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The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Volume VI - Lanark
City of Glasgow


AND SUBURBAN PARISHES OF BARONY AND GORBALS.
[This article has been drawn up by the Very Reverend Duncan Macfarlane, D. D. Principal of the Glasgow College, one of her Majety's Chaplain for Scotland; and by  James Cleland, LL.D. Fellow of the Statistical Society of London, Member of the Society of Civil-Engineers, London, Corresponding Member of' the Society of .Antiquaries of Scotland, Member of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow.]
PRESBYTERY OF GLASGOW, AND SYNOD OP GLASGOW AND AYR.

THE REV. DUNCAN MACFARLAN, D.D., Minister of the Inner High or Cathedral Church.
THE REV. JOHN FORBES, Outer High Church.
THE REV. JOHN LOCKH ART, D.D, College Church.
THE REV. ROBERT BUCHANAN, Tron Church.
THE REV. JOHN G. LORIMER, St David's Church.
THE REV. JOHN SMYTH, D. D., St George's Church.
THE REV. NATHANIEL PATERSON, St Andrew's Church.
THE REV. JAMES HENDERSON, St Enoch's Church.
THE REV. THOMAS BROWN, D. D., St John's Church.
THE REV. JOHN MUIR, D. D., St James' Church.
THE REV. JOHN BURNS, D. D., Barony Church
THE REV. W. BLACK, D. D., A. & S.,  Barony Church,
THE REV. ALEXANDER TURNER, Gorbals Church.

In a work of this nature a minute history of the city and suburbs is not to be expected. All that seems necessary is a concise view of their former and present state, referring those "who wish to have a fuller account of their rise and progress to the histories published by M'Ure, Gibson, Denholm, and Cleland.

L—Topography and Natural History.

latitude and Longitude.— According to the determination of Mr Wilson, formerly Professor of Astronomy in the University of Glasgow, the latitude of the Macfarlane Observatory in the College Garden of Glasgow is 55° 51' 32* north, and longitude 4° 17' 54" west Glasgow is therefore nearly eight miles farther south than Edinburgh, and 1° 1' farther west.

Name and Boundaries.— There is no authentic record of the origin of Glasgow. Its name in the Gaelic language is interpreted by some as signifying a Grey Smith, whilst others think it weans a Dark Glen, in allusion to the ravine near the cathedral, where a primary settlement appears to have been made. While the Romans maintained possession of North Britain, it is related that they bad a station on the spot, on which Glasgow is now built, and being within the wall of Antoninus, which crossed the island from the Forth to the Clyde, a few miles to the north of Glasgow, it was included in the province of Valentia, and was retained by that warlike people till then final expulsion from Britain. The congregating of houses in this part of the country, begun by the Romans, was afterward* hastened by St Mungo, who had established a cell, and ultimately a religious fraternity at Glasgow. For many ages afterwards, this city continued to be little else than a religious establishment. At the Reformation in 1560, Glasgow also comprehended what is now known by the name of the Barony Parish, but in the year 1595, it was found that the locality was too great for one parish; the Presbytery therefore disjoined it from the original parish, and it now forms a suburb of the city. The extreme length of the original and still existing boundary, from the Kelvin at Garscube House, to the Bishop's Loch, is 8 miles and about 7 furlongs, and the greatest breadth from the river Clyde at Dalbeth, to the boundary at Coshnochmoor, 4 miles and about 2 furlongs. Glasgow, i. e. the ten parishes of the royalty, lies on the south side, and is included in the above boundary. It extends from the Clyde at Hutcheson's Bridge to the estate of Possil, northwards, 2 miles and about 5—8ths of a mile; and from Camlachie burn, to M'Alpine's Street, at the steam-boat quay, westwards, 2 miles and about 1½ furlongs.

The Gorbals or suburbs lying on the south side of the Clyde was originally a part of the parish of Govan. The lands of Gorbals were for a long period under the superiority of the Archbishop of Glasgow; but in 1571 they were granted to George Elphinstone, a merchant of Glasgow, from whom they descended to his son Sir George Elphinstone of Blythswood, who obtained from the Archbishop the privileges of a burgh of barony. In 1647, the corporations of the city Trades House, and Hutcheson's Hospital purchased these lands, which have since been the source of great wealth to these respective bodies. In 1732, a Chapel of Ease to the parish of Govan was erected in Gorbals, and in 1771, Gorbals was erected into a separate parish. The word Gorbals is of very difficult etymology; the most obvious interpretation {though not very applicable) is by the British word Gorbal, signifying very far or distant.

Topographical Appearances.—The south part of the city is built on a tract of flat land adjoining the Clyde, averaging about half a mile in breadth. On the north parts, the surface rises into upland, where the ancient town was situated. In the landward parts of the •,suburban parishes the soil is highly cultivated, and produces plentiful crops.

Climate.— [The two seas by which Scotland is bounded, in consequence of their difference of temperature, have a remarkable effect on its climate. The German Ocean, which stretches along the east coast, being of small extent and of no considerable depth, is easily affected by the changes of the seasons on the adjacent continent, in so much that it is three degrees colder in winter and five degrees warmer in summer than the Atlantic, which, without any material interruption, occupies the western coast of the kingdom. In summer, therefore, in consequence of the high comparative temperature of the German Ocean, a copious evaporation takes place throughout its whole extent, which produces those easterly haars, as they are called, or thick mists, which are seen at a certain period of the day to arise from the sea; and which are not only dangerous to navigation, but advancing upon the land render the eastern coast often highly disagreeable."--Sir John .S1mkair's Stntisticni Anahtsis of .Scotland, p. 95.]

Climate commonly denotes the nature of the weather usually prevalent in any particular district or country. Northern climates are more favourable to health and longevity than tropical regions. The alternate change of seasons produces a variety, which cheers the mind and acts upon the animal frame. Healthiness in the mass of the people constitute an essential part of national prosperity, because without it labour cannot be performed. Salubrious air and fertile soil contribute to produce an industrious peasantry.

As Glasgow has taken the lead in the formation of tables for exhibiting the probability of human life in large towns, we have felt it right to give a particular account of the climate. In the second edition of Cleland's folio Statistical work, pp. 102 to 109, the yearly quantity of rain is given for thirty years, as ascertained in the Macfarlane Observatory, by Dr James Couper, Professor of Astronomy in this University, showing an yearly average of 22.328 inches. The least quantity in any one year during that period was 14.468 in 1803, and the greatest 28.554 in 1828. The quantity of rain which falls at Glasgow is less than at Edinburgh: this may be accounted for by the circumstance, that the former place is nearly twenty miles inland from the west coast, and is therefore beyond the immediate influence of the Atlantic, which renders some parts of the north-west of England so rainy, while its distance from the east coast, and the high land between it and Edinburgh, screen it from those violent, rains, when the east wind blows, which are so common in Edinburgh. The distance of the hills from Glasgow is greater than from Edinburgh, and it is in some degree screened by high ground, both on the east and west.

The state of the thermometer and atmospheric appearances is also given in the work alluded to, every morning throughout the year at nine o'clock; but here we have been enabled, from knowing the state of the thermometer every hour, day, and night during the year 1834, to give the average monthly for the year. This has been obtained through the politeness of her Mackain, the scientific manager of the Glasgow Cranstonhill Water-Works Company. Mr Mackain suspended one of Crichton's Fahrenheit thermometers in an open well about twenty feet diameter, cradled with stone, in a position apart from the rays of the sun, and gave in charge to the day and night engineer, who are in constant attendance, to mark the hourly state of the thermometer in a book; and from that book Mr Mackain constructed a table, exhibiting the temperature hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. The following is an abstract from that laborious and most important document.

The greatest height of the thermometer in June was 72°, and the lowest 46°. In July 78° and 54°. In August 78° and 49°. These extremes are applicable only to a few hours in the respective months. Average temperature at the Cranstonhill Water-Works during two years, viz. from 1st January 1833 to 1st January 1835, 48.43.

The mean heat of Glasgow was formerly determined by Professor Thomas Thomson to be 47°. 75', while that of Edinburgh, as determined by Professor Playfair, was 47° 7'; but it is presumed that these eminent philosophers had not the advantage of hourly inspection.

In 1834 and 1835 the winters were so mild that ice was imported from Iceland to Glasgow. This may account for the difference of temperature, as ascertained by Professor Thomson.

Hydrography.—The city is bounded on the south by the Clyde, and that river bounds the Gorbals on the north. The Barony parish is bounded on the west parts by the river Kelvin. The Forth and Clyde, and the Monkland Canals, run through a considerable part of it, and it contains the Hogganfield and Frankfield lochs, which act as feeders to the town mills.

Mineralogy.—The suburbs contain large quantities of coal, ironstone, limestone, freestone, whinstone, fire and potters clay, and other valuable minerals. Kilpatrick and Campsie hills abound with a great variety of curious and valuable minerals, but as these belong to neighbouring parishes, they are not noticed here.

II.---CIVIL AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.

The following facts, collected from the records of the town-council, the Presbytery, and kirk-session of Glasgow, the Bishops' Cartulary, and other authentic documents, by Dr Cleland, convey a pretty accurate account of the state of society in Glasgow at the periods referred to.

See of Glasgow.—Although Glasgow was an early seat of the Church, historians do not agree as to the time when the See was founded. That it is next to St Andrews in point of antiquity is beyond all doubt. With regard to its founder,. Kennet, in his Parochial Antiquities, says, it was instituted by Kentigern or St Mungo, in the year 560. ["The city and castle of Glasgow have long been the seat of the bishops and archbishops of Glasgow. St Mungo, to whom the cathedral was dedicated, is esteemed the first bishop of Glasgow. be was of great birth, great piety, and great learning. Much that is written of him depends upon the credit of the authors, lie lived in the sixth century. There is a bull of erection and confirmation of the bishoprick soon after the Pope's authority was owned in this kingdom."—Description of the Sherifdom. of Lanark, by Will am Hamilton of Wishaw, compiled abort the beginning of the last century, and recently printed by the Maitland Club, pp. 4, 5.] Dr Keelyn, speaking of the see of St Asaph in Wales, observes, "that the see was founded by St Kentigern, a Scot, in 583," and that "St Kentigern was then Bishop of Glasgow." From these authorities, it may be inferred that St Mungo founded the See of Glasgow, and became the first bishop, and that when a cathedral of sufficient grandeur was finished, it would be dedicated to St Mungo. Baldrade, St Mungo's disciple, who founded a religious house at Inchinnan, is said to have succeeded him in the bishoprick. There is no record of the See for more than 500 years after this period. This great blank cannot be accounted for with any degree of certainty. Among other conjectures, it is said that the church was destroyed by the ravages of the Danes, who murdered or drove off the religious who had settled in Glasgow.

In the year 1115, David, Prince of Cumberland refounded the See, an having, in 1124, succeeded his brother Alexander I. to the throne of Scotland, he promoted his chaplain, John Achaius, to the bishoprick in 1129. In 1133, the cathedral was solemnly consecrated in presence of the King, who endowed it with the lands of Partick. In 1165, Pope Alexander III. issued a bull commanding the faithful to visit the cathedral of Glasgow. In 1176, Bishop Joceline enlarged the cathedral, and rebuilt a part of it in a style more magnificent than it had ever been. In the same year, William the Lion, King of Scots, granted a charter to the town for holding a market on Thursday. In four years thereafter, Glasgow was erected into a royal burgh, and, " in 1190, the town received a royal charter for holding a fair every year, for ever, from the 8th of the Apostle Peter, (29th June,) and for the space of eight days complete." The fair commences on the second Monday of July, and continues the whole week. In 1210 the Grayfriars Monastery was at the foot of the Deanside Brae. Little more is known of it, than that the citizens of Glasgow, at that date, went in a body on the last day of the fair to pay their respects to the Abbot of Melrose, who lived in the monastery, and had been instrumental in procuring the fair.

In 1270, the religious fraternity of Blackfriars was patronized by Sir Matthew Stewart of Castlemilk, who granted an annuity from his estate, "on condition of their saying mass for ever for the souls of him, the said Matthew, and for his mither and bairns of our place, progenitors, and successors, and all Christian souls perpetually." This ancient family has always been respectable. In 1398, Sir Walter Stewart of Castlemilk, brother to Sir John Stewart of Darnley, was named one of the sureties on the part of Scotland, in a treaty of peace between England and Scotland.

In 1300, Edward I. of England took upon him to appoint Anthony Beik to the see of Glasgow. Earl Percy, at the same time, usurped the military government of the western part of Scotland, and took possession of the Episcopal palace in Glasgow.

[The ancient castle of Carstairs was originally a Roman station or fortification, and was given by King David, or St David, as he was called, in 1126, to the Bishop of Glasgow for his country palace. The following curious information is from the Rotuli Scotia, in the Tower, published by the Record Commission.

"When Edward I. was at Berwick in 1292, deciding on the claims of Bruce and Baliol, he was in possession of all the fortresses in Scotland. At that period the King granted a license to Robert Wiseheart, Bishop of Glasgow, to finish the Castle of Carstairs, which had been begun without leave. The following is a copy of the license:—The King and Sovereign Lord of the kingdom of Scotland, to all his bailiffs and faithful men to whom these shall come, greeting, Whereas a venerable father, Robert, Bishop of Glasgow, at his manor of Carstairs, in the county of Lanark, a certain castle of stone and mortar, after the death of Alexander of blessed memory, late King of Scotland, without any license, began to build. We, to the same bishop a special grace, being willing to have granted in this part to him, for ourselves, and for our heirs, that he the said castle so begun, may finish and fortify with kernals, and the same so finished and turreted, or kernallated, may hold to him and to his successors for ever. Nor wish we that the said bishop or his successors, by occasion of the said castle being begun without our licence or will, as aforesaid, is by us or our heirs, or our bailiffs or servants whatsomever, be quarelled, or in any way aggrieved. Witness the King at Berwick-on-Tweed the 15th of July."

It is remarkable that in 1292 the castle and manor of Carstairs was possessed by one of our most public-spirited and benevolent bishops, and that, after a lapse of more than 500 years, the magnificent mansion and extensive manor of Carstairs is possessed by a citizen of Glasgow, Mr Henry Monteith, alike distinguished for public spirit and active benevolence, whether engaged in mercantile enterprise, in the senate, or in honourable retirement.]

Sir William Wallace, who was then at Ayr, determined on ridding his country of the English usurpers, and, accompanied by Wallace of Richardtown, the Laird of Auchinleck, his friend James Cleland, and others, gave battle to the usurper in the High Street, nearly where the college now stands, when Sir William cleft the head of Earl Percy with one stroke of his sword, on which the route of the English became general. On 28th August in the following year, King Edward offered oblations at the shrine of St Mungo, in the cathedral church of Glasgow, for the good news of Sir Malcolm de Drummond, a Scottish knight, being taken prisoner by Sir John Seagreave.

It appears from the Bishop's Cartulary that the plague raged furiously here in the years 1330, 1350, 1380, 1381, 1600, 1602, 1604, and in 1649.

In 1387, the great wooden spire of the Cathedral of Glasgow, which was covered with lead, was destroyed by lightning. In 1392, a mint-house was erected in the Drygate, where coins were struck with the motto, "Robertus Dei Gratia Rex Scotorum, villa de Glasgow, Dominus Protector."

In 1420, there was a convent for Grayfriars somewhere about the west end of the Grayfriars' Wynd. The friars were patronized by, the celebrated but unfortunate Isobel Duchess of Albany, cousin to James, afterwards I. of Scotland, who, on 18th May 1431, at Inchmurran, mortified the lands of Ballagan to the convent of the Grayfriars at Glasgow, for the express purpose of "the salvation of our souls, and that of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, of worthy memory, our dear husband; and also of Duncan Earl of Lennox, our father, and of Walter, James, and Alexander, our sons." It is worthy of remark, that this pious lady received from the King, her cousin, as a present, the heads of her husband, her father, and her sons, Walter and Alexander; James having fled into Ireland.

