being not a sound to be heard except now and again a rustle sometimes on the one side and then on the other among the trees, which startled me, but I saw nothing. I was thankful when I got in sight of Mr Manson’s house, and as I came near to it out came his wife to meet me. She clasped me in her arms as if I had been her father. She being a relation somewhat accounted for the friendly embrace, but it was also another evidence of the strong desire of immigrants to see fatherland or one like myself just recently arrived from it.

I was soon surrounded by the other members of the family, Mr Manson as glad to see me as anyone, and their children too, namely, John, Anna, Rose, and Nichol the youngest, a dear little fellow just begun to walk and not far on in the third year of his age. Being related to Mr and Mrs Manson through family ties, it made me feel more at home than had it been otherwise, so that without any reluctance I moved about the house seeing all the rooms upstairs and down, and very pleased was I to learn that it and several acres of land adjacent were their own property. Mr Manson, like his brother Michael, uses much of his time in the egg trade, and they have a ready and profitable sale for all that they can send to Vancouver City. He also has an orchard for growing fruit and a rather large area of land cleared which he farms, getting good potatoes and other crops, but principally the former, because they grow to a large size and sell well.

He, along with a man in his employ, keeps clearing land from time to time, and one day when I was with them as they were cutting down a very large tree, it fell, making a great noise by smashing down the branches of others.

Seeing that I had come so lately from the Old Country, and intended to return, Mr Manson expressed a wish that my initials should appear on the stump of this tree and to be put there by my own hands. I therefore very willingly chiselled the letters on that part of the stump just presented to view, and did not neglect to chisel the year the tree fell in my presence, namely, 1908.

By the side of his property there is a long beach covered from the one end to the other with all kinds of wood driven from the ocean, some of it fine large logs that Mr Manson can take to saw-mills for sale or cut up into lumber for his own use. He has an open boat about 20 feet long with one sail, and along with his brother Michael they sail in this craft and also use oars in going to Mitlenatch Island, which is their own property. On this island they graze cattle and sheep, the former becoming so wild that when wanted they have to be shot, which is a thing very difficult to do, because the island being almost covered with trees the animals run away from their pursuers and hide in the forest. On one occasion I had an opportunity to visit this island, which lies nearly 6 miles from a landing place at the beach to which I have referred, and from where the two Manson brothers and I had to take our departure in the open boat I have mentioned.

The wind was against us, so that we had to pull with as much strength as we could furnish, but the sea being lumpy and the island a long way from us, gave me more thought than some people would be inclined to imagine, but I was anxious to be on this uninhabited part of the world, and I had to keep cheery. As we were nearing the shore, we met in with a strong current running against the wind, raising the sea so much that we had to stem some heavy breaking w’aves, and at last we got safely to a long beach covered from end to end with gray-coloured, smooth, small stones.

We drew the boat up on this beach, and while one of the men began to look round for one of the cattle to kill, I had a walk along the sea-shore, so as to get a view of all that could be seen in that way. Meeting with Mr Michael Manson, I ascertained that the area of the island was 87 acres, and that his brother had gone rifle in hand in search of the cattle among the trees in order to shoot the one they wanted to butcher, so as to get the beef for sale to a man who the following day, according to promise, was to send a launch from an island to take away the beef. Everything now depended on the shooting of a cow, it often happening, as I was told, that sometimes it takes several days for the gunner to have a chance in the forest to get a good aim. However, as we were walking and talking, we heard a report, and we encouraged ourselves to believe that one of the cattle had been shot; and so it turned out to be, because Air John Manson soon made his appearance and shouting “hurrah.” He had seen the cow with others, and fired so that the bullet entered straight through one of her eyes, and a second shot through her skull killed her. A fine, well-fed animal she was. the beef weighing 800 lb.

I may here refer to how it came about that the Manson brothers had to get the beef ready on the day after we arrived on the island. The gentleman who purchased it is a general store-keeper who supplies loggers with provisions, and he had bargained with M. and J. Manson to send a large launch to Mitlenatch Island on a certain day for the beef, and they had agreed to have it ready and to be there to ship it. Well, no time was lost for bleeding and taking off the hide of the cow, the latter being mostly done by using block and tackle to hoist the carcass up to branches of trees. Previous to commencing the work of flaying and taking out the entrails, we lighted a fire at the door of an old hut and had tea, with different kinds of edibles. In this hut there were planks of wood fixed up in the form of bedsteads, which we covered with thick gray blankets, the same kind of material having been prepared to lie over us, all of which we had taken with us in the boat. The island being uninhabited, we had taken a certain quantity of provisions with us, also a lantern with paraffin oil, some matches, and a certain supply of water, but we did not expect to be longer on the island than two days. The beef was quick] y prepared for shipment, being cut up in quarters, the other parts of the animal also made ready, which, along with the hide, were to be taken in the boat with us to Cortez Island, so that nothing but the beef had to be shipped on board the launch, and we had to cover it well up to save it from being touched by gulls, a large number of which were flying about. During the day, shortly after we arrived, we met two Indians gathering gull’s eggs, their boat, or rather, large canoe, lying in safety in a small inlet at the east side of the island.

Mr M. Manson said to them, “Hallo! stealing my eggs,” when we all smiled, because I think Mr Manson spoke in a kind of half-joking way, but one could see by the Indians, they first looking one to the other and then trying to smile, that they knew they were guilty, and as they were spoken to in a language they understood, it is not likely they will continue to take what is not their own.

As night drew nigh, we had supper at the door of the hut, the fire blazing as before, the table a rough board, and after a rest and some talk about how we would get the beef on board the launch the following day, we went to bed, leaving our dog from Cortez Island to be our guard at the inside of an open door.

I slept for about two hours, when I turned to lie on my other side, and upon the whole had a fairly good sleep, and my two companions had the same, all of us having had the hard boards to lie on instead of the downy feathers to which we had been accustomed in the Shetland Islands. Up to that stage we all three had enjoyed the change, and it was my first experience of the kind on a lonely island without inhabitants on the Pacific coast. It was understood that about mid-day we would see the launch in the distance heading for Mitlenatch Island, so that after having had breakfast again at the hut door we gathered some sheep within an enclosure for the purpose of taking a well-fed one to Cortez Island to kill, so as to have fresh meat. When it was drawing near to 11 o’clock in the forenoon, the wind got up to rather a strong breeze, so much so that we began to look somewhat serious as to our position, wondering whether the launch would come. Many a time we looked across the dark-blue sea, watching to get a sight of the little craft, but noon passed, then another hour, the wind meantime increasing till it was blowing so strong that we began to be more thoughtful. We got up a big fire on the top of the beach to attract the attention of vessels that might be passing, and the only one was a large steamer that took no notice of us.

We then began to look as to how much provisions remained, and the quantity of water we had, also how much oil was in store, and if we had enough matches. We had to do this, because we were so circumstanced that it looked as if the wind increased any more we would have to be put on an allowance, especially as to water, owing to the fact that there was none on the island suitable for drinking.

We, however, hoped that next morning the launch might come5 and it was thought advisable that if she did not, two of us would venture to leave for Cortez Island in the small boat, the other to remain in charge with the beef, and that if the small boat got through m safety in some way word would be sent to the man who had purchased the beef, and the reason ascertained why he did not send his launch to Mitlenatch Island according to agreement. At the same time, arrangements would be made to get the third man and the beef out from there as quickly as possible.

Contenting ourselves with this resolution, we got along in the old hut during the night just as we did the night before, and as morning dawned we had a look out to ascertain the nature of the weather, and glad we were to see that the wind was less and a little in favour of proceeding to Cortez Island with the small boat. It was then settled that if the expected launch did not make her appearance in an hour or two after breakfast, Mr Michael Manson and I would take the small boat to sail and row to Cortez Island, and that Air John Manson would remain as arranged to wait for new developments. One of the sheep in the enclosure referred to had to be taken from the other side of the island close by a rocky part of the shore, and in order to get to it we had to go round a headland crossing a tideway, which we managed to do, and as we touched the rocks in deep water the Manson brothers jumped out, and I took charge of the boat with an oar on each side. Here I had to keep her steady and clear of the rocks until they should come with the animal out of the enclosure.

After a while they came dragging it down over the rocks to where I had to so manoeuvre the boat in a cross-moving sea as to make her stern touch the place where they would have the animal with its feet tied ready to fling on board.

I moved the boat so that her stern was close to the spot where they were standing on a rock with the big weighty brute, but it was too heavy for them to lift, so I told them to drag the animal about half over the ledge towards the sea, and that being done, I watched my move, and just as the stern of the boat got under the head of the struggling brute I on a sudden slipped my oars, then took hold of the fore legs, and with a strong pull in the beast came with a rumble ; but if ever I used my shoulder strength it was at that moment.

We then had to return to our proper landing-place round the same headland mentioned, and on getting there we took in mast and sail, also put everything in the boat, trimming her as well as possible, then shipped the rudder, got up the small sprit sail, and off we went to cross 6 miles of the Pacific Ocean, leaving Mr John Manson and his dog on a solitary island, while his brother Michael and I had to face whatever might betide us on the sea. It was a side wind blowing rather strong, the sea rising in lumps, which induced me to get out an oar on the windward side to pull, and at the same time, with the oar, take the wind out of a lump of the sea when about to break on us. I had great confidence in Mr Michael Manson, who was at the helm steering, he being a Shetlander and having been captain of a vessel trading on the Pacific coast.

So on we went sailing and rowing, no accident taking place except once; when something went wrong with the sail, which was soon put right, and we arrived at Clytosin harbour, Cortez Island, where we were met by Mr Michael Manson’s family. As Mr John Manson was not with us they got somewhat alarmed, but after explaining matters we all settled down in our usual composure, and word was sent to Mrs John Manson that her husband w as safe in Mitlenatch Island. In order to ascertain the cause of all the trouble, two men in a launch went to the island where the purchaser resided, and they were told that owing to rough weather he imagined that Messrs Manson had not gone to Mitlenatch Island, but after hearing what the men had got to say, he sent his launch to the place to take away the beef, and Mr John Manson, who ultimately arrived home nothing the worse of his experience.

My adventurous trip in connection with the whole affair gave me a good idea of what it is to trade among these islands, scattered as they are along a tremendous stretch of the coast.

I have already spoken of gulls being numerous, but there are also a great many eagles about, often building their nests on the tops of high trees and the summits of mountains. A young Englishman in the employ of Mr John Manson told me that during a few months he had shot eighteen, some of them of large size, measuring from tip to tip of their wings 8 feet, and that their talons were large, each being 7 inches long. This man was also clever at hunting and shooting reindeers, so that there was a good supply of that kind of meat almost every day on Mr Manson’s table. Notwithstanding my never-to-be-forgotten experience in visiting Mitlenatch Island, I nevertheless accompanied two men to Twin Islands on 27th June 1908, to see a house which an old Indian had built, imitating in shape and entrance that of a white man’s dwelling, in order to entice a young Indian girl to come and live in it with him as his wife.

When it was finished she, being only two or three years in her teens and he far advanced in years, objected to marry him, but as a rule Indian girls marry when they are very young, though they like to have young men as husbands. The islands being near to where I was putting up at the time, and there being no person living on it, I felt somewhat curious to see it, and we crossed in a small boat, pulling at leisure over a smooth sea, at the same time using a line catching salmon. On getting close to the shore, we entered what might be called a small natural harbour much protected from the breakers outside. As we came through this enclosed part of the coast, I noticed a great quantity of wood, principally logs which had from time to time been gathered from different parts while floating about, and now secured and fixed to each other, forming a boom. I was told it would be sold to saw-mill owners at a suitable time.

I then wished to see the old Indian’s house, and was taken to the base of a slightly rising ground a few yards from a secluded extremity of a winding arm of the sea, so that the dwelling was erected at a place convenient for a salmon fisher as well as a hunter, and that is the kind of work the Indians mostly do. From the ground to the door there were three or four steps of coarse thick boards, the length about 4 feet and the breadth 11 inches, the door measuring 5 feet by 2. The house was about twenty feet long by ten broad, the sides 8 feet high, the gables rising a little higher and the roof of thin boards overlapping each other with a hole to let out the smoke. There were bits of shelves stuck up here and there, but the whole thing was rough—aiming, however, at something higher than the horrible abodes of Indians generally.

After getting the house constructed, which was all of wood, the Indian must have lived in it for a time expecting to get the girl’s consent to marry him, because I saw various cooking articles lying about; and he must have been using a rifle or revolver, as I found a cartridge lying on a small shelf, of which I took possession to keep as a memento of my visit. Before leaving Twin Islands, I came to know that the place was not altogether without an inhabitant. There was one white man, the only human being that lived on it, and I was shown his house, which at the time was shut up, so that he must have been away hunting deer, fishing salmon, or perhaps shooting wild ducks or other wild fowls there being plenty of them flying about. While returning from this island, we had to pass a certain part of the coast where there is a cave, in which the natives say a very wicked Indian boy was turned into a seal and stuck there.

He had gone into the water against the will of his parents, and so his punishment was that he became a seal, and in that shape he had become a rock, to be a warning to all Indian boys who do not obey their fathers and mothers. The rock in the cave is very like the shape of a seal, and the superstitious Indians believe that at one time it was a boy, and no doubt amongst themselves, and in their own way, it prevents much boyish disobedience.

On Monday, 29th June 1908, I was asked to attend the examination of a day school on Cortez Island, so with some friends, we having to travel 1£ miles over a narrow rough road to the place, I had the pleasure to see and hear what was being done. Some of the children attending the school belonged to Michael and John Manson, all of whom with the others answered questions in a way complimentary boih to scholars and teacher. Mr Michael Manson, who is one of the school committee, spoke very highly of the progress being made under the tutorship of Miss Chapell, the teacher. I was asked to make a few remarks, and while endeavouring to give my opinion of how children should be educated, I having had some experience of teaching in my younger years, I said that I considered it to be a privilege to have an opportunity to listen to both teacher and those being taught, and the progress being made by the scholars was to my mind very satisfactory. I said further that all the civilised nations in the world were vieing with each other in giving the young and rising generation a good education, and glad was I to see that the Canadian Government were not behind in the matter when giving, as I had been informed, 50 dollars per month of salary to the teacher if there be an attendance of 12 pupils, 6 years being the school age, and I was made aware that the sum mentioned is the lowest pay given for teaching in British Columbia public schools.

Cortez Island is one of the best of the many islands that lie along the Pacific coast, there being a number of inlets of the sea around it, at the extremities of which there are accommodating landing-places. At a short distance from it, there are smaller islands on which only a few people reside, but on them there is good grazing for cattle and sheep, as also at some places they are so near to harbours as to form protection such as breakwaters do. I was on several of these islands, and into whatever house I went the people gave me a hearty welcome, and I was not allowed to leave until I had partaken of their hospitality such as meat and drink, the latter almost always tea.

On the afternoon of the 30th June 1908, I left Cortez Island by a steamer for Vancouver City, the passage being a pleasant one among islands close to each other, so much so that in passing through one or two places the current was very strong. On calling at one of these islands, a clergyman came on board under the care of a doctor. He appeared to be about 50 years of age, looking not much enfeebled as to strength, walking as he did on the deck of the vessel with a firm step, but on making inquiry, I was informed that a blood-vessel had burst on his brain, and that he was being taken to an asylum in Vancouver for treatment. After that I took more notice of his movements, and I could see that at times he was in need of a guardian. We arrived at Vancouver on the 1st July 1908, at seven in the morning, feeling quite prepared for breakfast, and there being a good hotel not far from the wharf, I at once proceeded to it in order to get refreshed with my usual morning meal, namely, ham and egg and tea, with bread of course, thus making me all the better able to take a stroll through the city. After this I walked to English Bay (taking me about half-an-hour), where my son owns some land. This being a holiday in the city, a great many people exceedingly well-dressed were walking about, and along the shore of the bay being suitable for bathing, hundreds of people both of men and women were there, a number of them in mixed groups swimming and diving, which was a strange sight to me, but of course they were suitably clothed for the occasion. After this, on the same day, I visited North Vancouver, which is a rising part of the city on a very good area for private residences. Several have been recently built, also other buildings of ordinary size with shops and broad streets, so as to form an attractive appearance, which leads one to believe that North Vancouver will in time become what may be called the fashionable part of the city. A narrow arm of the sea separates it from Vancouver proper, over which a large ferry-boat passes several times ever} day, but I have no doubt that in the near future, owing to the rapid increase of traffic, a substantial bridge will be built to span this inlet, which would be a great boon to all classes of the community, and of course would be sure to encourage trade. While I was there taking notice of my surroundings, I heard the sound of bagpipes, which lea me to think that a highlander was not far away. So with a desire to see him, being, as I imagined, a native of the north of Scotland, I followed a crowd to the place of entertainment. This was an inclosed lawn with an erection in the centre forming a platform, on which a young lad dressed in highland costume was dancing to the well-known music given by the player, who was also wearing the kilt.

I returned by the ferry-boat referred to, just in time to take the train on the C.P.R. for Mission City, distant 42 miles, and drove from there 2 miles to a country district, where I put up with my son-in-law, Mr W. J. Manson. Near his residence, on the 3rd July 1908, a black bear was seen, giving us all a dreadful flight. The two men being employed by Mr Manson cutting down trees and doing farm work, went in pursuit, the one with a rifle and the other with an axe, to face the brute if he attempted to make for the house, but he turned tail, bounding up on the side of a mountain among the trees in the forest.

7th July 1908.—To-day I was a considerable distance up along the side of the Fraser River, but mosquitoes were so numerous and troublesome, that at times I felt terribly annoyed, being quite unable to defend myself from their bites. I was informed that it is some years since such a pest of insects tormented the people of the district. They were for weeks outside and inside the houses in, as it were, clouds ready to dart at any living creature, especially human beings, young and old alike, and it was a great relief when the cold weather set in, as then they gradually vanished.

8th July 1908.—Up to the present time all my notes have been jotted down in a memorandum book I kept in my pocket for the purpose, and to-day I have commenced to copy them to be a manuscript ready for a publisher to put them in book form. I am now taking into serious consideration whether it would be expedient for me to go to Alaska to see my son, such a voyage being attended with much risk even though I were a young man, but much more so when taking into account tl e radical change of climate and my old nerves. Being, however, much encouraged by my son, who is very anxious that I should visit Alaska, not only to see him, but also to see the Treadwell mine, which is said to be the largest gold mine in the world, and in connection with which he has been employed in office work for a number of years, I have resolved to go.

The next thing to be thought of was the route, there being two ways by sea to Alaska, the one leaving Seattle in the United States by steamer, keeping to the westward of all the hundreds of islands which are scattered at that part of the west side of the continent of America.

The other route is by leaving the same port for Victoria, thence to Vancouver City, and from there sailing north amongst the many islands to Alaska, calling at several places on the way. The risk connected with the outside voyage is sometimes very great, owing principally to stormy weather, and with reference to the inside voyage, especially in dark nights, it is dangerous steaming through the narrow channels.

I, however, decided on taking the s.s. Princess May coming from Victoria, and posted to leave Vancouver City for Alaska along the inside route on the 27th August 1908. I now began to look over a number of letters lying aside unanswered, some of them from friends in different parts of America, and others from correspondents in the Shetland Islands. With regard to the latter, much of what I had said in my notes appearing in the Shetland Times newspaper would be sufficient as answers, but others demanded replies by letter. As to American friends, almost all of them being natives of Shetland, I had communicated with them by writing. Seeing that I had made up my mind to go to Alaska, I .began to enquire about the fares by steamer, also as to the accommodation, and being told that owing to the passengers who generally travel to far north regions being people of different countries, and some of them perhaps of a questionable character, my wisest way would be to travel first-class. I therefore had my berth in a stateroom secured in good time, and as I intended to embark at Vancouver City, I had just to wait there for the arrival of the steamer, and when getting on board I would be shown to my stateroom in accordance with the number on my ticket. I began to make the above enquiry on the 10th July 1908, by writing to a gentleman in Victoria, who gave me all the information I required. One of the reasons why I secured my passage so early is owing to the fact that unless a certain number of passengers are booked to go to the island at which I wished to disembark, I would have to be taken farther north and then seek my way back to the place of my destination. Glad was I to learn that the complement was made up, and that I would get out near the Treadwell gold mines.

On the 11th July 1908, after writing some letters, I took a walk viewing the fine scenery of river and forest, also the neat, well-constructed wooden houses, large and small, each of them at the side or in the centre of a fruit-garden, with wide areas of orchard and almost everywhere to be seen. After returning to where I had to sleep all night, I took up a violin which was lying on the table, and began to play some Scotch music, when my host, who was close 'ay me, was talking through the telephone to a gentleman two miles distant. He had heard the sound of the music and put the question, “Who is playing?” Being told, I was asked to stand near to the voice machine, which I did, playing the tune called “The flowers of Edinburgh,” and along the telephone wire came the word “Good,, thus showing me that music can be telephoned.

About this time I received a letter from my son in Alaska, informing me that a lady and her two children were in Victoria, who would likely accompany me to Treadwell, where her husband was foreman in one of the departments in the gold mine. She was Mrs D. Brown, and having received her address I communicated with her, wishing to know which steamer she intended to take. By a reply I learned that arrangements had been made so that she and her children would come by the same steamer I had resolved to take. For a few days from this time 1 continued to copy my notes from my memorandum book, feeling sure that the trip to Alaska would furnish me with a great addition to what I had already taken.

On the 17th July 1908, the weather was very hot, and as the heat melts the snow on the mountains the water in the Fraser River was rising very fast, frightening some people who reside in houses near the sides of it. As the rising of the water continued for some days a few Indian cabins were flooded. The following day was fine, inducing people to be much in the open air, and in company with some friends I had a drive in a new carriage to Mission City Junction. This city of British Columbia has got the word junction added to its name because at that point of railway construction people can set out to travel by train to many parts of America. The appearance of the district is so attractive and the soil so rich that of late years a rather large population in comfortable circumstances make up its citizens. During the last few weeks since the date as above, I have been seeing a number of people who have given me a deal of information about this new country, and one thing in particular I wished to know more about than I have been told, and that was how it came to pass that a pig knew how to get hold of the teat of a cow, as I have been informed they do, and suck the animal.

The man I asked told me that it was done when the cattle were lying down in the fields, and feeling the pressure of milk in the large udders they would allow the pigs which were strolling around to shuffle near them, and while bumping or nuzzling the udders the milk would likely come, and the pigs once getting the taste of it would be sure to seek after the sweet drink. At the same time the cow feeling relieved would not hinder the pig, and so the sucking would be continued from time to time.

I hesitated to believe all this, but the man declared that it was an unquestionable statement he was making, and more than that he told me as follows. He said that one of the cows on their farm was for some time deprived of her milk, which led him to think that it must surely be done by a calf from the neighbouring farm, but anyway he resolved to watch and see. Well, he was on the lookout for nearly a whole day, and at last when the cow had lain down on the field, he saw her turn her head towards her udder and begin to suck. They had to fix something about her neck to prevent her from repeating the operation.

He imagined that while she had been moving among the trees and shrubs, she had likely scratched her udder, making it sore, and that on licking the injured part, as the animal would be apt to do, she had come across her teats, and so got into the way to draw the milk from herself, especially at any time she felt it troubling her.

For several weeks in summer and for a while in autumn, the mosquito insects were in some parts of British Columbia very annoying, stinging man and beast at times so severely that at many places in the Fraser River valley out-door work had to be suspended, and even in houses they became very troublesome. As the warm season passed, however, they gradually wore away, but for a time they and the extreme heat made one wish to be in a colder climate, and I felt much pleased that I was preparing to leave for Alaska.

I had received a letter from Mr Gavin C. Mouat, posted at Victoria, stating that his brother Jeremiah was with him, and that they would like very much to see me.

I was well acquainted with them before they left Shetland for America, but more particularly with their late father, and the desire to see each other was mutual. I therefore replied that I was making ready to leave Vancouver City on the 27th August by the S.S. Princess May for Alaska, and as that boat was to leave Victoria for Vancouver City on her way to Alaska on the 26th of the same month, I only had four days at disposal, and so I was very sorry it would be impossible for me to see him and his brother. On receipt of my letter, Mr Gavin C. Mouat wired me, saying that he was so anxious to see me that he would come by the Princess May to Vancouver City, and that we would meet there. That pleased me very much, not having seen Mr Mouat for many years, and he being a relative made me all the more desirous of seeing him.

On the 24th August 1908, I began to pack up everything I might require of clothing, etc., in my portmanteau, taking down in my notebook the name and number of these things, a practice to which I adhere when travelling, and I think all travellers would act wisely to do the same.

My reason for saying so is that if a traveller books his luggage from where he starts, to be delivered at a certain place, he can get a check from the booking clerk of the railway or steamer company, and on producing that check the luggage must be delivered up, for if otherwise the company becomes liable for the value of what the trunk, pormanteau, or other package may contain.

Like myself, my daughter Mrs W. J. Manson has a great desire to travel and see as much of the world as possible, and it appears that her husband does not grudge the expense, so she made up her mind that she and their son Bertie would accompany me to Alaska.

Of course this would give my daughter an opportunity to see her brother, as she had not seen him for some years, and her son Bertie being a favourite of his uncle would make the meeting all the more interesting. That being so, Mr Manson. and I took an early train at Mission City Junction for Vancouver City, and Mrs Manson and Bertie were to take the next train, and on our arrival we met Mr Mouat, who had come by the Princess May from Victoria.

Our meeting took place at the railway station, where Mr Mouat was waiting, expecting that we would come by the forenoon train. As we met and shook hands, I have no doubt the friendly feeling was reciprocal.

We all three proceeded to the Strand Hotel, Hestines Street, previous to which I had put my portmanteau into the luggage room and received a check 'for the same. This hotel is one of the better class of public establishments of the kind in the city, the accommodation as to dining-room and bedrooms being very good and the charges moderate. While we were resting and talking, a Mr Ollison from Lerwick, Shetland, called to see me, and after a few congratulatory words and a little conversation he informed me that the late Mr Ollison, author, Lerwick, was his brother. We spent a very enjoyable hour, speaking mostly about scenes and sayings in Shetland, quaintly called the “Old Rock.” After dinner we took my luggage to the state-room, which I had to occupy in the steamer, my passage fare having been paid at the Company’s office some days before, and being told that the boat would not leave till 11 at night, we had a walk through the city. Then we met Mrs Manson and her son Bertie at the railway station, they having come according to arrangement from Mission City Junction. All of us then went to the Strand Hotel and had supper, after which we enjoyed a long while talking about things in general, not forgetting to put in a word now and again about the Old Country and what was likely to be seen in Alaska. We then drove to the boat,, and I had no sooner got in my state-room than I was asked to speak to a gentleman who had come on board to see me. I learned that he was Mr Inkster, a grandson of the late Rev. John Inkster, Burra Isles, Shetland. He appeared to be much pleased to be in my company, and after leaving to get on shore I heard him saying to my daughter, “I am very glad I have seen your father.” I know that his grandfather, the Rev. John Inkster, and my father were well acquainted with each other, both being Baptists, and sometimes the latter assisted in leading religious meetings, which would make the friendship all the closer. I think, however, that’ the Mr Inkster who came to see me would be a reader of my notes which had appeared in the Shetland Times for many years. While in conversation with him, he told me that he was from Seattle, United States, and that he had a number of relatives of the same name in that district, and that if I visited the Alaska Exhibition in June next, he would likely see me there.

I also had been introduced to the second officer of the vessel, namely, Mr Slater, either from Scalloway or Burra Isles, I forget—a tall, fine-looking young man —and as we met, I said, “Weel, boy, foo’s aw wee dee da day?” and we both had a good laugh while meeting as we did on the Pacific coast far far away from our native sod the “Old Rock.”

The time was now up when all those for the shore had to leave, and shortly thereafter we steamed out from the wharf to turn the prow of the big steamer towards the North Pole. My state-room was next door to that secured for my daughter, which made it very agreeable ‘for us both, often having to talk to each other about many things while on the voyage, as also in case of accident not to be far from each other was a thing of great importance. However much courage one may have to travel, if it happens that he finds himself and near relatives on board a swift-going steamer in the midst of a great crowd of men, women, and children on a dark night, it requires some nerve, and a calm, collected, bold attitude of mind is all the more needed when conscious of the fact that the vessel is moving onwards with great speed amongst a group of islands and icebergs, sometimes the narrows such that a stone could be thrown on the shore on either side. The hour of embarkation being late, in a very short time all the passengers were resting their heads on their pillows, and I was soon asleep in the midst of my new surroundings, and I slept well.

Next morning all w as somewhat changed, the fatigue of the previous day being mostly over, passengers began to move about and prepare for breakfast, either at the first, second, or third table, as informed by the chief steward.

After breakfast was over, I began to take a look at the accommodation provided for the crew and passengers, at the same time occasionally meeting one of the officers, all of whom I found very willing to give me information on any matter in connection with the voyage.

On the deck of the vessel, almost from stem to stern, was what I may term a two-storey house constructed around which a space was left for people to walk on, when they wished to enjoy an open-air, refreshing change from the inclosed rooms they usually occupied. But this structure was furnished with chair-seats cushioned with crimson velvet, and the upper part of the sides and front, on a considerable space next to the fore-end of the steamer was very thick glass, so that a large number of passengers could sit and get a good view of the scenery. Many a time I sat there to have not only a good look of the scenery, but also to converse with those sitting next to me, and that was how I gathered much information. From this compartment, walking in the direction of the stem of the vessel, a stair led down to a large room where there was a book-stand, and a man at its side ready to sell, but I did not enquire if he was there on his own account, or if the Shipping Company employed him.

A little further along was the ponderous engine which some distance below was doing the work of propelling along with the propeller, and at a few feet in the same direction there was a dining-room down a few steps, where was a number of long tables, often surrounded with ladies and gentlemen.

From the top of this stair a little way aft, there was a large saloon, at one end of which a fine piano stood, to be played on by any one in order to amuse the passengers, and along each side of this big room cushioned seats were fixed. At times it was enjoyable to sit and listen to the music sometimes played by a lady, and now and again by a gentleman. At the dining-room tables, each one had a chair appointed to be occupied by no one else to the end of the voyage. Looking down in the space on the deck next to the stem, I noticed at times some Indians and a few white men, whom I conjectured would be steerage passengers. With reference to the many divisions for passengers, cargo, and other places, I can imagine that to have a look at this steamer from a little distance, she would appear like a large floating palace.

28th August 1908.—During the greater part of this day I was in the viewroom described and at times on the deck, the sea being made smooth by the number of islands between us and the great Pacific Ocean outside, which gave me an excellent opportunity to take notes with comfort. As we proceeded north, the hills and mountains became more numerous, some of .the latter towering up above the clouds, with fog coming rolling and tumbling down over their sides, while their summits were white with snow. Down to the sea-shore, trees of many lengths and thicknesses appeared almost everywhere. Continuing further, the darkness of the night gradually withdrew the wonderful works of nature from view, and as dinner and early supper were over, the passengers as usual began to assemble in the large saloon, where conversation and music could be enjoyed up to a certain hour, when according to rule the lights would be partly extinguished as a signal for all the passengers to retire to their berths. As, however, the music was both vocal and instrumental and much enjoyed, I noticed that some left reluctantly.

It may surprise some people that there were so many men, women, and children journeying at this season of the year towards ice-bound shores and Alaska Indian habitations; but it must be remembered that the regions of the far north have for many years attracted thousands of white adventurous men; not only on account of the mineral wealth but also for the salmon fishing and fur trade in particular, so that in course of time many townships have been formed.

That being so, a number of white men lived with and in some cases married Indian women, and in process of time white women were induced to accompany their husbands from time to time, and settle down in family life in Alaska.

Consequently a large population, composed of people of various colours, occupy houses in close proximity to each other, forming clusters of dwellings, large and small, called cities.

