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The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Volume XII - Aberdeen
Parish of Forgue


PRESBYTERY OF TURRIFF, SYNOD OF ABERDEEN.
THE REV. JAMES CORDINER, MINISTER.

I.—Topography and Natural History.

Name.—The ancient name of the parish seems to have been Forrig, as appears from an inscription on two old communion cups the mouths of which are of beaten silver, and the pillars of which are tastefully ornamented with the leaves and tendrils of the vine. [These cups were presented by the head of the Crichton family of Frendraught, to the church of Forgue in 1633, and bear the following inscription: "Giftit. to. God. And. his. Church. be. James. Creightoun. of. Frendraueght., to. the. Kirk. of. Forrig., 1633." A baptismal basin, likewise, seems to have been presented by the head of the same family, but at a later period, as is plain from the different orthography of the inscription. The basin is of beaten silver of large dimensions, but has no date. On the bottom, the Crichton arms and motto appear, and round the edge is the following inscription: "Giftit. to. God. and. his. Church. of. Forgue., by. James. Viscount. of. Frendraught., Lord. Crichtone. From the difference of the spelling, the fair inference is, that the cups were presented at an earlier period, and the basin at a later; and from the addition of the title to the inscription on the basin, and the omission of it altogether on the cups, the Crichton family must have been ennobled between these periods.]

The name of the parish is believed to be Gaelic.

Boundaries, &c.—Forgue is bounded on the south by Insch and Culsalmond; on the east, by Inverkeithnie and Auchterless; on the north, by Rothiemay; and on the west, by Drumblade and Huntly. The boundaries are irregular. The greatest length from north to south,—that is, from the Ury to the Deveron,—is about nine miles and a-half or ten miles, and the greatest breadth from east to west may be about six and a half miles.

Topographical Appearances.—The surface of the parish is undulating, now rising into heights and knolls, now sinking into straths and holms. The plantations are tasteful, judicious, and extensive, covering a considerable part of the parish. The scenery on the whole is varied and beautiful, if we except the bleak, flat, cold, and uninteresting hills of Foudland, which furnish the parishioners with peats and turf for firing, either in part or in whole, according to circumstances. These hills rise from Ury, at the south extremity of the parish, but to no great height, are covered, generally, with a short stunted heath, and breed a few covies of grouse for the sportsmen. There is no other eminence in the parish that deserves the name of a hill, if we except the Foreman, which rises from the Deveron, at the northern extremity of the parish, to the height of 1000 feet. This is a beautiful hill, somewhat of a conical shape, finely wooded for a good way up its sides, and affords from its top an extensive and varied prospect. It is said to have got the name Foreman, or Fourman, from the circumstance, that the four neighbouring heritors, who divided the hill between them, could confer together on the top, or apex of the cone, each sitting on his own ground. The unfortunate Queen Mary, in her journey to the north, passed over this hill on her way to Rothiemay House, by what goes still by the name of the Queen's road.

Meteorology.— From the inland situation of the parish, being about fourteen miles from the nearest sea, the comparative absence of marshy ground, the great extent of dry and well-cultivated land, the many springs and pure rills of water, the shelter and fragrance of the numerous plantations, and other circumstances, the air is pure, healthy, and bracing, though in winter it is, occasionally, particularly keen.

Hydrography.—The parish is well watered. Besides the Ury, bounding it on the south, and the Deveron, terminating it on the north, there are numerous brooks and burns, and purling rills, which gladden the straths and glens with their refreshing presence. In this parish the river Ythan takes its rise, and runs through it in a clear and healthy stream for some distance. In the interior of the parish, there are two burns, or rivulets, into which several of the others fall, of considerable magnitude, especially after their union a little below the church. They are called before their union, the burn of Frendraught, and the burn of Forgue, and after it they go by the name of burn of Forgue. This burn empties itself into the Deveron near Inverkeithnie manse. All the streams abound in trout; and some of them have their edges in some places beautifully fringed with alder. Besides a vast number of common springs, we have in different places mineral or chalybeate ones.

Geology and Mineralogy.—The minerals common in the neighbouring parishes may be found in this. At Pitfancy limestone was formerly quarried in considerable quantity, as, at Lambhill, was likewise slate. The quarrying at both places has, however, been given up. The soils are various,—sandy, gravelly, clayey, loamy, and mossy; some rich and grateful, some poor and barren; some yielding eight, or even ten returns of the seed sownr and some no more than two or two and a half.