In 1426, Bishop-Cameron, soon after his induction, established the Commissariat Court, and increased the number of the prebendaries of the cathedral to thirty-two. In 1441, St Enoch's Church was built within St Enoch's gate, and dedicated to the blessed Virgin and St Michael. It had a principal, eight prebendaries, and a large burying-ground. There is no vestige of the burying-ground, and there seems to be no record when the church was taken down. In 1450, Bishop Turnbull obtained a charter from James II., erecting the town and patrimonies of the bishoprick into a regality.

In 1456, St Nicholas' Hospital was founded and endowed by Bishop Muirhead, for the maintenance of twelve poor laymen and a priest. The Hospital was situated on the west side of Kirk Street, near where the Bishop's palace stood. Its ruins were taken down in 1808; the ground on which it stood now forms part of the Gas Work premises. Its revenues, now reduced to about L. 30 per annum, arise from ground annuals in the neighbourhood of the hospital, Lindsay's Middle, or New Wynd, &c. The Town-Council lately conferred the patronage on Provost Dalgleish. In 1484, the Collegiate Church of St Mary (iron) was built, and dedicated to the blessed Virgin. In 1488, the see of Glasgow was made archiepiscopal, during Bishop Blackadder's incumbency. The Bishop, along with the Earl of Bothwell, negotiated a marriage between King James IV. of Scotland and the Lady Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. of England, which they brought about to the mutual satisfaction of both kingdoms. This union laid the foundation of the title of the Scotch Kings to the English throne; which, in right of proximity of blood, King James VI. of Scotland succeeded to, on the demise of Queen Elizabeth. In 1496, the Chapel of St Roque, belonging to the Blackfriars without the Stable Green Port, had an extensive burying-ground, where great numbers of those who died of the plague in after years were buried. In 1527, Jeremiah Russell and John Kennedy were burned alive in Glasgow for adhering to the principles of the Reformation. Gavin Dunbar, Archbishop of Glasgow, and the Bishops of Dunkeld, Brechin, and Dunblane, &c. were present at the trial, and agreed to the sentence, which was read in the metropolitan church on the last day of February.

The revenues which had been granted from time to time in support of the splendour of the see of Glasgow were very great. The archbishops were lords of the lordships of the royalty and baronies of Glasgow; besides, there were eighteen baronies of land which belonged to them within the sherifdoms of Lanark, Dumbarton, Ayr, Renfrew, Peebles, Selkirk, Roxburgh, Dumfries, and the stewartry of Annandale, including 240 parishes. There was also a large estate in Cumberland within their jurisdiction, which was named of old the Spiritual Dukedom. When the see was made archiepiscopal, jurisdiction was given over the Bishops of Galloway, Argyle, and the Isles. At the Reformation in 1560, Archbishop Beaton retired to France, taking with him all the relics, documents, and plate which pertained to the see and the archbishoprick. Since the renovation of the see, there have been twenty-six Roman Catholic bishops; the first, John Achaius, elected in 1129, and the last, George Carmichael, in 14t-i3, and four Roman Catholic archbishops, the first, Robert l3lackadder, in 1488, and the last, James Beaton, in 1551. From the Reformation till the Revolution, the church in Glasgow was governed by fourteen Protestant archbishops, the first, James Boyd, elected in 1572, and the last, John Paterson, in 1687.

State of Society, &c.—Prior to the Reformation, the inhabitants of this city and neighbourhood were governed by churchmen, who kept them in a state of ignorance and superstition truly deplorable. At that period, the principles of the glorious Reformation began to be acknowledged, when it pleased God to raise up powerful agents in Edinburgh and Glasgow in the persons of Knox and Melville. In 1560, when the Reformation took place, and for a f considerable time after, the great body of the people retained their fierce and sanguinary disposition. This is strikingly marked by their being constantly armed: even the ministers in the pulpit were accoutred. The number of murders, cases of incest, and other criminal acts, turned over to the censure of the church, but too plainly point out the depraved character of the people.

In 1546, Glasgow, although only the eleventh town in Scotland, in point of trade and importance, had some shipping; the privy-council of Scotland having issued an order, that vessels belonging to Glasgow should not annoy those belonging to Henry VIII. of England, the Queen's uncle.

In 1556, during the minority of Mary Queen of Scots, James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, an ancestor of the noble house of Hamilton, the second person in the kingdom, and nearest heir to the throne after Mary, was appointed Regent. This appointment having been opposed by the Earl of Lennox, and the Queen Dowager, an engagement took place at the Butts, where the weaponschaws used to be held, (now the site of the Infantry Barracks.) The citizens taking part with Lennox, the Regent was defeated, which so exasperated him, that, rallying his troops, he entered the town, and gave it up to pillage; which was co effectually done, that the very doors and windows of the houses were destroyed.

In 1566, Henry Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, came to this city on a visit to his father, who resided in a house on the east side of Limmerfield, a little south from the new Barony Church, a part of the south wall of which is still preserved. As the King was taken ill, the Queen came from Stirling to see him in this house, where she resided till he was so far recovered as to be removed to Edinburgh, in the neighbourhood of which lie was soon after murdered. On 30th September 1578, Robert Stewart Earl of Lennox, the immediate successor of Matthew, the father of Henry Darnley, was entered a burgess, and in the same year elected Provost of Glasgow.

In 1581, the King appointed Mr Robert Montgomery, minister of Stirling, to be Archbishop of Glasgow, with the understanding that he was to confer the title, of hereditary lords of the Bishop's Castle on the Lennox family, with all the emoluments pertaining thereto, for the paltry consideration of L. 1000 Scots, some horse corn, and poultry. The people, considering the archbishop erroneous in doctrine and loose in morals, opposed his entry, by getting Mr Howie to preach at the time he was to be inducted. Sir Matthew Stewart of Minto, Provost of Glasgow, being desirous of obeying the King's commands, went to the church and de-. sired Mr Howie to break off his sermon, which refusing, the provost pulled him out of the pulpit. in the struggle some hair was drawn out of Mr Howie's beard, several of his teeth knocked out, and his blood shed. On this Mr Howie denounced the judgment of God on Sir Matthew, and his family. M'Ure, in his History of Glasgow, says, that in less than seventy years, this opulent family was so reduced that they subsisted by charity. The church considering the transaction with the Lennox family illegal and disgraceful, the archbishop was forced to resign the benefice. He afterwards became minister of Symington, and latterly of Stewarton in Ayrshire, where he died. At this period the church discipline was severe. On 16th August 1587, the kirk-session appointed harlots to be carted through the town, ducked in Clyde, and put in the jugs at the cross, on a market day. The punishment for adultery was to appear six Sabbaths on the cockstool at the pillar, bare-footed and bare-legged, in sackcloth, then to be carted through the town, and ducked in Clyde from a pulley fixed on the bridge." The release from excommunication was as follows: "A man excommunicated for relapse in adultery, was to pass from his dwelling-house to the Hie Kirk, six Sundays, at six in the morning at the first bell, conveyed by two of the elders or deacon, or any other two honest men, and to stand at the kirk door barefooted, and bare-legged, in sackcloth, with a white wand in his hand, bare-headed till after the reading of the text; in the same manner to repair to the pillar till the sermon was ended, and then to go out to the door again, and stand there till the congregation pass from the kirk, and after that he is released."

The presbytery admonished their ministers to be diligent in their studies, grave in their apparel, and not vain with long ruffles, and gaudy toys in their clothes. The brethren (Presbytery) interpret "the Sabbath to be from sun to sun; no work to be done between light and light, in winter, and between sun and sun in summer." Subsequently, thebrethren declared "the Sabbath to be from twelve on Saturday night till twelve on Sabbath night." The session directed that the drum should go through the town, to intimate that there must be no bickerings or plays on Sundays, either by old or young. Games, golfs, bowls, &c. were forbidden on Sundays; and further, that no person go to Ruglen to see plays on Sundays. Parents who had bairns to be baptized were to repeat the Commandments distinctly, articles of faith, and the Lord's Prayer, or be declared ignorant, and some godly person to present their bairn; with farther punishment, as the kirk shall think fit. That no proclamation of banns be made without the consent of parents; persons who cannot say the commandments were declared to be unworthy of marriage. Because of the many inconveniences by marriages on Sundays before noon, "the session enact that none be made till the afternoon."

In 1588, the kirk-session appointed some ash-trees in the Hie Kirk yard to be cut down, to make forms for the folk to sit on in the kirk; women were not to sit upon the forms, but to bring stools with them. Intimation was made, that "no woman, married or unmarried, should come within the kirk door to preachings or prayers with their plaids about their heads, neither to lie down in the kirk on their face in time of prayer; with certification, that their plaids be drawn down, or they be raised by the beadle. The beadles were to have staffs for keeping quietness in the kirk, and comely order; for each marriage they were to get 4d., and 2d. for each baptism. All this for ringing the bell and rowing up the knock, and for setting the forms in the Hie Kirk, and in the Blackfriars Kirk, and also the New Kirk. The kirk beadles were to allow none to enter the steeple to trouble the knock and bell there, but to keep the knock going at all times, and the five hours bell in the morning, and eight hours bell at even, and that for a long space. The minister gave the dead bellman a merk to buy a book, to enter the names of the dead with their age."

"On 26th December 1'88, the magistrates, considering the manifold blasphemies and evil words spoken by sundry women, direct the master of works to erect jugs, three or four steps up, that they may not be torn down. The town-council enacted that no market be kept on Sundays, and that persons blaspheming and swearing shall be punished according to law. Walter Prior of Blantyre, tacksman of the teinds of the parsonage of Glasgow, provided the elements for the communion, he was spoken to, to provide a hogshead of good wine. The time of convening on the Sundays of the communion was four o'clock in the morning. The collectors assembled on these occasions in the Hie Kirk, at three o'clock in the morning. At that period the town-council enacted that wine shall not be sold dearer than 18 pennies Scots, for a Scotch pint, and ale not to exceed 4 pennies Scotch, = one-third of a penny Sterling for two imperial quarts."

"On 7th October 1589, there were six lepers in the Lepers' House at the Gorbals end of the bridge, viz. Andrew Lawson, merchant; Steven Gilmour, cordiner; Robert Bogle, son of Patrick Bogle; Patrick Brittal, tailor; John Thomson, tailor; and Daniel Cunningham, tinker."

For a considerable time previous to 1604, very serious differences had arisen between the merchants and trades' ranks, regarding precedency; to put an end to which, and to restore peace in the burgh, a submission was entered into on 10th November 1604, which led to the letter of guildry. On 16th February 1605, at a meeting in the Council-House, Sir George Elphinston of Blythswood, provost, informed the meeting that the provost, bailies, and council being ripely advised, understanding the same first to redound to the honour of God, common weal of this burgh, have accepted, received, and admitted the said letter of guildry, and in, token thereof have subscribed the same.

On 3d March 1608, the kirk-session gave intimation, that the Laird of Minto, a late provost, was accused of a breach of chastity. The session considering his age and the station he held in the town pass him with a reprimand.

At this period the funds of the corporation must have been very low. At a meeting of the town-council, on 9th April 1609, the provost informed the council, that the magistrates had been charged the sum of 100 punds, by the clerk register, for the book called the "Regium Majestatem," that they were in danger of horning for the same, and that, as the town was not stented, and as the council could not advance the money, (L. 8, 6s. 8d. Sterling,) he had borrowed it from William Burn, merchant burgess.

It would appear that the letter of guildry had only removed the burghal discontefit, as on ] 9th May 1609, the provost informed the council, that the Earl of Glencairn, and the Lord Sempil, with their friends, were to be in this town on Monday next, conform to the ordinance of the secret council, for the purpose of compromising their deadly feuds; "therefore for eschewing of all inconveniences of trouble which may happen, (which God forbid,) the council directed that the number of forty persons, with one of the bailies, and the whole council, should attend upon the provost, and that one of the other two bailies, and threescore men, should attend at the lodgings of the said noblemen, all the foresaid persons to have long weapons, and swords, and to be in readiness to accompany and convoy the said noblemen, with their friends, in and out, in making their reconciliation, conform to the ordinance of the secret council, and the drum to pass through the town, to advertise and warn all the inhabitants, to be in readiness with their arms foresaid, and to meet the provost and the bailies on Monday next, at seven hours on the green, that the foresaid number of persons may be chosen, and that under the penalty of L. 5." On 19th August following, the council granted a warrant to John Bernit, master of works, for 41 punds, 10s. as the expenses of wine and confections spent at the cross, upon the 5th day of July, the King's day, my Lord Bishop of Glasgow being present, with sundry other honourable men.

On 6th October 1610, the town-council enacted, that there should be no middings (dunghills) on the fore streets, nor in the flesh-market, meal-market, or other market of this burgh, under the penalty of 13s. 4d. and that no timber lie on the High Street, ,above year and day, nor any turf, turf stakes, or lint, be dried upon the High Street, under the penalty of 13s. 4d, and that the fruit, kail, and onion crammies, stand betwixt the gutter and the house, and that each stand and flake be an ell in length and breadth.

The council at the same time ordained, that the lepers of the hospital should go only upon the causewayside, near the gutter, and should have "clapperis," and a cloth upon their mouth and face, and should stand afar off while they receive alms, under the penalty of being banished from the town and hospital.

On 22d December 1613, mortality bills were directed to be made in the city for the first time.

In 1635, the magistrates purchased from the Earl of Glencairn, the manse of the prebendary of Cambuslang in the Drygate, which they fitted up as a house of correction for dissolute women, and such was the vigilance of the kirk-session, that they directed the women to be whipped everyday during pleasure.

The Laigh Kirk steeple was built in 1638. The Tron or public weights were kept in the under part of this steeple for a number of years; hence the name Tron. The dues of the tron, which formerly belonged to the Archbishop, were conveyed to the College, which still draws a small sum from the town in lieu of them.

The council agreed to license Duncan Birnet to teach music within the burgh, provided he takes no more "skolleges fra the bairns than James Sanderis was allowed." They authorized the master of work now in Flanders, to purchase for the town's use fifty muskets with "stalfis and bandeleiris," and fifty pikes. On 8th September they ordered "three score young men to be elected and trained to handle arms, the driller to have for his pains 40 shillings each day for his coming out of Edinburgh, aye until he be discharged, with his horse hire Name and afield."

On 25th September 1638, the principal and regents of the College petitioned the town-council for help to build the new work within the said College. The council "condescended and agreed to give to the building of the said work 1000 merks when the work is going on, and another 1000 merks to buy books to the library, whenever they buy their books to make a library to the said College. The money to be advanced by the provost and bailies, who may be in office at the time."

"On 8th October 1638, the provost, bailies, and council, understanding that his sacred Majesty has been graciously pleased to indict a general free assembly to be holden in this city the 21st November next, to which it is expected that a great number of noblemen, commissioners from presbyteries, and other commissioners will repair hither, therefore it is statuted and ordained, that no burgess or inhabitant within this burgh shall set, or promise to set, for rent or otherwise, or give to any friend any house, chamber, or stable, until they first acquaint them therewith, that the provost, bailies, and council may give a license thereto, to the end that every one may be lodged according to their quality and ability in this city, under the pain of 100 punds, and imprisonment of their persons during the magistrates' will. And likewise, that those give obedience to this who are appointed to survey the houses within the city, and also that no inhabitant expect more rent for their houses, chambers, beds, and stables than shall be appointed by the said provost, bailies, and council, and ordains the same to be intimated through the town by sound of drum, that no person may plead ignorance."

On 3d November, the town-council, understanding that a great number of people will convene within this burgh at the ensuing assembly, they statuted and ordained, that there be a guard of men kept through the day, and a watch at night, under the direction of the provost and bailies. On the 18th, the treasurer was directed to purchase for the town's use 100 muskets with "stalfis and bandeleiris," 30 pikes, 4 cwt. of powder, and 4 cwt. of match.