On the mainland, and also on many islands in Alaska, a large number of people are located in this way, many of whom take advantage of the summer weather to visit places in the south, both for the purpose of a change of air and to see relatives. So the passenger steamers, such as the Princess May, are well patronised, and a great many of those on board w hen I went north were of that class returning home. At night, when passing between islands, the vessel only went at half-speed and sometimes less, and at very dangerous places there were lighthouses so near that I felt as if I could have spoken to the keepers.

The first place we called at was Alert Bay, where there is a wharf constructed of wood at which goods were discharged, and close by there were white painted wooden houses, and the people I saw there were mostly Indians of a brown colour, called Siwashes.

The only conspicuous building I noticed there was a church, which I knew to be such by it having a spire, but I had not time to see much of the place owing to the boat only lying a short time at the wharf. When it was well on in the evening, we crossed Queen Charlotte Sound, which is an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, the swell of the sea so different to the smooth water among the islands that some of the passengers became sea-sick. Our next call was at Swanson Bay, a sort of enclosure surrounded with very high mountains about 600 miles from Juneau, a seaport and capital of Alaska, opposite to which, across a very narrow channel, is Douglas Island, where there is the Treadwell Gold Mine. Proceeding onwards, we passed through a part of the sea which in justice might be called a long canal cut through a mountain, because on each side there was a tremendous high precipice touching as it were the clouds, the sides of which from the strand to the top appeared to be dark green, something like grass. We continued our winding, circuitous course until we came to a pass near the mainland, along the shore of which the land was somewhat flat, but awfully rugged where it lay next to the sea, and the Indian huts could be seen at many places.

29th August 1908.—While I was pacing on the deck admiring what appeared to be unique scenery, a gentleman saluted me, seemingly desirous for conversation, and he turned out to be Mr A. D. Cooper, a real estate agent from New Albemi, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, who gave me much information about that part of the Pacific coast, especially where an arm of the sea extends inland from the west to the north-east about forty miles, and where there is a great opening for settlers, both in regard to farming and fishing. I promised to this gentleman that if ever I could see my way to visit the west side of the island, I would be sure to look him up, with which remark he appeared much pleased. In the afternoon of this day, we passed on the right an old salmon cannery, named Clackston, and shortly after that we called at Port Essington, a place of much importance for canning salmon. Then we proceeded to a new and rising township, named Prince Rupert, which is to be the terminous of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. I went oil shore for the purpose of getting a good look through the place, which in time is to become a large city, and I found that a number of houses had already been built—as a rule occupied by men. Indeed there was scarcely a woman to be seen, but hundreds of men were moving about, having just arrived to work at the construction of the railway I have named.

A large accommodating hotel had been built, and the proprietor employed a man, called a runner, to stand on the wharf and bawl out its name, stating the charges per day for bed and board. A wheelbarrow was standing at his side ready to be filled with luggage. Had the man not been white, I would have taken him for being an Indian, as he very much resembled in stature and appearance that class of humanity. As I have been told that sometimes it happens that a black woman may have a white child to a white man, I was inclined to think that he was one of that sort.

There are a great number of half-breeds who reside at different places along the coast, some of whom are comparatively rich. A young woman of that class had been found drunk and so helpless that she had to be taken to a police cell, and when she got sober she was awfully ashamed of herself. So much so that" she offered the policeman 3000 dollars and a kiss if he would let her off, which he declined. It was ascertained that she had 30,000 dollars in the bank. I met several Indian women similar to the one just mentioned, wearing gold rings on their fingers, and otherwise adorned with jewellery, also wearing silk dresses, but with a few exceptions they were coarse in appearance.

30th August 1908.—We arrived at Port Simpson early in the forenoon, where I met Mr Willi im Manson, Government agent and stipendiary magistrate, a native of Shetland, and son of Mr William Manson, Nanaimo, British Columbia.

He very kindly asked my daughter, her son, and me, to accompany him to his house, which was close by the wharf, and we had the pleasure of seeing his wife and children. We also saw through his residence and office attached, but we had to hurry back to get on board the steamer, and the whole household came with us to the wharf, where we bade each other good-bye. There appeared to be a great many Indians in the place, for most part employed catching salmon and other kinds of fish, and the harbour looked fairly good. From Port Simpson we steamed on our way a few miles to a place called Katchican, where a large trade is done in canning salmon, and by the number of streets and houses, I imagined that there would be a few thousand inhabitants. I went on shore here to have a look through the place, especially to see a certain part of a stream where there was a pool filled with hundreds of salmon struggling to ascend up through a rush of water which was pouring down over the face of a sloping rock. On nearing the place I saw a number of people looking earnestly at something, and as I came to where they were standing I was soon made to know what was attracting their attention by a sight I had never seen before. That was the large pool of water packed with live salmon, their fins above the surface appearing as if there were thousands of them. On each side of the stream they were darting into crevices of rocks, while others were leaping up over stones and other obstructions to the gently flowing water above. It was amusing to notice how they were struggling to get up, often being brought back by the force of the water, and as at times one would spring into a hole in the side of the pool, I saw a man endeavouring to get hold of it with his right hand, but he was not successful, as the fish struggled hard to get away, while he held it by the tail.

As I returned to the steamer, I took a good look at the streets and sidewalks, all of which were covered w’th wood, also the wharf was constructed with the same material. The houses were also erected with wood, and while some of them were respectable-looking structures with stores on the ground floors, others were mere cabins suitable only for a few men to occupy, as they often do when employed at gold digging or other kinds of rough work.

I got to the steamer under a downpour of rain, having met a number of Indians on the way; indeed the farther we proceed north they appear to be more numerous.

When getting on uoard, a young gentleman with a smile on his face came forward, and, holding out his hand, said, “Mr Duncan, do you know me?” I looked hard at him, and replied, “No, I am sorry I do not” and who was this but Mr Calderhead, who at one time had visited me in my house in Shetland, and who was now’ one of the engineers on board the boat.

Either through Mr Slater, to whom I have referred, or some other way, he had been informed that I was one of the passengers, and so he began to look out for me. We had a lively interview for a little while, talking principally about Shetland and the pleasure we had there among the heather-clad hills and walking along the beautiful pebbly beaches of the far north islands of the sea in the Old Country.

Proceeding on the voyage, v,e crossed an arm of the open ocean called Dickson Entrance, and the waves made the steamer roll, but it was soon over, owing to us getting in amongst a group of islands. We w ere once more surrounded by very high mountains capped with snow, and the evening to a late hour was spent by a number of the passengers in the large saloon, where there was music and conversation. I may mention here that breakfast was at 9, luncheon at 1, dinner at 6, and supper at 9 o’clock, but very few came forward to the fourth meal.

31st August 1908.—I got up early so as to see what we were passing through, and as I came on deck I noticed a lighthouse on a rocky point of land on the port side, and, as it extended a considerable distance from the land, the necessity for having it placed there was very great, but someone made the remark—“Sure enough that lighthouse-keeper must lead a lonely life.”

The air was now getting very cold, snow being seen not only on tops of mountains but far down over their sides, and at times we saw icebergs, also whales blowing, all of which were evidences that we were getting into Alaskan waters. After a while it became very foggy, preventing us from seeing anything at a distance, so I went into the big saloon and played a few tunes on the piano, then rested for about an hour in one of the easy chairs, and had a talk with one or two of the passengers. By making enquiry as to the time we would likely arrive at Douglas Island, I was told that if all went well we would be opposite there at Juneau wharf sometime in the afternoon, but that fog and icebergs might cause detention. Nothing of a serious nature, however, came in the way as the steamer moved slowly towards the city named, and as the steam was being let off she gradually came to the landing, where a crowd of people had assembled, some to meet friends who had been spending their holidays in British Columbia and other parts of the world. Our luggage having come from a Canadian port and we now being in a United States Territory, it had to be examined by a Custom-house officer, and so it was taken to a warehouse close by for that purpose along with luggage belonging to others, and our articles were found to be all right and passed. By this time my son was on his way in a small steamer crossing Gastineau Channel.

The distance across from Douglas Island is only 2 miles, so that in a very short time he made his appearance at the bow of the steamer waving his hat to us—his father, sister, and nephew—and I had not seen him for nearly 20 years. It was an interesting meeting, better to be understood by imagination than by words, however graphically put. As my son and I clasped hands and looked at each other so intently, both of us no doubt glancing in thought at our old home many thousand miles distant, and most of all thinking of our dearest one, his mother, who had passed away shortly before I left to venture out so far to see him. These thoughts filled our hearts with solemn contemplation, making us, as it were, speechless for a moment. .

Immediately after this never-to-be-forgotten meeting on the wharf at Juneau, we crossed the channel in the same small steamer to a pier near the great Treadwell Gold Mine on Douglas Island, and on getting to an hotel we rested there and arranged as to lodgings. But with reference to that matter we had little or nothing to do, as my son had made everything in that way all right, so that we had only to give instructions to a porter as to placing our luggage in proper quarters, and in a short time we got settled down in two different houses with Christian families.

The room set apart for me was well furnished, the house being heated with steam by pipes laid from the Treadwell Gold Mine works, and the master of the house and his wife were very kind, exemplary people. They had a fine family of boys and girls, of whom I got to be very fond, especially the youngest two, who were dear happy little girls, only been a short time attending school. The first night on land in Alaska I slept very well, had a good breakfast, and on getting outside began to look round in the vicinity of the house. Although we were a few hundred yards from the mine, the noise of the many pieces of machinery working was so deafening that in order to hear what was being said, those conversing had to speak very loud, and the great number—sometimes more than a thousand men— employed had to do the same thing when talking to each other. This noise is continuous day and night, and has been so for many years, so that the people in the neighbourhood do not speak in a low voice when talking to each other, either in their houses or outside, and the children do the same. This style of speaking gives old and young confidence, brightness, cheerfulness, and vigour in conversation, and as a rule when coming to know each other they scarcely ever use the prefix such as master, but fraternise one with another as brothers and sisters would do.

On the other hand, the fair sex—I mean the white women—all receive Mrs and Miss, and the custom is that when a man meets a woman on the road, he lifts his hat to her as a matter of course, and if a man is known to have done anything dishonourable to a married woman, thereby disturbing the peace of a family, he is in jeopardy of being shot at any moment, and if some of the community had the chance they might tar him, then roll him in feathers and set fire to him. They are very careful of their daughters as they grow up to womanhood.

All this I came to know’ from old settlers, who were willing to give me information about the manners and customs of the people in the far north, and I was also anxious to know all about the Indians, there being a large number of them in this part of Alaska, and many of them in a way living as families in a narrow street close by the sea.

I had often met Indians in British Columbia, but never had the chance of seeing them so located as to occupy a whole street, and that being the case I made up my mind to visit the place on a suitable occasion. Before proceeding further, however, with my journalistic notes, I think it will be of service to enquiring minds to embody here what I noticed in The Vancouver World newspaper in reference to the Yukon Indians, and it is as follows:—

“The Yukon Indians are fast passing away,” writes a trapper in Fur Nexvs. “The squaws are living, the children increasing apparently, but among the men, old and young, you hear the hollow cough of lung trouble.

“The Pelly River band had in 1899 twenty children, twenty squaws, and fourteen men. That winter ten of the men died of pneumonia. You see Hudson Bay brand among them too—a great scar across the neck and throat, where the old scrofula has healed up. More than one-half of the adult Indians on the coast have this brand, called by this name because of the frightful disease brought on this coast 100 years ago by the sailors from Boston under Captain Grey, and from Liverpool by Captain Vancouver, from Spain, An fact, all over the world, and spread by the employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company among the natives when after fur. The Russians did more than their share. The Yukon Indian is not like other North American red men; he is different in build, habit, and certainly inferior to the average Sioux or Chippewa, or other tribes of the North-west. He is more like the Jap; has the same complexion, beard, and hair, is a little taller, and not so clean. The people are light built, undersized, and great beggars. A few w'ork at boating and wood cutting, but generally they are lazy and indolent.

“There are less than 1000 big and little in the Yukon country and about 2000 dogs. The dog sleds and toboggans are the only things they have to move with; never a horse or ox. They never have vegetables unless eating with white men. Every tribe could raise vegetables at their summer camps if they would. They have good soil and every chance to raise radishes, lettuce, turnips and spuds, as white men are raising all of these here for market and their own use. The tribes are small, from twelve to fifteen families; they are found in places from 100 to 200 miles apart. They live near a stream or lake when at home, but when winter comes they go for fur and meat.

“They travel all winter with the whole family outfit of kids, dogs, squaws, and some old people, going from 200 to 500 miles on these winter trips, generally on a great circle. They stay a few days in a place, build new camps, and make new trails and find new game.

“They live on meat they kill, and fish they catch with nets.

“When good luck comes with meat or fish in plenty, they dry and smoke a large quantity and put it in log pens where nothing can get to it. This pen is called a cache. These Indians kill fur at all times of the year, except directly after selling their winter catch in March ; after that they have plenty to eat, so what is the use of trapping? They just lie about camp and smoke. One lad about 20 years of age, shot a black fox and sold it for $600. It was worth S1000 or $1200. He bought $200 worth of calico, tobacco by the caddy, and two blankets at 850 each.

“This young man, a full-blooded Indian, could talk a little English, wore hat, coat, and vest, short breeches and knee stockings, had a watch and chain and a new model Winchester rifle. They are inveterate gamblers, and will lose their last cent at cards, and don’t care, but keep coming to the limit.”

One day,1 intending to take a walk, I left my lodgings, the house standing on sloping ground, so that I had in the first place to descend about 10 feet over wooden steps, the descent after that continuing over a rather steep incline on a smooth surface of wood a few yards down to the street. It had been raining during the night and then freezing, so that to walk on the sloping wood was very dangerous, but with great care I got safely to level ground, also covered with wood. Indeed, all the streets and sidewalks of the place are covered with the same material, and where there was the least gradient, to walk on hoar-frost on wood was anything but pleasant. While walking slowly, I met an Indian and his squaw wheeling an old perambulator with something in it like an infant, and as I got nearer to them I saw that I had imagined rightly, as the little dark-brown creature looked up from a bunch of old clothes, and it appeared to be strapped down in the small vehicle. When they came to a certain part of the road they stopped, then turned to go down a steep path towards the sea, and as there were thick pieces of wood about 4 inches square laid across the path, well fixed to form a kind of steps, the small, light perambulator began to jolt, jolt, jolt, shaking the infant terribly. I was surprised it did not cry, but on talking over the matter to a party, I was informed that Indian infants seldom use their voice in that way, and in this instance it was true. After getting to the foot of these steps they turned into what I supposed to be a street, so that when I had walked on my way a few hundred yards I felt as if I would like to see the place, especially as by inquiry I was told that no people lived there but Indians. I therefore went down near to the sea, where a rather broad lane opened up to my view, 'and this was the street where Indians live on both sides of it. I was alone, but it being about the middle of the day I ventured to walk along the Indian dwellings, looking in through the small doors as I passed from one to another, and now and again I heard a voice something like that of a human being, while outside a few lazy-looking individuals strolled about, some of them gazing at me in a way I did not appreciate. Their houses or rather huts had no windows in the front, and I do not think there was much light from above, as looking at the inner part of their habitations all appeared dusky, and the putrid smell of fish issuing out from within and from half-rotten pieces hanging here and there outside made my walk anything but agreeable.

Indeed, it was a stroll I did not care to repeat, because there was much need for sanitary reform both in the huts and outside of them, and I was glad when I got to the end of the lane, which I think should be named Filthy Street. Leaving this locality, 1 soon found myself being refreshed by the cold pure air which is experienced in that part of the world, and after taking a survey of my surroundings I returned to my lodgings, glad to have a rest and take into consideration what my next move would be as to sight-seeing in Alaska.

Feeling a little fatigued I did not go out again that day, but there being plenty of books in the house I occupied my time in reading, and resolved, that if convenient for me to see some of the works of the great Treadwell Gold Mine, I would for that purpose go there the following day. After a refreshing sleep and a good breakfast I again got outside, and standing in front of the house door, the atmosphere being clear, I had a good chance from such an elevated standpoint to get a splendid view of what surrounded me far and near. At my back was a high mountain, from which heavy trees had been uprooted lying rotting; close by me on the right was the Treadwell Gold Mines at its base, thundering out their continuous roar from the acting power of the many ponderous engines at work ; on the left there could be seen a narrow, shallow opening between the mainland and Douglas Island, being an inlet of the great north-west Arctic Ocean ; and in front of me there was the Gastineau Channel, about 2 miles broad, on the opposite side of which I could see the capital of Alaska, namely, Juneau, nestling as it were on a flat area of considerable extent at the foot of a tremendous high mountain, the top of which appeared to pierce the clouds high up in the air, and being capped with snow the sight was beautiful, especially when glistening in sunshine.

On my way north to this region, I came to know how icebergs are formed, and it may be in place to mention it here. They are pieces of glaciers, the latter being enormous, bulky masses of a certain kind of ice, not like what we see produced in lakes or lochs, because a glacier is made up by the congealment of very lai ^e quantities of snow and water, and is formed gradually in a valley at the top of a mountain. It may be hundreds of miles from the sea, towards which it continuously creeps, it is thought, at the rate of about twenty inches in twenty-four hours, and thus it is called a “live glacier.” By the time it reaches the coast the projecting end of it may be a thousand feet or more in height. If it arrives at a high precipice and it has a fissure near its lower end, a piece is sure to break off and plunge in the sea below with a noise like thunder. But though there should be no cleft, in time a piece will fall, and so from many glaciers, by their own weight, hundreds of pieces may be falling about the same time, forming the numerous icebergs which are floating through the ocean. Back in the country it may be for thousands of miles away up in valleys near mountain ridges, glaciers are formed and fed continually.

After having such a reflective and interesting view from along the side of the mountain at my back, I took a look in wonderment at so many broken-down trees and stumps scattered in almost all directions, in some cases destroying the amenity of finely furnished houses both in the Treadwell and Douglas districts. By enquiring' about the state of affairs, I learned that a large number of the householders only make provision for comfort inside their houses, with the understanding that after they have saved enough money at gold-mining, they would settle down on farms or move away to southern cities, and so avoid the awful, stormy winter weather that is prevalent in these northern regions.

I was much pleased to notice that a friendly feeling predominates among the residenters, taking every precaution to save each other from danger, and often having their social meetings. During the summer months, great numbers of tourists are from time to time leaving cities and other places in the south and enjoying a trip north among the islands to Alaska, and by experience I am able to say much enjoyment. In Juneau, Treadwell, and Douglas, tourists and other travellers can have very good hotel accommodation, and private lodgings as well. No doubt owing to the length of time my son had been officially connected with the Treadwell Gold Mines, he had got acquainted with a great many people in the district, and that being so, it was a likely thing that some of them at least would ask me to accept of their hospitality, and it was often done. I was therefore at a number of parties during the seven weeks I was in the country, often meeting people who had travelled much, and from whom I received a deal of information, most of which being about hunting for gold. I often had a look at the works of the Treadwell Gold Mines, a part of which is called the “glory hole,” it being the face of a rock hundreds of feet high at which men standing on scaffolding and ledges drill and cut the stone in which the gold is impregnated—a rather dangerous kind of work, but it is wonderful to contemplate what some men will do for high wages. In connection with the works there is a fine large hall with a piano on the platform, a great size of a dining-room where hundreds of the miners can sit around the tables at the same time, which is a great boon to all the employees, and there is a store in which, according to the old saying, “ you can get from a needle to an anchor,” and there is a bakery, as also a butchery. Then for furnishing all sorts of material required for the works, there are all the different departments, such as the blacksmith, carpenter, and machine shops, etc., all of which I saw. At one place an engine was pointed out to me of eight hundred horse-power, used for the purpose of lifting and crushing rock.s to prepare it for the stamp mills, where along with water it is reduced to a pulp to run down over inclined, quicksilvered, metal plates which attract the gold and allow the sand and water to run off into the sea close by.

I noticed the crushed rock, otherwise named ore, being pounded to sand by stamps, hundreds of which move very rapidly up and down like steel battering-rams, and at a certain time these plates are cleaned by men who carefully scrape off the stuff attached to them, most of which is gold, and it is sent to another department to undergo another refining process, after which the whole is removed to the assay furnace. All this procedure I was allowed the privilege to witness, and by the authority of the official in charge I was permitted to enter the assay office to see the melting of the precious metal in the crucible. When I came to the door it was barred, but my son being along with me his voice was well known, so that through him I had no difficulty in entering the room. Here there were lumps of gold, large and small, lying in heaps, as also bricks of the same valuable metal, each of which I was told was about eighteen thousand dollars, or say £3000 sterling. I was very kindly received by those in charge of the work in connection with this department, one of them showing me to a comfortable seat from where I had a good view of the furnace, but the heat was such that I felt as if I were in an oven.

After I had been seated a little while, a man used a long-legged pair of tongs to open the door of the furnace, and with an iron rod he lifted a crucible having in it pieces of gold, and placed it in the furnace in the midst of flame, now and again opening the door with the same iron instrument, and with the tongs putting within the crucible a rough piece of gold.

The door of the furnace was then kept shut for a short time, when it was again opened for the purpose of getting out the crucible, the contents of which were in a state of ebullition or boiling. By block, tackle, and hooks, all of iron, it was carefully lifted out, and the yellow liquid by steady manipulation was poured into a mould, in which it became in a short time a cold, solid brick of pure gold.

After I had seen all this, I was asked if I would allow my photo to be taken, to which I replied in the affirmative, thus pleasing my son and others, and so a photographer was soon at the place and the likeness was quickly on paper, which can be seen in several houses in Alaska and British Columbia.

On Saturday evening, the 5th September 1908, I attended a lecture in the hall in connection with the mine, where moving pictures of places, people, and many other things were to be seen, and there were about 500 people present.

6th September 1908.—This being Sunday I was anxious to attend some place of worship, and therefore accompanied Mr and Mrs Coggins to the Roman Catholic church of which they are members, and on another occasion I had conversation with the priest who officiated, and whom they call Father. The only other churches in the district are the Congregational and Swedish; but as many of the people work on Sunday, neither of the churches is well attended.

8th September 1908.—I went to Juneau by the ferry-boat which plies between that port and Douglas Island. Many times during the day, I walked through some of the streets, which are all covered with wood of great thickness, and so are the sidewalks. A few miles up the country from the city, there is a gold mine which gives employment to a number of men, and Juneau being the capital of the territory, some wealthy people who have retired from business reside in it, and the houses, shops, warehouses, wharves, and other buildings are all constructed of wood.

Sitka was originally the capital, which is farther north at the base of mountains that are covered from their summits far down their sides with perpetual snow.

9th September 1908.—My daughter and her son left for Seattle by the United States steamer Jefferson, a fine large boat well fitted up for passengers, but as she does not call at Vancouver City, they must take a Canadian steamer back to that seaport, and from there go by train to Mission City Junction, a distance of 42 miles. From there they have to drive 2 miles in order to get to their home. Travelling in Alaska is at times very difficult, so that explorers require to be in possession of health, strength, and suitable clothing; and scenes can be better described after being surveyed closely than seen from a distance.

On the evening of this day, I spent a while in company with Mr D. Brown in his house, when he gave me much information about his duty as foreman in connection with an important department in the Treadwell Gold Mine; and after that I was alone with him and saw how the gold was separated from the quicksilver and made ready for the crucible.

I may mention here that when in Mr Brown’s house and having some music to amuse us, he asked me to play on the violin the tune “The Flowrers of Edinburgh,” as also the tune “Lady Mary Ramsay,” and sing the song “Put your shoulder to the wheel,” all in front of a phonograph, and I did it so that he might get the records. After a while, the same evening, Mr Brown reproduced the instrumental and vocal music just referred to from the same phonograph, and I was somewhat amused while listening to it, especially to my own voice, and I exclaimed, “That is wonderful! ”

The following day when taking a walk, I met a team of dogs in harness dragging a machine something like a small cart, and the vehicle was full of tin vessels filled with milk, the man in charge delivering it to hi^ customers as he passed from door to door. The animals were so trained as to be very useful in this way, and at times taking loads of goods, using their power just as horses would do.

On the same day I passed a saw-mill of rather considerable size, the machinery turning and pushing heavy logs to their proper places to the steam saw as if done by the hand, and a number of men were • employed at the works. Then in company with Mr Coggins I had a walk out to the suburbs of Douglas

City, where I was shown the cemetery, which was enclosed by a wooden fence, and in it lay the remains of people belonging to lands far away, and easily known by the names on the tombstones; but many graves were there with no tombstones of any sort. On another occasion I visited the Hospital, which is a rather large institution in charge of Sisters who are in connection with the Roman Catholic Church, .also the Chapel, both places so clean, well-furnished, and orderly as to speak volumes <n favour of those in charge. Along with my son and Mr Thomas O’Dea, I descended in a cage to the 1200 feet level of the Treadwell Gold Mine, and on the following day to the 1450 feet level, this being the lowest works in the mine. Both places appeared like so many railway tunnels in various directions, and the miners working at their respective posts—I came near two of them who were hard at work drilling holes into the rock by a machine, which at a suitable time they would fill with powder or some other explosives, when perhaps tons of ore impregnated with gold would by explosion come away at a time. In order to be able to say that I had assisted at the work, I was allowed to help in the drilling, and with a small pick I struck off a piece of the ore, which I keep as a memento of having been in the largest gold mine in the world. On arrival at the top of the shaft and into the office, where my son has to do with the books, I v as told that very few visitors had seen so much of the mine as I had. I may mention that 1 saw a number of horses there that are used for some kinds of work in the mine, and that a few of them had not seen daylight for 9 years; at least I was told so, and I noticed that they appeared quite contented with their quarters, and they were in good condition.

18th September 1908.—I attended a funeral, the service being conducted in the Swedish Church by a clergyman a native of Sweden.

20tli September 1908.—In a case of emergency my son was asked to take charge of an engine in what is called the 700 Gold Mine, and that was to let down and take up the miners, who work hundreds of feet below the surface; and as the greatest of engineering knowledge and care is indispensable at such times, it is understood that no one should be near the man in charge of the engine, in case his attention might be withdrawn from his important duty. As a favour, however, I was allow ed to be present, and very pleased to notice that all wrent on smoothly. Of course I took good care not to speak to my son as he let down and lifted up the cage full of men, and I was told that the miners have no fear when they know that he is at the engine.

Shortly before leaving Alaska, I had the privilege of having an interview with N. D. Kinzie, Esq., Superintendent of the Treadwell Gold Mines, and also with his brother. Our conversation was very enjoyable, and the latter gentleman kindly presented me with a fine book which I very much prize.

As in other places where public works give employment, accidents happen, so it is in connection with public works in Alaska, but with forethought much trouble can be avoided, and I was led to understand that the Treadwell Gold Mines stand high as to good management. One day when a man was up on a mountain in this Territory hunting, he shot a bear, which fell, and it lying stone-still he, thinking that it was dead, went to have a look at it, when it rose and tore him in pieces.

Now, had he exercised a little more discretion and fired a second shot to make sure that the brute wras dead, he would likely have saved his life; but he had not that forethought. Then another case, not far from where I was lodging: a number of Indian children were playing in a field, when an eagle swooped down in the midst of them and with its talons clutched one, and up in the air it went to its nest on some mountain.

A number of Indians went in search, having some knowledge of where the nest was, and after three weeks of climbing they found it with part of the body of the child lying in it; and, strange to say, they caught the eagle.

Eagles are very numerous in Alaska, building their nests on high mountains, and in certain seasons of the year they come down in flocks in search of prey to feed their young ones; and that being so, parents in Alaska should be all the more careful as to the safety of their infants.

And now before bidding adieu to Alaska, the following from the Vancouver News Advertiser may be read by many with some degree of pleasure— “Alaska’s Future, Washington Post. Alaska the Golden is becoming a land of rare surprises. Neglected and abandoned for years as an almost outcast territory, it is now rapidly coming into its rich and glorious heritage. If the present rate of progress is kept up for a decade, and there appeal’s to be no reason why it should not continue, Alaska will be found knocking for admission to the Union as one of its richest states. There is enough quartz and placer mining in Alaska to keep half a million miners busy for a century; there is sufficient coal, copper, and other minerals to keep busy another half-million miners for the same period; and strangest of all to the uninitiated, investigation has shown that the fertile valleys of the far north country will support 500,000 prosperous farms and homes. The Government agricultural station at Copper Centre has demonstrated that wheat, oats, barley, and practically all the common garden vegetables can be grown to perfection in the rich virgin soil of Alaska.

“Railroad development is all that is needed to bring about a wonderful transformation, and already lines of steel are penetrating into the new empire.”

Frederick W. Chase, in a current review, says:

“Alaska has more gold than ever had California, Australia, or South Africa; it has more copper than twenty Buttes; it has more hard coal than Pennsylvania ; and it has more tin than Wales. The hay that rots on its tundras and plains would fatten all the cattle that roam on the plains of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

“And there the wild, fertile, untouched plains and valleys await the axe, the spade, the plow, and the reaper of half a million American farmers. Three railroads are now being constructed from points on the Pacific Coast to the interior, and other projects now being built are the Alaska Central, from Seaward City; the Valdez-Yukon, at the head of Port Valdez; and the Copper River and North-western, at Cordova or Cordov Bay. The completion of any one of these roads to the Yukon means the opening to settlement of an agricultural and mining territory larger than Texas. But the primary object of the railroads is the development of copper and coal fields, said to be among the richest in the world. One of the bridges on the Cordova Road, it is stated by the engineers, will cost S2,000,000, good evidence that some one' believes 'in a rich and prosperous future for the territory. A new era is dawning for Alaska, and it may not be long before the vote from beyond the Arctic circle will be more or less a decisive factor in the election of a President of the United States.”

I notice that nothing has been said in the above about the fishing industry on the Pacific Coast and in the rivers, but I have from good authority that there is immense wealth in that line, and that halibut in particular can be had in very large quantities near the shore, and that small-sized ones in great abundance can be easily caught near the many beaches and inlets of the sea, when two men in a small boat can use their time to good purpose.

The Indians have no difficulty in catching lots of that sort of fish by using their canoes, and not far out from the land. The sea, as a fisherman said to me, “is just full of them,” also black cod, herrings, and other good edible fish are plentiful. A Red Indian and his wife, or as she is called squaw, will go off in their canoe, and perhaps take with them their baby, or as they call it their papoose, and bring on shore a quantity of small halibut in a very short time. The Indians are called red on account of their faces being the colour of copper, and both men and women part their hair on the middle of their foreheads and wear it long, and, as I saw it, always black until old age begins to make it grey.

Their eyes are also black, the nose straight, the cheek-bones high; and the squaws carry their babies on their backs fixed up in a long narrow box something like a small coffin. I had a look at the court-house, which is constructed of wood; and also the jail is a structure of the same material but rough, and on the door being opened I saw a coarse-looking man inside as a prisoner for stealing. I may here refer to the jail system in Alaska. I noticed in the Vancouver Daily Province of 19th March 1909, the following:— “Jails are not always deterrents of crime. In Alaska they have often induced it. If winter was coming on and work was slack, a man would sometimes look with longing on a warm cell and three square meals a day. To enjoy these luxuries was easy. He had only to buy a bottle of whisky for a dollar or two, and sell it to a native for five dollars. The red man would get drunk and would be arraigned in court.

On the judge’s promise of freedom, he would tell who sold him the liquor, and an hour later the white man would begin a term of four or five months in prison.

“This crime did not involve loss of reputation or social position. Jail discipline was easy, with enough work carrying coal or splitting wood to give an appetite for meals."