II.— Civil History.

The early history of the parish is involved, like that of most parishes, in darkness; and tradition speaks of it as remarkable for nothing so much as the almost perpetual and desperate feud between the Crichton family and the family of Gordon.

Eminent Men.—This parish claims to be the birth-place of the famous James Crichton, who, about the middle of the sixteenth century, made such a conspicuous figure in the world, from his surpassing genius and learning, his bodily feats and mental acquirements, that he obtained the appellation of the Admirable Crichton. A parish in Perthshire, however, denies to this the honour of his birth; "non nostrum tantas componere lites." Mr Morison, the famous hygeist, was a native of this parish; and Dr Abercrombie, the present eminent physician in Edinburgh, is connected with it, his father having been for some time minister of the parish.

Land-owners.—The land-owners, in the order of their valued rent, are as follows:

The real rent is nearly double the valued rent in Sterling money. In the former Statistical Account it is mentioned as being about L.2500 Sterling. That was about the year 1796. It has tripled since that period.

Parochial Registers.—The oldest register extends back to 1637. There is a register of discipline, one of baptisms, and one of marriages ; they are in a tolerable state of preservation, and appear to have been regularly kept.

Antiquities.—There are the remains of several Druidical temples in the parish. On the Seedhill of Auchaber, there is what is conjectured to be the remains of a redoubt of the Romans. It is about a mile or so distant from their camp, near Glenmellan, (now-Glenythan), is of a circular form, with a diameter of about sixty feet, and from it, the great Roman road is thought to have passed to the Spey, through Forgue, Rothiemay, and the intervening parishes.

A small part of the ruins of the old castle of Frendraught is still to be seen, and on the green before it are some beech trees of great bulk and beauty, said to have been planted by the Crichton family. The old tower of the ancient castle was burnt down in October 1630; and in it perished the Viscount of Aboyne, the eldest son of the Marquis of Huntly, and four others. The fire broke out in the night-time suddenly, and with unquenchable fury, but whether from accident or design, was never clearly ascertained. Spalding, whose account, however, must be taken with considerable qualification, reports the calamity.

Modern Buildings.—Haddo, the seat of Mr Duff, is a very pretty place, with an excellent mansion-house, well laid out pleasure-grounds, and a well-stocked garden. Cobairdy, the seat of Mr Simpson, from its fine south exposure, well-fenced fields, and ample plantations, is a charming residence. Corse gives proof of the care and good taste of its proprietor, Mr Henry. Drumblair, Templeland, Auchaber, and Boyne's mill, the seats of the other resident proprietors, have each its claims. Frendraught, however, the ancient seat of the Crichton family, is beyond all comparison, if it had a good mansion-house, and, if the pleasure-grounds and garden were done up with taste and neatness, the finest place in the parish. Frendraught is the property of Mr Morison of Bognie, who has already commenced a series of improvements on it, both tasteful and judicious.

At Glendronach is an extensive, thriving, and rather celebrated distillery.

Mills.—There are six mills, at one of which flour may be manufactured,—all well employed.

III.— Population

The rapid increase may, in part, be attributed to the reclaiming of much waste moorish ground and letting it in crofts to the poorest class of the people. There is no town, and, properly speaking, not a village even in the parish.

IV.— Industry

Agriculture.—The number of acres which are cultivated, or occasionally under tillage, may amount, perhaps, to 9000 or 10,000, and to these many more may still be added, as there remains much of hill and moor to be reclaimed. Some of the ground rents at L.2 an acre; some at L. 1; some is worth 5s.; and some so poor and worthless as not to be worth any rent at all. When let in small crofts, the best of the land rents at L.3 per acre. The average rent of the acre may be about 14s.

The leases are in general for nineteen years.