On 21st November this famous assembly met in the nave of the Cathedral. During the preceding year, Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, had ordered a service-book to be read in the Scotch churches, which the people thought savoured of the mass. This innovation afforded a fit opportunity for the friends of the Presbyterian form to exert themselves in the cause; they therefore with great assiduity procured a numerous attendance at this assembly. The celebrated Marquis of Hamilton was Lord High Commissioner. The venerable Mr John Bell, minister of the Tron Church of Glasgow, preached, after which Mr Alexander Henderson was elected Moderator. The assembly was attended by a great proportion of the nobility and other persons of rank and consideration in Scotland. The Presbyterian party carried every thing their own way. The Commissioner protested and dissolved the assembly. After his Grace had departed, the assembly held twenty-six diets, when they decreed, 1st, The abjuration of Episcopacy; 2d, The abolishing of the service-books and the high commission; 3d, The proceedings of the six preceding assemblies during Episcopacy were declared null and void; 4th, They deposed and excommunicated the Archbishops of St Andrews and Glasgow, and the Bishops of Galloway, Brechin, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Ross, Argyle, and Dunblane, and a number of other clergymen; 5th, The Covenant being approved of, was ordered to be signed by all ranks, under pain of excommunication; and, 6th, Churchmen were incapacitated from holding any place in Parliament.

On 19th March 1640, intimation was made by the session, that all masters of families should give an account of those in their families who have not the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, Creed, &c. and that every family should have prayers and psalms morning and evening; some of the fittest men to assist the elders in promoting this work. On 8th January in the following year, the kirk-session, in pursuance of an act of Assembly held at Aberdeen, enacted that the magistrates should cause all monuments of idolatry to be taken down and destroyed, viz. all superstitious pictures, crucifixes, &c. both in private houses and in the Hie Kirk. Next day it was reported that they found only three that could be called so, viz. the five wounds of Christ, the Holy Lamb, and a Pronobis.

On the 19th June 1641, the council directed the treasurer to pay Mr Gavin Forsyth 162 punds for his bygone services in. baptizing infants within this city, and visiting the sick in the time of the town's necessity, and for preaching God's word on Tuesdays. On 1st December, the council enacted that some Holland cloth, and Scotch linen cloth, with some plaids, as also two gallons of aqua vitae, and four half-barrels of herring, be sent as a present to Mr Webb, servant to the Duke of Lennox, as a testimony of the town's thankfulness to him for the pains he took in the town's business. The said day the Marquis of Argyle exhibited in presence of the town-council, a commission from the secret-council anent the transporting of 5000 men to Ireland, desiring the council to provide boats and barques for their transport. After much reasoning, it was thought fit that the freight of each soldier should be 1 pund, 10s., and that the soldiers and boatmen should have 6s. in the day for victuals during the time they are at sea; the whole to be paid by the community.

On 13th April 1649, parochial sessions were first appointed; but as these clerical courts assumed the power of censuring the measures of Government., his Majesty, Charles II. put them down by royal proclamation, and it was not till April 1662 that the legal restriction was removed. On 6th July 1649, the kirk session intimated that any person who knows any point of witchcraft or sorcery against any one in this burgh, shall delate the same to some of the ministers or magistrates.

Oliver Cromwell having on 3d September 1650, got possession of Edinburgh, marched to Glasgow, and took up his lodgings and held his levees in Silver Craigs House, on the east side of the Saltmarket, nearly opposite the Bridgegate.

Cromwell having learned that Mr Patrick Gillesliie, minister of the Outer High Church, had the chief sway in ecclesiastical affairs, sent for him, and after a long conference, gave him a prayer. On the following Sunday he went in state to the Cathedral Church. Mr Zachary Boyd, the distinguished paraphrast, having been appointed to preach, took occasion to inveigh against Cromwell, on which Thurlow, his secretary, said he would pistol the scoundrel. 'No, no,' said the General, 'we will manage him in his own way.'

Having asked the minister to dine with him, Oliver concluded the entertainment with prayer, which it is said lasted three hours.

On 16th June 1660, the session having taken into their consideration the Lord's merciful providence in returning the King's majesty to his throne and government, do judge it their duty to set apart some time for public thanksgiving to God for the same. The Restoration took place on 29th May, and such was the persecuting spirit of the times, that on 14th July following, the privy-council sent an order to the magistrates of Glasgow, to desire Principal Gillespie to appear before them, which he did on the 17th August, when, for the favour he had shown to Cromwell, he was sent to Edinburgh jail, and was afterwards imprisoned in the Bass Island, along with a number of ministers. After a period of confinement, the Principal was brought before Parliament and liberated.

Soon after the Restoration, an attempt was made to force Episcopacy on the people of Scotland, and nowhere was this attempt more opposed than in Glasgow, where the great body of the people were Covenanters. The King having appointed Mr James Sharp, minister of Crail, to be Archbishop of St Andrews; and Mr Andrew Fairfowl, minister of Dunse, to be Archbishop of Glasgow; and two other ministers to be bishops, they were ordained in London, and on 10th April 1662, arrived in Edinburgh. The clergy and laity of Glasgow, with a few exceptions, having refused to conform to Episcopacy, the Earl of Middleton, and a committee of the privy-council, came to Glasgow on 26th September 1662. The council met in the fore-hall of the college, when, after the usual preliminaries, Lord Middleton informed the committee, that the archbishop desired the royal order for uniformity to be enforced. This was agreed to by all but Lord Lee, who assured the committee that the enforcement of that order would desolate the country. In the face of this it was enforced, when upwards of 400 ministers were turned out, and took leave of their flocks in one day, among whom were five belonging to Glasgow, viz. Principal Gillespie, Messrs Robert Macward, John Carstairs, Ralph Rogers, and Donald Cargill. Early in 1678, the committee of council returned to Glasgow, where they remained ten days. They sat on Sunday during divine service, administering a bond for preventing all intercourse with the exiled ministers; and such was the terror which accompanied their proceedings, that Provost Campbell, Bailies Johnston, Campbell, Colquhoun, and others, to the number of 153 persons, signed the obnoxious bond. The council, the better to enforce their arbitrary measures, summoned to their aid some of the chieftains and clans, afterwards designated the Highland Host. These rapacious mountaineers, unaccustomed to discrimination, plundered the inhabitants of every thing they could lay their hands on. Under such an order of things, emigration to Holland or Geneva was the only safe alternative. On 2d February following, the host left Glasgow for Ayrshire, and on their return in small detachments, loaded with plunder, they were attacked by the students and other young men of the town, who recollecting their former practices, relieved them of their burthens, and showed them the way to the Highlands through the West Port.

On 17th August 1669, the Presbytery of Glasgow directed that the day of preparation before the communion 'should be a day of fasting and humiliation. During the troubles in the latter end of the reign of Charles I. and the greater part of the reign of Charles II. the communion was but seldom administered in Glasgow, and not at all in the year 1646-47-51-52-53-58 and 59. From 1660 to 1676, the communion was occasionally given once in the year; and from 1693 till the Union in 1707, it was regularly given once a-year; and it has almost uniformly been given twice a-year since that period.

In 1677, a great fire took place in Glasgow, when 130 houses and shops were destroyed. In 1684, a number of Covenanters were hanged in Glasgow, and their heads stuck on pikes on the east side of the jail. Their bodies were buried at the north side of the Cathedral Church, near where a stone with an inscription is placed, and still remains in the wall.

In 1689, on the abdication of James II., the city of Glasgow raised a regiment of 500 tank and file, and sent them to Edinburgh, under the command of the Earl of Argyle, to guard the Covenanters. This regiment then got the name of the Scotch Cameronians, and subsequently the 26th Regiment of Foot. During this year the magistrates were elected by a poll vote of the burgesses; but in the succeeding year, an act of William and Mary empowered the magistrates and council to elect themselves.

On 4th June 1690, the Presbytery of Glasgow, considering that "this is the first diet after the re-establishment of the Presbyterian form of church government," directed Mr Joseph Drew to go to Stirling, and preach to the people of Glasgow, who had been driven there on account of the troubled state of the kingdom. On 2d May 1695, an act was read from the pulpits in the city, against buying or selling things on the Sabbath, also against feeding horses in the fields, or hiring horses to ride on the Sabbath, except in cases of necessity, of which the magistrates are to be made acquainted. The ancient and laudable custom of elders visiting the families once a quarter was revived.

On 12th March 1698, the magistrates of Glasgow granted an allowance to the jailor for keeping warlocks and witches imprisoned in the tolbooth, by order of the Lords Commissioners of Justiciary. The elders and deacons, two and two, were enjoined to search the change-houses in their proportions on the Saturday nights at ten o'clock, and to delate the drinkers and houses to the magistrates.

In 1707, the union with England was effected. This measure was so inimical to the citizens of Glasgow, that the magistrates found it necessary to prohibit more than three persons from assembling together on the streets after sunset.

In 1715, when the Rebellion broke out under the Earl of Marr, the city of Glasgow raised a regiment of 600 men at their own expense, who marched to Stirling under the command of Colonel Aird, the late provost, and joined the King's forces.

In 1717, the Convention of Royal Burghs passed an act prohibiting persons from trading in Glasgow, unless they resided eight months of the year within it.

On 11th November 1725, the kirk-session enacted, that the elders and deacons should go through their proportions, and take notice of all young women who keep chambers alone, especially those suspected of lightness, and warn them that they will be taken notice of, and advise them to get honest men, or take themselves to service.

In 1736, the foundation stone of the Town-hall, and the first Assembly Rooms, was laid by Provost Coulter. The hall and Assembly Rooms were opened in 1740. Although Deacon Corse was the master mason, his foreman, the celebrated Mungo Naismith, carried on the work, and carved the caricature heads on the key stones of the arches of the arcade, so justly admired. Till the Assembly Rooms were opened in 1740, the Glasgow assemblies were held in the Merchant's Hall, Bridgegate. These assemblies were usually well attended. The Duchess of Douglas, for several years, patronized them.

The Rebellion of 1745 afforded the citizens of Glasgow an opportunity of showing their loyalty to the Government, by raising two regiments of 600 men each, at their own expense. On the news of the American war reaching Glasgow, the magistrates called a public meeting, when resolutions were entered into, to support the Government. A corps of 1000 rank and file, afterwards the 83d Regiment of Foot, was raised at an expense of about L.10,000. [The Trades-House, the fourteen incorporated trades, and individual members, subscribed L. 5025 towards the expenses of the regiment. The corporation of the city voted an address to his Majesty, containing the tender of a regiment; and the London Gazette, January 19, 1778, states, that the Hon. Robert Donald, Lord Provost, and Duncan Liven, Esq. Convener of the Trades-House, who presented the address, were most graciously received, and had the honour to kiss his Majesty's hand.] To give countenance to recruiting, and to show their determination to oppose the Americans, above 500 of the principal inhabitants formed, as it were, a recruiting party. Mr John Wardrop, a Virginia merchant, beat a drum; Mr James Finlay, father to Mr Kirkman Finlay of Castle Toward, played the bagpipe; while other eminent merchants and citizens performed the duty of fifers, or carried broad swords, colours, or other warlike ensigns. Mr Cunningham of Lainshaw, Mr Speirs of Elderslie, and others, hired their ships as transports; but Mr Glassford of Dugaldston, disapproving of the warlike preparations, laid up his ships in Port-Glasgow harbour.

In 1787, the cotton manufacturers proposed to reduce the price of weaving, on which a number of weavers stopt work, and, after parading the streets on 3d September, burned and destroyed a number of webs in the Drygate and Calton. Provost Riddell called out the military, under the command of Colonel Kellet, when the riot act was read; the mob refusing to disperse, three men were killed near the Hangman's Brae, (north end of Barrack Street,) and several wounded.

The revolutionary principles of France had made such rapid progress in this country during 1793-4, that an Act of Parliament was passed, authorizing his Majesty to accept the military services of such of his loyal subjects, as chose to enrol themselves as volunteers, for defence of our inestimable constitution. The necessary arrangements had no sooner been made, than a number of the citizens of Glasgow offered their services to Government, which were immediately accepted. During the war there were thirteen volunteer corps raised, and when these were disbanded, there were five regiments of local militia formed.

In 1799 and 1800, the failure of the crops was so great, that provisions could not be got through the usual channels. The corporation, and a number of benevolent individuals, entered into a subscription, and purchased grain for the supply of the working-classes. The purchases amounted to L. 117,500. On the return of plenty the concern was wound up, which showed a loss of L. 15,000. As a large proportion of this came from the corporation funds, a bill was brought into Parliament, for taxing the inhabitants for a part of the loss; but it was so vehemently opposed, that the magistrates withdrew it.

In the latter end of 1816, and beginning of 1817, the stagnation of trade was such, that the working-classes in the city and suburbs could not find employment. The distress of the workers was so great, that it was found necessary to raise money for their relief by voluntary subscriptions. From a large sum raised, the committee distributed L. 9653, 6s. 2d. among 23,130 persons.

In 1818, the lower classes of this city and suburbs were severely afflicted with typhus fever. No sooner had the disease made progress than L. 6626, 1.4s. id. was raised for the relief of the afflicted sufferers by voluntary contribution. The accommodation in the Royal Infirmary being quite inadequate for the number of fever patients, the subscribers built a temporary fever hospital at Spring Gardens, fitted to contain upwards of 200 beds. The hospital was opened on 30th March 1818, and closed on 12th July 1819. Between these periods 1929 patients were admitted. The greatest number at one time was 212, and the deaths amounted to 171. During the period of the disease, upwards of 5000 apartments in the city and suburbs were fumigated, 600 lodging-houses were examined, infected bedding was burned, and the owners supplied with new bedding.

In 1819, the working-classes were again thrown into great distress from want of employment. The seeds of discontent which had been widely sown took deep root in this part of the country, and ended in what has been emphatically called Radicalism. At this alarming crisis, when thousands of workers paraded the streets, demanding employment or bread, upwards of 600 persons were almost instantly employed at spade work, or breaking stones for the roads. Exclusive of the exertions of the authorities, and individuals in the suburbs, the magistrates of Glasgow simultaneously employed upwards of 340 weavers at spade work in the green, nearly the whole of whom remained for upwards of four months under the direction of Dr Cleland; and it is only justice to those individuals to say, that under his kind usage and vigilant superintendence, not one of them left their work to attend political meetings in the Green, although thousands marched past them with radical ensigns, accompanied by well-dressed females carrying caps of liberty. The distress and dissatisfaction continued during the greater part of 1820, when large distributions of clothing, meal, and coals were given to such persons as could not find employment. The distress was such that 2040 heads of families were under the necessity of pawning 7380 articles, on which they received L. 739, 5s. 6d. Of the heads of families 1943 were Scotch, and 97 English, Irish, or foreigners; 1372 had never applied for nor received charity of any description; 474 received occasional aid from the committee, and 194 were paupers. On the 30th August of that year, James Wilson was hanged and beheaded for high treason.

In August 1822, when George IV. visited Edinburgh, the corporation of this city and the Merchants and Trades Houses sent deputations with splendid equipages, and presented loyal addresses to his Majesty.

Another period of mercantile distress occurred in 1826, and from 8th April of that year till 31st October 1827, about L. 9000 were laid out for the amelioration of the working-classes, and from 12th March till 20th October 1829, there was expended on work for operatives the sum of L. 2950.

Bills of Mortality.—Bills of mortality are understood to contain a list of births, marriages and deaths, from parochial registers, at stated periods, in connection with the population.