Alaskans tell of one jail where the boarders were allowed to come and go as they pleased. The jailer was sure of their turning up for meals at bedtime. If a ship was sighted making for the harbour, he would go into the street and say to the first four or five men he met, “ Say, if you see Limpy Johnson, or Red Smith, or Lebanon Charlie, or any of the boys, will you tell ^m to report at once? There’s a ship coming in, and she may have some of those pesky Government officials on board. Pass the word along, won't you?" Pretty soon Limpy, Red, and the rest of the crowd would be in their cells, to remain until the steamer departed. Once a prisoner, probably a new comer in the country, so far forgot his sense of honour as to run away. It rains eight or nine days in the week in South-eastern Alaska. After several days and nights without shelter, sleep, or food, the wretch was glad to drag himself back to the prison. “Serves you right," said the jailer roughly to the haggard fugitive, “I've a good mind not to take you ba .c at all."

Some of the jails I saw not only in Alaska but as also at some places in British Columbia were all constructed of wood, and it appeared to me that in the event of the inmates being anxious to get out there would not be much difficulty in accomplishing the exit;. The prisoner I saw, wno was in close quarters for stealing, seemed to be a man of such strength as to be quite able to make his escape; but Alaskan weather at the time was very severe, and no doubt he' thought it best to keep inside the jail.

30th September 1908.—As yet I have said little or nothing about the climate, and now before leaving this United States territory I wish to be honest in giving a true account of the kind of weather I experienced there. Mostly all the time as I came north by steamer, the sky was wonderfully clear, the wind being nothing more than to make one feel comfortable; and as there was little or no snow or rain, to sail among the island scenery was pleasurable; and although I had sailed round the world some years before and had seen much, I confess that this northern trip gave me more pleasure than any of the sea voyages I had experienced at any time before. I am inclined to think that a sail to Alaska will become the pleasure trip of many thousands of people in the future.

But as we got nearer to the land of the midnight sun the sky became cloudy, and the change of climate made me more inclined than before to put on my overcoat, and so I had to wear it every day I was in Alaska, as also thick boots to keep my feet warm and dry. Few days dawned without rain all the time I was in the country, so that like others I always took an umbrella in my hand at any time I had to be outside the house. In connection with this state of affairs I may mention that a commercial traveller from the sunny lands of the South came north on business, and after a few days of very wet weather he met some one on the street whom he addressed as follows: “Does it always rain here?” and the reply given was: “No, sir, it sometimes snows”; and indeed the answer was not far from the truth, because as a rule it is either the one or the other. He might have added, “It sometimes freezes very hard.”

1st October 1908.—There chanced to be no rain on this day, so I took a walk to Douglas Wharf to see what would be going on there, the stroll at the same time being a change from travelling day after day along the sides of mountains in rainy weather. As I was passing a certain part of the road, I came to a high tree which had been deprived of its branches, and in some way separating its roots from the stem. It was dead, standing in a perpendicular form, painted in various colours, and carved, showing the faces of human beings and very curious pictures.

It was so odd as to appearance that I made special inquiry about it, and found that many more of a similar size were to be seen in different parts of the country, and that the name of it is totem, whatever that may mean; and as such statue representations can be seen among other savage people, it is conjectured that the various figures that are carved and painted in so many colours are symbolical of families or tribes.

While visiting other places both in Alaska and British Columbia, I saw more of these totems, although not so tall, and the figures of beasts and birds as well as human faces and strange-like pictures were to be seen on them in great profusion.

While taking notice of these remembrances, I may mention that a great many tribes or races compose the Indians of America. Those along the Pacific Coast, some of whom I saw, form, as I was told, six or seven races different in many respects to the others.

How these different classes of people originated is a question which seems to baffle the most laborious inquirer after knowledge, and the language of one tribe is different from that of another. None of them have blasphemous words in their languages, so that they never swear any, and the most ugly expression having been heard used is, “Kai! kai! kai! tamowa squimag"—which in English means, “Die! die! die! you dog! ”

Some of the tribes are still very savage and cruel even to their wives, not less than the half of them having been purchased by chiefs to be slaves ; but since the Gospel began to be preached among these Indians, the very wicked custom of polygamy is being gradually numbered with the things that were. But apart from chiefs it was often the case for men in general to have two or four wives, and that often led to fighting and bloodshed, because many young men could not get wives, and thereby led reckless lives. Also, young women would rather become careless of themselves

than live with nasty men they did not like, so that the abolition of polygamy is helping to civilise and Christianise these Indians along the Pacific Coast known by the name of Swashes. This is likely an Indian word, but I do not know exactly what the word means. I rather think that, as the coast Indians were ready to plunder whenever they had a chance, the word is in some way associated with reproach. Some historians have characterised the Pacific Coast Indians as awfully savage—such as fighting and killing each other, and selling their little daughters to white men for whisky. While travelling through Vancouver Island, I was told that at one time the savages on the west side of it captured two vessels; the crew of one of them were imprisoned below before they should be put to death, but some way or another managed to blow the ship up, when hundreds of these natives who were on the deck were killed. The captain and four of the crew of the other vessel were murdered, but it chanced that those whose lives were spared got away with the ship. The wild savage look in the faces of the present generation is very observable; but they are under British law, and so surrounded with civilised and Christian people that they dare not show any indication of attack. Since they began to listen to the Gospel many of them have become Christians, and I could not but notice that the usual growl had given place to a smile. What a power there is in the word of God to make even a savage “a new creature in Christ Jesus.” Yes, as the poet has put it, and truthfully too, in the following lines:—

“Jesus, the name high over all In hell, or earth, or sky,
Angels and men before it fall,
And devils fear and fly.”

When at Douglas Wharf and taking a good look at my surroundings, I noticed two Indian women, one of them old and the other comparatively young, having little children with them, and in the most primitive fashion they were, with a line having a hook attached to the end of it with some kind of a bait, endeavouring to fish for small cod of a dark colour; but they appeared to put little value on time, as there they sat holding the line for a long time before they caught a fish, and they and the children looked happy in the situation.

4th October 1908.—This being Sunday, my son and I went in the evening to a very large room belonging to a Club of which he is a member, and he played on a piano which was standing on the platform some fine old psalm tunes that put me in mind of the praise sung in the parish church at home.

Owing to mostly all the men being employed on Sunday, there is little churchgoing, so that some people find the day wearisome—so much so, that meeting a certain person on one of these days I was saluted with the expression,—“What a mercy there is only one Sunday in the week! ” Being a little acquainted with this individual, I inquired if there were many marriages taking place in this part of the world, and the reply came quickly and with emphasis, “ Oh, no, and if it continues the generation will soon be played out.” I made the remark that it was a very terrible state of matters.

At the time I was in Alaska, a man residing close by my lodgings got into serious trouble about a marriage affair. He was a widower, had a good business, was possessed of considerable means, and wished to get settled again in married life.

In America, as well as in many other places, men through the newspapers advertise for wives, and women advertise for husbands, and a certain advertisement attracted this man’s attention so much that he replied, and so a regular correspondence with a view to marriage began. I was led to understand that he wrote for her photo and received it, and was so enraptured with her appearance that he made lip his mind that she was to be his wife. During the time of communicating with each other, it turned out that she got into some trouble and required assistance financially, which he had no hesitation in supplying.

This being done, it was expected that she was to leave her home in Canada to meet him at a certain place, but instead of that she wrote for more money to assist her before she could leave, and he remitted the sum fully expecting that she would come, but no, she did not, and he received a letter to the effect that she required to have another remittance of cash before she could be warranted in quitting her home to undertake such a long journey. She said if he would remit the sum, he could make sure to meet her at a certain railway station, on a certain day and hour she mentioned. This he did, the amount of the different sums he had remitted being, it was said, about £600, etc. On the day she was understood to arrive, a man was seen at a railway station in a certain city, and when the expected train came to the platform he was noticed first looking at a photo and then gazing at a lady, then again watching closely he took a look at the photo and immediately thereafter gazed at another lady, and again at others, after which he' left the station without having any person along with him. The last I heard of the matter someone informed me that he was looking out for a lawyer to take up his case to see if he could get back if it were but part of his money. So much for trying to obtain a wife or a husband by advertising in the newspapers, and it should be a warning to others.

6th October 1908.—I went to Douglas Wharf to see a young man who was leaving by the S. S. Dolphin for Seattle, but the place was so crowded that I could not get my eyes on him for some time, and just as I had seen in the Old Country as far north as the Shetland Islands, when young men had to leave their native country to seek employment in the south, so even here in Alaska young men leave the icy land of the north for the sunny land of the south, expecting to better their circumstances. While I was there to bid him goodbye and wish him much prosperity, some of his relatives, whom I noticed stood by his side on the wharf till the moment the steamer was about to start, reluctant to part with him, the tears trickling down over their cheeks, and one in particular there was his sister, a young girl evidently much affected in parting with her brother. I had in my lifetime witnessed many scenes of that kind, but this was the first that had come under my notice so far from Scotland while in the midst of Alaskan mountains capped with snow. Immediately after this the large steamer moved away on her return voyage to the big city of Seattle, United States, in which the Alaska Exhibition is to be held, commencing on the first day of June 1909.

Some months before I arrived in Alaska, a strike had taken place in connection with the Treadwell Gold Mines by a large number of the miners who were members of a Union, and the most of them were Slavonians.

This interruption to such important public works, to a very considerable extent interfered with the peace of the district, but there being hundreds of men who stood by the Company, and others arriving in search of employment, the workings of the mine continued, and on the 7th October 1908, 30 men came from Seattle to so far take the places of the strikers.

For a time the state of matters was rather serious, there being so many idle men moving about day and night, but no doubt owing to the vigilance of the police, there was not much disturbance, although at times it was much to be feared. As time went on the strikers became fewer in number, many of them leaving the locality in search of employment, and that led the people in the neighbourhood to feel more secure from danger.

13th October 1908.—I mailed a number of picture post-cards to friends in Shetland and elsewhere, the pictures being scenes in some parts of Alaska, including that of Indians, totem poles, and other curious sights not to be seen in any other part of the world. And now drawing near to the time when I have to leave this picturesque land of gold and many other resources, I shall endeavour to describe the aurora borealis as I saw it in the icy region of Alaska. One evening as I was taking a walk along with my son, he on a sudden stopped, and looking up in the north-east sky exclaimed, “Did you ever see anything like that in the vault above you before?” On looking at it I was startled and struck with awe, it first appearing as if the mountains in that direction were in a blaze, and the flame being reflected in the heavens, because the northern part of the sky was covered nearly to the zenith with what looked to be very great, immeasurable, moving, glowing tongues with a tinge of golden hue, and at times dancing as it were to some kind of heavenly music. At the time I was witnessing the phenomenon, the thought crossed m\ mind with reference to a statement which a pious lady made in my hearing when I was in Victoria, British Columbia. She said when in the midst of Christian people that she firmly believed there were music and dancing in Heaven. She and her husband had been for a long time much employed in connection with Indian Mission work, and having to be in their house all night I was pleased to see that they had family worship, and I listened to the lady praying, and I believe that she is a sincere Christian.

15th October 1908.—I was one of a social party spending a while of an evening in the house of a gentleman well acquainted with my son, there being in the company a young lady just arrived from Glasgow, Scotland, a few days before, in order to get married to a young gentleman who was also present, and a few hours were spent in a very happy way.

I was introduced to the bride, and I complimented her as to the courage she had shown in having accomplished such a long and dangerous journey to settle in Alaska, a country so very different to that she had left, and I said to myself in thought, “Surely, young man, you will be kind to that young lady, whose love for you has induced her to leave her father and mother and other relatives and friends in homeland, and place herself under your protection and power.” I think very few girls come from the Old Country to get married in Alaska, but a good many come to Canada for that purpose, and there are plenty of suitors for many hundreds more—English, Scotch, and Irish girls being specially attractive. Mr D. Brown, to whom I have already alluded, had just removed to a fine new residence, so that in accordance with a custom which is observed by the people in the locality he held what is called a “house-heating.”

That is, a number of friends are invited to a feast, when music and dancing, along with the interchange of sentiments and humorous jokes, form the principal part of the enjoyment, and I having received an invitation had much pleasure in being present, finding as I did the company to be very select and seemingly all acquainted with each other, and it was one of the happiest evenings I had spent in the country, no doubt arising from the fact that as the host and hostess were Orcadians and I a Shetlander, we felt as if we were in our native islands that lie close the one to the other in the North Sea of the Old Country, the people there being descendants of the same stock. This social party was on the 19th October 1908, being the day before I had to leave by the S.S. Princess May for Vancouver City, British Columbia, but, as she was not to sail till late at night or early the following morning, I had sufficient time to pack up my luggage and get to the wharf at Juneau, from which place the boat had to make her departure.

From the time I left home up to the present I had been transmitting sketches of my journey to the editor of the Shetland Times newspaper for publication, and I was busy now finishing some notes which I could post when in the steamer.

At 6 o’clock p.m., on the 20th October 1908, I took my last meal in Alaska at Mr P. Coggin’s table, where I had been well served all the time I had lodged in his house, and as we bade each other good-bye he said, “Mr Duncan, we will miss you.” Shortly after this, my son called, and bidding all the Coggins’ family good-bye, we lifted my luggage. We called on Mr Thomas M. O’Dea on the way, and he and Mrs O’Dea accompanied us, crossing to Juneau by the ferry-boat to kindly see me on board the Princess May, but as she was not to leave for some hours they bade me good-bye and returned by the ferry-boat to Douglas Wharf. I may mention here that Mr Neilson, proprietor of the Northern Hotel, called at Douglas Wharf to bid me good-bye, at the same time handing me a tangible token of friendship. Indeed, other friends with whom I had got acquainted—all very kind people—were sony I was leaving, and all of them appeared to be well acquainted with my son. I think that in the far north regions, such as Alaska, where civilised people congregate, the climate has the .effect of producing a kind of fascination to increase an affectionate feeling of a pure and honourable sort, and a willingness to help each other and encourage a desire to be friendly. Being informed that the boat was not to leave till 3 o’clock next morning, I put up at the Occidental Hotel along with my son. At the hour mentioned he saw me safely on board in a dark frosty morning, and in the midst of about four hundred passengers, mostly men leaving the gold-fields where they had been digging, and now coming south to have what they call a good time in Seattle or some other city during the winter.

In front of my stateroom door, my son and I bade each other good-bye very hurriedly, as all those not to be on the passage were ordered to leave for the shore; and my mind was again exercised as to the nature and effect connected with near and dear relatives meeting and parting.

An official of the United States Government and I occupied the stateroom, No. 5, and in a very short time, he having the upper berth and 1 the lower, we were both sound asleep enjojing our repose. We were ready for our breakfast when it was ready for us, and it not being our turn till the fourth table, we had plenty of time to wash and dress. The passengers were so numerous that the large dining-room tables could only admit one-fourth of the number to sit down at a time, so that during the day the bugle was sounded twelve times, there being breakfast, dinner, and supper allowed to the cabin passengers, the charges for which being included in the passage fares. Along with this, any passenger asking for a snack of anything before going to bed could get it from one of the stewards, but I did not notice much of that sort of calls. I noticed a few Indians and white men at the door of the steerage; but I made no inquiry how they fared, it appearing to me as if all the passengers there had their meals at the steerage tables.

We arrived at Wrangle at 5 o’clock p.m., and at that time I met the second officer, Mr Slater, a native of Shetland, and also Mr Calderhead, one of the engineers, both of whom I referred to while on the passage north. When at the wharf it was raining heavily, so that I did not feel inclined to go on shore; but we did not remain in port long, there being on that account scarcely any time to see much, even though the weather had been suitable.

Shortly after leaving, a head wind began to blow strong, a dark night was coming on, the sea was rising, dangerous narrows between islands had to be passed through, and that in connection with the fact that a large number of people were on board, the captain after consulting the other officers resolved to put back to Wrangle, and we lay there till daylight.

22nd October 1908.—Early in the morning we were under way facing a strong wind and a lumpy sea. This made the steamer bump and roll so much that some of the passengers became sick. I felt in no way indisposed, so that I was quite ready for breakfast; and that being so, the steward told me that as owing to sickness there were seats vacant at No. 3 table, that instead of waiting till No. 4 was ready I could be accommodated with a seat at the former, and I took advantage of the offer. During the day it was blowing a gale, but we called at Ketchican and took on board a quantity of fresh beef, leaving immediately thereafter in the midst of a downpour of rain. We arrived at Port Simpson at 9 o’clock p.m., in dark weather, and left about half an hour after, so that I had no chance to call on friends I wished to see there.

When fairly under way again, a large number of the passengers assembled in the saloon where the piano was standing; but no one appeared to come forward to play on it, when a gentleman came to me, and said: “Mr Duncan, excuse me, you see there are a great number of people seated and standing in this saloon no doubt expecting some amusement, but nobody comes forward to do or say anything, and so we are far from being cheery.

“Now we have heard you playing a tune once or twice on the piano, will you therefore please give us a little music on that instrument.” I told him that as I was far from being perfect as a pianist, I would rather give them a tune or two on the violin, if the instrument could be got. It so happened that a party on board had one, and it was very quickly placed in my

hands. It also chanced that there was a young gentleman in the saloon who could give me chords on the piano to any tune I would play on the violin. There was no dancing, but the Scotch music, slow and fast, that I played appeared to give much pleasure, especially to the Scotch people, and after a few recitations the entertainment was wound up by singing “Auld Lang Syne.”

It was now time for all who had to sleep to retire to their respective berths, so that in a very short time there was comparative quiet.

True the night was dark, the wind was howling, the big engines were producing a dull monotonous sound, and we were winding our way through narrow straits among many islands, but in the midst of all this I had a sound sleep, and in the morning felt much refreshed. Being often saluted by a few people who had no doubt taken a good look at me the night before, when I was giving them music from the violin, I enjoyed throughout the day a feeling of satisfaction that I had been the means of giving a little pleasure to the passengers on board the big steamer, while we were swiftly moving south along the Pacific coast.

23rd October 1908.—At about 1 p.m., we called at Hartly Bay, remaining there about half an hour, so that 1 had an opportunity of seeing the place, and found that the small houses which were with some taste constructed of wood could stand the sweeping storms that are prevalent along this part of the coast, because I saw that they were sufficiently fixed to the ground. There was a Roman Catholic Church standing close by these houses, and a number of people walking about, mostly Indians, and being partly civilised they were fairly well dressed.

At 4 p.m. the same day we called at Swanston’s Bay, where there was a saw-mill and a large quantity of timber and shingles to be seen, and shortly after leaving there we began our course along the east coast of Vancouver Island, said to be 350 miles long, and the Princess May being a twin-screw boat, she was going at the rate of 15 knots an hour.

24th October 1908.—We met several steamers and small sail boats, and fog like large clouds came rolling down the sides of mountains, drifting trees were numerous, and as we passed I noticed opening after opening between these tremendous high mountains, being the entrance of wide and long valleys, many of which are populated with industrious farmers who are owners of large quantities of land. There was no smoking nor drinking allowed in the steamer except in a certain room set apart for the purpose, so that there was not the least disturbance on board, and the stewards and stewardesses and other servants in the boat were most obliging.

We arrived at Vancouver City about 8 o’clock at night, the bustle and commotion connected with such a large number of passengers in the darkness being somewhat troublesome, as they endeavoured to get on the wharf with their luggage; but on getting there I met my daughter, Mrs W. J. Manson, who assisted me, she having travelled about 50 miles by rail and coach so as to accompany me to her home near Mission City. We were glad to meet each other, and drove to the Strand Hotel, where we put up for the night, and after supper I had one of the most refreshing sleeps I had experienced for some time. After breakfast we attended the Congregational Church, being glad to reverence the Sabbath, and strange to say the first hymn given out to be sung commenced with the words as follows:

“Our God, our help in ages past,
Our hope for years to come,
Our shelter from the stormy blast,
And our eternal home.”

The above words were so appropriate in my case,

I having just arrived from the exposure of a sea journey from Alaska, considered to be dangerous when so far on in the year, that I took special notice of these lines of praise in beginning the service.

Immediately after attending church, we called on Mr William Manson, who had lately come from Leith, Scotland, now settled in Vancouver City, and being a Shetlander with whom we had been acquainted we were much pleased to see each other, and we were hospitably entertained by him and Mrs Manson, she also being a native of Shetland.

We then, according to appointment, went to dine with R. R. Maitland, Esq., a gentleman of the city, where we were very kindly received. After this we took the train to Mission City, 42 miles distant. The scenery as we passed along, consisting of mountains, streams, trees, farms, farmhouses, and river, was magnificent. On arriving at the station, a vehicle belonging to my son-in-law was there in charge of his manservant, to take us a few miles in the country' to our destination, and we arrived in good time for supper. Thus my Alaskan voyage by land and sea was accomplished without injury in any way, and the scenes and sayings of the journey while going, remaining in the country seven weeks, and returning, I can never forget so long as ray memory stands good. Feeling 'a little fatigued, I was glad to get to my bedroom to enjoy the quiet, far away from the din of city life, the rattling noise in steam-boats, the loud rumbling roar of heavy vehicles, the sound of powerful engines, and hundreds of the gold-mine stamps, working day and night like battering-rams perpendicularly placed, crushing the ton lumps of rocky ore into sand. Yes, although pleased that I had carried into effect my resolution to visit Alaska, I was nevertheless thankful that it was over, and I think that it is only my duty to say that while a voyage to Alaska and back is very attractive, and I doubt not at times

enjoyable, as I found it to be, still there is exposure to change of climate sometimes of a severe nature, and therefore the voyagers require to have healthy constitutions and youthful vigour, in order to overcome the difficulties connected with the rough travelling they may have to encounter, more particularly on the land. If they chance to be there late in the season, not long after the time I was there, they may find themselves in the midst of ice, snow, rain, and now and then blizzards of such a nature as to be dangerous outside of a house. As a man told me when I was north, the force of these blizzards is such that one feels as if everything were being blown off the face of the earth.

26th October 1908.—After a refreshing sleep, I began to look round, wondering if I should commence to copy my notes from a memorandum book with a view to publication of the same in book form.

I felt somewhat encouraged to publish, owing to the fact that I had been the writer of a volume some years ago—it being my own experience—entitled Journal of a Voyage to and from Australia amongst Emigrants, and that the book had been so favourably received by the public that thousands of copies have been sold.

I therefore made up my mind to begin to revise and write anew all that I had noted from the day I left Shetland. After attending to some correspondence, the first few pages were written at intervals, after which I kept more closely with the pen, writing day after day when not travelling during the winter months. Sometimes I attended public meetings in the locality of my lodgings, and herewith is a copy of one of the invitations I received from between 40 and 50 miles distant. It was written by Mr James A. Tait, a native of Shetland, and the following is mostly all that was said.

“Metropole Hotel, Vancouver. B.C., 5th February 1909,

“Mr Sinclair T. Duncan, Mission City, B.C.

“Dear Sir,—I enclose herewith a card which is self-explanatory. The Orcadians and Shetlanders of Vancouver are to hold a social gathering here on the 11th inst., and it is the unanimous desire of the Shetlanders here that you should attend.

“They have deputed me to write to you, and hold forth to you and Mr and Mrs Manson and family a most cordial invitation to be present, and if you can possibly come we will be overjoyed.”

I talked the matter over with my daughter, Mrs Manson, in the absence of her husband, who was in Victoria attending to his duties in the Provincial Parliament, and we two resolved to go. So on the morning of the day mentioned in Mr Tait’s letter, we drove to Mission City railway station, distant 2 miles, then took train to Vancouver City, 42 miles distant, and on arrival met Mr Tait and other Shetlanders in the hotel where we had to put up all night. The meeting was to take place at 8 p.m. in one of the large halls in the city, thus giving us plenty of time to look round and get a view of the improvements being made in the place, especially in the way of building houses. Amongst these there was in course of erection a new post-office of an immense size, and ornamental as well. In good time I entered the hall, and Mrs Manson with some friends were to follow, and as I stepped into the lobby of the building, I was surrounded with natives of Orkney and Shetland, each one ready to hold out a hand of welcome. Amongst others Mr Tait, already mentioned, was there, also Mr William Manson, a Dunrossness man, at one time manager of a business in Fair Isle, and as I said before, lately from Leith.

But I must not omit to mention the name of one who gave me an agreeable surprise, and that was Mr John Sinclair, junr., from Maywick, Shetland, and as we clutched each other’s hands I made the remark —“Do you remember when I was a member of the County Council of Shetland, how I fought to get the Maywick people a road?'’

This remark made us both laugh the heartier, after which I was introduced to his wife, a cheerful lady, a daughter of Mr James Bain, .tailor and clothier, Lerwick.

She was very fond of conversation, and I promised that if I were spared to reach home, I would call on Mr Bain and say that I had enjoyed the pleasure of seeing her and her husband in this far-away land, and that sentiment seemed to please her very much.

I was also introduced to a son of Captain Gray, harbourmaster, Lerwick, and many others whose names I feel sorry I cannot remember. When all were seated, I took a glance at the assemblage, the number appearing to be about 200, and I think there were as many ladies as there M ere gentlemen, all beautifully dressed.

Mr Slater, a gentleman from Orkney, occupied the chair, and was the very life of the meeting. There was a well got-up programme of vocal and instrumental music, also speeches and recitations. During the time, I was asked by the chairman if I would come to the platform and say a few words, as he knew the company would be very pleased to see me and to hear my voice; so I stepped forward, and I think the people were pleased with what I said. After this, supper was served in a spacious room of the hall, in which there were three long tables loaded with a supply of what was good to the taste and nourishing.

When the supper was over the dancing commenced, the floor being occupied with dozens of ladies and gentlemen at a time, all of the bright, cheery, Scandinavian type. One married lady, with whom I had conversation, was a native of Iceland, and her husband, with whom I also conversed, was an Orcadian. I had been at many meetings of the kind, but I think this one was the best, which was no doubt arising from the fact that we were far, far away from the fatherland, and anxious to make each other happy. I reluctantly had to leave at the dawning of the next day, but I was informed that the entertainment continued until the early hours of the morning. Several Shetlanders saw us off at the train the following day for Mission City, and on getting to my lodgings, the journey added about another 100 miles to what I had travelled since leaving Shetland.

9th March 1909.—I transmitted the following to the editor of the Shetland Times for publication:— “Placed as I am at a writing-table, revising and copying my notes, it occurred to me that I might send a few lines of news to the Shetland Times, so that not only in Shetland and other places in the Old Country, but even here, friends whom I have seen in various places in British Columbia, and who read the paper, will see that I am not on my homeward journey at this date.

“I may, however, be on my way to Montreal before this comes under the notice of those in this country and Alaska, and I may mention that if spared to reach Edinburgh I may have to remain in that city for two or three weeks, putting up at Buchanan’s Hotel, High Street, before proceeding to Shetland.

“My son-in-law, Mr W. J. Manson, who is likely to accompany me, is at present in Victoria attending to his duties in the Provincial Parliament; but it is likely I will see him in the course of a few days, when I may know more about the time we are to leave. I have lately had a visit from a granddaughter I had never seen before, she having travelled all the way from the far north of North-west Territory, Canada, taking several days on stage and rail, and she only sixteen and a half years old. I was upstairs in my room when she called, and a servant girl came to the door and said—‘Mr Duncan, your granddaughter, Mary Leisk, is in the house wishing to see you.’ I was not long in getting to the foot of the stair, and there she was, blooming like a rose, tall for her age, and smiling. I had never seen her before, so we looked hard and lovingly at each other, and what followed as to strong feelings of affection I leave the reader to imagine. She was on her way to Vancouver Island to her relatives in Nanaimo, and after a while she intends to return home, and I think get qualified for teaching in a Government school. Her father, James Leisk, and her brother John, have between them 320 acres of good land which is their own, and a great part of it under crop. They have just finished building a fine large house, but I will be better able to give a description of the place after seeing it, as I intend to do on my way home. I noticed the other day one of the most entrancing sights I ever witnessed. It was in the forenoon, just as the sun was ascending to the meridian, his rays striking the sides and tops of the mountains capped with snow, and I was standing at the side of a wide part of the great Fraser River, which was looking like an inland sea, smooth and peaceful; when on a sudden, thousands of pieces of ice came floating down, glancing in the sunshine like so many large patches of silver, no doubt come from a long, long way up the country, and now seeking their way to the ocean. I stood looking at the wonderful sit<. it for nearly an hour, and the pieces of ice continued to come, as it were, from an inexhaustible fountain.

“Warm weather is now setting in, inducing many people to prepare the ground for many kinds of seed; but it appears strange to me to be surrounded with mountains covered with snow a long way down from their summits, while at their base fields are being ploughed. I notice also that the branches of trees begin to turn green, making the view appear something like summer and winter at the same time.”

21st April 1909.—This is my birthday, having reached the eighty-second year of my age, enjoying good health, and as I have been asked by my relatives in Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, to visit them again before setting out on my homeward journey, I travelled by coach and rail from an inland district in the mainland about 50 miles to Vancouver City in order to cross the Gulf of Georgia by the S.S. Joan.

I met my son-in-law—Mr Laurence Manson—on board the boat, and I, having travelled much since the time I had seen him last, we enjoyed each other’s company as the vessel ploughed the waters of the Pacific westward. I may mention here that what strengthened my resolution to return to Vancouver Island was the desire to see more of that part of the country which is of such great resources, and meantime I give herewith the following from the Nanaimo Herald of 24th February 1909:—“Mr Charles H. Lugrin, writing in yesterday’s Colonist, has an interesting and instructive article on Vancouver Island. It is surprising how little a number of the residents know of the geography of this island, and to this class especially the following article should be of special interest.

“Vancouver Island has an estimated area of 15,000 square miles, but in this are included the numerous small islands lying near its shore, which, however, are to all intents and purposes a part of the mainland. Its dimensions are as follows:—

“From north to south, that is, from Cape Commerell to the Race, is, according to the Admiralty Chart, 230 geographical miles, or approximately 270 statute miles.

“The greatest width of the island is from Esteren Point on the west coast to Chatham Point on the east coast, and it is 86 statute miles. The least width is between Rupert Arm of Quatsino Sound on the west and Hardy Bay on the east, and is under 9 miles.

“The circuit of the island is approximately 530 statute miles, but so deeply is the coast indented by arms of the sea, and so numerous are the islands which, as has been said above, substantially form a ring of the main island, that the coast-line measured y all its sinuosities and around the minor islands is 7000 miles long, of which five-sevenths are on the west coast.

“The indentations are such that it has been said by Mr W. J. Sutton, probably the best general authority in regard to matters relating to the measurement, and whose figures for the coast-line I have just quoted, that no part of it is more than 20 miles from the sea.

“Of these indentations the principal are Barkley Sound and its prolongation Alberni Canal, the Muchalat Arm, and Flupana Arm — which are extensions of Nootka Sound—Zeballos Arm, and Espinosa Inlet— which are extensions of Kyuquot Sound—Quatsino Sound with its three branches, namely, the South Arm, Rupert Arm, and West Arm, and Saanich Arm, with its extension known as Finlayson Inlet. There are many others, and in addition numerous harbours ; but these will be considered later, the object at present being to give a general idea of the topography of the island.

“Speaking generally, the west coast is rugged and mountainous, the east coast having a more gradual slope towards the water. The mountain range which forms the backbone of the island lies nearer the west coast, sending out spurs to the former.