Husbandry.—Great improvement has of late taken place in all the departments of husbandry, but particularly in rearing of stock. Crosses, especially from the pure Aberdeenshire and the short horns, turn out well. The course of cropping should be regulated by the nature of the soil, but generally the five-course shift or the seven seems to be preferred by the farmer. Mr Walker, a land-surveyor, and valuator of great skill and experience, recommends, for strong and heavy clay land, a six-course shift, namely, 1. grass; 2. oats; 3. beans or pease; 4. wheat; 5. fallow or green crop; 6. barley, with grass-seeds; for a heavy loam or alluvial soil the four-course shift, namely, 1. grass; 2. oats; 3. turnips; 4. barley; and, where the climate is favourable, beans or wheat may be introduced; and, for a light loam, comprehending the old infield, he recommends a six-shift course, namely, three years in grass; one grain crop after breaking up; then turnips, to be partly eaten off by sheep; and, lastly, barley or oats, to be sown down with grass-seeds. [Mr Walker's Essay on the Rotation of Crops, read by him before the Committee of the Highland Society of Scotland, met at Aberdeen on the 7th October 1840.] The writer of this report believes the case practically to be, that no single farm, much less any large estate in this part of the country, will suit, as a whole, any of the courses recommended. The skill and experience of the farmer must regulate the management of the farm, according to the nature of its various soils. With regard to some fields, a four-course shift may be advantageously adopted; with regard to others, a five or six, or a seven may be suitable; and, with regard to some, no particular course can profitably be followed, from the extreme poverty and backwardness of the soil. He believes, farther, that, to fetter the judicious and experienced farmer in the discretionary management of his farm, by binding him down to the observance of, —as to many of his fields,—ill adapted and arbitrary rules, is as unwise as it is illiberal. It is right that the proprietor should guard against the wasting of the farm by overcropping; it is right that he should secure that, at the end of the lease, it should be found in a particular state. But it is not right that he should interfere with the judicious management of the farmer, and insist that every field that he possesses shall bear a specified crop at a specified time. It is right that he should take care that the fields, once laid down in grass, should continue 'in grass, at least for a specified period, say two or three years ; but it is not right that the tenant should be obliged, if he shall see good cause for the contrary, to break up his grass-fields at the end of that period. The fact is, that, on most farms, the writer believes, there is too much arable ground. More has been brought under the plough from the mania of what is called improving farms, than can be cultivated profitably. The good land, on many farms, has been deprived of its just share of manure to put the worthless in heart. The attempt has, after every effort, proved a failure,— the good land has been impoverished,—the bad has not been improved,—a good crop or so has been obtained from worthless forced lands, but obtained at immense labour and expense, and, in producing this crop or so, the land has been almost entirely worn out, so that it requires to be prepared and laid down with turnips, and then to be sown out with grass-seeds, and to remain afterwards in pasture grass for four, five, six, or seven years, aye and until it gather a surface. To force such land within any specified rotation appears to the writer to be altogether Utopian. The farmers here are, on the whole, steady, spirited, and pains-taking, manage their farms well, and are not slow in introducing any real improvement.

V.—Parochial Economy.

Market-Town.— The nearest market-town is Huntly, which is about seven miles from the parish church. We have two turnpike roads in the parish,—the one passing from Huntly to Banff, the other from Huntly to Aberdeen. On this latter road, a public coach has, for some time, been running. The other roads are not good, especially in winter, though, on the whole, by means of these two turnpikes and otherwise, the parish is not ill accommodated as to roads for the conveyance of the farm produce to the principal market-towns.

Ecclesiastical State.—The church was built in 1819 on a small eminence, which forms the church-yard, gradually sloping to the south. It is a substantial, chaste, and well-proportioned building, with Gothic windows; seated for 900, and will hold nearly 200 more. And, as the external appearance of the church is in excellent taste, so the internal arrangements are very complete. The light is abundant, and the lofty roof is tastefully painted. The interior is in the form of an oblong, with the pulpit standing in the middle of one of the short sides, namely, the gable, and finely sloped galleries running along the other three sides. As a whole, the church of Forgue gives proof not only of the good taste and liberality of the heritors, but also of their desire that the best possible accommodation should be afforded to their people when engaged in religious worship. The sittings are free. The manse is handsome, large, and commodious. It was repaired and enlarged in 1830. The glebe may extend to about twelve acres or so, and is worth about L.18 yearly. The stipend is now 16 chalders, half meal and half barley, converted at the highest fiar prices, with L.10 for communion money. There is a preaching station, in connection with the Associate Synod of Seceders, at Bogfouton, in this parish, at the distance of about seven miles from the church. The property of the chapel, &c. as I hear, belongs, to the amount of L.5, to one of the members; to the amount of L.65, to a Presbyterian farmer in the parish of Leslie; and to the amount of the balance, which constitutes only a very few pounds, to the Associate Synod. Formerly, the Synod kept a fixed minister at Bogfouton; latterly, there has been occasional preaching there. The attendance, especially in the winter, may be sometimes considerable; but there are not, so far as I am aware, four individuals connected with it belonging to this parish.