Glasgow Bills of Mortality.—As the Glasgow bills of mortality, from which the probability of human life in large towns, and other important results may be deduced, have met with more than ordinary approbation from political inquirers, we think it right to give a detailed account of the manner in which those bills have been prepared. The parochial register of births in Glasgow being so defective that no reliance could be placed on it, Dr Cleland, who had hitherto taken the whole charge of the bills, obtained the necessary information in the following manner : On the 6th of December 1829, he addressed a letter to each of the seventy-five clergymen and lay-pastors in the city and suburbs, who baptize children, requesting to be favoured with returns of the numbers they might baptize from the 14th of December 1829, to the 15th of December 1830, both days inclusive, being the year previous to the last Government census. Tie letter was accompanied by a book in which the sexes and the particular parishes in which the parents resided were to be inserted. He also requested the various societies of Baptists, the society of Friends, and Jews, and others who do not dispense the ordinance of baptism to infants, to favour him with the above particulars, relative to children born to members of their societies; and in due time he had the satisfaction of receiving returns from the whole, as also an account of the children of parents, who, while disapproving of infant baptism, did not belong to any religious society. It appeared that in the city and suburbs, there were 6397 children baptized or born to Baptists, &c. and of that number there were only 3225 inserted in the parochial registers, leaving unregistered 3172.

Although in Scotland there is no marriage act as in England, restricting the solemnization of marriages to clergymen of the Established Church, the ordinance can only be regularly celebrated by persons duly called to the pastoral office, and not until a certificate of the proclamation of banns has been produced. Persons irregularly married are deprived of the privileges of the church, till they appear before the kirk-session, acknowledge their fault, and be reponed. From this circumstance, in connection with the solicitude of the female and her friends, to have the marriage registered, the marriage register of Glasgow and its suburbs may be held as correct for all statistical purposes.

The deaths are ascertained by the number of burials. The burying-grounds in the city and suburbs are placed under the management of fourteen wardens. These officers, who attend every funeral, enter in a memorandum book at the grave, the name, age, and designation of the person buried, along with the amount of fee received, and the name of the undertaker. Having taken these, and other particulars, the wardens afterwards enter the whole in a book classified conformably to a printed schedule, drawn up by Dr Cleland. At the end of the year they furnish him with an abstract from their books, and it is from a combination of these abstracts that he ascertains the number of deaths at the various ages. The abstract includes still-born children, and the deaths of Jews, and members of the Society of Friends, who have separate burying places.

Dr Cleland having been appointed to take the sole charge of conducting the enumeration and classification of the inhabitants of the city of Glasgow and suburbs, for the Government census of 1831, he employed twelve parochial beadles, nineteen mercantile clerks, and one superintendent of police, to take the lists. Before the books were prepared, an advertisement was inserted in the Glasgow newspapers, requesting the inhabitants to favour him with their suggestions as to classification, and before the list-takers commenced their operations, bills were posted upon the public places and dwelling-houses of the city, informing the inhabitants of the nature of the inquiries, and that they had no reference to taxes, and moreover, that non-compliance, or giving a false return, subjected them to a fine. When the books were returned to him, the public, through the medium of the press, were requested to call at an office appointed for the purpose, and to correct any omission or error which might have been made in their returns. The list-takers having made oath before the Lord Provost, that the name of every householder in the district assigned to them, his, or her age, profession, religion, country, &c. had been faithfully entered in a book, and a similar description of his or her family taken down, he proceeded to classification, and formed tables and abstracts for each parish, containing numerous details not required for the Government digest.

Glasgow Bill of Mortality for 1830.—A general list of births, baptisms, marriages, and burials, within the ten parishes of the royalty, and the suburban parishes of Barony and Gorbals.

* While the great importance of accurate parochial registers is admitted by all, it is astonishing how little they have been attended to in this country. In Edinburgh, the metropolis of Scotland, a city distinguished for its erudition, and for its numerous and valuable institutions, the baptismal register is miserably defective. It appears from a printed report of a Committee of the Town-Council of that city, of date, 20th February 1835, that in 1834, the baptismal register for the thirteen parishes contained only the names of four hundred and eighty children.

Marriages engrossed in the registers of the City, Barony, and Gorbals :—In the city, 857; Barony, 691; Gorbals, 371; total, 1919.

Burials engrossed in the registers of the City, Barony, and Gorbals burying grounds:—

About twenty years ago, the causes of death were announced yearly in a periodical along with the gross number of burials, but as no confidence could be placed in such statements, Dr Cleland has since that period declined to publish a list of diseases; but, being aware that, if a correct list could be obtained at the census of 1831, when the population, births, marriages, and deaths, were ascertained, it would be very beneficial in a medical point of view, he addressed letters to upwards of 130 medical gentlemen, in the city, and suburbs, requesting that they would favour him with a return of the diseases of which their patients died during the period in which he had requested the clergymen to give him a note of baptisms. As he only succeeded with a small portion of the members of faculty, the attempt became fruitless, and in all probability any future attempt will be unsuccessful, until a compulsory act of the legislature regarding parochial registers for births, marriages, and deaths, be obtained. Dr Cleland having also been entrusted with drawing up and classifying the Government population returns for 1821, took the same precautions as to births, marriages, burials, and population as in 1831, in the view of being able to ascertain the ages of the population, and the periods of life at which death ensued at particular epochs, when the population could be accurately ascertained. He states as the result of his experience, that in all the authentic bills of mortality he had ever seen, there were more males born than females, but, taking the population above fifteen years, the number of females preponderates. The following results for Glasgow are derived from the census of 1831.

Probability of human life in England.—The want of sufficient data for the formation of tables relative to the probability of human life in this country is apparent from a report of a Committee of the House of Commons, (ordered to be printed on 15th August 1833,) on the evidence of persons distinguished by their knowledge in political science, such as George Mann Burrows, Esq. Doctor in Medicine; John Bowring, Esq. M. P. Doctor in Laws; Stacey Grimaldi, Esq. Fellow of the Antiquarian Society; the Rev. W. Hale Hale, Chaplain to the Bishop of London, and others, that the public registers in England are so inefficient as to render it impossible to determine the law of mortality among the working-classes of the empire, either generally or locally. Mr John Tilley Wheeler, clerk to the Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks, stated, that in London, the returns for the mortality bill are made up in each parish by two old pauper women, who are utterly incompetent. to give correct information, and frequently receive most fallacious reports; and John Finlaison, Esq. the Government Actuary, stated that no faith whatever could be put in bills of mortality as they are now prepared. In order to procure an approximation of the rate of mortality which prevails among the working-classes of this country, that distinguished political inquirer resorted to the public registers at Ostend in Flanders, where he made an observation on the mortality of that town for a period of twenty-six years, ending in 1832. The result of his investigations was, that in a population consisting of about 11,000 souls, the rate of mortality was as one in thirty-six and one-eighth. Mr Finlaison stated in evidence, that "he was enabled to determine that Ostend is (notwithstanding the opinion that prevails in England) a very healthy situation, and no doubt is equal to the average of England, at least the only knowledge of the law of mortality, as prevailing among the lower classes in England, on which he was able to depend, is derived from that which he obtained in Flanders."

Probability of human life in Glasgow.—That Glasgow is a place of average health for statistical purposes, may be inferred from the statement under the head climate. But more particularly the degree of health may be known, and tables formed for ascertaining the probability of human life, from a series of the mortality bills, where the ages of the living, and those of persons who have died, are stated in connection with the population, and a table of longevity for Scotland, which Dr Cleland prepared in 1821, by which it appeared that, on an average of all the counties of Scotland, there was one person eighty years of age, for every 14310 of the population, whilst in the county of Lanark, with a population of 316,790, including 263,046, who live in towns, viz. in Glasgow, 202,426, and in other towns, 60,620, there was one such person for every showing a degree of health in the population of Glasgow nearly equal to that of the whole of Scotland.

The following results have reference to Glasgow and its suburbs, which partake of a mercantile and manufacturing population, or something between Liverpool and Manchester, but more especially the latter, the town population being 198,518, and the rural, 3908. In 1831, the population was found to be 202,426, the burials 5185, and the rate of mortality consequently 39 4/100th. The births being 6868, there is one birth for every 29 47/100 persons. The number of marriages being 1919, there are 3 57/100 births, to each marriage, and one marriage for every 105 48/100 persons, the number of families being 41,965 there are 4 80/100 persons to each family. It is very satisfactory to know that with the same machinery in 1821, the population being 147,043, the burials 3686, the rate of mortality was 39 89/100, or, in other words, as near as may be to the mortality of 1831. By reference to the bills of mortality between the years 1821 and 1831, similar results will be obtained.

Thus it appears that the mortality in England in 1832 was assumed to be one in 36½ derived from data of about 11,000 souls resident in and belonging to a foreign country, while the mortality in Glasgow in the preceding year was only one in 39 89/100, as ascertained from a population of upwards of 200,000, whose avocations are narrated in the Government census; and as to the principle by which the amount of mortality is ascertained, Joshua Milne, Esq., the celebrated political inquirer, author of a Treatise on Annuities, the Law of Mortality, &c. and Actuary to the Sun Life Assurance Corporation, London, stated as his opinion, in reference to the Glasgow bill, published by Dr Cleland in 1831, having reference to former bills, that "the law of mortality in a large manufacturing town may now be determined, though it could not heretofore for want of the necessary data." It is therefore no small honour to Glasgow that it may fairly claim precedence in whatever relates to the formation of accurate tables for ascertaining the probability of human life in large commercial and manufacturing towns.

Although every one at all conversant with political science would place the utmost confidence in the testimony of Mr Milne,—that testimony has been fully corroborated by the most distinguished political economists in this country, and on the continent: among others, by Mon. Jean Baptiste Say, the Adam Smith of France, Dr Speiker of Berlin, the German Professor Friedlaender, Sir John Sinclair, author of the original Statistical Account of Scotland; the Rev. Dr Chalmers, Professor of Divinity in the University of Edinburgh, &c.

[As an appendix to the bill of mortality, we have thought it right to give an abstract of a statement which was drawn up for the Board of Health respecting cholera.

That dreadful epidemic, cholera morbus, showed itself in this city on the 12th February 1832, and continued to 11th November. During that period there were 6208 cases, 3203 recoveries, and 3005 deaths, viz. males, 1289; females 1716; of whom, under 20 years of age, 868; 20 years and under 70, 2365; 71 years and under 90,272.

It was found that there had been three eruptions of cholera marked by the reduced number of cases happening about the 3d of June, the 16th September, and the 11th November. Each eruption had a period of increase. In the first eruption, persons poorly fed, of irregular habits, and dwelling in the crowded ill-aired parts of the city, were chiefly affected. The second eruption was more severe, the attacks were more scattered over the town, and many healthy persons, and in easy circumstances, fell victims to the disease. The last eruption was milder than the second, but still surpassing the first, both in the number of cases and in the healthy and good condition of many of the sufferers.

The total number of cases, 6208, is one for about every 32-1 of the population. The total number of deaths, 3005, is one for about every 673 of the population. The progress of the disease was such as to have seized one victim for about every six, and to have occasioned one death for about every thirteen families.

It became desirable, in a medical and statistical point of view, to ascertain the number of burials during the existence of the cholera, namely, from 12th February to 11th November 1832, as compared with the corresponding period in the preceding year, The following was the result:

]

III.-POPULATION.

There is no enumeration of the inhabitants of Glasgow that can be relied on before the year 1610; but there are grounds for supposing, that about the time of the Reformation, in 1560, the population amounted to 4500.

In 1610, the Episcopal mode of government having been resumed in the church, Archbishop Spottiswood directed the population of the city to be ascertained, when it was found to amount to 7644.

In 1660, at the restoration of Charles II., the population amounted to 14,678.

In 1688, at the Revolution, the population had decreased to 11,948. The civil wars are assigned as the cause of the decrease, and it is a curious historical fact, that the number fell off immediately after the restoration of Charles II., and that it required more than half a century to make up the defalcation.

In 1708, immediately after the union with England, the population amounted to 12,766. This enumeration was made by direction of the magistrates, to mark the falling off which they expected.

In 1712, the population amounted to 13,832. This was made by order of the Convention of Royal Burghs, directing each of the burghs to make a return of its population on oath.

In 1740, the population was ascertained by the magistrates to be 17,034.

In 1755, the population had increased to 23,546, but this enumeration included persons living in houses which had been built adjoining to, but without the royalty. At that period, the magistrates directed returns to be made for the Rev. Dr Webster, then preparing his scheme for the Ministers' Widows' Fund.

In 1763, the population amounted to 28,300. This enumeration was drawn up by Mr John Woodburn, the city surveyor.

In 1780, the population had increased to 42,832 ; but in this enumeration the whole of the suburbs were for the first time included.

In 1785, soon after the termination of the American war, the magistrates directed the population to be ascertained ; it then amounted to 45,889.

In 1791, the population was ascertained for Sir John Sinclair's national statistical work. At that time, it amounted to 66,578, including 4633, being part of the suburbs which had been omitted in the return.

Prior to 1801, the, general results only of the different enumerations were preserved, but in that year a census of the inhabitants of Great Britain was taken, for the first time, by order of Government, when the population amounted to—males, 35,007; females, 42,378; total, 77,385. But in this enumeration, a part of the connected suburbs, the population of which amounted to 6384, had been omitted, and which, added to the above, made the actual population of Glasgow at that time 83,769.

In 1811, there was another Government enumeration of the inhabitants of Great. Britain, according to which the population of Glasgow was as follows:—males, 45,275; females, 55,474; to tal, 100,749. But, in like manner, a part of the connected suburbs, the population of which amounted to 9711, had not been included in this enumeration, and which, added to the Government table, made the population of the city at that period 110,460.

In 1819, Dr Cleland, under the sanction of the public bodies, drew up the first classified enumeration of the inhabitants of Glasgow, according to which, the population amounted to—males, 68,994; females, 78,203; total, 147,197.

In 1821, there was another Government enumeration of the inhabitants of Great Britain, when the population of Glasgow wasm-les, 68,119; females, 78,924; total, 147,043.

In 1831, there was a fourth enumeration of the inhabitants of Great Britain, according to which, the population of Glasgow was—males, 93,724; females, 1.08,702; total, 202,426.

IV.—COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES.

Glasgow is advantageously situated for commercial pursuits. Placed on the borders of one of the richest coal and mineral fields in the island, with which it communicates by the Monkland Canal, and by various rail-roads, and connected on the one hand with the Atlantic by the Clyde, and on the other with the North Sea and the German Ocean, by the Forth and Clyde Canal, and the river Forth, it possesses facilities peculiarly favourable for trade. Notwithstanding these local advantages, Glasgow was not remarkable for trade until a considerable time after the union with England. Its importance in a commercial point of view may be greatly attributed to the improvements on the Clyde, and to the enterprising spirit of its merchants and manufacturers during the last seventy years. In 1420, a Mr Elphinstone is mentioned as a curer of salmon and herrings for the French market ; and Principal Baillie mentions that this trade had greatly increased between the years 1630 and 1664. As an encouragement to trade, then in its infancy, an act was passed, in which. it was stipulated that the whole materials used in particular manufactures should be exempt from duty; and in the same Parliament it was enacted, for the better encouragement of soap manufacturers, that oil, potashes, and other materials for making soap, should be exempt from duty. On 31st of January 1638, "Robert Fleyming and his partners made offer to the town-council, to set up a manufactory in the city, wherein a number of the poorer sort of the people may be employed, provided they met with sufficient countenance. On considering which offer, the council resolved, in consideration of the great good, utility, and profit, which will redound to the city, to give the said company a lease of their great lodging and back yard in the Drygate, excepting the two front vaults, free of rent, for the space of seventeen years. On 8th May thereafter, the convener of the trades reported, that the freemen weavers were afraid that the erecting of the manufactory would prove hurtful to them. On which, Patrick Bell, one of the partners, agreed that the company should not employ any unfree weavers of the town."