“It is by no means of uniform altitude. Some of the principal elevations may be given—

“The conspicuous peak visible from Victoria over the Sooke Hills is 2188 feet high; Mount Prevost, near Duncan, 2637; Mount Benson, near Nanaimo, 3366 feet; Mount Moriarity, due west of Nanaimo about 20 miles, 5185 feet; Mount Arrowsmith, south of Cameron Lake, 5970; the highest is the Beaufort Range, 5420 feet, a range about 20 miles west of Comox, averaging from 6000 to 7000 feet; Crow Mountain, near the north-western corner of the E. and N. Railway lands, 6082 feet; Victoria Peak, about 20 miles north-west of Crown Mountain,. 7484 feet; Mount Karmutzen, near the lake of same name, 5500 feet; Twin Peaks, about 15 miles south-west of Port M‘Neil, 4520 and 4630 feet respectively; Garibaldi Peak, 4416 feet; Snow Saddle, 4150; and several other peaks ranging from 3000 to 4000 feet around the head of the arms of Kyuquot Sound; an unnamed peak near Zeballos Arm, 5795 feet; Corunna Peak, 4887 feet; and several peaks on either side of Canton George, reached from Nootka Sound, varying from 4400 to 5000 feet. Several peaks near Muchalat Arm range from 2000 to 4895 feet; an unnamed peak at the head of Herbert Arm, 4580 feet; and one near Bedwell Sound, 4300 feet; the peaks along Albemi Canal, which vary from 2000 to 3500 feet; the House Cone, north-east of Carmanah, 2500 ; and others.”

“These elevations are taken from the Admiralty Chart.

“The island may be traversed from east to west by routes apparently favourable to a line of railway in several places. Of these, the most southerly is from Victoria to Sechart or Banfield creek, at the southern side of Barkley Sound.

“The next route towards the north is by way of the Cowichan River and lake to Alberni Canal, which is that adopted for the E. and N. Railway for its extension to Alberni. The next in order are from Comox to Alberni Canal; from Chatham Point to Nootka Sound; from Albert Bay to Tashisli Arm; from Hardy Bay around the head of West Arm to Winter Harbour at the outlet of Quatsino Sound.

“Other routes may exist through the mountain chain, but these are sufficient to show that there is nothing like an insurmountable barrier separating the two coasts of the island. The east coast of the island is easily traversable by a railway for its entire length; the west coast is impassable. It is possible that a feasible route can be found longitudinally through the centre or near the centre, but of this more M ill be said when the question of railway is specially discussed.

“It will be seen from what has been said that the whole island with all its great stores of natural wealth can be readily made accessible by both land and water transportation. This seems to oe one of the first and most important points to be settled.”

Resuming my birthday journey, immediately after arriving at Nanaimo, Mr Manson and I walked along witnessing again what it is to be in a city, and 011 entering the door of his residence, my daughter— Mrs L. Manson—received me in her usual kind way, and my grandchildren there rallied round me with a look of welcome, putting me in mind of the time when I saw them first in British Columbia. I again felt myself at home, feeling sure that my near and dear relatives were glad to see me back, and I was shown to the same bedroom I used to occupy before. I rested there for a little while, my thoughts being mostly about family affairs, and I reflected as follows:—I compared the life of a married man with that of a bachelor, at the same time taking a serious retrospective view of my own experience during the 55 years I was married. Although at times I had suffered much as to family affliction and other troubles, I had, on the other hand, been favoured above many as to home relationship and now to have children all well and doing well, as also grandchildren and great-grandchildren, making me as I believe much happier than bachelors, I considered the married state to be the best. True, the unmarried men may have less anxiety and less labour, but when they grow old and in certain positions may need sympathy, it may happen that no one will give it, so that the old bachelor may find when too late that he made a great mistake in not getting married.

On getting back to the parlour, my own kith and kin surrounded me again, my birthday presents being there for my acceptance, and the youngest member of the family, my grandson Douglas, as ready as anyone to present a token of love for his grandfather. I felt very happy in being the recipient of such great kindness, and after a few words of grateful thanks to the donors, conversation commenced and was continued till a late hour, when we all went to dreamland.

On Friday evening, the 30th April 1909, I was still in Nanaimo, and listened to Miss Lena Duthie in the Opera House. She being from Aberdeen, also styled the “Queen of Scottish Song,” and that she was to sing some of the national songs of Scotland and Ireland and give character sketches of both classes of people, a great crowd gathered in the building. Her singing was exquisite, while in connection with the two countries the anecdotes she related were amusing. One of these was about an Irishman drawing a cork out of a bottle, and finding it very difficult to move, he exclaimed, “Shure and it must come out though I should shove it in.” She appeared first in Highland costume, and to the great satisfaction of the audience sang the following songs :—“Annie Laurie,” “There Grows a Bonnie Briar Bush,” “Oh, Wally Wally Up the Bank,” “The Barrin’ o’ the Door,” “The Skye Boat Song,” and “MacGregor’s Gathering.”

Then in Irish peasant costume she sang as follows:— “Come Back to Erin,” “Barney O’Hea,” “Kathleen Mavoumeen,” “ ’Tis the Last Rose of Summer,” “Rory O’More.”

Lastly, in fishwife’s dress, she sang “Caller Herrin,” “There’s Nae Luck Aboot th’ Hoose,” “Oh, Can Ye Sew Cushions?” and “Coinin’ Thro’ th’ Rye.”

I could easily see that the Scottish and Irish people in Nanaimo were largely patronising the performance, and several of them, having learned that I had lately come from Scotland, spoke to me at the conclusion of the entertainment.

I shall now give the particulars of an interesting journey by two British newspapermen who travelled on foot from sea to sea across America. I noticed an account of it in The Vancouver Daily News Advertiser of 9th February 1909, and it appeared to me so wonderful that I took a note of it. The names of the men are E. N. Clark and Leo Marchant, who left Quebec on the 8th August 1908. and travelled to Montreal in 8^ days, the distance being 246 miles; from Montreal to Ottawa 136 miles in 3| days; Ottawa to Toronto 306 A- miles in 10 days; Toronto to Sudbury 300 miles in 8 days; Sudbury to Port Arthur 552 miles in 20 days; Port Arthur to Winnipeg 430 miles in 10| days; Winnipeg to Moosejaw 398 miles in 18| days; Moosejaw to Medicine Hat 261 miles in 8 days; Medicine Hat to Calgary 180 miles in 5| days ; Calgary to Banff 82 miles in 3 days; Banff'to Revelstoke 181 miles in 8 days; Revelstoke to Vancouver 279 miles in 20 days. I was informed that the two men set out on the journey without money and food, so that highwaymen would find nothing on them to rob, am! they carried no firearms or any kind of dangerous weapons.

With the exception of tramps, who gave them some trouble, they were allowed to pass along unmolested, and received enough to eat as they passed from stage to stage on the railway track.

On looking up my notes, I notice that on the 11th January 1909 there was earth-trembling felt at Mission City Junction, B.C., the earthquake tremor as I experienced lasting about a second of time. It is, however, a very exceptional tiling to be hearing of an earthquake in British Columbia, but sure enough I heard it, as also did others in the locality at the same moment.

On Monday, the 22nd March 1909, I saw for the first time very large stumps of trees being uprooted by means of powder in snug paper parcels or packages called sticks, of one pound weight each.

An experienced man was there directing the work of digging a tunnel-shaped hole under each stump, and two or three were to be blown up at the same time. When the holes were finished, he placed two, three, four, and if the stump was very large five, or more sticks of powder under the centre of the stump on the bottom of the dug-out space, and placing the fuse near it he began to fill in the earth, priming it hard with the end of a heavy stick of wood. That being done he cut the fuse, leaving a small bit outside, and setting fire to it by a match he warned all present to run away a few hundred yards by singing out in a loud voice, fire, and in about ten minutes off went the shots, tearing up the roots, parts of which flew high up in the air and fell to the ground with much force.

On the same land I noticed that a man who is called a teamster had been employed to haul away these stumps by a team of two heavy horses, at times requiring all their strength to drag the bulky lumps of wood to a place to be burned when dry enough for that purpose.

All this kind of work is attended with so much expense that in many cases the uprooting is done by manual labour by the owner of the land, he becoming in time fully persuaded that the benefit resulting from such hard work will likely be more enjoyed by the succeeding generations than by himself.

In order to become a proprietor in Canada the following from The Nanaimo Daily Herald may be useful to the reader:—“ Synopsis of Canadian Homestead Regulations.”—“ Any available Dominion Lands within the Railway Belt in British Columbia may be homesteaded by any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male over eighteen years of age to the extent of one-quarter section of 160 acres more or less. Entry must be made personally at the local land office for the district in which the land is situate. Entry by proxy may, however, be made on certain conditions by the father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or sister of an intending homesteader.

“The homesteader is required to perform the conditions connected therewith under one of the following plans:—

“(1) At least six months’ residence upon and cultivation of the land in each year in three years.

“(2) If the father (or mother, if the father is deceased) of the homesteader resides upon a farm in the vicinity of the land entered for, the requirements as to residence may be satisfied by such person residing with the father or mother.

“(3) If the settler has his permanent residence upon farming land owned stead, the requirements as to residence may be satisfied by residence upon the said land.”

Six months’ notice in writing should be given to the Commissioner of Dominion Lands at Ottawa of intention to apply for patent.

“Coed.—Coal-mining rights may be leased for a period of 21 years at an annual rental of $1 per acre. Not more than 2560 acres shall be leased to one individual or company. A royalty at the rate of five cents per ton shall be collected on the merchantable coal mined.”

The above was signed by W. W. Cory, Deputy of the Minister of the Interior, and many readers intending to settle on land in British Columbia may find it somewhat valuable to peruse.

On the 3rd April 1909, I witnessed a marriage in a private house 2 miles distant from Mission City Junction, no proclamation being thought necessary by the law in British Columbia. A Government Licence, however, must be produced by the bridegroom and examined by the officiating clergyman be/ore the nuptial knot can be tied, and this having been found all right, and the promise of love, faithfulness, and obedience having been expressed by the bride and bridegroom in the presence of witnesses, the marriage ceremony was carried through in the usual way. The bride had been a servant in the house, so that as a token of respect the guests and newly married couple were entertained to luncheon, after which the wedded pair set out on their honeymoon tour.

On the 22nd April 1909, I had the pleasure of being present at a banquet held in the Wallace Street Methodist Church, Nanaimo, in honour of the 50th Anniversary of Methodism in that city. It turned out to be a most interesting meeting, both in regard to sumptuous feasting and speeches, and the Rev. Ebenezer Robson, D.D., who was the first pastor of that church, was one of the speakers. He had been a great pioneer in Church work among the Indians and others, so that he had much to say about what he had seen, heard, and done while travelling through the country so long, and some of the anecdotes he related were so humorous as to draw a smile from the most sedate in the company.

One thing he told about being in the midst of Indians was very amusing, and was as follows:—He said that when among those mid people, he kept a good supply of medicine, amongst which he had laxative pills, and one day a big chief came into his room and clutched a parcel of these pills, and thinking that it was them that made the white men so strong, he swallowed the whole lot.

The following day he was to come back, he said, but there was no word of him till a few days after, and when he came he looked most miserable, and had it not been that some of the pills he swallowed were of such a nature as to counteract the injurious effect of the others, the chief would have been dead.

On the evening of Sunday, the 2nd May 1909, my grandson, W. R. Manson, had to preach in the Methodist Church at a place called Extention, about 8 miles south of Nanaimo, and the weather being fine, I accompanied him in a nice conveyance. The country through which we passed was much wooded, but a good road had been constructed, so that the journey was pleasant; and as we entered the village I observed some people sitting or moving listlessly about the doors of their houses, and a number of children fairly well dressed, by all appearance going to church. The employment of the men is coal mining, but some parts of the land are cultivated mostly for the purpose of growing vegetables for family use.

Saturday, the 22nd May 1909, I was busy answering letters and copying notes from my memorandum book, but on Wednesday previous I was at a place called Duncans, a fine farming district in Vancouver Island, about 40 miles north of Victoria. My daughter, Mrs L. Manson, and her little boy Douglas were along with me, in order to enjoy the trip by rail to see Mr Robert M. Colvin, who had kindly given us an invitation to spend a while with him and his family, who reside on a farm in a fine new house near Cowichan River, one of the best streams in the island for salmon. According to arrangement he met us at Cowichan railway station, which is about 2 miles from his house, and one of his sons was with him in charge of a conveyance to take us over what proved to be a well-made road to the residence. On our way we called at his brother Thomas’s house, and saw his wife, who had been out from the north part of Shetland only about eighteen months, when on her arrival they got married.

Her husband was not at home, but she was glad to see us, and on our return she said we would likely see him at the house or at the railway station.

After a short stay we drove on to Robert’s house through a beautiful part of the country, the most of the land, as I was told, belonging to Robert and his brother Thomas, and I think another brother deceased had owned some of it.

In all I understand it is 580 acres, part of which is cleared, and the enclosure, fencing, and buildings are both substantia] and ornamental.

I may mention that Mr Colvin is a native of Leven-wick, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, and that he is not only a farmer, but he is also a Government official in connection with the fishing industry; and it fortunately happened that the day we were at his house a large quantity of trout fry in iron tanks full of water had arrived from a hatchery at New Westminster to be put in the river near a certain part of his farm, and we had the pleasure of seeing the mites of fishes, only about an inch and a half long, being put into their new flowing and feeding stream of water. I noticed that they were no sooner in than they began to seek their way up through the river.

In order to get to a ledge of a rock at the side of the river where it was safe and suitable to plunge the trout fry in the water, we had some difficulty in getting to the place, having to descend a very precipitous part of the ground along the river bank; but in order to witness such a sight I did not grudge the fatigue, and although the long winding track among trees and shrub was new to me, I had at my side Miss Mary Colvin as a guide, sometimes having to take hold of her hand, and we all got to the place and back safely. We were received in the house with great kindness, Mrs Colvin and her two accomplished daughters enlivening as they did the company with cheer, as we all sat at a sumptuous table, at the head of which was Mr Colvin, evidently enjoying the pleasure of the social and friendly meeting, often inquiring about his father and mother and other relatives I had seen shortly before I left the Old Country. We enjoyed our visit very much, and the entertainment was finished with vocal and instrumental music, the latter from the piano and violin. After promising that if possible I would see them all again before leaving for home, we bade them “good-bye,” and Mr Colvin with his vehicle accompanied us to Cowichan railway station, where we met Mr Thomas Colvin who was waiting there to see us; and we also met Mr Robert Colvin’s twin daughters as they were coming from school. A few minutes after we got to the station, the train from Victoria arrived on its way to Nanaimo, and on taking our seats we were soon on our way to the latter city in the midst of a large company of passengers. When we arrived at Ladysmith my son-in-law, Mr L. Manson, boarded the train, he having been there on business—his presence thereby adding to our enjoyment. We all arrived at Nanaimo in the best of spirits, quite please 1 that we had seen our Shetland friends and enjoyed such a pleasurable trip. I have more invitations from friends in different parts of the country to come and see them, and when I move eastward to the old home in Shetland, I may visit some of them on the way.

I was in the city of Nanaimo on Monday, the 24th May 1909, witnessing the many sports in connection with the celebration of the birthday of Queen Victoria. The weather at the time was exceptionally fine, so that I had every chance to see all the games, and the many thousands of people who turned out dressed in their best to visit the grounds and honour that deceased and much beloved national supreme ruler. I don’t think I ever saw a people more loyal to a sovereign, not only by a display of flags, but adorning themselves and their children with ribbons of red, white, and blue, and I noticed many of the Indians exhibiting the same token of loyalty. Some of these dark natives, both male and female, when witnessing races either by runners on the land or at a regatta will bet, and sometimes sums of money change hands in that way among them on such occasions, even to an amount which white people would scarcely imagine, and as I have seen, the Indian is ready to hand over the money he may lose.

I lately visited Wellington, which is a fine district of country in Vancouver Island about 8 miles from the east coast. The road on which I drove was one of the best, while nice houses surrounded with fruit trees on each side made the trip very agreeable. In the locality, where there is a Methodist Church, I was privileged to attend a service, my grandson, W. R. Manson, being the preacher.

From that part of the country I got a fine view of Mount Benson, being only a few miles distant to the south, and I could see that although the season was nearing June still snow was lying on the top of it, while in the valley where I was standing the weather was very warm.

I accompanied my grandson in his machine to Nanaimo, and received from him the following list of newspapers, for which he and his father subscribe:— Nanaimo Daily Free Press, Nanaimo Dully Herald, Victoria Daily Colonist, Victoria Semi-Weekly Times, Western Methodist Recorder, Vancouver Daily Province, Weekly Sunset, Weekly Herald and Family Star, Canadian Grocer, Dry Goods Record, Dry Goods Review, Commercial, Pottery Journal, Mining Record, San Francisco Examiner, Shetland Times, Onward Sunday School Paper, Pleasant Hours, Playmate, Dew Drop, Missionary Bulletin, The Pioneer, Nanaimo Sun, Etude, Lord's Day Advocate, Musician, White Ribbon Bulletin, Ladies’ Home Journal, Ladies' World, Circle, Lux Columbia, Sunday School Banner, War Cry.

When the white people first found their way to the Pacific Coast, they were often in danger of their lives by the attacks of the Indians, so that it became necessary to construct fortifications of a circular shape, the foundation storey being built of heavy stones with wooden divisions from there to the top compartment, and I visited one of them at Nanaimo several times.

It stands close by the seashore at a convenient place for war canoes to land warriors, and as portholes eight in number to each flat gave openings for guns, the Indians had not much chance of victory when fighting with tomahawks and scalping knives. Those, fortifications are called bastions, and in some cases are used as jails. The one I visited had the uppermost division widened, so that it extended several feet from those below, thus enabling the white people inside to pour boiling water on their besieging enemies.

The roof is spherical, tapering at the highest part where a flagstaff is placed, and it is of considerable height.

On the 3rd June 1909, I was allowed to have a look through the inside of the bastion at Nanaimo, which gave me a good idea of the preparations for defence against the savage Indians, also how it was used at times for storing furs, thus making the fortification a trading post as well as a place of defence; but the principal place for storage was close to the bastion, and I was informed that when selling a musket to an Indian he had to give skins of fur piled on each other till the bundle should be as high as the length of the firearm, and if the furs were considered to be in any way inferior more would be asked and often given.

The foundation of the structure is on a rock, the first storey having a very strong door, and the storeys above that are built of logs of great thickness squared and bolted down, so as to make a safe stronghold. Above each porthole there is a narrow horizontal opening about 3 feet long, which were used for musket firing on the enemy along with the havoc being done by the big guns and boiling water.

The top storey is now used as a meeting-place for a club, called the “Native Sons of Nanaimo,” where a number of young men of the city assemble from time to time for the purpose of discussing various subjects more immediately connected with the welfare of the people of the locality and getting acquainted with each other.

I noticed with other furniture a large piano in the room, leading me to understand that music forms part of what is being done ; and I may refer to the fact here that a house in the city is not considered to be completely furnished until there is a piano in the parlour, and that not only the girls but the boys as well learn to play the instrument when they are very young.

On Sunday, the 30th May 1909, I attended the Indian Church in Nanaimo, the building being constructed of wood with a belfry, and as the bell was tolling I approached the door, through which the Indians were entering to take their seats. The preacher came forward to welcome me, at the same time taking me near to the platform, and I was seated in one of the pews there.

Having met the preacher before when I had a chance to converse with him, I had received much information as to how the service would be conducted, and it was commenced by singing a hymn, he leading and also playing the tune on the chancel organ, and some of the Indians could sing fairly well.

There were a number of Scripture scenes in large pictures hung up on the sides of the church, to which the preacher drew the attention of the Indians as he read the passages from the Bible, and his reading, speaking, and singing were mostly all done in English, only now and again talking to them in their own language.

Their eyes were much directed towards me, no doubt wondering who I was, and before concluding the preacher told them that I had come from that faraway land where their king lives, and he knew that I would be very pleased to shake hands with them at the door as they were going out, so I had an opportunity to experience a friendly grip of the hand from each of these swarthy Indians, who with a smile of friendship appeared very glad that they had seen me.

After the dismissal, the preacher invited me to call at the parsonage, which w as close by the church in the midst of large trees, their heavy branches in foliage high above my head moving hither and thither by the wind, and I was received very kindly by his good lady, and was hospitably entertained, also asking me to call again.

On the 12th June 1909, I visited a district in Vancouver Island named the “Five Acre Lots,” and by invitation called upon Mr Alexander Fraser, who is owner of one of these lots, the land almost all under cultivation.

He showed me over a large portion of the five acres, which were divided into fields, each one bearing a crop either of grain or other products, all growing and ripening to his satisfaction ; and at one place very near to his house I noticed a large hole, which appeared to be the mouth of a wide drain covered over, and it was dry. After inquiring of him what was the reason for the hole being there, he told me that there was a small stream of water which runs through his land to the sea, and that in the rainy season salmon come up through it to spawn, and in this opening of the stream he has caught many a good-sized fish, some of them measuring about 2 feet long. His story in catching one on a certain occasion interested me very much. He told me that one morning when in bed, he was informed that there was a large salmon in the hole, and on hearing that he jumped up almost nude, and clutching a pitchfork ran to the pole, and with this sort of spear captured the fish. In telling me about the capture, he smiled and said, “Had you seen how I was dressed at the time, you would have had a hearty laugh.” I may mention that Mr Fraser is a native of the Shetland Islands, who left his home there when about twenty years of age, has been at the gold diggings in Alaska, owns land in Vancouver City, and is married to a daughter of Mr and Mrs James Leisk, who are also Shetlanders, and own land at “The Five Acre Lots,” where they reside in one of the houses in the district.

While travelling along some parts of the Pacific Coast, I noticed arms of the sea at some places winding in such a way in through the land as to form in appearance lochs or small lakes, around which cabins of two or three apartments here and there dotted the shore, and some were constructed on large sized rafts of heavy logs covered with thick boards so that they floated. These structures, all of wood, were occupied by fisher people as habitations, their small fishing boats at times lying alongside, and I noticed men and women cleaning and preparing fish for the market, while children could be seen playing about close by, and I often wondered how they escaped from being drowned. At the time of spring tides the water rises at the place 16 feet, so that with an ebb I saw the floating houses for a time standing on the bed of the sea, waiting as it were for the return of the flow tide to again float them. A few miles from this part of the coast is Departure Bay, being one of the prettiest inlets of the sea I ever had the pleasure to visit, and it was so named by Captain Cook when he set sail to leave the place to continue his exploring and adventurous voyages of discovery.

The month of June in British Columbia, so far as weather is concerned, is almost every day calm and sunshine, so that pleasure trips are frequently taken on the sea, not only by gasoline launches fitted up for the purpose, but also by small row boats on hire, and some of them are furnished with sails.

On the 17th of that month, 1909, I was one of a party in a boat with oars only, rowing along the coast on water as smooth as that of a small loch, and we pulled round Newcastle Island, which lies in front of Departure Bay. Moving closely along the shore, I got a good view of the land near the sea, also of the large and small trees, the roots of some as I saw them creeping into the crevices of rocks, so that as I imagined there would soon be more wood afloat to increase the large quantity floating and drifting about. The people of British Columbia do not grudge employing some of their time in pleasure-seeking, not only on the sea and lakes but on the land as well. On the mainland and islands I often had an opportunity to accompany some of them on such occasions. I also attended meetings both of a social and religious nature, and visited some of the schools, and I was pleased to see that the children were so neatly dressed, clean and clever, and when on the playground not a bowed leg to be seen, speaking volumes in favour of their parents.

I often noticed it when passing the grounds and the children were running about in gleesome sport, and it was no doubt owing to the fact that infants are not allowed to walk much, but are wheeled about in perambulators on the streets and public grounds, until they are getting to be somewhat strong.

There is scarcely such a thing as poverty to be seen amongst the people, but drinking alcoholic liquor to excess in some cases brings, families into trouble, just as it does in other parts of the world. There is much agitation and opinions expressed in regard to the sale of it in British Columbia and other places in America.

Mostly all the houses being constructed of wood, the architecture can be fashioned and altered easily without much loss of material, and being painted as they are, in a variety of colours according to taste, they look very beautiful, especially where they stand alone surrounded with flowers, and many of them stand along the sides of lakes and arms of the sea.

On the 25th June 1909, I visited the South Ward School, Nanaimo, where one of my daughters was a teacher for five years, the same department being in charge of Miss Elizabeth E. Brown, some of whose ancestors resided in Sandwick Parish, Shetland. I had along with me at the time my granddaughter, Catherine Manson, who is teacher at Port Simpson, British Columbia, and we were both very kindly received by Miss Brown, who showed us through aJ! the departments in the building. I noticed that a number of the scholars were the children of Chinese parents, and I was told by the teacher that they were very clever, especially at accounts.

The schoolrooms are high in the walls, on which were maps hanging up, and the various apartments were clean and well ventilated.

The parents in this thriving city take a great interest in seeing that their children attend Sabbath School teaching regularly, and at a certain time during the summer of each year as it comes round, they are treated to a picnic at some suitable place in the country, and some of their parents accompany them.

There are two Methodist churches in Nanaimo, each having a well-conducted Sabbath School, and dining the time I was there, the two companies of scholars numbering about 300 enjoyed their picnic at Chemainus, near a river about 40 miles north of Victoria. On the day of the picnic all assembled at the railway station, and some parents and others, according to arrangement, were with them, and I was one of the number. Arrangements had been made with the Railway Company to convey the whole party, numbering about 450, from Nanaimo, the time of leaving to be twenty minutes past eight o’clock a.m. In good time all were ready to step into the train, thus forming with other passengers a large crowd; and to see, as I did, the boys and girls so full of glee, talking to each other and laughing at times very heartily, all being beautifully attired, and the morning sun shining in a crystalline-coloured, cloudless sky, was one of the prettiest sights of the kind I had seen for long.

As the train of great length came thundering to the station, the stir and bustle in connection with all getting seated was amusing.

My daughter, Mrs L. Manson, her daughter Margaret, and little son Douglas were with me, making my trip all the more pleasurable, not only in the train while viewing the magnificent scenery as we swiftly passed from stage to stage, sometimes being enclosed in the midst of a forest, the branches of high trees eclipsing, the sky, but also when on the picnic field when all the sports went on merrily.

We arrived at Chemainus about 10 o’clock in a sunny forenoon, and proceeded a short distance from the place to a beautiful lawn. The weather continued fine, so that there was nothing to prevent the various amusements, including football playing, to be carried through to the entire satisfaction of old and young, and there were some of the leading merchants of Nanaimo in the company. Close by the lawn, a river of clear sparkling water was winding its way to the sea, on the brink of which several excursionists with fishing-rods in hand could be seen catching trout; and oil one side of the stream the water had receded so much as to leave an almost level beach of glittering small stones of considerable extent, and it so resembled many of the beautiful pebbly beaches along the shores of the Shetland Islands, that two or three times I took a walk on it imagining myself at home, and along one side of it on a number of places, groups of people of the picnic party feasted on the good things they had in baskets taken from Nanaimo.

The amusements went on till about 6 o’clock in the evening, when a move was made for the railway station in order to be in time for the train from Victoria to take us back to the “coal city”; and to get the large number on board the train in safety and seated properly, tried the strength, patience, and temper of the railway officials.

Immediately after this was done, the train again started on its race, carrying a lively crowd to their destination, and the singing of hymns commenced, which appeared to be enjoyed very much by all those who could hear. As we neared the Nanaimo railway station, we were singing the National Anthem in the presence of people hailing from many parts of the world, thus bringing to a close, as we arrived, a most enjoyable picnic excursion.

It was on Thursday morning, the 1st day of July 1909, I left Vancouver Island for the mainland, thus again crossing by steamer the Gulf of Georgia to Vancouver City, in order to take steamer there for Seattle, United States, and where the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exhibition was being held. My son-in-law, Mr Laurence Manson, merchant, Nanaimo, was with me, and about 10 o’clock on the night of the same day I heard an officer of the S.S. Princess Victoria sing out “ all aboard.” Immediately thereafter the steam was up, and away we went on our southern voyage, having to pass among many islands that night.

We arrived st Seattle the following day at 7.30 a.m. after a fine passage, and breakfasted in one of the many hotels in the city. We thereafter had a look through the place for about an hour, and then entered the Exhibition grounds. We continued visiting the same daily from morning till nightfall for nearly a week, when we went by train to Tacoma, a city of about 150,000 of a population, nearly 30 miles on the Pacific Coast south of Seattle. By riding on cars and walking, we saw much of the place and got a good view of the fine farm land between the two seaports, while otherwise enjoying the trip.

On our return to Seattle, we made ready to take steamer back to Vancouver City, British Columbia, the same night at 11.30, and once on board, glad was I to get my head on the pillow of my stateroom bed. After a very pleasant passage we arrived at 8 o’clock next morning, and at 3.20 p.m. the same day we left Vancouver City per steamer to Nanaimo. 'A few hours afterwards we arrived in the best of spirits, and highly pleased with what we had seen and heard. To describe all that minutely would form an ordinary sized volume, but I shall mention some of it, beginning with a description of what I saw at the Exhibition of gold in nuggets, rock, and bricks. I might give it in my own words, but the following from the Victoria Times newspaper of the 20th July 1909 may be more acceptable:—

Seattle, Wash., 16th July—“A million and a quarter in pure shining yellow gold.

“Exposed to the eyes of the visitors at the Alaska building of the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, securely entrenched behind a double steel cage, is a fortune in nuggets and bricks. Dozens of gold bricks larger than paving blocks lie in the centre of the exhibit of wealth.

“Surmounting the whole on a special rack are five large nuggets. The one which occupies the middle is worth nearly four thousand dollars.

“Around the outside of the display is a frame of gold nuggets in bottles. There are so many of these bottles full of gold that no one ever takes the trouble to count them. Nicely polished nuggets are also arranged in heaps about the bottom of the cage. Shining brightly in the well-lighted building they make a bright, beautiful display. The average visitor wonders how thieves are kept out of this tempting pile of wealth.

“The secret is that no man could ever get at it.

“It is enclosed by a double cage of strong iron bars in the daytime. At night it is lowered into a vault beneath the floor of the building.

“This vault is fitted up with electric wires charged with 2000 volts of electricity. Any hapless man who placed a hand on one of those wires would be electrocuted. In addition to this, burglar alarms are in operation in all parts of the safe.

“The entrance of any man into that pile of wealth would mean his instant death, and also would notify the guards of the building.

“The nuggets and gold bricks came from various camps, chiefly from Nome, Klondike, and Fairbank’s.

“Most of the metal is placer gold, but a considerable portion is from the quartz. The largest nugget of the collection is called the “Phantom Nugget,” because of a dream the wife of one of the first owners had of the claim which told of its existence. Before the discoveiy of this wonderful piece of native gold, the claim was sold several times. The nugget was finally uncovered by the Pioneer Mining Company, which had secured the claim.

“In the drifting operations of its first owners, poor men who were making a hazardous living, they came within six feet of the spot where it was located. They quitted work just one day too soon, and abandoned the claim for the year.”

The departments on the Exhibition ground were seventy-five in number, named as follows:—Government, Alaska, Hawaii, European, Oriental, Agriculture, Manufactures, Mines, King County, Japanese Restaurant, Machinery, Foundry, Music Pavilion, Y.W.C.A., Japan, Canada, Grand Trunk R.R., Vancouver World, Forestry, Oregon, Washington, New York, Hoo-Hoo, Natural Amphitheatre, Yukima, California, Educational, Arctic Brotherhood, Chekalis, Spokane, Hospital, Philippines, Power House, Fire Station, Fisheries, Formosa Tea House, Service, Administration, Auditorium, Fine Arts, Women’s State Building, Lake Entrance, U.S. Life Saving Station, Main Entrance, Railroad Station, American Women’s League, Masons, Photographic, Idaho, Puritan Inn Restaurant, Sweden, Electrical Dairy, Good Roads, Paraffin Paint Company, Michigan, Daughters American Revolution, Baptists, Utah, Restaurant, South Entrance Gate, Rustic Trestle, Stock Exhibit, Stadium, Monument, Washington’s Statue, S.O.R. Flag Pole, Roast Beef Sandwich, Comfort Station, Dairy Barn, Automobile Garage, Checking Booth, Pay Streak Public Comfort Station.”