There is an Episcopal chapel in the parish, within less than a quarter of a mile from the church. In 1715, the parish minister, who was very popular and much esteemed by the people, was deposed by the General Assembly for the part he took in favour of the Pretender. This gave great offence to the parishioners, and induced many of them to leave the church and join the Episcopalians. Hence Forgue has long been a stronghold of Episcopacy. The connection, however, it would appear, is not gaining ground, as, at the time of the last Statistical report, according to Mr Dingwall, the Episcopalians amounted, within the parish, to 220, whereas they now amount to about 180.

There is no Catholic chapel in the parish, and only three or four individuals of that persuasion in it. The other Dissenters may amount to about 40. The number of families in connection with the Church is about 464; do. of persons, about 2200. The average number of communicants for the last six years is about 920. 146 families are within two miles of the church; 212 families are more than four miles; 64 families are more than six miles; and 92 families or so are still farther, distant,—some upwards of eight miles. The above statistics are given from my own census taken in 1835.

Ecclesiastical History.— Stipend at different times: Previous to 1731, the stipend was 800 merks Scots in victual and money, with L.20 Scots in addition for communion elements. It appears by the presbytery record, that, in 1731, an augmentation of 100 merks Scots of stipend, and 20 merks Scots of element-money was given unanimously by the heritors, which was paid partly in money and partly in victual. The victual consisted of 44 bolls of meal, and 20 bolls of bear, and was valued, as it had been by the Commissioners of Tithes both in 1617 and 1633, at 100 merks per chalder, or about 6s. 8d. Sterling per boll. Hence it would appear that the price of victual had continued stationary from 1617 to 1731, a period of 114 years. The stipend and element-money was by this augmentation made up to 950 merks Scots, and was paid from the great teinds (parsonage), and the small (vicarage), in the following proportions, namely, 550 merks from the great, and 400 from the small, or vicarage-teinds. This shows the relative value of the parsonage to the vicarage-teinds to have been at that period, as 550 to 400, or exactly as 5 to 4. It shows, farther, on the supposition that both the parsonage-teinds and the vicarage improved afterwards, pari passu, that in all future augmentations, for every L.5, 10s. paid by the parsonage, L.4 ought to be paid by the vicarage-teinds. Now, it so happens, in this parish, that one of the heritors guarantees several of the others against all future augmentations of stipend; but so far only as the great or parsonage-teinds are concerned; hence, in the event of an augmentation being granted, as affects these heritors, say to the amount of L.9, 10s., if the above data be correct, it would come thus to be divided; the guaranteer would have to pay L.5, 10s., and the guaranteed L.4 of the said augmentation.

There seems to have been no farther augmentation for upwards of the next sixty years, as the writer of the former Statistical Account, about 1796, states the stipend then to be 44 bolls of meal, 20 bolls of bear, 500 merks Scots of money, together with 50 merks Scots for communion elements.

A year or two afterwards, the stipend was augmented to 52 bolls of meal, 20 bolls of bear, L.58, 1s. 1d., Sterling, of money stipend, and for element money, L.2, 15s. 6d. Sterling.

In 1803, it would appear the stipend was again augmented to 68 bolls of meal, 28 bolls of bear, and L.52, 10s. Sterling of money, together with L.8, 6s. 8d. Sterling, for communion elements.

In 1819, the stipend was raised to 14 chalders, half meal and half barley, with L.8, 6s. 8d. for element money.

In 1840, 25th November, the stipend was augmented to 16 chalders, half meal and half barley, with L.10 for element money.

Ministers.— The first Presbyterian minister that we hear of at Forgue was the Rev. John Maitland. He succeeded the last Episcopal clergyman, Mr Hastie, and, as appears from the record of presbytery, was translated from Insch by order of the synod, and settled at Forgue, on the 22d of May 1707.

[The presbytery record, which extends back to 1697, shows that the Episcopal clergymen in this district had abundantly availed themselves of the merciful provision made in their behalf, by the act 1690. By that act, those of them who should conduct themselves peaceably were allowed to continue to discharge the duties of their cures, and enjoy the emoluments of their benefices till death. Their principles, in most cases, yielded to their interests; and they conformed themselves readily, if not heartily, to the established order of things. Accordingly, we find, that, at 1697, of the eleven parishes, which now constitute the presbytery of Turriff, ten were under the inspection of Episcopal clergymen, namely, Forgue, Drumblade, Inverkeithnie, Auchterless, Fyvie, Monquhitter, King-Edward, Gamery, Alvah, and Forglen. Turriff, at that period, was the only parish in which a Presbyterian minister was settled, in the person of the Rev. Thomas Thomson. The first Presbyterian ministers who were settled in the other ten parishes of the presbytery, were the following, viz.