Printing.—Letter-press printing was introduced into Glasgow by George Anderson in the year 1638; and one of the first works printed by him was an account of the General Assembly, which met there the same year. Anderson came to Glasgow in consequence of a•i invitation from the magistrates. It appears from the records of the town-council, 4th January 1640, that the treasurer was directed to pay him 100 punds, in satisfaction of his expenses "in transporting his gear to this burghe," and in full of his bygone salaries from Whitsunday 1638 till Martinmas 1639. It also appears from the records of the council, 10th June 1663, that Anderson was succeeded by his son, Andrew, as ordinary printer to the town and College, on condition of his "services as well, and his prices being as easy as others." Andrew, who had been a printer in Edinburgh, not finding matters to his mind here, returned to Edinburgh, and in 1671 he was made King's printer for Scotland. Anderson was succeeded in Glasgow by Robert Saunders, who styled himself printer to the city, and who was for many years the only printer in the west of Scotland. But his predecessor, now the royal typographer, came to Glasgow, and by threats and promises prevailed on Saunders' workmen to desert him in the midst of an impression of the New Testament. This oppressive conduct brought the matter before the privy-council, which decided in December 1671, that Saunders should be allowed to finish his book, and that any printer in Scotland had an equal right with his Majesty's to print the New Testament and Psalm Book in the letter commonly called English Roman. Saunders died about 1696, leaving his printing establishment to his son Robert, better known by the designation "of Auldhouse,"—a property purchased from a younger branch of the family of Maxwell of Polloc. A few of the works first printed by him were tolerably executed; but his latter productions are extremely paltry and inaccurate. Printing was now, and for some years afterwards, in the lowest state in Scotland. The exorbitancy of the royal grant to Anderson had produced the worst effects. No person appears to have been employed for the sole purpose of correcting the press; and the low wages given to pressmen, with the badness of the machines themselves, also tended to retard the improvement.

The University, in the meantime, was not wanting in efforts to improve the printing in Glasgow. A paper, entitled "Proposals for erecting a bookseller's shop, and a printing-press in the University of Glasgow," appears to have been presented to the faculty in 1713, in which it is mentioned, that they were "obliged to go to Edinburgh in order to get one sheet right printed." During the same year, Thomas Harvie, a student of divinity, engaged to furnish one or more printing-presses, and in the course of four years to furnish founts and other materials for printing Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, on condition that he should be declared University printer and bookseller for forty years, "with all the privileges and immunities which the University bath, or shall have hereafter, to bestow on their printer and bookseller." Although these terms were probably not ultimately accepted, they seem at least to have been under frequent consideration; and the sketch of a contract with Harvie is preserved among the University papers. Two years afterwards, "Donald Govane, younger, merchant in Glasgow, and printer," was appointed to the same office for seven years, but his name appears at few books.

James Duncan, who printed M'Ure's History of Glasgow, continued to print here till about the year 1750. Robert Uric and Company were printers in the Gallowgate in 1740; and, during the following year, executed several works for Robert Faulls, (improperly termed Fowlis.) Urie is entitled to the credit of adding to the respectability of the Glasgow press. Amongst the finest specimens of his work, are his editions of the Greek New Testament, and of the Spectator. But the art of printing was carried to great perfection by the Messrs Faulls, who introduced into Glasgow a style of printing which, for beauty and correctness, has never been surpassed in any country. A brief account of these distinguished persons cannot fail to be interesting.

Robert Faulls, the eldest son of Andrew Faulls, maltster, was born in or near Glasgow, on the 20th of April 1707, and his brother Andrew on the 22d of November 1712. Robert was sent at an early period as an apprentice to a barber, and seems to have practised the art of shaving for some time on his own account. While in this situation, Dr Francis Hutcheson, then Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University, discovered in him the talent which was afterwards cultivated with so much success, encouraged his desire of knowledge, and suggested to him the idea of becoming a bookseller and printer. Although Robert Faulls did not receive a complete University education, he continued to attend for several years the lectures of his patron; but Andrew received a more regular education, and for some years taught the Latin, Greek, and French languages. Having thus acquired a pretty accurate knowledge of books, Robert began business in Glasgow as a bookseller in 1741, and in the following year the first production of his press appeared. He was assisted in the correction of his press by George Fosse, then Professor of Humanity in the University, and by James Moor, at that time a tutor about the college, and afterwards Professor of Greek. To these advantages may be added the appointment, on 31st March 1743, of the elder brother as printer to the University. In the same year he produced Demetrius Plaalerius de Elocutione, apparently the first Greek book printed in Glasgow, though George Anderson's printing-house had been nearly a century before supplied with Greek and Hebrew types. In 1744, appeared the celebrated edition of Horace, the proof sheets of which, it is well• known, were hung up in the college, and a reward offered to any one who should discover an inaccuracy. By the year 1746, Faulls had printed eighteen different classics, besides Dr Hutcheson's class-book in English and Latin; and Homer with the Philippics of Demosthenes, were advertised as in the press. The Homer appeared in the following year, both in a quarto and in an octavo form. The first of these is a very beautiful book, and more correct than the other, which was printed after Dr Clarke's edition. The success which had attended the efforts of the Faullses as printers, induced the elder brother to extend the sphere of his usefulness. After being four times abroad, he sent home to his brother a painter, an engraver, and a copperplate printer, whom he had engaged in his service, and returned to Scotland in 1753, and soon afterwards instituted an academy in Glasgow for painting, engraving, moulding, modelling, and drawing. The University allowed him the use of a large hall for exhibiting his pictures, and several other rooms for his students; and three Glasgow merchants afterwards became partners in the undertaking. The students, according to the proposed plan, after having given proofs of genius at home, were to be sent abroad at the expense of the academy. But the scheme, which was somewhat romantic, did not succeed, and was attended with considerable loss to all concerned. In Faull's own words, "there seemed to be a pretty general emulation, who should run it most down."

Letter-press printing has been carried on of late years to such an extent that it could not be accomplished without the aid of steam. - Printing-machines were invented by Mr Nicholson, editor of the Philosophical Journal, about the year 1790, but they were first constructed, and put in operation, if not invented anew, by a German named Konig about twenty to thirty years ago, and set agoing in the printing of the London Times newspaper on 28th November 1814, steam being the propelling power. The machines may be said to consist of two kinds,—those which print only one side of a sheet of paper at a time, for newspaper work,—and those which print both sides of the sheet, and are adapted for book work. Messrs Ballantyne and Company of Edinburgh were the first in Scotland who printed by, steam. In 1829 or 1830, they fitted up a steam-press for printing Blackwood's Magazine, and the Waverley Novels. Soon after this, the Edinburgh, Leith, and Glasgow Advertiser was printed by steam, then the Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle, Chambers' Journal, and the Farmers' Magazine. In 1831, the Aberdeen Journal was printed in this way ; and in 1834, Mr Edward Khull, printer to the University, fitted up a steam-press for printing the Church of Scotland Magazine in this city.

A copartnery for carrying on the whale fishery and making soap was entered into in this city on the 15th of September 1674. Mr George Maxwell of Polloc, (created a baronet in 1682,) Provost William Anderson, and James Colquhoun, one of the bailies of the city, were among the original partners. The company employed five ships; and the Providence, built at Belfast, was sailed by Mr John Anderson, one of the partners. The company had extensive premises at Greenock for boiling blubber and curing fish. An advertisement appeared from them in the Glasgow Courant on the 11th of November 1715, being the first advertisement in the first newspaper in the west of Scotland. It was in the following words:—"Any one who wants good black or speckled soap may be served by Robert Luke, manager of the soaparie of Glasgow, at reasonable rates." The soaparie was at the head of Candleriggs Street, now the Commercial Buildings.

The manufacture of ropes was commenced on the 17th of March 1696. Mr William Crawford of Jordanhill, and Mr James Corbet of Kenmure, were among the first partners. In 1698, an act of Parliament was passed for the further encouragement of the manufacture of ropes and cordage in Glasgow, laying a duty on all ropes imported from the Sound or east seas; and, in return, the company were to advance a capital of L. 40,000 Scots, and to bring in foreigners to the work. It is probable that the company's first premises had gone into decay, as the buildings of what was afterwards known by the name of the Glasgow Rope-work Company, reaching between Stockwell Street and Jamaica Street, were not erected till the autumn of 1766.

With regard to sugar-houses, although the colonies were not laid open to the Scotch until the Union, it appears that there were sugar-houses in Glasgow long before that period; for, in an action which the Crown brought against the sugar bakers in Glasgow and Leith, it was urged that they had not only enjoyed the exemption from the duties and customs on the import of materials for a great number of years, but also the duties of excise upon the spirits and other commodities manufactured by them. At length, in 1715, a process was raised against them for the bygone excise duties; and, in 1719, the Court of Exchequer found them liable in the sum of L. 40,000 Sterling. As the trade could not pay any such sum, a compromise was suggested, and a clause added to an act of Parliament, authorizing the treasury to treat with them; and, by another act, the sugar manufacturers were acquitted of the L. 40,000 on relinquishing their right of exemption from duties and customs. The statute is general, and seems to subject all other privileged parties to the general custom and excise of the nation. The only parties in Scotland at that time exempt from the importation duties were the Glasgow and Leith sugar companies, the Glasgow soap-work, the rope-work companies, and a pin manufactory; the three last made a claim as a compensation for the surrender of their private rights, which does not seem to have been attended to. The buildings of Stockwell Place are now erected on the site of the sugar-house.

The tanning of leather seems to have been carried on in Glasgow from an early period. The Glasgow Tan-work Company, whose extensive premises were at the head of the Gallowgate, commenced soon after the Union. There seems to have been three sets of partners in this great undertaking. In 1780, the names of Provost John Bowman; Mr Alexander Speirs, of Elderslie; Mr John Campbell, of Clathie; Mr Robert Bogle, of Daldowie; Mr Robert Marshall, and others, appear among its partners.

The brewing business, like the tanning, seems to have been carried on with great spirit. Soon after the Union, Mr Crawford of Milton erected an extensive brewery at Grahamston, afterwards the property of Mr Robert Cowan. The brewing trade was carried on extensively here at an early period by the Anderston Brewery Company, and latterly by Messrs Blackstock, Baird, Struthers, Buchanan, Hunter, &c.

Previously to the Union, the foreign trade of Glasgow was chiefly confined to Holland and France. The union of the kingdoms, which took place in 1707, having opened the colonies to the Scotch, the merchants of Glasgow immediately availed themselves of the circumstance, and having engaged extensively in a trade with Virginia and Maryland, soon made their city a mart for tobacco, and the chief medium through which the farmers-general of France received their supplies of that article. In 1721, a remonstrance was preferred to the Lords of the Treasury, charging the Glasgow merchants with fraud. After having heard parties, and considered the representation, their Lordships dismissed the complaint "as groundless, and proceeding from a spirit of envy, not from a regard to the interest of trade or the King's revenue." To such an extent was this branch of commerce carried on in Glasgow, that for several years previously to 1770, the annual import of tobacco into the Clyde was from 35,000 to 45,000 hogsheads. In 1771, 49,016 hogsheads were imported. As the Glasgow merchants were enabled to undersell, and did undersell, those of London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Whitehaven, jealousies arose which ended in litigation. As the tobacco trade was suspended in 1783, at the breaking out of the war with America, the merchants of Glasgow engaged their capital in other pursuits.

Some attempts having been made to open a connection with the West Indies, the imports from that quarter into the Clyde in 1775 were as follow: Sugar, 4621 hogsheads, and 691 tierces; rum, 1154 puncheons, and 193 hogsheads ; cotton, 503 bags. The following excerpt of imports into the from Clyde, fro the custom-house books, shows the great increase of this trade. In the year ending the 5th of January 1815, immediately preceding the battle of Waterloo, there were imported, sugar, 540,198 cwts. 2 quarters, and 25 lbs.; rum, 1,251,092 gallons; cotton-wool, 6,530,177 lbs. The import duties of these and other articles amounted to L. 563,058, 2s. 6d., and the produce was imported in 448 ships, carrying 79,219 tons, and employing 4868 men in navigating them. These imports are, exclusive of grain, hemp, tallow, &c. from the Baltic, through the Great Canal. The exports during the same period to America, the West Indies, and Europe, amounted to L. 4,016,181, 12s. 2½d., and 592 ships, 94,350 tonnage, and 6476 men, were employed in this traffic.

In 1718, the art of type-making was introduced by James Duncan. The types used by him are evidently of his own making, being rudely cut, and badly proportioned. He deserves credit, however, for the attempt, and his letters are little inferior to those used by the other Scottish printers of that period. In M'Ure's History of Glasgow; he is styled "printer to the city."

In 1740, the art was brought to great perfection by Mr Alexander Wilson, afterward Professor of Astronomy in this University, and by his friend Mr John Baine. They first settled at St Andrews, the place of their nativity, but soon after removed to Camlachie, a suburb of this city, where they carried on business till the partnership was dissolved on Mr Baine's going to Dublin, where he remained but a short time. The professor removed to Glasgow, and lived to see his foundery become the most extensive and the most celebrated of any in Europe. At his death, the business was carried on by his son, and continued by the family on a very extensive scale for a number of years. As a considerable part of their types went to London and Edinburgh, and as other type-makers had commenced business here, the Messrs Wilsons, in 1834, removed their business from this city, one part of it to London, and the other to Edinburgh; Alexander conducting the London department, and Patrick the Edinburgh.

Although the origin of stereotyping is uncertain, it is evident that it was not invented by the French. If it be a modern invention, or there be any question as to the country in which it was first used, the Scots are entitled to the preference; for there certainly was an instance of the art having been used in Edinburgh many years before the earliest date at which it is said, or is even supposed to have been used in France. And in evidence of this, reference is made to the original stereotyped page of Sallust, with the plate and matrix, as well as a copy of the book, in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow. Mr Andrew Duncan introduced stereotyping into this city in 1818; and since that period, Messrs Hutchison and Brookman, Edward Khull, Blackie and Son, and Fullerton and Company, carry on the business of stereotyping to a very great extent.

Steam Engines as applicable to Manufactures.—As the great improvement on the steam-engine was made in Glasgow, a brief account of that mighty engine may not be improper here. The steam-engine was invented in the reign of Charles II. by the Marquis of Worcester, who, in the year 1663, published a book entitled A Century of Inventions. But as the Marquis, though notable as a theoretical projector, knew little of practical detail, Captain Savary took up the subject, and published a book in 1696, entitled The Miner's Friend, where he described the principles of his improvement, for which he obtained a patent. About this time, M. Papin, a Frenchman, came to England, and becoming familiar with the elastic power of steam, on his return home lie was employed by Charles, Landgrave of Hesse, to raise water by a machine which he constructed; and from this, his countrymen affected to consider him as the inventor of the steam-engine. In 1707, he published an account of his inventions. Not long after this, Mr Amonton contrived a machine which he called a fire-wheel. It consisted of a number of buckets placed in the circumference of the wheel, and communicating with each other by very circuitous passages. One part of the circumference was exposed to the heat of a furnace, and another to a stream or cistern of cold water. At the death of Amonton, M. Dessandes, a member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, presented to the academy a project of a steam-wheel, where the impulsive force of the vapours was impelled; but it met with little encouragement. In the meantime, the English engineers had so much improved Savary's invention, that it supplanted all others. Mr Newcomen, a blacksmith at Dartmouth in Devonshire, observing that Savary's engine could not lift water from deep mines, set his genius to work, and made great improvements on it. Savary's engine raised water by the force of steam; but, in Newcomen's contrivance, this was done by the pressure of the atmosphere, and steam was employed merely as the most expeditious method of producing a vacuum. This engine was first offered to the public in 1705, but its imperfections were not removed till 1717, when Mr Beighton brought it into its present form.