One of the attractive sights on the grounds was an immense size of a wheel, around the rim of which were fixed hanging cushioned seats, each of them for two or three persons, and as this rotative machine was put in motion, away went the passengers up in the air more than an hundred feet. I stepped into one of these open-seated boxes, and with others at my side, more boxes being filled, up and down we moved; and the scene from the top was something grand, especially when getting a view of the city and the surroundings. But what drew my attention more than many other things to be viewed, were the shapes and colours of the people around me, apparently from all parts of the world, and hundreds of men, women, and children were there for no other purpose than for show. The dancing girls from the far East and from the far South principally, when appearing on a platform, as they did in their most grotesque, dresses, moving, whirling, jumping, and contorting their bodies and arms, was to me a strange sight, never having seen the like before.

At another place, there was a band of Highlanders on an elevated floor, their piper with his bagpipes standing near the front, while a dancer performed to the stirring music he played; and all being dressed in kilt attire attracted a multitude of people, gazing at the men in petticoats, and showing oft so much of their legs, a sight rarely if ever seen in the United States of America. In order to give an idea of the number of people visiting the Exhibition, I may ment ion that on one of the days I was there no less than

40,853 entered through the gate of admission, covering the ground at some places so dense, as to make it at times unsafe if near a pickpocket, and sure enough some of that fraternity were there, as will be seen by what took place as follows:—For the safety of visitors’ pockets, detectives in plain clothing had been employed, and one day when there was a great crowd present, two pickpocket partners tried to pick the pocket of a certain man, and the victim turned out to be a detective.

The thief and his accomplice were immediately taken into custody in the midst of much commotion, and placed in close quarters to await their trial, in accordance with the law of the country, which is very severe for such a diabolical crime. During the time I spent on the grounds, having a look at the various objects of interest, I never saw any person under the influence of strong drink, nor did I see people in any way quarrelling or making a disturbance even when it might have been expected, because there was in the midst of such a multitude of people an obstruction now and again, and sometimes trampling on toes. Provision had been made at a number of places where meals could be had at moderate prices at any hour of the day, from opening to closing of the gates, and conveniences easily to be seen, such as lavatories and dressing-rooms, were provided at several places. Close by the entrance gate there was a cabin in which a clerk stood at the back of a counter to give change to all who wanted it, and the charge for entering each time was fifty cents., or a little more than two shillings of English money.

On Sunday the 4th July, being Independence Day in the United States, there was a great display of the stars and stripes bunting, but the following day was specially held in remembrance of that great event, and the volley of cannonade from time to time and the exhibit of fireworks was wonderful.

Seattle is a large city, the length of which is about 12 miles along the Pacific Coast.

The harbour is one of the best in the world, and the streets are very broad, giving every facility for traffic and pedestrians.

The buildings are for most part exceedingly high, the windows of the stores being plate-glass of great thickness, inside of which the shelves are so placed as to show off goods to great advantage, while back through the premises the accommodation for storing stock of mostly all sorts of goods makes it easy for sellers to attend to the buyers in front of the broad counters.

The climate is delightful, and the people, who appear healthy and well dressed, move about in comfort, thousands of them walking and driving in cars, carriages, and other kinds of vehicles.

On the evening of Sunday, after attending church, Mr Manson and I joined a religious parade going two abreast through the streets singing hymns, and a sacred music band leading.

It was a glorious sight to see about a thousand men and women in procession acknowledging the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour, and we walked a few miles through several streets in the city, the population of which is about 400,000.

Shortly before leaving Seattle for British Columbia, we travelled by an automobile to the city suburbs, a distance of about 3 miles south along the seashore, and then inland eastward a considerable way, and by ascending to the top of a \ery large reservoir constructed of iron or steel, I got a magnificent view of the surroundings.

This reservoir of 100 feet high filled with water to supply the city was enclosed, and I was told by a man in charge that a hundred and seven steps led up from the foundation to the spot where I was standing, the place being a room of circular shape where refreshments could be had. A person was in charge ready to supply all those who wished to have it.

A building was constructed on the grounds of the Exhibition designated the music hall, in which a large number of people assembled on the forenoon of Sunday to listen to the music which had been announced.

The orchestra on the platform of the hall was large, the company of ladies and gentlemen there numbering well up to a hundred, and the music was exquisite.

As I sat and listened, I sometimes took a look at the great assemblage of people, some very old, others very young, and many of them in the middle stage of life, all as I thought seeking happiness, and they looked as if they had found it. Indeed, it is true much was there to please their eyes and their ears, above them and around them. The sky was cloudless, the sun was shining, the wind was just enough to make an open windowed building, such as that in which we were seated, a comfortable place for a rest and pleasant reflection. A fine view was got of trees in foliage, their green branches slowly moving by the force of the balmy breeze, and the whole scene and performances were very interesting and enjoyable to me sitting as I did in the midst of a mixed assemblage of people, some of them no doubt from not far from both poles of the earth, a few of them, as I knew', uncivilised and without government rule.

The concert came to a close by playing and singing the American National Anthem, and I was agreeably surprised to hear it sung with the British tune used in singing the National Anthem of Great Britain.

On making enquiry, however, I was informed that the reason why that air was adopted did not in any way point out extraordinary appreciation of British rule by the American people, Dut that they could not find any other tune so suitable for the United States words.

I attended the Congregational Church on the evening of Sunday, where there was a good many hearers who listened attentively to the preaching, but without any appearance of dejection such as is seen in religious meetings in the Old Country. As a rule the preachers deliver their sermons only using notes, and some adhere to the custom of shaking hands with the people as they go out at the door of the church.

29th July 1909.—Up to the present since I left home I have been in no serious position facing danger until to-day, and it was just when leaving the post office in Nanaimo, where there is a rather steep gradient at a certain part of the road, I was nearly struck by a bicycle. The rider was a young lad by all appearance not much acquainted as to how he should pass a pedestrian meeting him, and so after making some awkward moves we passed each other when there was only a few inches of space between us. Various kinds of vehicles are getting to be very numerous on the streets and roads of British Columbia, which as a matter of course makes travelling on foot exceedingly dangerous at times. With regard to bicycles, the rider when overtaking a traveller does not as a rule ring a bell, because it has been found that to do so makes in many cases the pedestrian first move to the one side and then to the other, thus confusing the person on the bicycle and leading to an accident, while by keeping silent, wheeling to a side, is much safer for both parties. I may mention here that about the same time I was in great danger on a street in the same city. I was passing along on a narrow sidewalk, when on a sudden a herd of large-sized wild cattle being driven to the slaughterhouse came down the street. One fierce brute made for me, the eyes of it glaring furiously, but I lifted a walking-stick which I fortunately had in my hand, and gazing in its eyes, it fled. I think that there were about fifty in number, the one to which I was in dangerous proximity by its size and horns appearing to be a bull or ox, and in front of the herd there was a man on horseback leading and another riding behind driving, and the animals rushed forward in a rather rapid race.

I was informed that in accordance with rule or custom, the cattle should have been driven to the slaughter-house during a late hour at night, when it is understood that nobody will be on the streets.

While referring to the lower animals a case presents itself to my mind of an amusing nature, and of which I was made cognisant, when one day I was dining with a family in B.C., who by appearance were in the best of health and spirits.

A short time after being seated at the table, the door bell rang and the servant admitted the visitor, who was asked to take a seat in the parlour, the girl informing us that the visitor was the doctor. I looked up somewhat surprised and inquired who was ill, and some one at the table said that it was the cat.

Well, I remarked, this is the first time I ever heard of a doctor being called to attend a cat, and my words drew forth a hearty laugh. I was soon informed, however, that she was a valuable beast principally on account of her cleverness in catching rats, and as they were rather numerous about the premises, the head of the house did not grudge the doctor’s charge for calling.

I have again been on the waters of the Gulf of Georgia, and now on the 5th August 1909 I am on Gabriola Island, which lies in that part of the great ocean, and at the head of a bay where there is a beach, also a house which belongs to David Taylor, Esq., a retired merchant in Nanaimo.

He keeps it in repair as a summer residence, but when not occupied by himself he gives the use of it to well-known friends; and that being so, my daughter —Mrs L. Manson—her son Douglas, and myself got possession, and we occupied it for a few weeks, during the time having visitors, some of whom were those who reside on the island, and the others were from Nanaimo and Comox, Vancouver Island.

Those from Nanaimo were Mrs Brown, her granddaughter Ioreen Keith, Mary Ann Leisk, my granddaughter, Miss Winnie Mercer, who is a granddaughter of Mr William Manson’s, and Miss Nellie Booth; and those from Comox were Mrs Eric Duncan and her adopted son Charles. We also had a visit from Mr Taylor, who not only owns the house but is also proprietor of a large quantity of land in the island, and Mrs Taylor was also a visitor and remained with us a few days.

In front of the house the sea was smooth, without a ripple, not even the smallest curling wave to leave a mark on the sea-beach, and a little skiff of a boat not unlike a canoe stood in a wooden house, which we could use for pleasuring or catching salmon. We had that boat afloat several times, mostly for pleasure, when with an oar in each hand I would pull to seaward and my daughter would make the remark: “Don’t you think we are going too far out?” I was, however, fond of the sport, so that occasionally perhaps we were far enough from the shore; but at such times the Pacific waters near the coast were placid, and nothing happened to mar our enjoyment. The bay was narrow, on each side of which there was a path leading to headlands, each of them only about one half mile distant, giving me a chance without much trouble to get a good view of the sea, the vessels passing, and some of the smaller islands in the distance. When it was an ebb-tide I often walked along the strand on both sides of the bay, viewing the caves, some of which were most peculiarly shaped, while above my head at certain places trees more than 100 feet high bending towards the sea, part of their great roots having been washed clear of the earth by the action of the tidal wave, made me rather afraid to pass them, because I noticed other trees similar in length had fallen, lying on the rocks. Sometimes I bathed in this arm of the Pacific Ocean, being told that there was no danger as to sharks, such never having been known to be on that part of the coast; but there were millions of very small crabs that quickly ran away, however, the moment my feet came in touch with them.

I travelled over a considerable part of the island, some of the roads through the forest being fairly good, but others quite the opposite, often having to climb over thick fallen trees and brushwood so obstructive that at times I felt I required all my strength in order to accomplish my journey; but I always had somebody who knew the road along with me, and some of the journeys I took wore done for the purpose of seeing settlers who had invited me to call. At all the houses I visited, I received a hearty welcome and great hospitality, one of the families being in a certain way connected with Shetland. In course of conversation I was informed that one of the grandfathers of the children around me was a Shetlander, he having been married to an Indian woman, and that their mother was a daughter of the couple. That being so, she was of course a half-breed, but she was so much like white people in form and colour that I never would have imagined that she had any relationship with the Indian race at all. In speaking to her I could see that she was well educated, and she seemed very pleased to refer to her father who died some years ago, and she was much interested in hearing me speak about the country to which he belonged.

Her husband, who is a white man, was not at home at the time, but I met him a day or two after that, and he appeared to be very glad to see one who had come from the same country of which his father-in-law was a native.

When in their house I noticed that it was well furnished, part of the furniture being a good piano, and the two children I saw were pretty boys not unlike Shetland lads of their age.

I was informed that there are about one hundred white people and a few Indians on the island, the latter becoming fewer in number every year, while the former are on the increase.

Farming, fruit-bearing, fishing, poultry rearing, and logging are the principal industries in connection with the place, and for most part the occupied land belongs to the people who live on it. A few miles distant from the house to which I have just referred, I called by invitation at another, and while the host and I were taking a walk over his fields lie spied two large eagles sitting on the top branch of a high tree, and looking at them, he said, “Hold on, I will get my rifle.” In a minute or two he came with it carefully and quietly. Nearing the tree and aiming, he fired, but that shot only separated them, when they perched separately on the top branches of higher trees close by. He again aimed at one of them and fired, when down the eagle came, measuring from tip to tip of the wings 7 feet 3 inches.

The bird had been struck on one of the wings and so made powerless to fly, and, on looking at the large hook-shaped talons of it, I thought of the eagle which with a swoop clutched an Indian infant in Alaska at the time I was there, and took it to a nest on the top , of a mountain and devoured it.

At this part of the coast there is a fine sandy beach about a quarter of a mile long, giving every inducement to people to enjoy the refreshing plunge in clear salt water, and at the time I was passing the place I observed a number of young lads learning to swim, and a gentleman with them giving i instructions.

From this beach I travelled inland so as to get a view of the logging work which is a dangerous kind of labour, the danger arising principally from the branches of trees falling while men below them are using saws, axes, and iron wedges. When the trees are cut down and cleared of their branches, they are hauled by horse and steam-power to what is called skid roads leading from certain parts of the forest to the sea. A skid road is very much like a railway track, the sleepers being heavy timber well laid down.

I inquired as to the growth of trees, and was informed that in order to form a thickness of 10 inches diameter it takes fifty years, 18 inches diameter one hundred and fifty years, and a very big tree, say 200 feet high will require five hundred years to bring it to that size. On my return to the coast at the west side of the island, where my temporary abode was placed, I witnessed one of the most glorious sunsets that ever came under my observation, and I have been in many latitudes not only on the north side of the equator, but on the south side as well, and from the deck of a ship in the tropics. I have often had a view of the western horizon as the sun was descending to appearance between the sky and the great deep, and the sights were gorgeous.

The scene in question as it appeared to me when standing on Gabriola Island, however, I can never forget. Just where the bright luminary was passing from view, a dark-coloured cloud of oval sha^e took his place, the border of it all the way round looking as in a blaze, which was reflected in the heavens, encircling it with such a wonderful display of brilliancy that it filled my heart with reverential thoughts.

24th August 1909.—I am to-day on Entrance Island, being a short distance from Gabriola Island, and on it there is a lighthouse of considerable size with a very good residence for the keeper and his family, but being an exception to almost all the other islands in the Gulf of Georgia, there are no trees growing on it, owing no doubt to the surface being very rocky and the soil shallow, as also the south-east side of it very much exposed to wind and sea. On this occasion I accompanied a party of visitors to the island in a gasoline launch, enjoying the trip very much both going and returning over a smooth sea, and it being a pleasure excursion, one of the ladies at the wheel steering gave us something to say in favour of the fair sex along with other enjoyable conversation.

On our return to Gabriola Island I joined a few friends on a green lawn in front of my temporary dwelling, where we enjoyed each other’s company in talking, singing, and various amusements, while the moon was shining in a cloudless sky, reflecting her golden-like shadow on the still waters of the bay, made our social meeting all the more pleasurable.

It is not many years since this island was first inhabited by white people, previous to which the Indians and wild beasts alone roamed at large through the rich forest.

Now all in that way is changed, the wild beasts having been killed, not many Indians to be seen, neither are there many lialf-breeds. The fishing around the coast is prosecuted upon a new principle, the land at several places is beir.g cleared, men are at work cutting down trees which are being brought to the shore by machinery and horse-power over roads of a sort such as I have described, and then floated in large rafts called booms to saw-mills to be cut, the lumber being sold for the purpose of erecting houses and otherwise being used locally, while some of it is exported.

On the west side of the island there is a quarry which I visited, being a high precipice of sandstone close by the strand, along which the water is so deep that flat-bottomed boats of large size come to it as they would do to a wharf to take away from time to time tremendous sized blocks of stone to the builders of houses and other erections in Vancouver City, as also to the city of Victoria, and other places in British

Columbia where buildings are being constructed. I noticed the men working in the face of that almost perpendicular rock hundreds of feet high, and heard the shots as they were blasting, and after the time of their leaving off work I had a talk with the man attending to the engine and also with the others, I having been asked to see them in their house where they were living in a way called bacheloring, and in which they rest, mess, and sleep. They had a Chinaman who was acting as cook, as also attending to the washing of their clothes and keeping everything in and around the house clean and in good order.

One of the men had a violin on which he was trying to play, and on asking him to let me have a look at it he placed it in my hands willingly.

I drew the bow over the strings and found that the instrument was not in tune, but soon putting that all right, I played a few Scotch airs that seemed to please the men, and they gave me a hearty invitation to call on them again, but I am inclined to think that my first interview with them will be the last. As I bade them good-bye I wished them much happiness in what I understood to be their forced mode of life, and I am told that there are about five thousand marriageable men of the labouring class in Canada who would be glad to get married, but unfortunately there are no women to marry. I put my initials on a tree near the door of the house where the men were living, and again bidding them good-bye, I got on the road, or rather the trail, which leads through a forest to Mr Taylor’s house, the latter being my home for a time.

At this stage I have pleasure in mentioning that at several houses in the island I found that the people were very anxious to hear me sing hymns, and as I often carried with me those compiled and sung by Ira D. Sankey, I was glad of the opportunity to let them hear my voice in that way, and sometimes I read a portion of scripture, also making a few remarks on several verses, and immediately thereafter engaged in prayer. At such times there would be more people present than the family circle, no doubt they having heard that I was in the house, and as I had recently come from Scotland they would be anxious to see me. Having travelled commercially through that country for many years, I was able in some cases to talk about places and people some of them knew, so that my calls and conversation at times were very acceptable. Where people are settled along the coast of British Columbia, especially on the islands, they come to get much acquainted with each other, and when visiting will sit for hours at a time getting and giving news, and sometimes Indians will form part of the company.

On the mainland in large cities white people as a rule are so busy that they have not got so much time to spare, and the Indians being a people who take things very easy, not caring for much more than they can eat and drink, can be often seen standing gazing at white men as they hurry to and fro, wondering in a way that Indians do what makes the white people so foolish.

27th Augud 1909.—I am again on Vancouver Island, having arrived from Gabriola Island the day before. When on the wharf at Nanaimo, I met two clergymen with whom I had formed an acquaintance, and I w ould say here that I have found it to be much in my favour both in regard to religious and temporal matters to get acquainted with Christian people, and when it was suitable to attend church I did so with the intention of being a hearer only, but sometimes at prayer meetings I was asked to take part in the services. There is much in the way of temptation to lead young people in particular astray in the colonies, so that the best place for safety and good counsel is, as I think, the church, and to get acquainted with the pastor and attend prayer meetings as well as the other services as often as possible.

2nd September 1909.—I dined with Mr Jeremiah Mouat, Spokane, U.S., in the Windsor Hotel, Nanaimo, he having been in Victoria on business and had come to the city to see some relatives. I had a call from him a day or two before when we met, not having seen each other for many years, and both being natives of Sandwick Parish, Shetland, we were much pleased to exchange news, and that was continued when we met in the hotel.

In order to get a good view of almost any part of British Columbia, mountains must be ascended, clear weather is necessary, and strength of wind and limb in the climber is indispensable, so that a man of my age —82 years—could scarcely think of undertaking a journey of that kind, it having to be accomplished on foot, and as a matter of course attended with much fatigue. I however resolved to climb Mount Benson, which is 3350 feet high, from the summit of which I was told a delightful view can be got of very wide surrounding fields, farms, farm-houses, the beautiful city of Nanaimo, and part of the country beyond along the east side of Vancouver Island. Being informed that it would not be safe for me to go alone, I arranged to accompany a party, and on the morning of the 6th September 1909, we left Nanaimo by stage coaches. After a while driving over a fairly good road we reached the base of the mountain, where the horses were unyoked so as to carry provisions on their backs over a zigzag path, on each side of which trees were standing very close the one to the other and of tremendous size. After arriving at a place where it became too steep for the horses to travel, we unburdened them, and by kindling a fire with sticks we had tea and eatables to our satisfaction. Then after feeding the horses we left them and what was remaining of the provisions at the spot where we had rested, and again commenced our climbing, at times having to ascent i inclines of a rocky nature and at some places nearly perpendicular.

I, however, to the astonishment of much younger men—my grandson, William R. Manson, one of them —I kept moving with steady step until at last I stood on the rocky summit of Mount Benson, and oh ! what a splendid view I got of not only the near surrounding hills and valleys, but also some of the thousand islands of the Pacific far away in the distance to the north. Beyond these, in that direction, very high mountains capped with snow could be seen towering up in the air, putting me in mind of the inhabitants of the Arctic regions, a number of whom I saw dressed in their everyday garments of deer skin at the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exhibition in Seattle.

I think it to be in place here to take special notice of some of their customs, particularly as to how they dispose of their dead, and I have from good authority as follows :—“ All along the shores of the Arctic from Cape Prince of Wales to Labrador and far into the untravelled interior, the apparently heartless custom of leaving the dead a prey to hungry wolves and half-wolf dogs has prevailed from time immemorial. There is scarcely a ridge or headland in all the vast territory over which the Eskimos have roamed that has not somewhere upon it a place of skulls. There is nothing so impresses the Arctic traveller, be he timid tourist or daring prospector, as do these ever present skulls as they stare out at the lonely stars from their dark moss beds on the frozen hills of the northland.

“Some of them have kept their long vigils through the forgotten centuries, and now crumble to the touch like chalk. Some of them are startlingly fresh from the framework of the living.

“Tell your Eskimo guide that he should bury his dead, and he will tell you that in summer water would come into the grave. Tell him that in civilised lands they sometimes cremate the dead, and he will be horrified. As a matter of fact the seemingly heartless custom of leaving the dead on the Arclic mill-tops to be the food of savage beasts is perfectly natural and quite unavoidable.

“The digging of the grave in the far north, even in summer, with the old tools possessed by the Eskimos was next to impossible, for even in July the ground immediately beneath the moss that covers the surface everywhere is frozen as hard as granite to an unknown depth. Even where underground ice is found the Esldmos would consider the making of a grave a useless expenditure of energy, and at the same time a cruel proceed ;ng, for the thought of having to be in icy water is unbearable to an Eskimo.

“So their dead were left on the dry hill-tops where the sun of summer warmed strange Arctic flowers into life around them, while over them in winter the ghostly' aurora borealis played in all its Arctic grandeur. The old social kindliness of the north was thus at the bottom of the whole matter of disposing of the dead. Although the dead are left on their mossy beds beneath the unprotecting stars, it must not be thought that hearts do not melt with grief when death pays his sad visits to an Eskimo village.

“There are no more affectionate people in the world.

“This is the universal testimony of every one familiar with their wrays. But they typify the childhood of the race; their grief like that of children is acute and soon over; their lamentations are sometimes pronounced but never prolonged. They are not stoics; men, women, and children sob pitifully when the eye of the sick one no longer responds to the peculiar death test, and in the old days their sorrow was doubly intense when at the request of the patient the end was hastened by a friendly knife thrust, and the helpless sufferer was put out of pain for ever. For half an hour the weeping may continue.

“Then the scene changes. The igloo is crowded with neighbours. Only the little corner in which the corpse lies is vacant. Outside there are more people with dog sleds to which are harnessed the finest dogs in the village. Soon the corpse is carried out, and if a man it is placed upon the sled which was, and according to Eskimo ethics still is, his own. A small boy runs ahead of the dead man’s dog team with the cry ‘ Hak ! Hak ! ’ and the strange funeral procession is instantly under way.

“A dozen dog sleds with their ivory runners creaking in the cold are flying over the snowr.

“On they go, some behind, some ahead, some abreast of, the improvised hearse. There is no system, no precedence, no ceremony. It is too cold for ceremony, so on they fly, the sleds bumping and bounding over the uneven surface of the snow. At the top of some ridge, maybe a mile from the village, the cortege halts. The dead man is lifted from the sled and laid upon the snow. Clad in his everyday garments of deer skin and wrapped in a walrus skin shroud, they leave him there with the friends who have gone before. His weapons, his sled, and all the little personal property that communistic society in which he lived allowed him to possess are left there beside him.

“Right then and there all mourning ceases. There is not a dog in the Arctic that does not know that a funeral without a dog race would be a farce.

“Every child, every malamoot pup in the village, knows that the team that wins this funeral race will win fame and honour and frozen seal meat from every igloo.

“Almost as soon as the body touches the ground they are off. Across the tunder they fly, dogs, detached pups, men, women, children, and chief mourners all racing and shouting frantically.

“The occasion is one of indescribable confusion and wild hilarity. In this way the Arctic has disposed of her dead for no one knows how many generations.

“There are no brass bands to play tearful dirges, no pathos-breathing flowers strewn upon newly moulded graves. There is no attempt made to make the occasion impressive, no attempt to perpetuate the memory of any one. In the wild excitement of the race, the heartbreak and unspeakable sorrow of these childlike people has faded away to a tender memory.

“It is in this way that the children of the cold soothe their deepest sorrow and teach each other to forget the helpless suffering of their dead. Among the white bones that glisten on a thousand northern hills may be found the relics of the Arctic race. Odd tools are there fashioned out of flint and slate, or beautifully polished jade or ivory. Old bows and arrows that have rotted away in the grip of dead men’s hands, wonderful ivory and copper spear heads, and all the weapons that were once scattered upon Arctic battlefields were left within reach of the hands that had shaped them during life. Stone pans that served as seal oil lamps are there, and odd wooden vessels that served as drinking cups before the ships came in from the mysterious distance carrying tin and granite ware and the odour of bad whisky. No monuments mark the resting places of the dead, but often the great ribs of the whale are seen standing here and there above the skulls of those who some time in the years gone by were doubtless famous harpooners.

“Before the restless hand of civilisation reached out into the Arctic gloom, 110 Eskimo was ever known to steal one of those relics from the dead.

“To steal from the living was bad enough, but to steal from the dead who were helpless was despicable. But civilisation brought new standards of right and wrong. It was soon found that these relics could be bartered off to the white men for all kinds of things that were new and strange in the north, and so the robbery of the dead began.

“Every year now these ghostly hill-tops yield a handsome revenue to the living, even the sacred bones of the departed are not immune from the vandalism of modern commerce, and on several occasions small boys have clambered on board ship, bearing in their hands the skulls of their own ancestors which they offered to sell at a fair price. But now all this bids fair to be materially changed in future, as the missionaries in the north, led by Bishop P. T. Rowe, have instilled into the minds of the simple northern dwellers the benefit of burying their dead in some suitable ground set apart for that purpose.

“While in many instances away from civilisation, where it is impracticable to bring the corpse to a regular burying ground, it is disposed of in the old way for a year or so until time and the elements have left nothing but the bones, and then these will be brought to some of the few chosen burying grounds for interment, along with the remains of the hundreds that were recently disposed of that way.”

The above appeared in the Vancouver World newspaper, and the account given of the Eskimos attracted my attention so much, that I resolved to insert it in this journal, the resolution being strengthened by the fact that I had seen a few Eskimos at the Alaska Exhibition at Seattle.

A group of men, women, and children of that class of people had been brought there for no other purpose than to be exhibited, and in my opinion they looked as if they were longing to get back to the Arctic region.

12th September 1909.—I am now in Nanaimo, in which city a murder was committed, either on the morning of this day, or on the night previous. The victim was a married man, living with his wife and two young children, and on the police making investigation, the woman told a story which, after some days of investigation, she confessed to be a fabrication of lies. She said that when they were all in bed, they heard some noise in the other end of the house, when her husband got up to ascertain the cause, at the same time thinking that it would likely be a neighbour’s cat which sometimes troubled them in that way.

He, however, had only got the length of another room door when, she said, he was knocked down and killed, and then two masked men stood by the side of her bed, who gagged her and tied her hands and feet, and after stealing all the money they could find in the house they made their escape. At a further stage of procedure by the public authority, as I have said, she confessed all this was lies, and that it was the young man who used to lodge in their house who killed her husband. It was found that the young man referred to had been warned by the husband not to visit his house, yet, in the face of that, it was proved that he was present on the night of the murder, and that being so, he and the woman were arrested, and are held in custody, to be tried in accordance with the law of the country. It is not for me to say more about the awful tragedy, except that if I hear the verdict before finishing this journal, I may refer to it. The words of the poet in the following lines may not be out of place in connection with the above,:—

“Guilty pleasures are but brief.
Like passing mists they end,
And he who follows finds too late
Virtue’s our truest friend.”

I may mention here that during the last week or two I have been making several calls on Shetlanders and others in Nanaimo and places close by, who wished to see me and spend an evening with them before leaving tor the Old Country, and their friendly entertainments I shall never forget.

There are a great number of people in the district who left Shetland when they were comparatively young in years, but who to a considerable extent retain the kindly local dialect of their native land.

Their children, on the other hand, are in language more assimilated to the English pronunciation and accent, and although living with their parents from infancy, they are unable when they try to pronounce Norse words as Shetlanders can do.

I am now speaking of Vancouver Island, but almost all along the coast of British Columbia (which is said to be about seven thousand miles when the sea-board of the islands and arms of the ocean are taken into account) Shetlanders are to be found, and no doubt, they being descendants of a fishing community, will have much to do with the fishing industry now being developed on the coast of this new country. Of course many of them will be farmers alongside of people in that line from other parts of the world, and there is plenty of room for many thousands of population, when we take into consideration the fact that the area of British Columbia is 395,000 square miles, and in that there are ten million acres of wheat land.

Up to the present time British Columbia fisheries have yielded over one hundred and thirteen million dollars, and that of itself must be a very great inducement for companies and individuals to use their capital and experience in the fishing industry in that of the British possessions.

On the 16th September 1909 I attended the Nanaimo Agricultural Show, and if I were to give particularly the enormous size of all the different kinds of vegetables I saw there, some people might feel as if they would not believe me. For instance, it is no rare thing to see a dozen or more potatoes taken from one root, each 6 to 9 inches long and very thick in proportion, the quality being excellent.

19th September 1909.—I was to-day introduced to Ralph Smith, Esq., M.P., who is well known as a good speaker in the Dominion Parliament, and he having been informed that I had been a member of the County Council of Shetland for fifteen years, it had a tendency to make us speak all the more freely to each other.

On the following morning, at 7 o’clock, I left Vancouver Island by steamer for the mainland, and after a three hours’ run crossing the Gulf of Georgia, arrived at Vancouver City.

This city is coming rapidly to be one of the wonders of the world. Daring a very short time there have been erected fine buildings, such as banking establishments, great wholesale and retail stores, offices, printing and publishing houses, hotels, newspapers, tramways, wharfage accommodation; also shipping is increasing, and I am informed that there are fifty, if not more, churches in the city.

Rich people continue to come from various places, many of them from districts in the United States and from other parts of the world, and settle down in this city in fine newly built houses of their own, so that the population is increasing very fast; and they send five members to represent them in the Provincial Parliament at Victoria, and the members of that body are well paid for their sendees.

Mechanics of all sorts and many kinds of labourers are also pouring into the city, who are employed as soon as they arrive, and they receive good wages. Servant girls are in great demand, and when they come many of them get married before they are out of their teens. As a rule servants sit down at the same table when taking their meals along with the family, and if they be so inclined they can dress as expensively as they please without creating any kind of ill feeling in the mind of any member of the household. There are a number of well-conducted restaurants in Vancouver City, some of which can accommodate two or three hundred people requiring meals at the same time, the charges being very moderate, and on a certain day when entering one of them the place was so full that there was some difficulty in getting me a seat.

At the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, there is a large room set apart where passengers can leave for safe keeping their handy luggage for a trifle of charge, receive a receipt called a check, and on showing it to the clerk in charge he hands over a counter the traps when wanted, whatever the)' may be. This is a great convenience to travellers at any time, but especially to those who may take a few hours1 walk through the city before leaving by train, steamer, or any other conveyance.

That was what I did with my luggage, and after a stroll I then travelled about 40 miles on the Canadian Pacific Railway to Mission City Junction, and drove from there in a vehicle 2 miles out in the country to the residence of my son-in-law.

22nd September 1909.—On the afternoon of this day I had the pleasure of meeting Mr James Macintyre from the Old Country, who is a retired merchant, but employing a portion of his.time visiting many places as an Evangelical preacher in connection with the Mission work carried on by William Stewart, Esq., Leith, Scotland. I had a very interesting interview with Mr Macintyre in his son’s house in Mission City, and afterwards listened to him preaching in the Presbyterian Church. There was a rather large congregation, who gave great attention to his discourse, which was faithfully delivered, taking for his text the precious words of Holy Writ—“ Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.”