The Rev. William Johnston (from Kearn) was settled at Auchterless, on the 6th of May 1697.

The Rev. James Maitland (who was deposed in 1715) was settled at Inverkeithnie on the. 14th of May 1701.

The Rev. John Turing was settled at Drumblade on the 18th of August 1702.

The Rev. William Chambers (from Rathen), was settled at King-Edward, on the 3d of August 1704.

The Rev. John Maitland (from Insch, who was deposed in 1715), was settled at Forgue, on the 22d of May 1707.

The Rev. James Bannerman (from Inveraven) was settled at Forglen on the 26th of March 1717.

The Rev. John Gordon (from Glenbucket) was settled at Gamery on the 27th of May 1717.

The Rev. Robert Hay was settled at Fyvie, on the 1st of May 1718.

The Rev. James Stewart (from Inverkeithnie) was settled at Alvah on the 13th of May 1718.

The Rev. William Johnston was settled at Monquhitter on the 15th of Novem-ber 1727.

At the time of the Rebellion, in 1715, there were six Presbyterian ministers in the Presbytery of Turriff; two were concerned in it, in so far as they neglected to observe the thanksgiving for the accession of George I., and were deposed accordingly; namely, the Messrs Maitland. There were five Episcopal clergymen, who had been continued in their cures, living at that period within the bounds of the presbytery; all entered heartily into the plan of the Pretender, and, notwithstanding their declinature of the authority of the presbytery, they were thus dealt with by that body, and the civil power sanctioned the proceeding. Mr Hay at Monquhit-ter was for some time suspended ; Messrs Campbell at Alvah, and Innes at Gamery, were deposed ; and Messrs Dunbar at Forglen, and Dalgarno at Fyvie, died during the dependence of the process against them.]

This reverend gentleman and his brother James, the minister of the neighbouring-parish of Inverkeithnie, were both deposed by the General Assembly in a summary manner, on the 9th May 1715. The cause of their deposition was that they failed in their observance of a thanksgiving, appointed by both civil and ecclesiastical authority, to be observed on the 20th of January 1715, for the peaceable accession of George I. to the throne.