The greatest improvement on the steam-engine was, however, reserved for Mr James Watt, who was born at Greenock on the 19th of January 1736. When Mr Watt had completed his education in Greenock and Glasgow, he went to London in 1754, and returned in 1757, and in a short time he was appointed philosophical instrument-maker to the university. This circumstance laid the foundation of an intimacy with Drs Adam Smith, Black, and Dick, Mr Anderson, Mr Robison, and other distinguished persons connected with the university. In contemplating the principles of a small working model of Newcomen's steam-engine, which Professor Anderson sent him to repair, Mr Watt thought it capable of improvement; and having procured an apartment in Delftfield, he shut himself up along with his apprentice, Mr John Gardner, afterwards a philosophical instrument-maker in this city, and it was in this place that the foundation of the great improvement on the steam-engine was laid. [When Jean Baptiste Say, the celebrated French philosopher, visited Glasgow several years ago, he sat down in the class-room chair which had been used by Dr Adam Smith, and after a short prayer, said, with great fervour, "Lord, let now thy servant depart in peace." In August 1834, when the no less celebrated M. Arago, Perpetual Secretary to the French Institute, visited this University, accompanied by Principal Macfarlan, Professor MacGill, Professor Meikleham, and Dr Cleland, he requested to see the small model of Newcomen's steam-engine, which directed Mr Watt's mind to his great improvements. On the engine being shown him, he expressed great delight, and considered it as a relic of great value.] In 1769, Mr Watt, on the recommendation of Dr Black, formed a connection with Dr Roebuck of Carron Iron-works, when he left Glasgow for Kinneil House, near these works, where he constructed a small steam-engine. The cylinder was of block-tin, eighteen inches diameter. The first experiment, which was made at a coal mine, succeeded to admiration; indeed his success was so great, that he procured a patent "for saving steam and fuel in fire-engines." Dr Roebuck's affairs becoming embarrassed in 1775, Mr Watt formed a connection with Mr Boulton of Soho, Birmingham, where they had the exclusive privilege of making steam-engines for a period of twenty-five years.

On the expiration of the exclusive privilege, the engineers of this city commenced making steam-engines; and to such an extent is this business carried on here for every part of the country, that there are now fourteen firms who make steam-engines or mill machinery. Some of the works are more like national than private undertakings. Three houses alone employ upwards of 1000 persons in this important branch of trade.

It appears from Dr Cleland's folio statistical work, that in 1831 there were in Glasgow and its suburbs thirty-one different kinds of manufactures where steam.•engines are used, and that in these, and in collieries, quarries, and steam-boats, there were 355 steam-engines — 7366 horse power; average power of engines rather more than twenty horses each. The increase of engines in four years may be taken at about 10 per cent.

The Cotton Trade.—The manufacture of linens, lawns, cambrics, and other articles of similar fabric, was introduced into Glasgow about the year 1725, and continued to be the staple manufacture till they were succeeded by muslins. The following is a brief account of that important event:

About the year 1730, the late Mr J. Wyatt of Birmingham first conceived the project of spinning cotton yarn by machinery. The wool had to be carded in the common way, and was pressed between two cylinders, whence the bobbin drew it by means of the twist. In 1741 or 1742, the first mill for spinning cotton was erected in Birmingham; it was turned by two asses walking round an axis, and ten girls were employed in attending the work. A work upon a larger scale on a stream of water was soon after this established at Northampton under the direction of Mr Yeoman ; but nothing new had occurred in weaving till 1750, when Mr John Kay, a weaver in Bury, invented the fly shuttles. In 1760, Mr James Hargreave, a weaver at Stanhill, near Church in Lancashire, adapted the stock cards used in the woollen manufacture, to the carding of cotton, and greatly improved them. By their means, a person was able to do double the work, and with more ease than by hand-carding. This contrivance was soon succeeded by the cylinder carding-machine. It has not been ascertained who was the inventor of this valuable machine, but it is known, that the grandfather of Sir Robert Peel, late first Lord of the Treasury, was among the first who used it. In 1767, Mr Hargreave invented the spinning jenny. This machine, although of limited powers, when compared with the beautiful inventions which succeeded it, must be considered as the first and leading step in that progress of discovery, which carried improvement into every branch of the manufacture, changing as it proceeds, the nature and character of the .means of production, by substituting mechanical operation for human labour. The progress of invention after this was rapid. Hargreave in the meantime had removed to Nottingham, where he erected a small spinning work, and soon afterwards died in great poverty. The jenny having in a short time put an end to the spinning of cotton by the common wheel, the whole wefts used in the manufacture continued to be spun upon that machine, until the invention of the mule jenny, by which in its turn it was superseded. It would appear, that whilst Hargreave was producing the common jenny, Mr (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright, was employed in contriving that wonderful piece of mechanism, the spinning-frame, which, when- put in motion, performs of itself the whole process of spinning, leaving to man only the office of supplying the material, and of joining or piecing the thread. [Those who desire a more minute account of the early history of the cotton trade, are referred to a valuable and elaborate work on that subject, by Mr John Kennedy of Manchester.]

In 1769, Mr Arkwright obtained his patent for spinning with rollers, and he erected his first mill at Nottingham, which he worked by horse power. But this mode of giving motion to the machinery being expensive, he built another mill at Cromford in Derbyshire, in 1771, to which motion was given by water. Water-twist received its name from the circumstance of the machinery from which it is obtained, having for a long time after its invention been generally put in motion by water. The only improvement or even alteration yet made on Sir Richard's contrivance, the spinning-frame, is the machine invented several years ago, called the throstle. Instead of four or six spindles being coupled together, forming what is called a head, with a separate movement by a pulley and drum, as is the case in the frame, the whole rollers and spindles on both sides of the throstle are connected together, and turned by bands from a tin cylinder lying horizontally under the machine, but its chief merit consists in the simplification of the apparatus, which renders the movement lighter. Besides this, the throstle can with more ease and at less expense than the frame be altered to spin the different grists of yarn.

In the year 1775, Mr Samuel Crompton, of Bolton, completed his invention of the mule jenny, so called from its being in its structure and operation a compound of the spinning-frame, and of Hargreave's jenny. The mule was originally worked by the spinner's hand, but in the year 1792, Mr William Kelly of Glasgow, at that time manager of the Lanark mills, obtained a patent for moving it by' machinery; and although the undisputed inventor of the process, he allowed every one freely to avail himself of its advantages. A great object expected to be obtained by this improvement was, that, instead of employing men as spinners, which was indispensable when the machine was to be worked by the hand, children would be able to perform every office required. To give the means of accomplishing this, Mr Kelly's machinery was contrived so as to move every part of the mule, even to the returning of the carriage into its place, after the draught was finished. But after a short trial of this mode of spinning it was discovered that a greater amount of produce might be obtained, and at a cheaper rate, by taking back the men as spinners, and employing them to return the carriage as formerly, whilst the machine performed the other operations. In this way one man might spin two mules, the carriage of the one moving out during the time the spinner was engaged in returning the other. The process of mule-spinning continued to be conducted upon this plan until lately, when several proprietors of large cotton works restored that part of Mr Kelly's machinery which returns the carriage into its place after the draught is completed.

During the time that the machines for the different processes of cotton spinning were advancing towards perfection, Mr James Watt had applied his admirable improvements on the steam-engine to give motion to mill-work in general. His inventions for this end, besides the ingenuity and beauty of contrivance which they possess, have had an influence upon the circumstances of this country, and of mankind, far more important than that produced by any other mechanical discovery.

The foregoing application merely assisted the spinner in pushing in the carriage. To meet the more nice and difficult operations of winding the thread upon the spindle, and forming it into the proper shape of a cop, still devolved upon the spinner, and required persons of superior skill and dexterity. The wages of that class of workmen have been maintained at a higher range than in the generality of manufacturing employments. This high rate of wages has led to the contrivance of many expedients to lessen the cost of production in this process of the manufacture. About the year 1795, Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine, now one of the oldest practical spinners in Britain, and one of the earliest pupils of Arkwright, became connected with Messrs James Finlay and Company, of Glasgow, and engaged in refitting their works at Ballindalloch in Stirlingshire. Ha vng constructed very light mule jennies, he dispensed altogether with the employment of men as spinners, and trained young women to the work. These he found more easily directed than the men, more steady in attendance to their work, and more cleanly and tidy in the keeping of their machines, and contented with much smaller wages. That work has ever since been wrought by women, and they have always been remarkable for their stout healthy appearance, as well as for good looks, and extreme neatness of dress. Mr Buchanan having, in 1802, removed to the Catrine works, in the parish of Sorn, Ayrshire, then purchased by James Finlay and Company, carried some female spinners with him, and there introduced most successfully the same system as at Ballindalloch. This system has from time to time been partially adopted at other works in Scotland and England; but men are still most generally employed.

The men having formed a union for the protection of their trade, as they supposed, have from time to time annoyed their employers with vexatious interferences and restrictions, which have induced a great desire on the part of the masters to be able to dispense with their employment; and this has led to several attempts to invent a set of mechanism to perform all the operations hitherto performed by men or women, thereby forming a self-acting mule. Mr William Kelly was the first to patent a machine of this description in the year 1792, as has already been stated. About the same time, Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine Works, then at Deanston Works, in Perthshire, made an attempt to perfect a self-acting mule, but was not at that time successful. The next attempt was made by Mr Eaton of Derby, who took out a patent in 1815, and fitted up a flat of his mills in Manchester soon after. The mechanism being complicated, no practical spinners ventured to give the machine a trial.

In 1825, M. de Jonge, an ingenious French gentleman, who has been long resident in this country, contrived a machine of more simple construction, for which he obtained a patent. This he had in operation at Warrington in Lancashire, and in Yorkshire; but they have never made farther progress. The spinners of Manchester and neighbourhood having been much annoyed by the union of their spinners, applied to Messrs Sharp, Roberts, and Company, celebrated machine-makers, to allow their Mr Roberts, a man of great ingenuity, and of much skill and taste in mechanism, to endeavour to perfect a self-acting mule. This Mr Roberts undertook; and having devoted himself to the pursuit, succeeded, after several years of experiment, and at the expense of a large sum of money, (upwards, it is said, of L. 10,000,) in producing a machine which has been found to work well in the spinning of yarn, not exceeding forty hanks in the pound. In the construction of this machine there is a display of great ingenuity, skill, and taste, and it has been adopted to some extent by several extensive spinners. Still, however, there are objections to these machines, on account of the complexity and expense of the mechanism; and from the peculiar style of the movements, the machine is still liable to breakage, and to considerable tear and wear. About the year 1826, Mr Buchanan having to renew the mules at Catrine Works, resolved to attempt again a self-actor; and with some suggestions from his nephew, Mr James Smith of Deanston Works, and with much ingenuity and perseverance on his own part, he succeeded in contriving an effective machine. He has had his whole work in operation on this plan for six years past, and under his peculiar good management, the machines perform very well in low numbers. In 1820, Mr James Smith of Deanston Works had contrived and constructed the mechanism of a self-acting mule; but his attention having been required to other more extensive and important operations, he laid it aside, it is believed, without trial. In 1833, Mr Smith seeing the desire that existed for a simple and efficient self-acting mule, and more especially such as could be applied to the mules of various constructions at present in general use in the trade, set about contriving one; and, having made some progress, he came to hear of a very simple contrivance for facilitating the process of backing off (one of the most difficult to accomplish in a self-actor,) by John Robertson, an operative spinner, and foreman to Mr James Orr of Crofthead Mill, in Renfrew-shire. Robertson, through Mr Orr, obtained a patent for his invention, which consisted of other movements, rendering the mule completely self-acting. Mr Smith, struck with the simplicity and efficacy of his backing-off movement, which consists in stripping the coils from the spindles, entered into an arrangement with Mr Orr and Robertson, and having united the mechanism of his own patent with that of Robertson and Orr, they have now brought out a machine, which is considered to be more simple and effective, and more generally applicable to all mules, than any other yet brought before the trade, and it is believed it will soon be generally adopted.

The adoption of the self-acting mules will bring the business of spinning much more under the control of the master, and will aid much in enabling the spinners of Britain to maintain a successful competition against the cheap labour of other countries, who have less capital and less facilities for obtaining these improved machines, and less skill for their management, if obtained.

About six years ago, Mr Smith of Deanston Works, invented a very simple throstle for spinning water-twist yarn, in the form of a cop, intended to facilitate the manufacture of water-twist shirting. This machine works well, and the tension of the thread in spinning is maintained by the action of two fanner's slades or wings attached to the stem of a spindle, similar to a mule spindle, and on which the cop is built; and which, from the uniform and soft resistance of the air, gives a never-varying tension. But the most wonderful improvement in water-spinning was brought to this country from the United States in 1831, by Mr Alexander Carrick, a native of Glasgow, who then obtained a patent for the invention. The inventor, a mechanic of the name of Danforth, came with the machine to this country, and it has now obtained his name, being denominated the Danforth Throstle. This throstle has no flies. The twisting part consists of a dead or fast spindle, on which a socket of about five inches long is fitted to revolve, and on this the bobbin for receiving the thread being spun is placed. On the top of the spindle is placed a hollow cap of one and a-half to two inches diameter, which covers the bobbin; and the thread, passing from the roller to the bobbin, is revolved by the motion of the socket and bobbin round the outer surface of this cap; but the centrifugal force of the thread causes it to fly out from the cap, and the only point of contact is round the edge of the mouth of he cap, when the thread passes to the bobbin. From this, and the resistance of the air to the movement of the thread, the tension is derived, and is light and uniform. The spindle of.the common throstle cannot be driven to advantage above 4009 or 5000 revolutions in a minute, whilst the Danforth socket may be run with advantage at 8000 or 9000. This machine has been slowly getting into use, and suits to spin twist from tens to forties. The yarn has a medium character, betwixt water-twist and mule-twist. The power required to turn this machine is great, and the tear and wear of the machine considerable. Another American throstle (which, however, was invented in Scotland thirty years ago,) was introduced about four years ago, by Mr Montgomerie of Johnston. It consists of a long central spindle, embraced by a double-necked flur, and is said to work well, building the yarn in the form of a cop, or on a bobbin, as may be required. Several are at work about Glasgow. By these and other improvements in the various processes of cotton spinning, as much yarn can now be spun for 5s. of wages as cost L. 1 twenty-five years ago.

[In November 1831, Dr Cleland ascertained, that in 44 mills in Lanarkshire, for spinning cotton, there were 1344 spinners, 640,188 spindles, viz. 591,288 mules, and 48,900 throstics.

On 21st July 1834, the total number of persons employed in the cotton, woollen, flax, and silk mills in Scotland, was 46,825, of whom 13,721 (3799 males, and 9992 females) are between the ages of 13 and 18, and 6228 (2552 males, and 3676 females,) are under 13 years of age. There are few under 11. Their number, as stated in the returns, amounts to 1143; but that is not to be taken as the number now in the mills, some mill owners having discharged all under 11.—Factory Report, p. 7.]

In the year 1797, a new machine for cleaning cotton was invented by Mr Neil Snodgrass, now of Glasgow, and first used at Johnston, near Paisley, by Messrs Houston and Company. It is called a skutching or blowing machine. Its merits were not sufficiently known till 1808 or 1809, when it was introduced into Manchester. About that period it received some improvements from Mr Arkwright, and Mr Strutt, who applied a fanner to create a strong draft of air passing through a revolving wire sieve, whereby the dust and small flur separated from the cotton by the blows of the skutcher is carried off, and thrown into a chamber, where it is deposited, or into the open air out of doors; whilst the opened cotton is stopped by the sieve, and, arranging into a fleecy form of uniform thickness, passes by the revolution of the sieve to a roller, when it is wound up, to be carried to the carding-engine.

The most complete arrangement of this machine was made by Mr Buchanan of Catrine Works in 1817, whereby the whole processes of opening, cleaning, and lapping the cotton are performed at once by a series of four skutchers, each with a sieve. The rooms in which these machines work are as free of dust as a drawing-room; and this process, at one time the most disagreeable and unwholesome, is now quite the reverse; besides, the cotton being completely freed of the dust and fur, is more cleanly in all succeeding processes, much to the comfort of the workers, and the benefit of the work.

