Descriptive and Historical Part II: Chapter 38
A Whale-Huntother Whales
less frequently met with Sharks.
THAN a whale-hunt no
better sport could be desired. When a pack of these monsters of the
deep is descried off the Shetland coast, the intelligence spreads like
wildfire from one hamlet to another, and Whales! whales! whales! is
the universal shout. The fisherman leaves his lines, the farmer his
oxen, the women their knitting-wires and domestic duties, and even the
children their playthings,and every one rushes to the boats. The
ammunition for the impending conflict is speedily procured, consisting
as it does of abundance of small stones, in each boat, and a few big
kitchen knives, harpoons, and lances, amongst the whole fleet. Some
laird, merchant, or other man of influence, assumes the command and
leads the attack. Having neared the enemy, the boats creep slowly round
the whales, and make every effort to get between them and the open sea.
This accomplished, they gradually close in upon the pack, and endeavour
to direct its course to a shallow sandy bay. All this time the utmost
silence is maintained. If, happily, the whales have entered the chosen
bay, their pursuers come to close quarters. Now begins the melee. The
poor animalsfor whales are not fish finding the water becoming
shallow, turn round and make for the open sea. Then commences the
howling, shouting, screaming, and stone-throwing of the excited crews,
and the alternate diving and re-appearing, and rushing to and fro, of
the equally excited whales.
Stones are most effective
missiles, not only from the splash they make on the surface, but from
the effect their descent through the water has on the animals. If the
assailants succeed in terrifying the poor creatures, they rush on to
their fate. If, however, the whales, headed by the bull, who always
leads the pack, succeed in breaking through the barrier of boats, they
escape to sea.
Whenever the infuriated
whales are fairly stranded, the men jump from their boats, and, with
whatever sharp instrument they can best command, stab them through the
heart. The dying flurry now sets in. Amid the exultant shouts of the
captors, the huge animals struggle fearfully, lash the water furiously
with their tails, spout up columns of mingled blood and water, and even
utter curious squeaks like a pig. Meantime the agitated sea becomes red
Exciting as this sport
undoubtedly is, there are some painful incidents connected with it.
Young whales, too small to run aground with the rest, are often seen
swimming round, and occasionally sucking milk from their dying mothers.
The work of death having
been accomplished, flenching, or the separation of the blubber from the
flesh, is the next operation, and one at which the Shetland men display
great dexterity. The dead whales having been flenched and decapitated, a
public sale is called, and the blubber disposed of to the merchants. It
generally realises from £10 to £15 a ton, and the heads from 8s. to 12s.
each. The crang or whale flesh is generally left on the beach, to be
devoured by birds of prey, or carried away by the sea, while polluting
the atmosphere all round. Occasionally it is taken to the dunghill, and
capital manure it makes. More rarely it has been exported and sold to
manufacturers of artificial manures. Why should it not be applied to the
nobler purpose of feeding human beings ? The people of Faroe eat it at
this day, and so did those of Shetland in days long gone by. Why,
therefore, do their descendants spam it, even in seasons of scarcity?
Whale flesh when raw resembles, in appearance, very coarse bee£ On being
cooked its colour becomes very dark. It is, nevertheless, exceedingly
tender, digestible, and wholesome. The taste resembles beef, with a game
According to the use and
wont of the country, the proprietor of the land adjoining the shore
where whales are stranded, obtains a third of the proceeds, while
two-thirds are divided amongst the captors. A single shoal has very
often brought a landlord £300 or £500, and, on some rare occasions, it
has been large enough to yield him £800 or £1000. The shares of the
captors, likewise, vary with their own number, the number of the whales,
and the value of the blubber. A man drawing a full share will often
make by his adventure £3 or £5, while women, youths, and children, if
present, receive smaller dividends.
The claims of landlords
to shares of whales stranded on their property, resting as they donot
on the law of the realmbut on the use and wont of the individual
county, have not unfrequently given rise to litigation. The proprietors
formerly received half the proceeds, but by a compromise effected by a
decision of the Court of Session in 1839, it was arranged they should,
in future, receive only a third.
While the caaing whale
is the most frequent visitor to the Shetland coast, the spotted whale is
sometimes also captured there. The flnner is rarely seen on the coast,
and still more rarely captured. One or two large whales (said to belong
to the great Greenland species) have been killed in Shetland, but many
years have elapsed since such an event took place. In the absence of the
proper gear required for their successful capture, these huge monsters
would probably not have been secured had they not accidentally become
extricated in some narrow inlet, whence they were unable to escape.
The natural history of
the whale is still imperfectly known.
Sharks are also rare
visitors to this coast. The Sand-wick and Dunrossness fishermen,
however, report that they are very numerous at a certain spot, upwards
of thirty miles to the south-east of Sumburgh Head. These rapacious
creatures are readily caught, near Iceland, by means of large hooks
attached to portions of a small chain, and baited with pieces of pork,
but no fishery for them has ever been attempted in the Shetland seas.
The liver of the shark is of immense size, and yields abundance of
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