By what he said to me I understand that he can go to any country and preach when he feels inclined so to do, this giving him an opportunity to proclaim the glad news of salvation anywhere, and being a gentleman of means he may be very useful in doing much good either at home or abroad.

1st October 1909.—Shortly before this date I listened to a gentleman delivering a lecture in a church Sabbath schoolroom in order ■ to financially assist gospel work in British Columbia; and, in course of his remarks about preachers and their labours amongst people of many climes and colours, he said that so as to show the joy that fills the heart of a converted man or woman he might relate what happened at a religious service where there was a mixed assemblage.

While the clergyman, he said, was proceeding with his discourse, he was often interrupted by a negress shouting aloud, “Halleluiah, halleluiah, halleluiah!” The preacher stopped and asked the church officer to prevent her from disturbing the meeting. He went and told her not to make any more noise, but she replied, “I must, I must, I have got religion, I am happy. “Yes,” says he, “but you must stop, there is no religion here.”

I fully believe that the woman was enjoying her religion, but the black people, as I have seen them do, are very excitable and at times very childish, both as to their expressions and how they conduct themselves.

The idea of there being no religion in the service would certainly lead the preacher to think and talk to the officer about the remark, but as the poet has put it in the following words:—

“The best of men will err,
The most secure will fall,
And he is not mortal
Who does not fall at all.”

So with the church officer he no doubt made a mistake, and he would just have to console himself with the fact that “ he who never makes a mistake never makes anything.”

3rd October 1909.—I received to-day a copy of the Nanaimo Daily Herald of 30th September 1909, in which I notice the following:—Miss Harriet Dunsmore, leading woman with the big success “In Wyoming,” which comes here Friday, 8th October, has written to the editor of the Herald from Calgary, Albevta, stating that there is a great cry from out on the endless plains for women, for wives for lonely ranchers who have subsisted as best they could on male cooking and without the sweet solacing companionship of womankind. Miss Dunsmore, herself a Vancouver girl, goes on to say, “The great Canadian wheat and cattle country wants wives. It wants British Columbia girls if it can get them. Think of it, girls! Five thousand marriageable young men are doomed to single unblessedness unless help comes from outside the province.1'’ Miss Dunsmore says the helpless bachelors1 one cry is, “We want wives. We have everything else, but please, O! please, send us women." Miss Dunsmore adds, British Columbia is always on the job, even in the matter of wives, so I thought you would do what you could to relieve this pitiable condition in our adjoining province.

This corroborates what a gentleman said to me when I had a conversation with him on board the steamer in the Gulf of Georgia, the only difference being that he preferred the girls coming out from the Old Country.

6th October 1909.—I to-day visited the Agricultural Exhibition held at Mission City in a large building close by the Fraser River, where a bridge about 1500 feet long spans that mighty stream.

As I was taking a look at all the different kinds of produce brought from various farms, all of a most bounteous nature, and meeting with a number of farmers, some of them having their wives and children with them all looking well, I could not but think of the thousands of starving people in the Old Country who have been forced from tilling the soil to seek employment in large crowded towns. I said to myself, “ How is it that the people here are so strong, healthy, and happy, driving about in their two and four wheeled machines, while in England, Ireland, and Scotland, thousands of people are in a deplorable state of distress ? ” I came to the conclusion that .it is because they are not tilling the many thousands of acres of uncultivated land that are lying idle.

There is much talk here about Old Age Pensions to become law, and by what I hear it is likely to be in the Statute Book very soon. It is surprising to think how much the Old Country and its laws are talked about in this province, where all hail each other as brothers and sisters, and give mutual assistance in settling down on farms or any other department of industry.

As I pass along farms at this season of the year, I notice that the farmers are busy digging up potatoes, and what a size they are! I never saw the like, and I am told that they have a good market for all they can grow. After the crops have been secured, the people begin to call on each other in a friendly way, and shortly after that they have social parties all carried on in a homely sober manner, when music of a superior class always forms part of the amusements; so that although in the country districts they are much scattered, they nevertheless endeavour to keep up acquaintanceship with one another.

It is understood that the Provincial Parliament will dissolve in the course of a few weeks, when there will be much stir among the people as to who are to be their representatives, and just as in the Old Country those who are seeking to be elected for the first time and those who are .seeking re-election will be going their rounds addressing meetings in the various districts. In a new country like this people have to be very careful as to how they record their votes, which no doubt they will be, and as the present Premier, the Hon. Richard M‘Bride, is considered to be an able Conservative political leader, it is likely that he will be re-elected. Having met him and listened to him speaking at a public meeting, I was so pleased with what he said that I hope he will again be entrusted with the reins of the Provincial Parliament of British Columbia, where in the meantime a Conservative Government may be the safest.

8th October .1909.—I have to-day been dining with a family, part of the eatables being sturgeon, a kind of fish of very superior quality, and on making inquiry I was informed that it had been caught in the Fraser River, and that sturgeons are numerous there, which is certainly a great boon to the people. But I noticed that animal food was much in demand and oftener on the table than fish, the latter of which was my favourite dish when I had the chance of a choice. I was often asked how it was that I preferred fisli, a question to which I readily replied by informing my questioner that I was a Shetlander, who with those in my younger days lived very much on fish, and that all the different kinds of it caught around the Shetland Islands are considered to be the best in the world.

I sometimes amused my questionary friends by giving them the names of some of the fish food in the Shetland Islands, such as liver-heads, liver-muggies, stap, croppen-heads, sillok-liver pies, and I had to explain to them how these were made up and cooked.

I also at times had to give them some information about these islands, as to their number, size, and situation, and on more than one occasion I delivered a lecture on the capturing of whales on the coast of that archipelago. I surprised those listening to me by telling them the fact that I had been at the capture of whales at Shetland, when I had seen about five hundred driven 011 the shore at one time, the size of them from twenty to thirty feet long and thick in proportion.

When I spoke of how Shetlanders had to “rough it” in order to procure a livelihood, one or more would make the remark, “I am surprised that you would leave this fine country to go back to live there.” My reply was by quoting the following lines:—

“I have wandered on through, many a clime Where flowers of beauty grew,

Where all was blissful to the heart And lovely to the view.

“I have seen them in their twilight pride And in the dress of morn,

But none appeared so sweet to me As the spot where I was born.

“I have wandered on through many a clime And gazed on piiace walls,

Yet never wished that step of mine Should tread the stately halls.

“For ’midst the pomp that circled me I still should be forlorn,

Give me, give me the lowliest cot On the spot where I was born.”

A well-educated lady, the wife of a clergyman in one of the large cities of British Columbia, was anxious to hear from me more about the captors and the capturing of whales at Shetland, and in case there may be others like-minded, I shall give here in verse what came under my own observation some years ago, and it is as follows:—

“Like a polished shining mirror
Lay the bay in rest before me,
Not a passing breath was stirring,
Not a blade ot graos was moving,
All the ripened ears were bending,
Bowing with the load of plenty,
Shining with the crystal dewdrops
From the weeping eyes of night.
Early was the hour of morning,
Gorgeously the sun was rising,
Rising o’er the point of Noness
Like a crimson shield of glory
On the mighty arm of Jove.
As in wonder I stood gazing,
Looking where the sun was rising,
Near the rocky shores of Cumlick
In a mighty shoal was sporting.
Spouting, rising, sinking, bounding,
Gleaming, flashing in the sunlight,
Such a “school” of bottlenoses
Seldom seen on Thule’s shore.
Soon the stillness of the morning,
Calmness of the early dawning
Fled before a mighty war-cry
Raised by eager armed fishers,
Armed with great knives and lances,
Armed with swords, spears, and scythe-blades.
Swiftly ran they to the sea beach
Where the fishing skiffs lay resting,
Resting steadfast on the shore-props.
Fast they rushed them on the water,
Throwing showers of stones into them,
Missiles for the eager whale-chase,,
Sinking-leads, and lines for throwing
Should they dare attempt escaping,
Should they sink and swim to seaward.
Bending oars like growing saplings
Sped the skiffe like flying meteors,
Leaving on the silent water
Snowy shining tracks behind them.
All their prows were turned eastward,
Madly rushing rowing eastward,
Where the shoal was gaily sporting,
Nothing fearing, never dreaming
That an armed host was nearing,
Coming nearer and blood-thirsty,
Neither babe nor mother sparing,
And the life-blood of the sable—
Sable children of the ocean—
Soon to dye the sea with crimson
Blood of slaughtered sire and son.
Fast from every creek and inlet
All around the bay capacious
Glide now skiffs of armed warriors,
Warriors eager for the sea-fight,
Who have seen the rowers eastward,
Who have seen the sporting gambols
Of the sable bottle-noses
Gloaming in the slanting sun-light,
Puffing high the briny snow-jets
From the seething troubled surface
Of a caldron of the ocean.
Like the herald of the red cross
When he sped across the dark heath,
Fleetly through the tractless forest.
Through the brushwood of the corries,
By the narrow broken pathway,
By the margin of the dark lake
Shouting wildly “Clansmen arm,”
Sped the fishers’ gathering war-cry,
Shouted wildly by the matrons,
Echoed shrilly by the maidens,
Maidens toiling up the steep gorge,
Crossing o’er the deep scaurea peat-moss,
O’er the quaking bogs and morass,
Waking up the mountain passes
With the thrilling cry of Whaals.”
Down the western slope descending
To the dwelling of the fishers—
Fishers on the shores of Maywick
There to waken sleeping kindred,
There to scream loud? pointing eastward,
Whaals ! Whaals ! poi nting eastward.
Housed the lithe limpid youth of fifteen.
Roused the hoary sage of eighty.
Through his chilled veins shot the lightning,
Flashed the fire of youth returning,
Gleaming his eye with eager longing—
Longing for the bloody sea-fight,
For the battle scenes of yore.
He had been a mighty warrior,
Hunter in the Polar regions
In the snow-den of the white bear,
On the ice fields of Phocidae,
In the home of Megaptero,
Where the mighty Mysticetus
Rises like a sea-washed island
From the depths of icy water
From the abyss of the ocean,
Spouting high the frothy sea-brine,
Plunging down with mighty tail-stroke,
Making tempests in the great deep,
Boiling maelstroms in the ocean.
Eagerly the aged warrior
Drew out from behind a rafter,
Dark-stained rafter of his dwelling,
Where it stuck all stained and rusted,
Haf ted lance long and two-edged,
O'er his shoulder quiuckly take it,
Bent his head to clear the low door,
Bounded from his smoky wig-warn
Up the pathless steep crag toiling,
O'er the quaking morass bounding,
Cross the deepest peat-banks leaping,
Down the slope of Blovet running
To the beach of Channerwick.
To the eastward of the great shoal,
Twixt the Iltilex and the Taing Point,
Darkly float the armed war skiffs
In the form of a crescent—
In a mighty moving crescent
Drawing nearer, moving northward,
Where the whales are gaily sporting,
Nothing fearing, nothing dreaming
Of the armed foe approaching,
Till the leader of the great “school”
Going round his sable out-posts
Rises to the glassy surface,
Listens breathless with his small ear,
Rises higher on his broad fins,
Looks to where the sun is rising,
Gazes eagerly to seaward,
Sees the dreaded foe approaching,
Sees the war-skiffs close upon them.
Quick he sounds a note of warning
A plaintive wailing note of warning,
Plunging wildly to the northward,
Followed by his children northward,
Hoping that the creek of Hoswick
Is a shoreless open water
Leading to the Western Ocean,
To the wide Atlantic Ocean,
Where his children of the great deep
Dwell in peace for evermore.
But alas ! lie is mistaken,
And the war-skills are behind him.
Hark ! again the note of warning,
And the mighty shoal is rushing,
Like a fierce tornado sweeping,
Like dark meteors onward shooting,
Plunging madly, wildly rushing,
Darkly gleaming in the snow foam,
Nearer coming northward.
Swift the war-skiffs are pursuing,
Close upon them, up behind them,
Plunging wildly in the sea-loam,
Quivering, bounding, onward striving,
All the oars like willows bending,
Bended by the eager oarsmen,
And in front the air is darkened
By the leadlines forward throwing,
By the showers of smooth stones flying
Hurled at the flying shoal.
Nearer comes the wild commotion
Like a mighty rushing river,
Like a roaring mountain torrent,
Rends the quivering ail asunder,
And the frantic oarsmen cheering,
And the deep-toned wild halooing,
And the looder-horns sounding,
Come in loud reverberations
From the lofty Ness of Hoswick,
From the cliffs of Mulligoes,
And the mighty chorus swelling
Like the roar of distant thunder,
Like the voice of pandemonium,
Like the wailing of the lost ones,
Like the "roans of thousands dying
On a reeking field of war.
But a moment and it passes,
Up the narrow creek on rushes,
And the shock of battle crashes
Loud upon the pebbly shore.
Quick upon their sable victims
Rushed five hundred armed fishers,
And the conflict it is awful,
And the slaughter it is fearful;
On the shore and in the water
Torrents fast of blood are flowing,
And the sea is reeking warm,
Stained for many miles to seaward
the life-blood of the slain.
Foremost lies great Globicephalus,
Sable chieftain of the “school,”
But alas! his days are numbered,
For the life-blood fast is ebbing,
And his dark eye is closing—
Closing on the scene around him
But no sigh or groan escapes him
For he knows his mate is near him,
Moving, swimming close beside him,
For a purple stream is welling
From a great gash in her bosom,
Yet her sable babe she presses
To her throbbing, bleeding bosom,
Holds him firmly in her great fins,
Bathes him in her heart’s blood,
Fainting, groaning, sinking, dying,
Proving Nature’s attestation—
“A mother’s love is strong in death.”

I have often been at the hunting, and several times at the capturing of whales at Shetland, and after toiling for hours along with hundreds of men and boys, had to witness the escape of the infuriated shoals just as they were touching the ground at the sea-shore.

At such times boats will be smashed and the captors placed in great danger, because men will be left struggling in the water to be rescued by others, as I have seen it done.

20th October 1909.—The Provincial Parliament of British Columbia has been dissolved in the midst of cold, stormy weather, and the first session of the New Parliament is to meet on the 20th January 1910.

This gives plenty of time for electioneering, and it is needed, because the Divisions of the Province are so large that some of the candidates have to travel long distances in order to address meetings of the electors, and a considerable number of those reside on islands, some of them far apart from each other and far away from the mainland. While in conversation with one of the candidates, he told me that his district was about 60 miles long, and altogether a very wide area, so that he had to address meetings at nearly twenty places, and being a new country some of the roads were very rough, making travelling unpleasant.

22nd October 1909.—I received a letter to-day informing me that a granddaughter of mine, who is teaching at Port Simpson, British Columbia, is engaged to be married to a Methodist preacher in July or August next, and it is fully expected that I will be present at the wedding. If that is to be so, it will somewhat interfere with my arrangements in regard to the time I am to leave for the Old Country, as I will have to return to Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, where it is understood the marriage is to take place. At present I am on the mainland, expecting that I would not have to cross the Gulf of Georgia again, but as the young lady is a favourite granddaughter, if all be well it is likely that I will go.

25th October 1909.—On the evening of this day I attended a Harvest Thanksgiving Service in the Methodist Church, Mission City, when every pew was occupied by a very happy crowd of people. Mr Thomas Cox was asked to take the chair, and he conducted the meeting with great tact and ability, while a programme of sacred songs and recitations were rendered, giving great satisfaction.

1st November 1909.—During the last few days I have been busy re-writing part of my notes from my memorandum book to the manuscript, which is a kind of drudgery that the labourer on the fields can scarcely comprehend, and oftentimes there is much misconception on the part of illiterate people in regard to sedentary occupations, especially that in connection with which the brain is much exercised in composing what is to be written for the reading public.

In matters of this sort the writing author is often weary and feels somewhat inclined to lay aside the work he or she has undertaken, but no doubt with many the soothing thought will creep in over the mind in the words of the poet—

“There is a day of sunny rest
For every dark and troubled night;
A grief may bide an evening guest,
But joy shall come with early light.”

In accordance with the lines as above, joy did come in the morning, there being by the mail a letter from my daughter—Mrs George W. Goudie—all the way from Shetland, and no one can experience the pleasing feeling that enters the heart of a parent in a far-away land on receiving a letter from the old home in the Old Country better than the individual who may be placed as I am now at this time in British Columbia. Yes, and even a newspaper is much appreciated at a time such as now, when the House of Lords and the House of Commons of the British Parliament are nearly at loggerheads about the Budget.

While that is so, all the old settlers with whom I have come in contact appear to be contented, and would never think of returning to the Old Country to reside there. I do not wonder at that, because both as regards city and country life, especially the latter, there is little to be seen of what may be called rank or needless superiority, while at the same time the people treat each other with great respect; and were a man to pass a woman (with whom he has been, it might be, only a very little acquainted) without lifting his hat he would be considered very much deficient in good manners. As a rule the men in meeting address each other by name when acquainted, as if they were brothers. There are such a large number of homesteads on each side of the Fraser River, the waters of which are flowing to the ocean from far up the interior, that I feel anxious to know as much about it as possible, especially as its course is through one of the most fertile valleys in British Columbia, which valley is about 300 miles long.

I notice the following in the Fraser Valley Record— “History tells us that in 1808, in defiance of danger and difficulty, Simon Fraser explored the river to present site of New Westminster. He lived to be a very old man, but received no honour unless he counted it one that the grand river, the course of which he was the first explorer, was named after him. This Scottish Canadian explorer was evidently a scion of the famous Scottish clan Fraser, whose present chief is Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, who raised the corps of Scouts who did splendid service in the late Boer war as “Lovat’s Scouts.”

I notice in the Vancouver Daily Province newspaper that the vice-president of the Canadian Northern Railway has made the remark that British Columbia is capable of being developed into a greater country than the German Empire is to-day, and by what I have seen of this wonderful part of the earth warrants me to believe what he has said in regard to it.

13th November 1909.—On this day I was a long way from the sea-coast, and am feeling a little fatigued from walking about to see and hear what was going on in the district. I got to my bedroom where there was a fire, of which I was glad, because I was feeling cold, and for a while I rested in the chair, looking over my notes. I saw that everything was in good order in the room, making my mind easy on that score, so that I still rested to make me warmer before I should get under the blankets in a frosty night. After a while I wound up my watch, took off my clothes, put out the light of a paraffin lamp, and just as I sat on the front of the bed, down that part of it went with a crash to the floor, and as there were some articles underneath, it made the noise all the more. All in the house were asleep but myself, my bed was lying at an angle of forty-five degrees, tlie weight being such that I could not move it, and I did not know very well what to do. I, however, got the bed-clothes laid in such a way as to form a resting-place, but my sleep was anything but comfortable that night, and I had a strange story to tell my friends when I got to the breakfast table in the morning. I told them all about what had happened, and how I was left in darkness, had to seek for matches, light a lamp, and so on. On examining the bed, it was found that the steel-netted frame was too narrow for the iron construction on which it had to rest, so that by a sudden jerk, the part on which I sat down went to a side, and fell to the floor, while the other side stood up, forming an angle.

There was a good laugh over the affair, in which I took part, but at the same time I was feeling, to a certain extent, the disagreeable effects arising from the want of sleep, and ever after I took good care that in whatever house I had to remain all night, I saw to it that my bed was all right.

I may here refer to sanitary arrangements in general. On board all the steamers I have been in as a passenger along the Pacific coast, I found that very great attention had been given so as to accommodate the travelling public, both on the deck and in and near the state-rooms'; and with regard to railroad travelling, the large carriages being very broad, the seats are placed crossways on each side, between which a passage is formed similar to the aisle of a church, and the carriages are so connected with each other, that passengers can walk through these aisles all the length of the train, and see lavatories so marked at several places, as to make it quite easy to find them. In towns and villages the sanitation is, as a rule, very good, but some of the houses on farm land, even near cities, are not so well provided with conveniences of that sort as they ought to be.

But in order to get an experimental knowledge of the country, the traveller has to face occasionally very rough roads, and a kind of lodgings altogether different from what he may have been accustomed, not only as to sanitation, but different kinds of food, and meeting people of perhaps all nationalities with whom he has to converse.

It must be kept in mind, however, that notwithstanding all the great improvements which have been made in British Columbia, it is only in what may be called its infant stage of progress, and therefore it would be unwise, by making improvements, to tax the present small population heavily.

15th November 1909.—I was on this day a considerable way up in the country in order not only to see more of the wonderful natural scenery of this side of America, but also to call on a family in order to fulfil a promise I had made to visit their home, and before I reached the house the road became so bad that I half regretted undertaking the journey.

I found out that they live on what is called “ The Island,” which is rather a large area of land, some of it cleared, and in all 200 acres or more, near the side of the great Fraser River, from which it receives water through a narrow channel forming a small shallow lake. The land, on which there is a good house and farm, belongs to the gentleman who resides there with his family, and it is reached by a wooden bridge at the base of a high mountain, close by which there are others much higher.

While referring to the mountains of British Columbia just lately, a clergyman made the following statement in regard to them, which may be in place to mention. He said—“Mount Carmel, Mount Tabor, and Mount Hermon were but low-lying hills when compared with the peaks of the Rockies or the Selkirks.” That gives people who have not been here an idea of this country, but between the many- mountains of British Columbia and upon their sides there are millions of acres of rich land in a fine climate waiting to be cultivated.

Of course, as in other countries, there are some drawbacks in British Columbia, such as snow-storms in winter, and even before the month of December freezing at times is very severe and destructive to potato and other crops; but the farmers are a far-seeing class, and endeavour to have all their crops well secured and much of it sold before the cold season sets in. Just to show the intense freezing, I may mention that at the beginning of last year a traveller had to put up all night in a private house in this country, and being accommodated in a bedroom where there was a fire, he expected that with plenty of clothes he would be comfortable enough; but such was not the case, as he awoke from his sleep feeling as if the freezing had injured his ears and face. He tucked the bed-clothes about his head and again tried to sleep, but only dozed, now and again wakening and feeling cold.

After a very uncomfortable few hours he got up, and on looking for his artificial teeth which he had put in a dish full of water, it was frozen in a lump as hard as a stone. He, however, had to do without the teeth until they were released by pouring hot water on them, and so they were drawn safely from the grip of the ice. This happening in a bedroom is proof positive of the intense freezing which is in this country at times; but in order to counteract the severe cold the people keep their stoves well supplied with fuel of coal and wood, the latter of which there is abundance. At some places there are hundreds of fallen trees lying rotting on the ground, and in cold weather men and boys can be seen at houses here and there along the public roads sawing the wood in pieces of a certain length and building it up in heaps to drv, and thereby made ready for burning.

The weather, however, begins to get warm in February, the heat in midsummer such as to make people who are not at hard work comfortable, and so on for several months a better climate could not be desired, while during the same time of the year the fields send out a perfume of exquisite sweetness from flowers blossoming in all directions.

25th November 1909.—This is a day of great excitement in the Province on account of the election of members to the new Provincial Parliament, there being Conservatives, Liberals, and Socialists at work in the different constituencies, namely the following:— Atlan, Alberni, Cariboo, Chilliwack, Columbia, Comox, Cowichan, Cranbrook, Delta, Dewdney, Esquimalt, Fernie, Grand Forks, Greenwood, Islands, Kamloops, Kaslo, Lillovet, Nanaimo, Nelson, Newcastle, New Westminster, Okanagan, Revelstoke, Richmond, Ross-land, Saanich, Similkameen, Skeena, Slocan, Vancouver, Victoria, Yale, Ymir.

I was in the Dewdney district at the time, the length of which is about 60 miles, and a considerable breadth which differs very much in extent, so that the voters were greatly scattered, many of them having to travel by land and [bn rivers long distances; but to their credit let it be known they crowded to the polling booths, and the Hon. Richard M‘Bride was again placed in power as Premier of the Provincial Parliament of British Columbia as a leading Conservative.

I have visited several of the districts named, both with a view to getting acquainted with the nature of the different localities and the customs of the people, especially as to how they are preparing the young for the battles of life.

I was pleased to find that both boys and girls are not only well educated, but that they are also well trained to industry; and with reference to marriages, as a rule I understand that courtships are short, which may to some extent be proved by the following which I noticed in the Daily Province newspaper published in Vancouver City:—

“Ottawas 21 at January.—Western methods of hustle were illustrated here this week when a stalwart and prosperous farmer from British Columbia met, courted, proposed to, and married an Ottawa girl all in the space of nine hours, and this was George Finter of Kamloops, who returned to Ottawa last week after an absence of eight years.

“On Monday, at 1 o’clock, he happened to see in his sister’s home the photograph of an Ottawa young lady, Miss Maggie Robinson.

“He expressed a desire to meet her, and securing her address made an immediate call.

“Miss Robinson was busy at home, but Finter made an engagement to see her later in the afternoon.

“At 5 o’clock he had made considerable progress in acquaintanceship. With commendable vigour he then got a marriage license and a wedding ring. At 10 o’clock the same evening the pair were married. Mr Finter says that’s the way they do things out West.” Now in some cases love at first sight happens in British Columbia as in other countries, but to be married in such a short time after the first glance at each other is, as I am told, a very rare exception.

As I have said the courtships are short, but oftentimes the pair getting married have attended the same day and Sabbath schools, and perhaps the same church, so in that case there is perhaps little need for putting off the marriage very long; but in all the new districts where young men and young women are settling down to work, some matrimonial unions take place after perhaps only a few days’ courtship, previous to which the parties were unacquainted with each other.

Some of those parties become a blessing to the locality where they live, both by precept and example, being temperate church-going people, and the almost only kind of drink as a refreshment offered to friends when calling is tea—at least such was my experience, and I was informed that it is the custom of the people generally.

30th November 1909. — Owing to the continual heavy rain the Fraser River has risen 10 feet, and those people having their farm land near to its banks have had much of their crops damaged, and some of the roads being constructed on deep earth became an almost continual mire.

The fact is that the want of roads and the great difficulty of constructing them on soft soil is one of a few drawbacks in the country, but as the different districts increase in population the road rates will not be so oppressive, and progress in that way will gradually be made. At this season of the year, when the freezing at times is very keen, the surface of the roads gets so very hard that travelling on them is good enough, but when it begins to thaw then comes the trouble, because the sub-soil being soft and several feet deep every step is a plunge. So soon, however, as the dry sunny weather sets in, continuing as it does for weeks at a time, the surface of the roads becomes hard and remains so for months; but whatever state they may be in, traffic is never stopped, because for most part the waggons are drawn by large, strong horses, and two of them are attached to each of those heavy big-wheeled machines. .

Since the time that the Provincial Parliament was dissolved, the heavy rainfalls have made the roads at some places almost impassable, so that the people scattered as they are over such a large area of country have had much difficulty in organising and holding political meetings; but it is all over now, and my son-in-law, Mr W. J. Manson, has been re-elected with a large majority. His brother Michael, who with his wife visited Shetland some years ago, has been elected to represent Comox district, and Mr William Manson, junior, Government Agent at Prince Rupert, has been elected to represent Skeena district, and all three are Shetlanders.

6th December 1909.—It is to-day very stormy weather, the ice on the rivers being of unusual thickness; but although the cold is intense, some men are at work cutting down trees and uprooting stumps, thereby preparing the rich virgin soil for some kind of crop, and on certain occasions the people as a rule turn out willingly to assist each other in building houses and such like. The fact is, cunning, crafty, greedy, selfish people would find it difficult to live in this country and enjoy the society of those who have for any length of time resided in it.

19th December 1909.—The atmosphere was very clear on this day, and being anxious to get a good view of a certain part of the country I climbed Mount Bulwer, but it was so difficult to ascend and descend that I would not care to do the same thing again. The mountain is not very high, but it is so steep that for safety I often had to crawl on my hands and knees, and even with all that care I slipped sometime* and was glad to take hold of the end of a walking-stick held out to me by my guide. From the base to the summit of the mountain there was not the least semblance of a path, so that my conductor, axe in hand, had often to be cutting away the branches of trees and shrubs lying in our very rough path. I had to ask him many a time, “Are we far from the top?" when the reply always came, “Not very far." So on I moved snail-like, until at last I began to feel the toes of my boots touching stones, some of them rather loose, so that I had to be very careful not to give them my full weight, because in the event of falling the result might be serious, there being sharp-pointed broken branches of small trees lying in all directions ready to pierce the skin and injure the face and eyes. After a long and weary tramp and climb, I got near to the ridge, it being a kind of burned sloping rock, and a little distance farther up I stood on the peak of that eminence, the view from which being worth all the trouble, and certainly it was one of such a nature that no person who sees it can ever forget it.

Away in the distance can be seen the tops of high mountains, by appearance close to each other, called the “Four Sisters,” and these four peaks covered with snow, glancing in the sunshine, was a glorious and inspiring view of that part of the earth towering heavenward.

Then to get a view from the same place as I did of a great area of prairie land on the side of a sea-like river, protected from the overflowing of water by strongly built dykes, the soil said to be exceedingly rich, there being no trees on it, but here and there farm-houses of different sizes, made a fine sight. After resting a little while on the rocky top of this mountain in a reflective mood of mind, I stood up and repeated in song the first verse of the hundredth psalm, and then began to retrace my steps, of which I had to take nearly as much care as I had to do when climbing. With all my caution I stumbled two or three times, but got safely back, and then informed my guide that it was the first time I had been on that mountain and it would likely be the last.

I recently had the pleasure of being in the company of Mr John Manson from Cortez Island, he having been in Vancouver City on business, and I was telling him that seeing he has now two brothers and a cousin of the same name, Manson, members of the Provincial Parliament, he will have to try his hand at the business as well, especially when taking into account that along with the honour such Government officials are so very highly paid; but I imagined by what he said that the farming in which he is engaged demands all his attention, and that he therefore does not care to ask for political honours.

2nd January 1910.—I was to-day in that part of the country where much land has been cleared of trees, thereby encouraging cultivation, employing labour in farming, giving work to carpenters in building wooden houses, and many other trades that are sure to be benefited. At the time the sun was shining in a cloudless sky, his rays flashing on the tops of nearly fifty snow-capped mountains, some of them, it is true, very far away from where I was standing, but the peaks of which I saw and counted.

If the spring-time comes with even very dry weather, there is no necessity for irrigation in order to nourish the fruits of the earth, because there is a continuous supply of water from the melting snow on the mountains and from springs as well, and that, with a fine climate and a rich soil, secures abundant crops.

10th January 1910.—I was to-day at a post-office far inland, when I had the chance of seeing people coming and going on sleighs, the snow being so thick on the ground that to have a ride was so pleasurable as to induce more than one individual to come for the purpose of posting and receiving letters. The post-office room for the public was entered by an ordinary sized door, facing which in a dividing partition there were a number of pigeon-holes with glass doors having a lock on each and numbered, and there are post-office boxes for those who wish to have such, paying so much a year for the use of them. I noticed, however, that there was an opening close by, of about 2 feet square, at which Some people inquired for letters, and at times to hear foreigners trying to speak English to the official through this window was amusing.

17th January 1910.—I am to-day very glad to be under a roof in a well-built house, because the weather is stormy, heavy snow is falling, making it very dangerous to be far from a dwelling, there being large masses of snow slipping down the sides of mountains, and I hear of railway trains being blocked and tumbled over, resulting in the loss of life and property to an alarming extent. Sometimes also there are landslips, when boulders along with it come with great force, and no doubt in both cases heavy trains passing cause vibration, and consequently the moving down of snow and earth comes suddenly away. Such are some of the dangers to which railway travellers are exposed in rounding and climbing to pass the many mountains that lie in the way while travelling over some parts of the American Continent, especially during the winter months and the beginning of the spring-time of the year.