Little improvement was made in the carding-engine for many years. About 1812, however, a system of completing the carding process in one machine was introduced, and is now pretty generally adopted for numbers under fifties, and in some cases as high as eighties. In 1815, Mr Smith of Deanston Works, constructed a carding-engine, having the flats or tops moveable on hinges, and applied an apparatus for turning and cleaning the tops, which was the first self-topping engine; and with him the idea had originated. Two years after, Mr Buchanan arranged a more perfect machine, and had it adopted in all his water-twist mills. Some years after, he farther improved this apparatus, and obtained a patent. In 1829, Mr Smith again improved the topping apparatus, by substituting a chain of successive tops, and had them made of tin plate, to avoid warping. This .improvement, together with a neat and effective arrangement of cylinders, forming a compact single engine, he completed in 1833, and obtained a patent.

These engines occupy about half the space of the Oldham engine much used in England, make more perfect work, and will turn off nearly two pounds per inch of wire per day, for numbers from thirties to forties.

Some of the movements are extremely striking and beautiful. This machine gives promise of many advantages to the trade.

In the roving process some recent improvements have been introduced. About ten years ago, Mr Henry Houldsworth Junior of Glasgow, now of Manchester, contrived a beautiful differential motion for the winding in of the rovings on the spindle and fly machine, and obtained a patent. This improvement has got much into use. About the same time a very peculiar mode of roving was introduced from America, by the late Mr James Dunlop, and which was afterwards improved, and patented by Mr Dyer of Manchester. This machine is called the tube-machine, and has got much into use for the lower numbers of yarns. The rove coming from the drawing rollers, passes through a tube revolving at the rate of 5000 turns per minute, whereby a hard twist is thrown up to the rollers, and the roving being wound on a spool or bobbin at the opposite end of the tube, gives off all the twist, but from the compression and rubbing it has undergone, retains a round and compact form, and has sufficient tenacity to pull round the spool or bobbin, in being drawn into the spinning-machine. This machine is simple, goes at a great speed, and turns off a deal of work, but it has not yet been successfully applied to any numbers above forties.

There are now many splendid spinning establishments in and around Glasgow. Those of the Lanark Company, on the Clyde, about twenty miles from Glasgow, are the most extensive in one establishment; but the three establishments of Messrs James Finlay and Company of Glasgow, (of which Mr Kirkman Finlay is the head,) at Catrine, Deanston, and Ballindalloch, are the most extensive ones in the whole kingdom, and employ about 2400 hands in spinning, weaving, bleaching, &c.

In reviewing the various machines which have been invented for the cotton manufacture, the result terminates in this,—that one man can now spin as much cotton yarn in a given time as 200 could have done sixty years ago.

On the 21st of July 18:34, Mr Leonard Horner, one of the Parliamentary Factory Commissioners, reported, "That in Scotland there are 134 cotton-mills; that, with the exception of some large establishments at Aberdeen, and one at Stanley, near Perth, the cotton manufacture is almost entirely confined to Glasgow, and the country immediately adjoining, to a distance of about 25 miles radius; and all these country mills, even including the great work at Stanley, are connected with Glasgow houses, or in the Glasgow trade. In Lanarkshire, (in which Glasgow is situated,) there are 74 cotton factories; in Renfrewshire, 41; Dumbartonshire, 4; Buteshire, 2; Argyleshire, 1; Perthshire, 1. In these six counties, there are 123 cotton-mills," nearly 100 of which belong to Glasgow. The following statement, also from the Factory Commission Report, will give a pretty good idea of the amount of cotton trade in Glasgow:" In Lanarkshire, there are 74 cotton, 2 woollen, and 2 silk factories; 78 steam engines,

[Mr (afterwards Sir Richard) Arkwright obtained his patent for spinning cotton with rollers in 1769. Soon after this he erected his first mill at Nottingham, which he worked by horse-power. His second mill he erected at Cromford in Derbyshire in 1771, to which he gave motion by water. In 1785, Messrs Boulton

]

namely, 17, each of 50 horse power and upwards; 11 from 40 to 49 horse power; 9 from 30 to 39 horse power; 19 from 20 to 29 horse power; 20 from 10 to 19 horse power; 2 under 10 horse power. Water-wheels, 3, each of 50 horse power and upwards; 2 under 10 horse power. Total horse power, 2914; of which, steam, 2394, water, 520. Total persons employed in factories, 17,949; of this number, 13 years and under 18 years, 5047, viz. males, 1345; females, 3702; under 13 years, 1651, viz. males, 756; females, 895."

The increase of the cotton trade in Scotland may be seen by the following official statement of cotton-wool taken for the consumption of Scotland from 1818 till 1834.

Calico-printing has been the subject of modern improvement, which may be compared in importance with those in cotton-spinning; and most of these improvements have either originated or been matured and perfected in Lancashire. The old method of printing still continued—for certain parts of the work—was by blocks of sycamore, about ten inches long by five broad, on the surface of which the pattern was cut in relief, in the common method of wood-engraving. On the back of the block was a handle by which the workman held it: the surface was applied to a woollen cloth stretched over a vessel containing the colour, and in contact with that colour, so as to be saturated by it, and was then laid upon the piece of cloth, (there being wire points at the corners of the block to enable the workmen to apply it with exactness,) and struck with an iron mallet. Thus the figure was impressed upon the cloth, one colour only being used at once; and if other colours were required to complete the pattern, it was necessary to repeat the operation with different blocks. In order to produce more delicate patterns than could be engraved on wood, copper-plates were introduced in the neighbourhood of London, and the cloth was thus printed from flat plates, with the kind of press used in copper-plate printing. Each of these modes was tedious, as no more of the cloth could be printed at once than was covered with the wooden block or copper-plate; and a single piece of calico, twenty-eight yards in length, required the application of the block 448 times.

The grand improvement is the art of cylinder printing, which bears nearly the same relation in point of despatch to block-printing by hand as throstle or mule spinning bears to spinning by the one thread wheel.

This great invention is said to have been made by a. Scotchman of the name of Bell, and it was first successfully applied in Lancashire, about the year 1785, at Mosney, near Preston, by the house of Livesay, Hargreaves, Hall, and Company.

The chemical department of printing has not been less rich in discoveries than the mechanical. At the head of these stands the grand discovery of the properties of chlorine, and which are of important use in several stages and processes of printing, as well as in whitening the cloth. Whenever, in the course of printing, the calico is to be freed from stain or discoloration, the solution of chloride of lime is used; and by the aid of this powerful agent a rich chintz, which formerly required many weeks to print in the summer season, when it could be laid on the grass exposed to the air and sun, is now produced without ever going from under the roof of the factory, and almost in as many days.

It has been remarked, that cotton fabrics are very rarely dyed of a uniform colour. Sometimes a flower, stripe, or other figure, is printed on a white ground; and at other times the pattern only is white, and the rest of the cloth dyed. The proper use of mordants lies at the foundation of the dyer's art. The nature of mordants is thus explained by Dr Thomson:

"The term mordant is applied by dyers to certain substances with which the cloth to be dyed must be impregnated, otherwise the colouring matters would not adhere to the cloth, but would be removed by washing. Thus the red colour given to cotton by madder would not be fixed, unless the cloth were previously steeped in a solution of a salt alumina. It has been ascertained that the cloth has the property of decomposing the salt of alumina, and of combining with and retaining a portion of alumina. The red colouring principle of the madder has an affinity for this alumina, and combines with it. The consequence is, that the alumina being firmly retained by the cloth, and the colouring matter by the alumina, the dye becomes fast, or cannot be removed by washing the cloth with water, even by the assistance of soap, though simple water is sufficient to remove the red colouring matter from the cloth, unless the alum mordant (from the Latin word mordeo, to bite,) was applied to these substances by the French writers on dyeing, from a notion entertained by them, that the action of the mordants was mechanical; that they were of a corrosive or biting nature, and served merely to open pores in the fibres of the cloth, into which the colouring matter might insinuate itself. And after the inaccuracy of this notion was discovered, and the real use of mordants ascertained, the term was still continued as sufficiently appropriate, or rather, a proper name without any allusion to its original signification. The term mordant, however, is not limited to those substances merely which serve, like alumina, to fix the colours. It is applied also to certain substances which have the property of altering the shade of colour, or of brightening the colour as it is called."

The art of dyeing the fine red, called Turkey or Adrianople red, on thread or yarn, has long been practised in the Levant, and subsequently in Europe. About forty years ago, it was introduced in Glasgow by M. Papillon, a Frenchman, who established a dye-work with Mr George Macintosh, and this city-has ever since been famous for dyeing Turkey red.

The art of giving this colour to cloth was unknown till the year 1810, when it was first practised by M. Daniel Kocchlin of Mulhausen, in Alsace. The discovery, which has immortalized the name of this gentleman in the annals of calico-printing, was made the following year. It consists in printing upon Turkey red, or any dyed colour, some powerful acid, and then immersing the cloth in a solution of chloride of lime. Neither of these agents singly and alone affects the colour; but those parts which have received the acid, on being plunged in chloride of lime, are speedily deprived of their dye, and made white by the acid of the liberated chlorine. This is one of the most beautiful facts in the chemistry of calico-printing.

For this process, a patent was obtained in this country by Mr James Thomson of Primrose, near Clitheroe, in the year 1813; and the same gentleman, in 1816, took out a second patent for a very useful and happy modification of the principle of the former one, namely, for combining with the acid some mordant, or metallic oxide, capable, after the dyed colour was removed, of having imparted to it some other colour. This laid the foundation of that series of processes, in which the chromic acid and its combinations have since been employed with such great success.

Progress of the Power-Loom.—The power-loom was introduced into Glasgow in the year 1793, by Mr James Lewis Robertson of Dumblane. It was invented by the Rev. Dr Cartwright of Don- caster, and was patented by him in 1774. About 1789 or 1790, a number of these looms were fitted up in the hulks, to employ the convicts. They were driven in a manner similar to the inkle-loom, of which, indeed, the whole machine was a modification. Mr Robertson having been in London in 1792 or 1793, bought a couple of the looms from the hulks, and brought them to Glasgow, when they were fitted up, and wrought in a cellar in Argyle Street. He removed the driving-bar, and employed a large Newfoundland dog, walking in a drum or cylinder, to drive the looms. He had an ingenious old man, William Whyte, from Denny, to manage the looms; and, by a son-in-law of this man's, the design of the looms was communicated to a bleaching and calico-printing establishment at Milton, near Dumbarton, in 1794, where about forty looms were fitted up there for weaving calicoes for printing. In 1801, Mr John Monteith of Glasgow got a pair of looms from Milton, and, in the course of two years afterwards, had 200 looms at work in a portion of his spinning establishment at Pollockshaws, near Glasgow. In 1803, Mr Thomas Johnston of Bradbury, Cheshire, invented a very beautiful and useful machine for warping and dressing warps; and sometime after, Messrs Radcliffe and Ross of Stockport improved the dressing-machine, and obtained a patent for these improvements. This machine they also employed in dressing webs to be woven on hand-looms by boys and girls. In 1804, Mr Monteith prevailed upon Mr Archibald Buchanan of Catrine to take a pair of looms from him, urging him to improve the machine. Mr Buchanan worked these looms for a year, with a view to obtain experience on the subject; and finding the annoyance of dressing the web in the loom great; he set about contriving a dressing-machine. In this machine he used cylindrical brushes, and succeeded at that time pretty well; but from the obstinacy of the person engaged to work the machine, and his own want of knowledge in the art of dressing, he was led to abandon it. He then invented a remarkably neat and effective loom, and in 1806 proceeded to fill a large room with them, and again applied himself to contrive a dressing-machine; he abandoned the cylindrical brushes, and adopted parallel moving ones, similar to those of Radcliff and Ross; and after much experiment with various success, and by the exercise of much ingenuity, and perseverance, he succeeded in effecting a complete machine, and rapidly extending his looms, with the necessary dressing-machines. In the year 1807, lie had the first complete -work in Britain, in which warping, dressing, and weaving by power, were uniformly carried on; and it may be said that from this establishment emanated the power-loom weaving of Britain.

When Mr Buchanan first began the power-loom, from seventy to eighty shots or picks per minute were considered as great speed; but, from improvements since introduced by Mr Buchanan and others, a speed of a hundred and forty shots per minute is now obtained. About this time, Messrs Foster and Corbet of Glasgow, and the Messrs Crums at Thornlie Bank, began to use power-looms. About the same time, Mr Peter Mansland of Stockport was the first to introduce the power-loom into England on a practical scale. In 1808, power-looms were begun at Deanston; and there, in 1809, tweels, and in 1810, checks were first woven on power-looms. In 1818 or 1819, Mr William Perry of Glasgow began the weaving of figured goods; and some time since, lappets were woven by the Messrs Reids of Anderston, Glasgow. The Messrs King were the first persons celebrated for weaving strong shirting, and domestics; and the Messrs Somerville and Sons have recently introduced extensively a very superior manufacture of furniture stripes and checks, and an infinite variety of similar goods for women's dresses, shirting, &c. at their new and splendid works in Hutchesontown, Glasgow. Mr William Dunn of Duntocher, the most extensive and successful spinner in Scotland, as an individual, has upwards of 600 looms, upon which he executes various very beautiful plain fabrics. The power-loom is daily extending into new fields of manufacture, and it is evident that it will ultimately be the only means of weaving, excepting for fabrics of.very complex patterns.

Steam-looms have increased greatly of late years. In August 1831, the Lancefield Spinning Company employed 635 looms; and Messrs Johnston and Galbraith, James Finlay and Company, and William Dunn, 2405. These looms on an average weave fourteen yards each per day. Allowing each loom to work 300 days in a year, these four companies would throw off 10,101,000 yards of cloth, which, at the average price of 42d. per yard, is L. 189,393, 15s. per annum. The power and hand-looms belonging to Glasgow amount to 47,127, viz. steam-looms, 15,127, hand-looms in the city and suburbs, 18,537; in other towns for Glasgow manufacturers, 13,463.

The extension of the use of the power-loom has for the last twenty years borne hard upon the poor hand-loom weavers, who have long suffered from low wages with exemplary patience. The evil was at first aggravated by a natural cause. When the weaver found difficulty in making wages to support his family, the only apparent remedy was to get looms for his children, girls as well as boys, and to set them to work also. This, when work was to be had, helped the individual's family, but it brought so much more weaving labour into operation in the trade previously overstocked, that the evil was increased, and every succeeding year the prices of weaving became lower. Many attempts have been made by the hand-loom weavers to have their prices regulated by act of Parliament, or Board of Trade; and in this they have occasionally been aided by some well-meaning men of rank and influence, but, as might have been expected, without the least success. For why fix the wages or prices of the hand-loom weavers, whilst those of the mason, joiner, farm-servant, &c. are left to be adjusted by the constantly operating natural causes springing from demand and supply? If the prices of weaving were fixed, whenever a period of stagnation arrived, the manufacturers would either get weavers to do their work at lower prices clandestinely, or they would cease to manufacture at all, thereby throwing a great proportion of the weavers completely idle. Besides, the hand-weavers had a long period of high wages, averaging far above the rates paid for labour in other more laborious and skilful professions. This arose from the rapid extension of their trade; and now, in its decline, they must be contented with the lower rate of wages, until their superabundant labour is absorbed by other trades in a state of advancement. This process has been slowly going on within the last few years, and the wages of hand-loom labour are now rather advancing. During the rise of hand-loom weaving in the west of Scotland, the high wages and constant excitement applied by rival manufacturers, and their agents, led to much dissipation, especially among the . younger men, and the bulk of the class became prone to dissolute habits; still, however, many well educated, intelligent, and decent men were to be found amongst them; now the bulk of the class are sober, frugal, intelligent men, which shows that high wages neither lead to decency nor intelligence,—the sure basis of happiness. It has invariably happened in this manufacturing community, that, when any class of operatives obtained for a time wages much above the other classes, they have in general become dissipated, and they are found living in more miserable ill-furnished dwellings, than those having the very lowest rates of wages. Various expedients have from time to time been resorted to by several of the trades, with a view to raise or maintain their wages, such as long apprenticeships, heavy fees, and the like; and of late, trades unions have been much in vogue, many of them having rules and practices surpassing the closest corporations, and outvieing the fiercest tyranny of the darkest ages; and it is strange, that, although these unions have in most of the trades been successively overthrown, still new unions urge the hopeless combat.