In both parishes, the great bulk of the inhabitants espoused the cause of their ministers, and matters proceeded so far, that, as it had been impossible, formerly, for the members appointed by the synod, to intimate the sentence of suspension, on account of the violence of the people of these congregations, so the members, lately appointed by the Assembly to intimate their sentence of deposition, were prevented by main force, not only from entering the churches, but even the church-yards of those parishes. On both occasions, the ministers sent were roughly handled, assailed by an enraged and furious mob, and obliged to make a hasty retreat without executing the orders of their superiors. Nor was it only on these two occasions that the turbulent spirit of the people manifested itself,—these parishes were in a complete ferment for years afterwards. In the meantime, the Messrs Maitland, now that they were rejected by Presbytery, united themselves to Episcopacy, and opened meeting- houses for their numerous friends and followers in both Forgue and Inverkeithnie. In this piece of outrage, however, the people were but the puppets, the wires were drawn by jugglers, persons of influence, behind the screen. The presbytery exerted itself zealously to supply the vacancies, but exerted itself in vain, for the people were generally hostile; and the Viscountess of Frendraught had possessed herself of the keys of both churches. These she kept for several months, and was induced, at last, to give them up—not so much from the persuasion of the presbytery, as the dread of a threatened civil action. When access to these churches was again obtained, and the people had somewhat cooled in their resentment, supplies were furnished by the presbytery, and matters were beginning to wear a more peaceable appearance. But, alas a new circumstance arose to rekindle into a flame the dying spark of discord. It was necessary that ministers should be settled at both Forgue and Inverkeithnie, and as the vacancy at both had been now upwards of a twelvemonth, it was proper to proceed to the settlement of those parishes without loss of time. The right of presentation had now, in both cases, devolved on the presbytery; it was claimed by the patron, Mr Morrison of Bognie, son of the Viscountess of Frendraught. The presbytery, after sounding the inclinations of the people, and such of the heritors as were favourable to an immediate settlement, issued a presbyterial and general call in favour of the Rev. Alexander Forbes, to be minister of Forgue, because he was preferred by the people of that parish; as they did, a little afterwards, and for the same reason, issue another, in favour of the Rev. James Stuart, minister of Ordequhill, to be minister at Inverkeithnie. The presbytery commenced with the case of Forgue, and took the usual steps towards the settlement of Mr Forbes. They were opposed in these steps by the patron, who by his mandatory protested and appealed to the synod. The presbytery acted in teeth of both protest and appeal, and appointed an edict to be served in the church of Forgue, intimating a day for the settlement. This was whispered to the people, and gave great offence to a decided majority. They took measures to prevent the serving of the edict, and treated rather roughly the clergyman who came forward to serve it. The presbytery, dreading personal danger from the infuriated people on the day of settlement, applied to the proper quarters for the assistance of the sheriff to render the church of Forgue patent, and a party of soldiers to protect them on the day of settlement, namely, the 25th September 1716. Both were promised, but neither was forthcoming, so the presbytery had to proceed without escort to the church of Forgue. Nor were they the only party that was prepared for the settlement; the people were equally prepared. They met the presbytery at the church-yard in a crowded body, bent on violence and outrage; commenced a furious attack upon them with stones and staves, obliged them hastily to retire, and literally chaced them beyond the bounds of the parish. They then returned to their homes in triumph, in the fond belief that they had prevented the settlement. The presbytery, however, was not to be thus baffled: they proceeded to the church of Auchterless, a distance of nine miles, and there effected the settlement of Mr Forbes. The settlement was scarcely over, and the brethren met in presbytery, when a presentation was lodged, by James Spence, in Penny-burn, issued by Mr Morrison, the patron, in favour of the Rev. James Ramsay, minister at Bennethie, to be minister of Forgue, and placed upon the presbytery's table with all due formality. The scene that followed, it would be difficult to describe; suffice it to say, that the effects of these proceedings were for a long time painfully felt in the parish. The ringleaders in these mobbings were forced to leave the country—and, after a series of years, the peace of society was restored, and the affections of the great body of the people gained over to Mr Forbes; a result in a great measure brought about by his prudence, piety, benevolence, and exemplary conduct.

As in the cases of Inverkeithnie and Forgue, the inclinations of the people had been consulted, so in all other cases of the settlement of ministers about this period, and long afterwards, the feelings of the people concerned formed with this Presbytery the principal object of attention. The concurrence of the congregations was considered in all cases absolutely necessary to give validity to the presentation of the patron; and what now goes with us by the name of intrusion seems to have been then altogether unknown.

Education.—There is only one parochial school in the parish, though one or two more would be required. The schoolmaster's salary is the maximum. His school-fees may amount yearly to rather more than L.20; and he derives, farther, a proportion of the Dick bequest. He has a good schoolhouse and garden; and teaches English, writing, Latin, and mathematics, &c. The school-fees range from 2s. to 7s. 6d. per quarter.

There are five or six elementary schools, chiefly taught by females on their own adventure. The people seem, in general, to be alive to the benefits of education; and there is scarcely one in the parish between six and fifteen years of age who cannot read.

Poor and Parochial Funds.—There are on the regular roll about 70 paupers, several of whom are widows with families, and they receive each on an average about 1s. a week. The collections at the church amount to about L.52. The heritors for the last four years have given yearly L. 60, in proportion to their valued rent, and the balance has been furnished principally from the funds, which would have been by this time completely exhausted, but for a legacy of L.400 Sterling, from a Mr Taylor, a native of this parish, and some other legacies and donations of minor amount. There is what is called Rainy's Mortification, besides, of L. 20 a-year, given to poor people not actually on the roll, to prevent their falling on it; but it is found from its working to have a contrary tendency, practically hastening what it was meant theoretically to retard, if not to prevent. The reluctance to receive parochial aid is growing less daily. Besides these regular supplies, we have when extraordinary exigencies demand it, another source of relieving distress, arising from the benevolence of the inhabitants, and manifesting itself in subscriptions, public beggings, &c.

Savings Bank.—There is a savings bank in the parish, from which good results continue to arise. The money lodged in 1840 was L.1950.

Inns.—There is only one inn in the parish, at Bagniebrae, at the junction of the Banff and Aberdeen turnpikes.

Fairs.—There are three annually at Hawkhall, in this parish, for the sale of cattle, sheep, and general merchandize, held on third Tuesday of April, old style; last Thursday of May, old style; and third Tuesday of September, old style.

April 1842.


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