26th January 1910.—I am now in Dewdney district, where there are a great many Scotch people, who adhere to the custom of celebrating Robert Burns’ birthday. Eight days ago I had a letter from a clergyman asking me if I would be present at the supper on the evening of the 25th, in the Orange Hall, Mission City, to occupy the chair. I replied saying, that being a stranger among them I did not feel inclined to take the chair, but I would endeavour to be with them, not only to show my appreciation of natural endowments, but as also to see an assemblage of Scotch people so far away from their old homes.

On entering the hall I was shown to a seat at one of the tables which were loaded with many sorts of edibles, the Scotch haggis not overlooked, tea and coffee being the only kinds of drink on the occasion.

After supper the temporary tables were taken away and the chairs placed in rows on the floor, while the chairman—Mr John Morrison—and a few gentlemen took their seats on the platform, on which I noticed a large piano.

On taking my seat among the audience, I was only a few minutes there when a gentleman came forward who asked me to come to the platform, and on getting there I noticed my name on the programme, and the part I was to perform being the playing of a solo on a violin that had been placed on the top of the piano, at which a gentleman was seated to play chords.

When it came to my turn I played a Scotch tune, and being encored, I gave a few lively Scotch airs, one of them being “Bonnie Dundee.” While doing so it was amusing to see the assemblage in their stirring emotions as they listened to the music, and finding, as I did, that age in no way interfered with the nimbleness of my fingers, I was glad in trying to please the people in such an innocent way. The violin is used in some religious services in this part of the world, just as organs are used elsewhere, and in connection with the conversation I had with a clergyman who was sitting at my side, I learned that he was from' Perthshire, and I having travelled commercially through that part of Scotland, it had the tendency of strengthening our friendship.

I imagined that one of the reasons why I was asked to take the chair and so much taken notice of, was owing to the fact that my son-in-law—Mr W. J. Manson—represents the constituency of Dewdney in the Provincial Parliament, but apart from that I have found the people of the district on both sides of political views very friendly.

For two or three months the weather at times has ’ ------h so that the like has not been very stormy, so much has been experienced here for many years, but it looks now as if there would be a change.

In regard to public affairs, the people in this country being a part of the British Empire are greatly interested as to what is going on politically in the United Kingdom, so that the mail from the Mother Country is looked for by many with great eagerness, and owing to the interest I took in the amelioration of the people of my native parish—Sandwick—in Shetland for many years, especially during the time I was a member of the County Council, I share in the anxiety to read the reports of political meetings in the United Kingdom, more particularly in Scotland.

28th February 1910.—The Shetland Times newspaper of 29th January of the year mentioned has just been handed to me, in which is a report of a political speech which was delivered in the Town Hall, Lerwick, Shetland, on the day before the issue of the paper, by Mr J. Cathcart Wason, M.P., and as on that occasion he referred to me in connection with what I had done to benefit the people, it may not be out of piace to mention it here, and it is as follows:—"Brownie’s Taing Pier ”—“ In addition to the case I have mentioned there is another near home. When I first knew you here some ten years ago, the great question down in the south of Shetland was the Brownie’s Taing Pier, which was built largely through the efforts of Mr Duncan of that neighbourhood. Lord Balfour of Burleigh, who was then Secretary for Scotland, agreed on the representations that we made to him to give a substantial grant of public money to that pier, and he did so, and then by the aid of that money, by the enterprise of commercial gentlemen here and elsewhere, and by the skill and intelligence of the fishermen, Brownie’s Taing has been a great success. The landlord in the case gave great assistance, for which he would receive credit under our proposals; but the people have to pay enormous fees for a little bit of land, and the landlord ^ets all the increased value. This kind of thing has been going on all over the country, and in the south even to a far greater extent than it has been done in this particular district.”

I meet Shetland people in almost every place I visit, some of them very anxious to know all the information I can give about the pier at Broonie’s Taing, and that bung so, I have thought that along with what I have told ,them and what Mr Cathcart Wason, M.P., has said as above, it may be in place to insert a few verses of poetry which appeared in' the Shetland Times of 8th March 1902. I have at times endeavoured to ascertain who wrote the lines, they being so complimentary to myself, but up to the present time I have no knowledge of the author, and the words are as follows :—

“At Broonie’s Taing we yet shall hear
The steamboat’s siren loud and clear,
While eager tourists will repair
To the Grand Hotel at Collister.

“From outer ness to northern bight
A thrifty town will stand in sight,
Whose terraced streets and gardens rare
Will deck the western slope so fair.

“And when this comes, as come it will,
For Sandwick never will stand still,
Place ye on Shore Street, near the strand,
A statue true on granite stand;

“And on its ‘dye’ in letters clear
Write ‘Duncan’—he who first appeared
To wield the pen to urge the plan,
Our earnest friend, the Gran: Old Man.”

“Old Pete.”

19th March 1910.—The weather now is delightful and has been for some days, so that the people w ho are engaged in farming are all hard at work preparing the earth for seed, and yesterday I was in a part of the country where two men were blasting stumps of trees. Mr Donald M‘Cormick, the leading man at the work, and who resides in the district, came forward, having met me before, and said: “Mr Duncan, come here please, and I will show you how the blasting is done.”

I drew near to where he was boring a narrow hole under a stump, the diameter of which being about 5 feet, spreading out its roots of great thickness, and extending 4 yards or more.

The tool he was using was an auger 4 feet long, having a bladed screw at one end, which he turned until it got near the centre of the stump, and the hole made was 6 inches wide.

He placed the end of a piece of fuse into a cap having in it combustible matter, namely) nitroglycerine, and he shoved it in the end of a one pound package of blasting powder, then placed it at the far end of the hole, pushing it in with a wooden stick. Then he shoved in along with it fifteen packages of the same quantity of powder in each, and on the top of all he rammed in earth, leaving about 12 inches of the other end of the fuse outside the hard packed earth, to which he applied a lighted match, at the same time with a loud voice cried, “fire," when with him everybody present ran away some 300 yards for safety.

In the course of a few minutes off went the shot, shaking the ground and uprooting the stump, and I saw heavy pieces of it thrown high up in the air.

This sort of work goes on every day during several months of the year, in order to clear the land of trees, and along with blasting, much is done by manual labour in clearing land.

22nd March 1910.—I have met many of the Indians, young and old, of both sexes squatting on the ground in their tents in a way not much different to the habits of the lower animals; but to show the manners and customs of those who have been partly civilised, I may state here at this stage what I read about the interment of a chief of one of the tribes. It appeared in the Vancouver Daily News Advertiser newspaper of the 18th March 1910, and is as follows:—

“Indian Chief Joe Capilano’s remains were laid to rest with impressive ceremony in the cemetery on the Keith Road at North Vancouver. The orator of the occasion was Chief Joseph of the Fraser, who looked like a relic of the past in his dress of untanned deerskin, ornamented with fish-shaped bits of painted wood, and his head covered with a black fur cap surmounted by eagles1 feathers. Standing by the coffin of the dead chief, he told how Joe had visited the King in London, and had brought back pictures of the King and Queen, which the great white chief had given him, and he had preserved as a sacred relic the Union Jack which Queen Victoria had presented to his predecessor. In view of all this he appealed to all the other chiefs to elect Joe’s son Mathias to reign in his stead. Mathias and his sister Emma were the chief mourners at the funeral, and throughout the ceremony Emma clung to the framed portrait of Queen Alexandra which Chief Joe had brought from England, as if her life depended on it. Grouped behind the altar rail of the church were the assembled chiefs from the different parts of the Province. They wrapped him in great white blankets, some ornamented with borders of many colours.

“After Chief Joseph’s oration the untanned deerskin that lay on the coffin was removed and assumed by Mathias, while Chief Joseph fastened round his waist a belt of many colours. On the new chief s breast were also pinnea the medals which King Edward had presented to his father, and the late chiefs big cap of fox skins was placed upon his head. Two Union Jacks carried by two other chiefs followed the hearse which, led by the Indian Mission band, travelled slowly through the woods to Chief Joe’s last resting-place.

“At the graveside, Chief Joseph of the Fraser made another long oration, exhorting the Indians to be loyal to the new chief and through him to King Edward. On the coffin were laid lilies brought by Miss Pauline Johnson as an offering of peace and power from the Mohawks. When the earth had been heaped upon the grave, the new chief spoke to those present and promised to be brave and to try to follow in his father’s steps. His mother at this time broke down and was led weeping away.

“Then it was the turn of Chief Mathias to walk away from the rest, and with outstretched arms he wept for the death of his father. And thus Chief Joe was laid to rest and Chief Mathias reigns in his stead.”

The people of British Columbia, including many Indians, are proud of being British subjects, so that on any special occasion when national affairs are under public notice, the Union Flag can be seen fluttering on flag-staffs at many places, and social meetings are held in order to in some way or another demonstrate loyalty to the sovereign.

26th March 1910.—To-day I see large quantities of logs fixed together like rafts being towed by a steamer down the Fraser River to saw-mills near the sea, and there is a great trade done in this line of business.

The timber resources are enormous, including birch, hemlock, cedar, maple, oak, spruce, and pine, and the area of British Columbia in acres mostly covered with trees is said to be 236,922,177, and the population by the census of 1901 was 114,160 males and 64,497 females. Since then the population has increased greatly with people of many nationalities, principally English, Scotch, Irish, Chinese, and Japanese, a large number of whom are purchasing land and entering into the fruit trade, there being a great demand for that article.

4th April 1910.—I was lately in that part of the country where the Indians are very numerous, not roaming about in a wild savage state as did their ancestors, but having been brought under the influence of Christianity they are settled down in a way similar to that of whke people, and on Easter Sunday they turned out in great numbers to attend the Roman Catholic Church.

Some of them had apparently come from a great distance, because as I passed parts of the road a good many tents were erected, the cloth of which was as white as snow, and fires were blazing outside on which there were iron pots seemingly full of fish or something else suitable for food.

The day being fine, some of the people were lying around the tents resting or sleeping, while a number of children were playing on the grassy plots just as white children would do, and the grown-up girls were dressed in showy, light-coloured garments hanging in an easy form, not at all of a pinching shape.

I sometimes met groups of them of four or six, one of the older females at times carrying a baby, and on saluting them as I passed they returned the compliment with bowing in a very nice way, and I was pleased to think of what a graceful and modest spirit is imparted even to a savage when he believes in the resurrection of Christ. It appears that the Roman Catholics support a number of missionaries in this Province, but other denominations of Christians are also active in spreading the Gospel among the Indians, though I fear it will take a long time to finally separate some of them from their heathenish customs.

21st April 1910.—This is my birthday, having arrived at the stage of my life when I am aged fourscore years and three, and strange to say I do not feel very much the worse of the wear, but having to visit some more places in America and then to travel to the farthest north of Scotland is giving me some thought.

Children and grandchildren here are now kindly bestowing on me their love by handsome birthday presents, a thing which I appreciate exceedingly, and which makes me happier than many people can imagine. This is an evidence of the fact that whatever some people may say to the contrary, and notwithstanding the struggles which sometimes have to be made to bring up families, my opinion is that the married state is the best.

Another thing which is adding considerably to my happiness while I am here is the great pleasure I experience in seeing my two great-grandchildren—a boy and a girl—who have been born in this country since I arrived, now growing up in health and strength.

27th April 1910.—To-day I was passing along a field which was being ploughed by a half-breed, one of his sons by an Indian woman assisting him, and the two horses and the plough doing the work were his own. He stopped ploughing and talked to me for a few minutes in fairly good English, and as I noticed very pleased to let me know that he had a fine family of children who were being trained to be industrious, and leading me to understand that some of the Indian people by careful training can become useful members of society.

On the same evening, while passing along the road, I heard the noise of a railway train coming from the east which induced me to slacken my pace, and as the ponderous engine came in sight I stood still, and I was only a few yards from the side of the railway track. I did this so as to get a look at passengers, no doubt some of them, as I imagined, having come from the “Old Country"; and as the carriages were well lighted and the windows being large, I could see many in theii seats, and some were close by the openings wistfully looking out as the long train sped its way on for Vancouver City.

During the cold months of the year, men and boys who attend farm work use some of their time gathering wood unsuitable for sale, and also stumps of trees in large heaps to dry on the fields, and usually in April and May the whole is burned so that at times many of those heaps can be seen blazing at the same time. A few days ago, far on in the evening, I noticed a cedar tree 225 feet high in a blaze from the roots to the top, and as it was burning fiercely for several hours, it was an awful sight to witness, especially at night. On making inquiry, I was informed that it was a tree 7 feet 6 inches diameter at the base, and the reason why it had to be burned was owing to the want of a saw long enough to cross-cut it near the surface of the earth, as is done w ith almost all the trees that have to be cut down.

6th May 1910.—In looking round and meeting people, I could see that the sorrowful news of the death of King Edward VII. had pathetically touched the hearts of the inhabitants of the district of the Province through which I was travelling, and the Union Jack was flying half-mast at many places. The weather is now very warm, indeed overpowering, but through it no deaths have taken place, and cool breezes come at times to so counteract the heat as to make it bearable.

23rd May 1910.—Late at night I was standing on the veranda of my son-in-law’s house not far from the side of the Fraser River, where a number of friends were with me, and in a clear sky we got a good view of an eclipse of the moon, and at the same time saw Hailey’s Comet; but it was not so bright as I remembered seeing it when I was a little boy living in the Shetland Islands about seventy years ago. While talking to those on the veranda, I was reminded of the fact that British Columbia lies in latitude 49° to 60° North and the area is 395,000 square miles.

29th May 1910.—To-day I visited one of the Roman Catholic Indian Homes, where between forty and fifty boys and girls are carefully attended to both as to lodgings and education.

Father O’Neil met me at the door of the large building, expressing great satisfaction that I had called; and it appeared to me by the way he spoke that he had some Knowledge of my presence in this country. The Home is so well arranged for children, that I do not wonder of the willingness of those in charge to receive strangers in a friendly way, and to let them see the different apartments.

From the basement to the top storey, stair after stair, I was shown every room, presenting to the eye the essence of cleanness. On taking a look at the children, I noticed a great difference in their colour, some of them being half-breeds and others darker or lighter, but I was told that the pure native children (both parents Indians) are more apt to learn than the others. This rather surprised me, because I was under the impression that the children of the mixed blood parents were much more clever than the pure-blooded Indians.

I came away much pleased that I had been privileged to be shown through the place, and I began to consider thoughtfully as to the time I had spent in furnishing the young people from time to time in my native parish in the Shetland Islands with thousands of fine new religious books in connection with Sabbath School teaching, and if the seed sown would be bringing forth good fruit. I also thought of the time when in my teens I had charge of the Parochial School in the same parish, and that our only lesson-book to read was the Bible, and if the lesson books now are producing as good scholars as was done about seventy years ago, when I was under the tuif.ion of a parochial teacher.

At this season of the year there is one thing in particular to be seen in this part of the world that is quite the opposite in the Old Country. The summer weather there to some extent is often drying up the streams, while here by the more intense heat of the sun the waters of the rivers rise much higher. That is owing to the fact that the snow on the mountains in very large quantities melts, by which an enormous bors of water comes rushing down to the broad and deep rivers, so that at times arable land is flooded, and much damage is done to crops and houses.

Just now crowds of people are arriving here by rail, principally from England, most of whom, as I think, are settling down on farms, and it is surprising to see how quickly wooden houses are put up. In travelling about

I enter many a dwelling, and all the occupants give me a hearty welcome, many of them never having been out of America, and inquiring at me about towns and people in Scotland where their fathers and mothers and other near relatives used to live.

A few days ago by invitation I was spending a few hours with a farmer, and amongst other things I was shown a well near the dwelling-house giving a supply of good water; but the gentleman told me that he had to dig down about 100 feet before the spring was reached, and the boarded shaft is 6 feet square, the depth of water 3 feet or more, which is brought up by a mechanical arrangement in connection with a wheel at the top of the shaft. I was informed that a large quantity of fruit was raised on the farm, which finds a ready market.

11th June 1910.—I notice to-day a considerable number of Indians on the fields gathering straw berries, and I am informed that they receive high wages arising from the fact that this kind of summer fruit, for which there is a good demand, must be picked during a very short space of time, and immediately thereafter forwarded to the market, because the fruit can keep sound only for a few days. It is put up in small thin-wood cases called crates, to be placed in certain numbers in larger-sized wooden boxes, so as to be safely forwarded to the buyers and consignees.

The people in this country consume much fruit of various kinds, so that at every meal scarcely without an exception it is served up in some form, and much is preserved to be used when required, which is mostly during the winter months and the spring.

I0th June 1910.—This being Sunday, some people can be seen driving in order to attend church, which is in some cases several miles from their dwellings ; but, as the sky is cloudy and showers of rain are now and again falling rather heavily, I have kept indoors leading, and sometimes playing sacred music on a very fine piano ; but I feel that I would be more in my element if I were attending church and aiding Sabbath - school teaching, as I used to do in the Shetland Islands.

21st June 1910.—As is well known, this is the longest day of the year on the north side of the Equator, and about which a number of people are talking, they being under the impression that the present heat will lessen as time passes. I hope such will be the case, because I prefer the cool breeze to the extreme warmth of the last few days.

1st July 1910.—The members of the Orkney and Shetland Association of Vancouver City, British Columbia, had arranged to hold their annual picnic to-day on Lulu Island, near the mainland, reached by a bridge, that being a suitable place for the purpose.

In order to be present, I left Hatzic by train for Vancouver City early in the morning of the same day, the weather being fine, and shortly after arrival I went by electric train to close by the field where the people were gathered. .

On getting to the entrance gate, a few of those who knew me came forward, when a hearty shaking of hands was an evidence of welcome, and immediately thereafter I was in the midst of a big crowd of men, women, and children of the Norse type of physique. A number of the young folks there had never seen the Orkney and Shetland Islands, and looked intently at me while I was talking with others. Games of various sorts were being made a source of enjoyment, and it was worthy of notice to see little clusters of the company here and there on the lawn, some of them standing and others lying down on the dry sward getting each other’s news, at the same time giving and taking a supply of the nourishing food and temperance drink which appeared to be plentiful.

After the enjoyment of a while mingling with such a happy company, I had to bid them good-bye, a few of the Shetlanders walking with all night in the Strand Hotel, where I had a refreshing sleep, and after breakfast I had a stroll through the city, after which I took train to New Westminster, arriving there in the evening.

I got a good view of the country on both sides of the railway as we passed along, the scenery appearing beautiful, which was mostly fine-looking residences surrounded with well laid out grounds and gardens.

At several places on the margin of the Fraser River, I noticed saw-mills and salmon canneries that give employment to a great many people, and the farms on each side of this mighty stream were so flat, and at one side of which the land rose abruptly to such a great height that I imagined the land now being under crop was at one time the bed of the great river, which at some places continues to deepen its channel, leaving the land on each side terrace-shaped and very high- . . . .

On arriving at the city, which was named New Westminster by the late Queen Victoria, I had the pleasure of seeing many public buildings, also walking through several streets having a look at a number of stores and taking a meal in one of the hotels. After a short rest, I took train for Mission City Junction, arriving there at a late hour, and drove from the station about two miles out in the country to my son-in-law’s residence, where I very soon got to my bedroom to get my head on a reposing pillow, because I was feeling tire ! and ready for a long rest and a sound sleep.

At this time of the year I saw a number of Indians, they having come from different parts of the province in search of employment on the fields. Their mode of conveyance is mostly by canoes coming down rivers from their reserves and other places, taking with them tents which they fix up close by the fields where they work. I have been several times in their midst talking to them, making myself to be understood as best I could, and patting their little ones on the head.

They live in a kind of family life in these tents, enjoying the fine warm weather which prevails, being often outside in the open air, and in their own way passing their leisure hours moving about in frolicsome fun, some of it very odd and childish.

7th July 1910.—I was to-day at a place surrounded with mountains, where I noticed the effect of a whirlwind, the sight being of an alarming nature, because, not far from where I was standing, the surface of the earth some inches deep was lifted up in the air, and if the whirling had touched me, the velocity was such that I would no doubt have been lifted up I don’t know how far, and the fall perhaps would have beer, serious.

It is understood that whirlwinds are the result of not only currents of air meeting, but also winds blowing among high mountains, and placed as I happened to be at the time, no doubt the latter was the cause of what had just come under my observation.

18th July 1910.—In the afternoon of this day I was on one of the public roads, walking slowly, when I observed a person like an Indian woman a few hundred yards distant, coming in the opposite direction to that I was going, and as the individual came nearer, the clothing such as it was led me to believe that I was meeting a woman right enough, and by appearance in dress so the person turned out to be.

She was short in stature, broad across the shoulders, her feet bare, and altogether she w as a bulky piece of humanity. We passed each other, but as she had a staff about 6 feet long in her hand, I naturally turned round to have a look at her, and as I did so I found myself face to face with her, she having turned round to have a look at me, and so near were we that I had a good view of her bare feet.

Like her copper-coloured face, they wrere dark brow n, and at the toes each foot appeared to be about 5 inches broad, and she stood staff n hand with fierce-looking eyes gazing at me straight in the face. It was fortunate that I was carrying a heavy walking-stick, which I could have used to defend myself if she had lifted her staff to hit me, but whatever she thought, she turned round and went on her way, and I resumed my journey.

I may mention here that I never travelled without a heavy stick in my hand, and after the meeting I have described, I made sure to continue the practice.

While driving one day through a certain part of the country, the man who had charge of the vehicle was very conversational, being always willing to give me information on any subject in connection with the district through which we were passing, and he seemed to be well acquainted with the people as we passed from place to place.

He said that after having been many years away from his old home in the east of Canada, he felt a strong desire to return to see his father and mother, but the distance was so great and his business demanded so much of his attention that he found it to be very difficult to get away.

It may be thought very strange that being on the same continent with his parents he could not see his way to visit them, but it must be kept in mind that the distance from Montreal at the Atlantic to Vancouver City on the Pacific Coast, is nearly 3000 miles. I shall g've at this stage the names of the stations the trains pass from the one ocean to the other on the Canadian Pacific Railway. The departure going west, as I did, is from Windsor Street Station, Montreal, then on to Westmount, Montreal Junction, Dorval, Valois, Beaconsfield, Ste. Anne de Belvue, Vaudreuil, Como, Hudson, Rigaud, St Eugene, Vankleek Hill, Caledonia Springs, Alfred, Plantagenet, Pendleton, Leonard, Navan, Ottawa, Britannia, Bell’s Corners, Stittville, Ashton, Carleton Place (Junction), Almonte, Snedden, Pakenham, Arnprior, Braeside, Sand Point, C'astleford, Russell, Renfrew, Haley’s, Cobden, Snake River, Graham, Pembroke, Stafford, Petawawa, Thistle, Chalk River, Wylie, Moorlake, Mackey, Rockcliffe, Bissett, Deux Rivieres, Klock, Mattawa, Calvin, Eau Claire, Ruther-glen, Bonfield, Nosbonsing, Corbeil, Cliffe, North Bay, Beaucage, Meadowside, Sturgeon Falls, Cache Bay, Verner, Warren, Hagar, Markstay, Stinson, Wanapiti, Romford, Sudbury, Azilda, Chelmsford, Larch wood, Phelan, Wondy Lake, Cartier, Stralak, Pogamasing, Metagama, Biseo, Ramsay, Woman River, Wakami, Ridout, Nemegos, Chapleau, Pardee, Wayland, Dalton, Missanaibi, Lochalsh, Otter, Grasett, Amyot, White River, Bremner, Montizambert, Trudeau, Cache, Melgund, Heron Bay, Peninsula, Red Sucker, Cold well, Middleton, Jackfish, Schreiber, Rossport, Gravel, Kama, Nipigon, Sprucewood, Wolf, Ouimet, Pearl, Mackenzie, Port Arthur, Fort William, Westfort, Neebing, Murillo, Kakabeka, Kaministikwia, Sunshine, Finmark, Buda, Osko, Dexter, Linko, Poland, Savanne, Bioto, Upsala, Carristadt, Niblock, Sheba, English, Martin, Tamarac, Bonheur, Falkon, Ignace, Osaquan, Butter, Raleigh, Bigsby, Tache, Dyment, Brule, Dinorwic, Wabigoon, Barclay, Dryden, Oxdrift, Minnitaki, Eagle, Vermilion, Gilbert, Parry, Pine, Hodge, Hawk, MacMillan, Scovil, Margach, Garwood, Kenora, Keewatin, Ostersund, Bustoed, Deception, Horner, Ingolf, Cross, Telford, Rennie, Culver, Darwin, Whitemouth, Shelley, Julius, Molson, Sinnot, Beause-jour, Tyndall, East Selkirk, Gonor, Birds Hill, Winnipeg, Bergen, Rosser, Meadows, Marqutte, Reaburn, Poplar Point, High Bluff, Portage la Prairie, Burnside, Bagot, Macgregor, Austin, Sidney, Melbourne, Carberry, Sewell, Douglas, Chater, Brandon, Kemnay, Alexander, Griswold, Oak Lake, Routledge, Virden, Hargrave, Elkhorn, Kirkella, Fleming, Moosomin, Red Jacket, Wapella, Burrows, Whitewood, Percival, Broadview, Oakshela, Grenfell, Summerberry, Wolseley, Sintaluta, Dingley, Indian Head, Qu’Appelle, Maclean, Balgonie, Pilot, Butte, Regina, Grand Coulee, Pense, Belle Plain e, Pasqua, Moosejaw, Boharm, Caron, Mortiach, Parkbeg, Secretan, Chaplin, Erenfold, Morse, Herbert, Rush Lake, Waldeck, Aikins, Swift Current, Beverley, Seward, Webb, Antelope, Gull Lake, Carmichael, Tompkins, Sidewood, Crane Lake, Cross, Maple Creek, Kincorth, Forres, Cummings, Walsh, Irvine, Pashley, Coleridge, Dunmore Junction, Medicine Hat, Redcliffe, Bowell, Suffield, Caristadt, Kininvie, Tilley, Bantry, Brooks, Cassils, Southesk, Lathom, Bassano, Crowfoot, Cluny, Gleichen, Stobart, Namaka, Strathmore, Cheadle, Langdon, Shepard, Calgary, Keith, Glenbow, Cochrane, Randor, Morley, Kananaskis, Exshaw, The Gap, Canmore, Bankhead, Banff, Sawback, Castle Mountain, Eldon, Laggan, Stephen, Hector, Field, Ottertail, Leanchoil, Palliser, Gleuogle, Golden, Moberly, Donald, Beavermouth, Six Mile Creek, Cedar, Bear Creek, Roger’s Pass, Selkirk Summit, Glacier House, Ross Peak, Illecillewaet, Albert Canyon, Twin Butte, Revelstoke, Clanwilliam, Three Valley, Craigel-lachie, Malakwa, Sicamous Junction, Cunoe, Salmon Arm, Notch Hill, Squilax, Shuswap, Ducks, Kamloops, Tranquille, Cherry Creek, Munieo, Savona, Walhachin, Ashcroft, Spatsom, Spence’s Bridge, Drynoch, Thompson, Gladwin, Lytton, Keefers, North Bend, Spuzzum, Yule, Hope, Ruby Creek, Agassiz, Harrison Mills, Nicomen, Mission Junction, Whonnock, Haney, Hammond, Westminster Junction, Port Moody, Barnett, Hastings, Vancouver.

The above three hundred and seventy-four stations are suitably constructed, having all the required conveniences for the accommodation of the public, but the trains do not always stop at all the stations which are shown by the railway time-tables that are published regularly as a guide for passengers, and the traffic on the Canadian Pacific Railway is immense.

I shall in connection with what I have said about traffic refer again to the development of fishing on the British Columbian coast as it appeared in The Vancouver World of 19th September 1910:—

“Sir George Doughty, returned from a northern trip, says the Province’s fishing industry is rapidly drifting into hands of Americans and Orientals. Quick action needed.”

Winnipeg, 13th September (World’s Special Service). —“I went to see the British Columbia coast, and I want to see the advantages now being derived by Americans, Japanese, and Chinese taken hold by men of our own race.”

A visit to the British Columbia coast has impressed this so firmly on the mind of Sir George Doughty, the head of the greatest British sea-fishery in existence, who arrived in Winnipeg last night, that he proposes going back to Grimsby, England, where he says he will use all the influence he possesses to get more British control over the British Columbian fisheries.

“I came out here,” he said, “to form a judgment on the possibility of establishing British sea-fishing along the coast of the Pacific under the same conditions which obtain in England. I have been to Prince Rupert, and spent two days along the Skeena River, and also have been able to judge the waters along the whole of the coast. It is a great problem, and it is to be regretted that the fisheries there are drifting very rapidly into the hands of Americans and aliens, such as the Chinese and the Japanese. I am convinced that if the Government does not do something very soon to change the situation along the coast of British Columbia, they will lose one of Canada’s most valuable possessions.

“How to obviate that is not a very simple problem, but there is no doubt that representations will be made to the Provincial Governments on the question, especially the Government of British Columbia and the Federal Government. Steps must be taken to direct to the coast of British .Columbia in the near future a large number of British fishermen. Markets will be found for their products not only in Canada but in other parts of the world.”

In a manner which proved beyond doubt his enthusiasm in this big scheme, Sir George continued:— “I will use my influence wherever I go to further the planting of a race of British fishermen along the British Columbian coast. There is another serious aspect of the question, namely, that the whole of the British Columbian coast is absolutely unprotected.

“If you .are going to have a navy worthy of the name, you will have to draw your men from those who have spent their lives by the sea. The material for the British Navy comes from a racc of men who have been bom as fishermen or as seamen, and British Columbia will be wise in time to develop the same way of securing men for the navy as well as for the navy reserve which will give you men in time of emergency.”

Sir George has been very much impressed by his visit to the coast. He sums up his impressions in the words, “This is a great country with a great future.”

30th July 1910.—To-day I was writing notes for The Shetland Times, and in the afternoon had to visit a party at a distance rather too far away. On my return to where I was lodging there was no regular conveyance, so that I had to travel on foot, and while stepping along as best I could a gentleman in a vehicle came up with me and asked if I would take a ride, a thing which I was glad to do, because the road was far from being good, and I had a considerable distance to travel. As we drove on we began to converse, questioning and answering each other, as I often experienced with other strangers when meeting them from time to time, and from whom I received much information not only about the land of their adoption but also in regard to the countries from which they had emigrated, and mostly all those I spoke with had come from other parts of the world. In course of conversation I came to learn that this gentleman’s name was Joe Seirs, that he had two brothers in British Columbia, and when he left his old home in the Far East many years ago his mother, he said, gave him an advice to which he had adhered, and that was to make sure never to forget being kind to an old man.

Well, I complimented his mother, and told him that so far as I was concerned he had certainly carried out that advice in doing me a good turn, and I informed him that I was in the eighty-fourth year of my age.

When we arrived at where I had to alight, it was getting dark, making it difficult to find the iron step at the side of the vehicle, so I set my right foot on the top of one of the wheels and jumped on to the road, standing as steady as a young man would have done. Mr Seirs said as much as to be under the impression that I had made a mistake in looking at the register of births, and I think he said that I was more like a man of forty than the age I had stated.

At this stage I feel inclined to mention that in the various districts in British Columbia where I was often travelling, many friends driving, kindly treated me in much the same way as Mr Seirs had done, and many a pressing invitation I received to call on them at their residences in order to give them the opportunity of showing me their hospitality. I have the same thing to say as to the people of Alaska and the United States.

2nd August 1910.—I was in a house on this day near by which a man was blowing up stumps of large trees. I was much startled by a piece of one of the roots, by the force of the powder ascending hundreds of feet in the air and falling on the roof above my head, doing some damage, but no person was injured.

5th August 1910.—I have just been informed that word by wire has come to Vancouver City that the steamer Princess May is a wreck on rocks between two islands on the North Pacific coast.

This is the same steamer with which I went to Alaska, and, considering the nature of the very narrow straits between islands she had to pass through, I am not surprised to hear of the catastrophe ; but information is to the effect that no lives have been lost.

16th August 1910.—One of the steamers trading oil the Fraser River passed down under my observation, and as she glided over this mighty stream on a rather dark night, lighted fore and aft up and down with electricity, to witness the sight as I did was grand. I may here refer to the fact that the flow of water, especially at some parts of this river, is very rapid, while no one looking at its surface would think so, and for want of that knowledge just recently a young man from Shetland lost his life by trying to swim in it.

17th August 1910.—On the evening of this day I was at a house where the people were very fond of music, both vocal and instrumental, and as they had a fiddle, and being aware that I could play on that instrument, I was asked to favour them by playing a few Scotch airs, which I did while standing on a veranda in front of the residence.

At the time of giving this amusement the weather was fine, the moon was shining brightly, her reflection on a sheet of water close by very beautiful to look upon, and that with friends surrounding me who appeared to appreciate the music and scenery made me think of enjoyment such as that in the Old Country, and brought to my mind the many happy meetings of long ago.

20th August 1910.—Yesterday and the day before the weather was very warm, to-day it is very cold—a sudden change which often occurs in many parts of British Columbia.

31s£ August, 1910.—To-day I have beer packing in one of my trunks several things with the understanding that I may very soon have to leave for Shetland by way of Alberta.

1st September 1910.—It having become known that I am preparing to leave for the Old Country, some friends are inviting me to come and dine with them, and to-day I have been enjoying the hospitality of a family where there are eleven children, some of them married, and all healthy. The father and mother are very cheerfully living in a fine house on their own land, where they grow a great quantity of different kinds of fruit which sells to good advantage.

14:th September 1910.—I met a gentleman to-day who had recently been far inland among the lakes and mountains on a hunting expedition, and had shot an animal of a species which had never been seen or heard of before, and also caught fish of a good edible quality in a small loch. Then he began to conjecture how the fish could have got there, because he said that he saw no appearance of the water of the loch coming from or running into a river.

15th September 1910.—I am to-day in that part of British Columbia near to which a most alarming bush-fire is raging, and the smoke is coming from many miles away like dark clouds surrounding me where I am standing, it being similar to fog with a bad odour. It is reported that some of the fi re-fighters are in great danger, and that many animals and much property such as houses and furnishings have been lost.

24th September 1910.—I left Hatzic, British Columbia, this morning at 8.35 o’clock by rail for Vancouver City, intending to cross the Gulf of Georgia to Vancouver Island, and I went on board the s.s. Joan at 2 p.m. the same day, and had a fine passage to Nanaimo, where I met two of my grandsons on the wharf.

29th September 1910.—I was to-day out in Departure Bay in a small boat, my daughter, Mrs Laurence Manson, her son Ernest, and my other grandson John S. Leisk, along with me.

We had much pleasure in this rowboat pulling and singing, also calling at a biological station, where we entered a building in which there was a variety of different kinds of preserved fishes, birds, animals, and skeletons of Indians, etc.

On our return I took an oar in each hand to show my daughter and grandsons how an old Shetlander could pull with a pair of oars, and I think I gave them a surprise, as I made the boat move rapidly over the water in a sheltered bay on the Pacific coast.

13th October 1910.—To-day I attended the funeral of a Mrs Campbell, Nanaimo, who had been a member of the Roman Catholic Church, and therefore a priest of that denomination was in charge of the burial service, which he conducted in a very solemn way in accordance with the rules of the Church. The remains were interred in ground set apart in the cemetery for the burial of those who died believing in Roman Catholicism.

Women attended the funeral, and mostly all the company of mourners followed the hearse in carriages.

I came to understand that there are no special invitations given to parties to attend funerals in the cities of British Columbia, but the day and time of the funerals are advertised in all the daily newspapers, and there is generally on such occasions a large number of people who attend as mourners.

2nd October 1910.—It had been advertised in the Nanaimo newspapers that a medical gentleman of great repute would deliver a lecture to men only in the Opera House of that city on the evening of this day, stating the hour, and through curiosity I went to hear him ; but such a lecture I had never heard before, and perhaps will never hear again.

Admission was by ticket, and the large house was filled with men and boys, and a certain gentleman of high standing in the city occupied the chair.

The lecture was lengthy, and of such a nature as to impart much instruction and warning; but thankful was I that women were not allowed to be present. The same gentleman had however lectured to women in the same place shortly before, and men were not allowed to be there—an arrangement according to my opinion highly commendable.

4th October 1910.—This is the day my son-in-law, Mr Laurence Manson, and I had arranged to commence our journey to Alberni, on the west side of Vancouver Island, being a distance of 56 miles over a very dangerous road.

We secured one of the best horses that could be got in Nanaimo and a first-class open vehicle, and early in the morning we made the start.

At first the horse being what is called fresh, the animal began to bound ahead as I thought rather dangerously, but Mr Manson, who knew how to drive, held the reins and told me not to be the least afraid, and said that the horse would soon tire of that racing. So the animal did after a while, and proved to be during the long journey an excellent beast, taking us along in fine style. The weather was fairly good, the road for a few miles was in capital order, but after leaving the suburbs of the city it became somewhat rough. For a time we had a delightful view of both land and water scenery, Departure Bay being on our right and mountains and valleys on the left. But not long after this the horse began to plunge in a bad road, the vehicle at the same time swaying first to the one side and then to the other. For an hour or two we went through a thickly wooded part of the country, now and again seeing a hut occupied by loggers, and when about half-way we put up at an hotel to have dinner. Shortly after that we got on the road again, at times crossing paths and new highways leading to other districts; but as Mr Manson had driven to Alberni before, he knew how to keep the proper way, and so we kept going—sometimes, however, on narrow roads cut into the sides of high rocky mountains, the lower side being steep precipices leading down to gorges or lakes below.

When we were getting near to Alberni, darkness was setting in, so that owing to roads leading in different directions we had some difficulty in finding our way to the hotel where we wished to put up. At last we got to the place, it being a large building close by the head of the Alberni Canal, which is an arm of the Pacific Ocean about forty miles long in a north-east direction, along the sides of which there are many Indian huts. We were well accommodated in the hotel both as to food and bedrooms, and felt ourselves much at home.

In the morning, immediately after breakfast, we went outside to have a look at the locality, which in my estimation appeared would be the place of my choice were I intending to settle down in British Columbia, one of the reasons being that I would be near a beautiful arm of the sea. This great inlet of the ocean narrows as it gets inland to its termination, salmon being in abundance everywhere in its waters, some of which are large, as I saw when one would jump from the surface, and they did it often.

Other kinds of edible fish abound in this canal, as it is called, but more especially on the west coast, facing the open ocean, fishing-banks are numerous at a short distance from the shore, halibut in particular being plentiful, and there is a great demand for that kind of fish.

Then the land near the head of the canal (of which Mr Manson owns 120 acres) is well wooded, and the soil is good, so that as the population increases the price of land is rising, and many people are seeking their way westward to A berni, which will very soon be connected by railway with other parts of Canada, because the work of construction of a road to the place is now in progress.

The Indians at this part of the coast live almost entirely by fishing; their houses stand in rows here and there as I saw them, the women taking an interest in the work, assisting the men. As I noticed that they w ere dressed much in the same way as white people, I imagined that they would be somewhat civilised and perhaps Christianised.

Mr Manson and I drove a short way from the shore to have a look at his land, finding out as we went that property of the kind close by was selling at high prices.

On our return to the hotel we took a walk out along the east side of the canal, and when we reached a certain place Mr Manson pointed out to me a mine on a mountain in which he had shares. During our stay we visited several other places, often meeting people with whom we had conversation, and thereby gathered a great deal of information about the country generally.

Before getting into our vehicle for Nanaimo, we had it examined by a blacksmith in order to make sure that the axle and other ironwork about it were in good order, and while talking with him I came to know that his name was Duncan, of which he appeared to be proud, at the same time shaking hands with me as if I were his brother. I also met a gentleman of the same name in the hotel who had come on a pleasure trip from some part in the east of Canada, and, as he clutched my hand in a similar way as my other namesake had done, it led me to think that there must be some kind of clannishness in connection with the name Duncan that I don’t very well understand. After paying our bill in the hotel, we left Alberni early in the day, the weather being fine, which was much in our favour in seeing the western part of the district, the darkness when arriving having prevented us from getting a satisfactory view of the wild but beautiful scenery of the farthest west of British Columbia.

At first we drove slowly, taking a good look at the harbour, the sawmills, some other public works, and the landscape as seen from various standpoints. When coming west I pointed out to Mr Manson at two or three places very near the upper side of the road, that large trees were bending in such a way that it might happen they would fall across the road, especially as the roots of some of them were partly exposed to view and close to the upper side drain. Well, as we were proceeding eastward we noticed an automobile standing still about a hundred yards to the east of us, and on coming up to it we soon found out the cause of the stoppage.

A tree had fallen across the road, and the man in charge was cutting the same with a saw to get it out of the way, he having provided himself with a mechanical tool of that description and of a large size.

We had to stop until that work was finished, when we passed each other, but as we had no saw and the tree was heavy and thick we would have found ourselves very seriously embarrassed if we had arrived at the obstruction first. As we proceeded on our journey, we passed near Cameron Lake on the left, and on the opposite side of it at the steep face of a mountain we saw men excavating for the purpose of constructing a road for a railway, and as we heard blasting shots they must have been boring and blowing-up rocks.

We stopped at the same hotel we put up at on our way west, and after taking dinner we again commenced our journey to Nanaimo, and arrived there when it was getting dark.

On getting to Mr Manson’s house I met two friends there, namely, Mr and Mrs Nicholas from Victoria, and I having been hospitably entertained in their house in that city, we were very glad to see each other and enter into conversation. After a sound sleep I felt quite refreshed, and prepared to call on some friends and attend to other business. I felt very pleased that I had visited part of the west side of Vancouver Island, which would enable me all the more to speak about and impart instruction in regard to the fishing in the western waters, if spared to return to the Old Country.

10th October 1910.—On this day I had great pleasure in presenting my granddaughter, Miss Catherine Jane Manson, Nanaimo, British Columbia, with an upholstered chair on the eve of her marriage, and I am aware that she is receiving a great many valuable and useful wedding presents from relatives and other friends.

18th October 1910.—On the evening of this day I had the pleasure of meeting Mr Charles Clifton Perry, Government Indian Agent, he having come from Vancouver City, and about to become my grandson-in-law. The meeting was mutually interesting, especially as this was the first time we had seen each other, and my granddaughter, his intended to whom I have referred, was with us at the time.

19th October 1910.—I was this evening one of a party in Mr L. Manson’s house, and Mr Perry, his intended son-in-law, was present.

On the same evening I was much pleased to see the decorations in the Methodist Church, Wallace Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia, where the marriage ceremony was to take place.

20th October 1910.—This is the marriage day of the two young people of whom I have taken notice as above, and the following is what was said about it in the Nanaimo Free Press of 20th October 1910 :—

“In the Wallace Street Methodist Church this afternoon, at 2.30 o’clock, a pretty wedding was solemnized, the contracting parties being Mr Charles Clifton Perry, Indian Agent at Metlakahtla, and Miss Catherine Jane, eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs Laurence Manson.

“The church was beautifully decorated for the occasion with smilax, ivy, palms, and chrysanthemums, and Mr Andrew Dunsmore at the organ played the usual wedding music. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. S. J. Thomson, and the bride, who was attended by her sister, Miss Margaret Manson, was given away by her father. The groom had the support of the Rev. B. C. Freeman of Cumberland.

“After the ceremony, which was witnessed by quite a crowd of friends and well-wishers, the happy couple left on the afternoon train for Victoria, w here they will spend their honeymoon, after which they will take up their residence at Metlakahtla.

“The bride is a native daughter, and has always been greatly respected throughout the city, and her many frienas and well-wishers will wish her and her husband every happiness and prosperity in their new life.”

I may mention that special notice should be taken of the wedding-cake, which had been made and beautifully decorated by Mr Jerome Wilson, a Shetlander, who is a leading baker in Nanaimo City. This work was considered so perfect as to warrant the cake being photographed.

The bride, I may mention, is a granddaughter of Mr and Mrs John Manson, who reside at Setter, Sandwick Parish, Shetland, and she having visited that country a few years ago, informs me that she would like to take the long journey again in order to see more of the hundred isles of Ultima Thule.

27th October 1910.—I left Nanaimo, British Columbia, this morning at 7 o’clock per s.s. Joan to again cross the Gulf of Georgia to Vancouver City, and after a fine passage arrived there at 10 o’clock a.m. the same day. At 4.30 p.m. I took train for Mission City Junction, thence 2 miles farther up the country to Mr W. J. Manson’s residence.

28th October 1910.—I met Mr Manson this morning, who informed me that he had secured a nice commodious compartment for himself and me in the C.P.R. train to leave Mission City Junction, British Columbia, on the 4th November for Montreal, with the expectation that we would be at that seaport in time to take the steamer Royal Edward for Bristol, England. The ship was advertised to sail at an early hour on the 10th November.

This information only gave me tw o or three days to pack up and write some letters of importance, and there was much difficulty in getting w ord sent to one of my daughters in the far north of Alberta to meet me at Calgary, where the train would stop twenty minutes.

I had seen all my other near relatives in British Columbia and Alaska, but this one, my eldest daughter, lived 42 miles north from a railway station, which station was at Red Deer. As this place was about 90 miles from Calgary, and no regular conveyance to it, there was little chance of us meeting.

I, however, wrote and wired to her to try to meet me at the Queen’s Hotel, near the station at Calgary, and I hoped, though faintly, to have an interview with her there.

A few days before leaving for Montreal, Mr Manson had been banqueted in one of the hotels in Mission City by a large number of his constituency, and just as we were about to leave the station for the east, a good many gentlemen assembled at the door of the passenger-car to give him a good send-off. Just as we were about to start I heard them singing, using the words, “For he’s a jolly good fellow,” etc., and away the train moved forwards to cross the continent. As we had by wire secured a stateroom in the Royal Eduard to cross the Atlantic, we began to conjecture about being in time at Montreal to get on board that steamer. We had left the station at 5.27 p.m., so that the electric lighting of the train made everything look bright about us, and our stateroom was furnished with two beds and every other convenience required in a bedroom. We both enjoyed a good sleep, and in the morning had breakfast in the dining-car, having to walk through car after car a long way before we got to it. I noticed that although the charges are high, yet. we must remember that the servants are well paid, and to have such good meals as are given there is a great accommodation to passengers, the arrangements being much the same as I described about the dining-car when I was travelling west.

After breakfast we went to the observatory car at the rear of the train, which is a large compartment furnished with big plate-glass windows on each side, with a broad veranda at the hinder-end, well seated, and being open formed a good place for any passenger of a suitable class requiring fresh air. I counted twenty fine armchairs in the observatory all cushioned and covered with velvet cloth, and while often resting there in order to get a good view of the country, I noticed that very often every chair was occupied, and some of them by ladies, who were as anxious to get a look of what was to be seen as any other party. There was also a library, a writing desk, and paper, also pen and ink, all free, near to this car, which was much frequented by first and second class passengers.

This observatory car accommodation having only been added to the C.P.R. trains during the year 1909 or thereabouts, I had not the advantage of being in a position such as I have described to see some parts of the country as I was travelling west to the Pacific coast. I shall therefore mention a few things I have not referred to before, one of which was the burning of fine timber at some places on each side of the railway track.

I noticed that machinery by steam-power was at work dragging large logs of valuable wood in great heaps to dry and then to bum, appearing like a preparation for huge bonfires. I heard a passenger say as we passed one of these heaps, “Surely that is very wrong. Could not the owners get that wood to the coast or some other place and sell it, to be used for many purposes?"

When we got to a station called Field, which is 511 miles east of Vancouver City and 136 miles west of Calgary, I wired to my daughter at the Queen’s Hotel, Calgary, to remain there and I would call for her, and when we arrived the telegraph message was at the hotel right enough, but she had not made her appearance. I had therefore to begin again my journey to the Old Country very sorrowful, yea sad, that I had not seen her, especially as I came to know that she might have been getting near to the railway station at Calgary when we left.

This was about 12 o’clock at night on the 5th November 1910, and in a short time after the train started and I was resting in my bed without sleeping for a while, and wondering how it was that I had travelled so many thousand miles to see my daughter and yet had been deprived of the pleasurable privilege. The great train, after she had been climbing the steep gradients on the west and then slowly descending the eastern sides of the Rocky Mountains, was now on full speed racing and rocking over level land.

At certain places along the sides of the mountains I noticed sheds of considerable length, constructed for the purpose of preventing trains being blocked by snow that slides down on the rails, which sometimes has happened when trains were passing, and loss of life and property the result.

6th November 1910.—We were < to-day travelling over miles of flat, treeless land, good for grazing and growing wheat, and hundreds of cattle and sheep could be seen on the grassy fields as we passed along, and the sun was shining in a clear sky. Now and again we passed some large dwelling-houses and hamlets on both sides of the railway, and here and there groups of little children were playing about the doors of their habitations of small wooden structures far, far away from the sea.

On this day when we arrived at Moose Jaw, which is 1085 miles east from Vancouver City, I, in accordance with an understanding, wired to Mrs M. Fowlie at Brandon, Manitoba, to meet me at that station, the distance being 266 miles. We arrived there about 4 o’clock the following morning, where I met Mrs Fowlie, who was accompanied by her son and daughter, and our interview was of a very pleasing character. I may mention that this lady is a daughter of the late Dr Scott, who was proprietor of the estate of Melby, Shetland, and having read my notes in the Shetland Times for a number of years, she was very anxious to see me, and to give me a smally parcel for her mother, who resides in Lerwick. There were other friends who wished to see me at certain stations on my way to Montreal; but there are so many trains running on the line, some behind time, others at junctions going in different directions, and sometimes the stoppages are at such hours of the night as to make it so unsuitable for interviews, that to meet friends on the way is most difficult.

7th November 1910.—We passed a number of small lakes fringed with snow and shrubs, and near this place the rails were laid a considerable distance through deep cuttings of solid rock; the scene of a high smooth wall of stone was a very wonderful sight. At times we passed a church of small 6ize, which I knew to be such by the spires ; but some of these buildings appeared as though any one of them would not seat more than about an hundred persons; and we passed many large and small hotels.

When we got to Fort William we were then 1903 miles east of Vancouver City, and we had to regulate our watches so as to make our time correspond to the eastern time, the western time being one hour late.

8th November 1910.—We passed grain elevators at several places, and as we were about three-quarters of an hour late our speed was increased in order to make up our time.

As we hastened forward I glanced at everything I could see on both sides of the train, and at one place I saw on a long sandy plain that it was covered with small round stones such as may be seen along some parts of the coast on a beach, and also heaps of what appeared to be clay-marl, and I conjectured that at some remote period the whole had been under the sea. After this we came to a wide expanse of nothing but smooth hard-and-fast stone, with scarcely a blade of grass to be seen, but as we came nearer to Montreal the scene changed, and we were in the midst of farm land and fine houses on each side. We arrived on the 9th November 1910, at 9 o’clock a.m., just in time for breakfast, the Windsor Hotel being our headquarters. After resting for a little we went on board the Royal Edward to have a look at our berths, which we found to be first class, there being everything in the stateroom we would require.

Mr Manson then wired to Mrs Manson in British Columbia, and we also wrote letters to friends in Mission City and Nanaimo, Vancouver Island, that all was well with us. We then got our luggage from the railway station to the shed on the wharf alongside the steamer, and after seeing that it was properly labelled and made ready for shipment we returned to the hotel, which is a very large one.

On entering the door a large rotundo came to view surrounded with open offices and shops, there being in front of each a counter, at the backs of which stood officials ready to transact business all in connection with the hotel, and to give information to strangers.

This great rotundo received light during the day from a glass dome at a great height, and the floor was furnished with chairs done up in the most modern fashion, in which people of respectability could rest.

At night all was lighted up by electricity while I was resting for a while in one of these chairs, and the sight was wonderfully beautiful.

The floor was of dressed marble in squares laid tastily down, the one square white, the other black; a clock was placed in a suitable position; smoking was not allowed; a post-office pillar-box pai ited red stood in a prominent part; young lads as pages, wearing neat red jackets, often kept moving about singing out with a loud voice the names of persons for whom there were telegraph messages. A bar at a rather secluded part of the rotundo was in charge of highly respectable servants, and no one the worse of liquor was allowed near the counter, a porter being there on duty to eject any such individual.

The woodwork, such as doors, pillars, counters, and much of the furniture, all appeared to be dressed mahogany, and the whole of tne hotel of many flats was richly furnished.

Making sure that our luggage was in the hold of the steamer, we drove from the hotel to her side in order to get on board in good time, which was about 10 o’clock at night, and we retired to our stateroom quite pleased that we were so comfortably placed in a 12,000 tons vessel to take us across the Atlantic Ocean, not forgetting that it was far on in the season, when stormy weather may be expected. We were pleased to learn that Captain William Roberts was in command, and having the assistance of competent officers; and I was informed that, including all classes of employees on board, there were about three hundred. Early on the morning of 10th November 1910, men named dockers were hard at work clearing the decks of every kind of material which had been temporarily used for the purpose of unloading and loading the vessel, all of it being put on the wharf by machinery and steam power.

Shortly after this the steamer, 545 feet long and 60 feet of beam, began to move, and it was not long until we were in the River St Lawrence, and would likely soon be on the salt water of the Gulf of the same name, which I described when on my way out to British Columbia in the month of November 1907.

During the first two days the weather was foggy, and in the midst of a snow-storm when letting down the anchor so as to lie still, the fluke took hold of the ground while the steamer had too much way, and thereby the cable snapped. An effort was made to reclaim the anchor, without success, and it was said that this mishap would incur a loss to the owners of the vessel of some 500 dollars. Shortly after this the weather became more favourable, so that we steamed away at a good rate. All the arrangements for safety, such as life-boats, life-belts, and other life-preservers were much the same as that in the Lake Erie, but on a larger scale.

When near Quebec (which was on the 11th November 1910), a small steamer from there came alongside with a number of passengers, some of whom having left the Old Country a long time ago were now returning to see their relatives and some of the scenes of other days.

We were very soon again under way, and met the" Empress of Great Britain, bound for Montreal, and at this time I noticed that snow was lying on the land on each side of the river.

Breakfast was served from 8 to 10, luncheon at 12.30, dinner at 6, supper at 10, and during a certain number of hours every day liquor could be had at the bar. There were a number of saloons of large size in this “ leviathan ” of a liner, some of them appearing to be about 40 feet square, and I counted twenty long tables in the one at which I sat when taking my meals; but the vessel being like a large palace I only visited a certain number of compartments, all of which were finished with the best material, and the furniture was superb.

During the day we have been moving slowly towards the big waves of the Atlantic, and a Cornish gentleman has been amusing some of the passengers by playing a few tunes on the violin, and a lady played chords on the piano.

12th November 1910.— This morning we were abreast of Rimoski, where a mail is taken for the United Kingdom, and in the thick of a fog we anchored, waiting for a small steamer to come off with the mail-bags.

She was soon alongside, when the work began in getting hundreds of heavy sacks of literature on board and secured below, and while this was being done snowballs were often thrown from the one ship to the other, which created great fun among the passengers.

On the departure of the small steamer I with others sat down to breakfast, and the Royal Edward got under way in what may now be properly called the Gulf of St Lawrence, and at 12 o’clock noon we were distant from Father Point 145 miles, latitude north 48° 56', longitude west 67° 39'. A strong breeze was blowing from the west, but a good many passengers were walking on deck, and during the evening lighthouses were seen on both sides of the Gulf, and that with the reflection of the moon on the moving waters brought a fantastic view before me such as I saw when on my outward voyage in 1907 ; and the steamer was going at the rate of 20 knots an hour.

We had seen large and small whales sporting about on this day, and although the sea was smooth, several ladies were sick, one of them dangerously so, but I was not aware that any of the other sex were troubled with that terrible feeling. I may state here that the greatest of attention was given to passengers by the stewards and stewardesses.

13^A November 1910.—This day being Sabbath, a religious service was held in a large saloon, conducted by the doctor, in accordance with the principles of the Church of England, and at the conclusion a collection was taken in aid of the Seamen’s Orphanage in Bristol. I think every one of the large assemblage contributed to help the good cause.

At 12 noon to-day we were in latitude north 50° 52', longitude west 58° 8', and during twenty-four hours we have run 426 knots, thus having made more headway than we have done any day before.

14th. November 1910.—To-day it was blowing a strong breeze from north-east, and at 12 noon we were in latitude north 52° 31', longitude west 50° 03', and we had run 326 knots.

15th November 1910.—The wind continues strong, the vessel is rolling, some of the passengers are sick, the sea gets up like hills running after each other, no passengers seen on deck; but as it were nothing daunted, the big iron ship plunges ahead, easily splitting the big waves with her prow, trying to defy the elements of nature. And now at 12 noon we are in latitude north 53° 25', longitude west 42° 20', the wind blowing strong from east-by-north, and distance run 282 knots.

There was a small chart hung up in a prominent place, on which a line was drawn from land to land, and every day at noon a mark was put on that line to show how we w^ere progressing on our voyage. With many others I often looked at it, as also on the board where our latitude, longitude, and distance rim at 12 noon every day appeared.

16th November 1910.—We are now in latitude north 53° 30', longitude west 33° 54', distance run 301 knots, and the sea is comparatively smooth.

The weather being dry and cold, a good many passengers kept walking on the deck for a long time on this day, and now and then rested on movable chairs placed under cover for their use.

17^ November 1910.—The sea continues smooth, and we are in latitude north 52° 58', longitude west 23° 40', and distance run 369 knots.

Those who have been betting in regard to the distance run every day were eagerly looking at the figures on the board, and talking more than they used to do about the Old Country, some of them saying that it is owing to bad coal that the boat is not going so fast as she used to do. Others are speaking about being in Bristol on the forenoon of to-morrow, no doubt anxious to meet friends whom they know are waiting to give them an affectionate welcome.

18th November 1910.—The steamer is rolling very much, so that to have a walk on the deck is out of the question ; but we have been going at a fairly good rate, our latitude north being 51° 34', longitude west 13° 18', distance run 396 knots.

It was arranged to-day that a concert is to be held this evening at eight o’clock in one of the large saloons, and I have consented to sing two songs, and one of them to be Scotch.

There was a large assemblage, and, as we were dismissing, an old gentleman came to me and said: “Mr Duncan, I wish to shake hands with you, and to say that I never before heard such a strong, clear voice given by a gentleman of your age, and I don’t suppose I will ever hear the like of that again.”

I thanked him for the compliment, and as the company were leaving the saloon, a collection was taken to aid some charitable institution in the city to which we were steering. After the concert was over, I came to know that if all went well we would be on the west coast of Ireland in a very short time.

We arrived near the shore at Bristol on the morning of the 19th November 1910, when a tender came alongside. As I got on board of her, I took a good look at the Royal Edward, and could not but admire the great ocean structure of iron and wood that had carried us from land to land across the Atlantic in safety.

As the small steamer with passengers on board came close to the landing-place, I observed that we were much below the surface of the quay, and while I was wondering how \*e—the passengers—would get up, the solid gate was drawn close from side to side of the entrance to what 1 may call a basin dock. By some sort of machinery the water and steamer began to rise, which brought us to such a height that the passengers could walk from the steamer to the quay on a level gangway.

Immediately after landing we went to the telegraph office and railway station close by, and oh what a scene was there!

In front of the many office doors there was a very wide area of -floor-room for many sorts of things, such as writing-tables, chairs, benches, luggage, and a great number of people moving about.

Many were waiting their turn to send off telegraph messages to their friends, others were clasping each other’s hands, and embracing regardless of spectators; and I noticed an old lady hugging a little boy over and over again, who along with his mother were passengers in the Royal Edward, come from Canada to see their relatives in England. I came to understand that the old lady to whom I have referred was the boy’s widow-grandmother, and that she was to accompany her daughter and grandson to Canada to spend the last of her days there.

After sending off some telegraph messages, we took train for Paddington station, London, where we secured our luggage by paying a small sum, for which we received a ticket to be presented when we wished to take it—the luggage—away. We then hired a taxi-cab to take us to the Savoy Hotel, where we remained till Monday, making calls and doing some business. After resting a short time in this well-known hotel, we wave instructions to an official, handing him the ticket, to take a taxi-cab and bring our luggage to King’s Cross railway station. This he did to our satisfaction, and we left there by train for Aberdeen at 11.30 p.m.

This was on the 21st November 1910, and we arrived early in the forenoon of the following day, just in time to make arrangements to get on board the S.S. St Giles for Lerwick, Shetland.

We left by that steamer at 2.30 p.m., calling at Stromness, Orkney, and so north on to our destination through a rather boisterous sea, but not so rough as I have often seen it. As Fair Isle, Filfil, and Sumburgh Head began to loom in the distance, home, with many of its associations, sprang up before my inner vision, knowing as I did with a sorrowful heart that one in particular who used to welcome me when returning from many a long journey was not there to meet me.

But remembering the precious words to which she gave expression shortly before passing away to her heavenly home, I found them to be a great source of comfort to my mind, as I kept looking steadily and thoughtfully at the high and low heather hills, the bold headlands and inlets of the sea, along this part of the coast of my native country.

We were soon abreast of Mousa Isle, when I began to look for my luggage, because we were now getting near to the end of our long journey. As we entered in between Bressay Island and the Mainland, the lighthouse on the former was gleaming brightly. The big steamer St Giles moved ahead slowly and cautiously as she began to enter Lerwick harbour— one of the best in the world. In a minute or tw^o the steam-whistle in the-darkling gave out a loud sound of notice that Victoria Pier was being approached, and in a very short time we were alongside the wharf, which I left when on my way to British Columbia on the 21st October 1907. The first gentleman I met to welcome me as I set foot on the shore was my nephew, Mr Charles J. Duncan, merchant, Lerwick, who was the last relative I parted with at the same place when I set out on my long journey.

My son-in-law, Mr George W. Goudie, and Mr James M‘Pherson, from Setter, Sandwick Parish, were also there to meet Mr Manson and me, and by a pressing invitation we all went to Mr Duncan’s residence, where we were hospitably entertained, and resting and conversing for an hour or two. Mr Goudie and Mr M‘Pherson then returned home in their vehicle, taking part of our luggage with them, and Mr Manson and I hired a four-wheeler drawn by two horses and in charge of a careful driver to travel 14 miles in a dark stormy night.

We arrived at Mr Goudie’s house at a late hour, which is near the residence of Mr John Manson, Mr W. J. Manson’s father.

Just as we arrived we were surrounded by a number of relatives to welcome us home to our native parish.

It was now far on in the night, so that I remained with my son-in-law, because my house was occupied by a caretaker, and I was glad to see my daughter Emily and my three grandchildren.

Next morning I began to look round the neighbourhood to see some old friends, and about the first I did was to call upon the Rev. C. Nairne Baldie, parish minister, and I was very kindly received by him and his good lady, the interview being all the more interesting when taking into account the fact that he took a leading part in presenting me with a testimonial of respect from the people of Sandwick, when I left the parish for British Columbia and Alaska to visit my children and grandchildren in those far-away lands.

After this I thought of visiting my old home— Seaview House—at Hoswick, and on nearing the gate I had left more than three years ago when a dark cloud of affliction troubled me much, my feelings may be better imagined than expressed.

Now in bringing this journal of my travels in British Columbia, Alaska, and the United States of America to a close, I have pleasure in saying that I met friends and no foes in all my journeying, and although at times exposed to danger on sea and land, I have returned to my home in the Shetland Islands without harm and in perfect health, feeling delighted to sing with the poet as follows:—

“Home again, home again,
From a foreign shore,
And oh it fills my soul with joy
To meet my friends once more.”

THE END


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