It bespeaks deplorable ignorance in the mass of the operatives, who have so allowed themselves to be led by a few designing and selfish knaves; and submit to be urged by the violent wrong-headed fools of their order,—a class to he found in all communities. That the schoolmaster has been successfully abroad, there can be no doubt; and that the working-classes are becoming more intelligent, every good man must observe with delight; but they are as yet in the transition state, at the point when a "little learning is a dangerous thing." They are like raw recruits with good weapons in their hands, more likely to wound their neighbours, or themselves, than to make a successful assault on the enemy. Before they can be called intelligent, or find themselves truly powerful, they must dip deeper into the pure science of morals, economy, and politics, which they can only accomplish by reading less of the base and selfish ravings of a particular description of the periodical press; and more of those solid works which calmly, deliberate-
ly, and honestly, treat. of the great principles of human nature, and the essential conventional laws of human society. Great improvement has taken place during the last fifty years in the manners, habits, and intelligence of the middle classes, and there is nothing
in the moral or physical circumstances of the working-classes to prevent their making a -similar progress, and to their attaining as high a point in the scale of intelligence and moral worth. Even now we find many who have attained both, though in the humblest
ranks. Amidst their labours they have quite as much time for reading as the -generality of men in the middle classes, and it wants but a resolution, a fashion amongst them, to lead to the happy results.

It is the duty, as it is the interest, of all masters, and all ministers of religion, and of all good men who are worthy the appellation, to promote within their own sphere, by kindly, free, and frequent discourse, as. well as by pecuniary arrangement, the consummation and progress of this most desirable object.

[The following note is from the history of the cotton manufacture of Great Britain, just published, by Mr Edward Baines Jun. of Leeds, a work distinguished for great talent and research,—a work which contains more useful information respecting the cotton trade than is to be found in any other,—a work which should be in the hands of all those who desire a knowledge of that trade which has tended to raise their country so high in the scale of nations.

"The cotton manufacture of England presents a spectacle unparalleled in the annals of industry, whether we regard the suddenness of its growth, the magnitude which it has attained, or the wonderful inventions to which its progress is to be ascribed. Within the memory of many now living, those machines have been brought into use which have made so great a revolution in manufactures, as the art of printing effected in literature. Within the same period, the cotton manufacture of this country has sprung up from insignificance, and has attained a greater extent than the manufactures of wool and linen combined, though these have existed for centuries,"

"Sixty years since, our manufacturers consumed little more than THREE MILLION POUNDS of raw cotton annually, the annual consumption is now TWO HUNDRED AND EIGHTY MILLION POUND. In 1750, the county of Lancaster, the chief seat of the trade, had a po. pulation of only 297,400, in 1831, the number of its inhabitants had swelled to 1,336,854. A similar increase has taken place in Lanarkshire, the principal seat of the manufacture in Scotland. The families supported by this branch of industry are estimated to comprise A MILLION AND A-HALF Of individuals; and the goods produced, not only furnish a large part of the clothing consumed in this kingdom, but supply nearly one-half of the immense export trade of Britain, find their way into all the markets of the world, and are even destroying in the Indian market, the competition of the ancient manufacture of India itself, the native country of the raw material, and the earliest seat of the art."

"The causes of this unexampled extension of manufacturing industry are to be found in a series of splendid inventions and discoveries, by, the combined effect of which, a spinner now produces as much.yarn in a day, as by the old processes he could have produced in a year, and cloth which formerly required six or eight months to bleach, is now bleached in a few hours."]

Glasgow was the first place in Britain where inkle wares were manufactured. In 1732, Mr Alexander Harvey, at the risk of his life, brought away from Haerlem, two inkle-looms and a workman, and was thereby enabled to introduce the manufacture of the article into this city. Soon after this, the Dutchman, considering himself as ill-used by his employer, left Glasgow in disgust, and communicated his art to Manchester.

The manufacture of green bottles in Glasgow was introduced, and the first bottle-house erected on the site of the present Jamaica Street Bottle-house, in 1730.

It does not appear that the art of turret bell making was practised in Glasgow till 1735. It was not, however till 1813, when Messrs Stephen Miller and Company made the bell for the steeple of the Gorbals church, that large turret bells were made in Glasgow. Since that period they have made a great number, which are equal in quality and tone to any that ever came from Holland. In the steeple at the cross, there are twenty-eight bells, denominated chimes, diminishing from five feet three inches, to one foot six inches in circumference. The greater part of them have this inscription. "Tuned by Arniston and Cummin, .28 bells for Glasgow, 1735."

In 1742, Messrs Ingram and Company fitted up a printfield at Pollockshaws. - The first delft manufactory in Scotland was begun in Delftfield near the Broomielaw, in 1748. Mr Laurence Dinwiddie, formerly Provost, and his brother, Governor Dinwiddie, were two of the first partners.

The first shoe-shop in Glasgow was opened in 1749 by Mr William Colquhoun; and in 1773, Mr George Macintosh, employing at that time upwards of 300 shoemakers for the home and export trade, had his shoe-shop in King Street. Mr Macintosh had also an agent in Edinburgh, where he employed a number of workmen. At the same period the Glasgow tan-work company employed nearly 300 shoemakers, and to these two houses, the whole export of shoes was confined.

The haberdashery business was first introduced into Glasgow about 1750, by Mr Andrew Lockhart. But although Mr Lockhart was the first person who commenced the haberdashery business in this city, it was not till the autumn of 1787 that it was carried on to any considerable extent. At that period, Mr J. Ross of Carlisle, opened a shop in Spreull's new "land," and gave the haberdashery business a tone which it had never reached before in this city. Soon afterwards two of his shopmen, under the firm of Grey and Laurie, commenced business with an extensive stock of goods; and the haberdashery business has rapidly increased in this city since that time.

Mr John Blair and Mr James Inglis were the first persons who had front shops for the sale of hats in this city. The shops were both opened in 1756, the former in the Salt Market, and the latter in the Bridgegate.

The business of silversmith is of considerable. standing in Glasgow. Mr James Glen, who was a magistrate in 1754, succeeded Mr Robert Luke. When the latter first opened a shop, the trade was but little known in the west of Scotland. In 1775, when Mr Robert Gray, of Blairbeth, commenced business, the following persons had silversmiths' shops here: Messrs Milne and Campbell, William Napier, David Warnock, Napier and Bain, James M'Ewan, and Adam Graham. In 1775, the assortment of plate was inconsiderable; but in 1835, there are shops in Glasgow, which would be considered as valuable in Fleet Street, and elegant in Bond Street. It is not easy to ascertain when the first woollen-draper's shop was opened in Glasgow. In 1761, when Mr Patrick Ewing entered into the trade, it was very limited.

The Iron Trade.—Although the cotton manufacture has been the staple trade of Glasgow and neighbourhood for a long period, the iron manufacture in its various branches would appear to be the one which nature points out as likely to furnish the most advantageous employment of the labour and capital of the district, from the inexhaustible stores of the materials for the making of iron with which it abounds. The local situation of Glasgow, too, is peculiarly favourable for the cheap conveyance of the bulky and heavy articles of this manufacture to every quarter of the world. The city is about equidistant from the Atlantic and German seas, and not more than twenty-six miles from either, communicating with the one by the river Clyde, navigable by vessels drawing thirteen feet water, and with the other by the Forth and Clyde Canal, navigable by vessels also drawing about thirteen feet water. It stands at the western extremity of the district known by the designation of the Basin of the Clyde, and which, stretching eastward for about twenty-six miles, and of considerable breadth, is one uninterrupted field of coal, interspersed with bands of rich black ironstone. Into this mineral field the Monkland Canal penetrates twelve miles, having its western extremity at Glasgow, communicating there with the Forth and Clyde Canal, into which it is introduced. On a parallel line with this water conveyance there is the Garnkirk and Airdrie Railway, on a part of which locomotive engines were introduced on the 2d July 1831. The Garion-Gill Railway, which is to be connected with the Garnkirk and Airdrie Railway, and with the Monkland Canal, will carry the communication with the mineral field eight miles farther, and it is expected that the great coal field at Coltness will soon be opened up. With these advantages for obtaining the materials and sending the manufactured article to market, Glasgow must become the seat of a great iron manufacture. She has already large establishments for the manufacture of steam-engines and machinery, and for making the machines employed in the processes of cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, and wool-spinning. In these works every thing belonging to or connected with the mill-wright or engineer departments of the manufacture, is also fabricated. Having these important and valuable portions of the manufacture already established, and with the advantages which the district possesses for carrying on the trade, there is every reason to expect its rapid growth, and its extension to every article of iron manufacture.

Neilson's Patent Hot-Blast.—An improvement of national importance has lately taken place in the making of iron, of which the following is a description. Mr James B. Neilson, engineer in this city, obtained patents in this country and France, for an improvement in the manufacture of iron, which he designated a Hot-Blast. The patentee drew up a description of this improvement, of which the following is an abridgement:

In 1824, an iron-maker asked Mr Neilson if he thought it possible to purify the air blown into blast furnaces in a manner similar to that in which carburetted hydrogen gas is purified; and from this conversation Mr Neilson perceived, that he imagined the presence of sulphur in the air to be the cause of blast-furnaces working irregularly, and making bad iron in the summer months. Subsequently to this conversation, which had in some measure directed his thoughts to the subject of blast-furnaces, he received information, that one of the Muirkirk iron-furnaces, situated at a considerable distance from the engine, did not work so well as the others; which led him to conjecture, that the friction of the air, in passing along the pipe, prevented an equal volume of the air getting to the distant furnace, with that which reached to the one situated close by the engine; and he at once came to the conclusion, that, by heating the air at the distant furnace, he should increase its volume in the ratio of the known law according to which air and gases expand. Thus, if 1000 cubic feet, say at 500 of Fahrenheit, were pressed by the engine in a given time, and heated to 600° of Fahrenheit, it would then be increased in volume to 2.1044, and so on for every thousand feet that would be blown into the furnace. In prosecuting the experiments which this idea suggested, circumstances, however, convinced him, that heating the air introduced for supporting combustion into air-furnaces would materially increase its efficacy in this respect; and, with the view of putting his suspicions on this point to the test, he instituted the following experiments: To the nozle of a pair of common smith's bellows he attached a cast-iron vessel heated from beneath in the manner of a retort for generating gas, and to this vessel the blowpipe by which the forge or furnace was blown was also attached. The air from the bellows having thus to pass through the heated vessel above-mentioned, was consequently heated to a high temperature before it entered the forge fire, and the result produced in increasing the intensity of the heat in the furnace was far beyond his expectation, whilst it made apparent the fallacy of the generally received theory, that the coldness of the air of the atmosphere in the winter months was the cause of the best iron being then produced. But in overthrowing the old theory, he had also established new principles and facts, in the process of iron-making; and by the advice and assistance of Mfr Charles Macintosh of Cross-basket, he applied for, and obtained, a patent, as the reward of his discovery and improvement.

Experiments on the large scale to reduce iron ore in a founder's cupola were forthwith commenced at the Clyde Iron Works, belonging to Mr Colin Dunlop, M. P. and were completely successful, in consequence of which, the invention of Mr Neilson was immediately adopted at the Calder Iron-Works, the property of Mr William Dixon, where the blast, by being made to pass through two retorts, placed on each side of one of the large furnaces, before entering the furnace, effected an instantaneous change, both in the quantity and quality of iron produced; and a considerable saving of fuel. The whole of the furnaces at Calder and Clyde Iron-Works were in consequence immediately fitted up on the principle of the hot-blast, and its use at these works continues to be attended with the utmost success. It has also been adopted at Wilsontown and Gartsherrie Works in Scotland, and at several works in England and France. The air, at first raised to 250° of Fahrenheit, produced a saving of three-sevenths of fuel in every ton of pig-iron made; and the heating apparatus having since been enlarged, so as to increase the temperature of the blast to 600° of Fahrenheit, and upwards, a proportionate saving of fuel is effected, and an immense additional saving is also acquired by the use of raw coal instead of coke, which may now be adopted by thus increasing the heat of the blast, the whole waste incurred in burning the coal into coke being thus also avoided in the process of iron-making. By the use of this invention, with three-sevenths of the fuel which he formerly employed in the cold air process, the iron-maker is now enabled to make one-third more iron of a superior quality. Were the hot-blast generally adopted, the saving to the country in the article of coal would be immense. In Britain about 700,000 tons of iron are made annually, of which 55,500 tons only are produced in Scotland. On these 55,500 tons his invention would save, in the process of manufacture, 222,000 tons of coal annually. In England the saving would be in proportion to the strength and quality of the coal, and cannot be computed at less than 1,320,000 tons annually, and taking the price of coals at the low rate of 4s. per ton, a yearly saving of L. 308,400 Sterling would be effected. Nor are the advantages of this invention solely confined to iron-making. By its use, the founder can cast into goods an equal quantity of iron in greatly less time, and with a saving of nearly half the fuel employed in the cold air process; and the blacksmith can produce in the same time one-third more work, with much less fuel than he formerly required. In all the processes of metallurgical science, it will be found of the utmost importance in reducing the ores to a metallic state.

• Exclusive of the above furnaces, there were in preparation in June 1833, six additional, viz three at Gartsherrie; one at Monkland; one at Calder; and one at Dundyvan. These six furnaces will make 13,000 tons of iron annually.

These works are all in the neighbourhood of Glasgow excepting five, and none of them are thirty miles distant from that city. Previously to the use of Neilson's hot-blast, 6000 tons of iron were made at Clyde Iron-Works in a year. In the formation of each ton of iron, eight tons of coal, and fifteen cwt. of limestone were required. In 1833, when the hot-blast was applied, the same steam-engine made 12,500 tons of iron, each ton requiring only three tons of coal, and eight cwt. of limestone. The whole of the above iron-works are using the hot-blast in all their furnaces, excepting the Carron Company, who have only yet taken out a license for one of their furnaces. The license is at the rate of is. per ton. The best coal for making iron at the above works does not average above 4s. per ton.

Supply of Coals in Glasgow.—In 1831, Dr Cleland ascertained from coal-masters and authentic documents, that the supply of coals came from thirty-seven coal pits ; that the quantity brought to Glasgow was 561,049 tons, and of that quantity 124,000 were exported, thereby leaving 437,049 tons for the use of families, and public works, in the city and suburbs. The additional consumption since the above statement was made, may be fairly estimated at ten per cent. on the home consumption, and five per cent. on the export, which makes the quantity brought to Glasgow in 1835 amount to 610,953 tons. The following is the average prices of coals delivered in quantities in Glasgow, during a period of eight years.

There has been no variation in the price of coals from 1828 to 1835. The best hard splint is laid down at the steam-boat quay at 6s. 3d. per ton.

In 1835, Cannel coal from Lesmahagow, for the formation of gas, is laid down at the gas works at 16s. per ton; ditto from pits in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, 10s. 6d. per ton; average on the quantity used, 14s. per ton.

The manufacture of flint-glass or crystal was introduced here by Messrs Cookson and Company of Newcastle in 1777, and is now carried on to a very considerable extent. Soon after that period, a number of chemical works were erected in the neighbourhood of this city. The Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures was instituted here in 1783, under the auspices of Mr Patrick Colquhoun, at that time an eminent merchant in Glasgow. Pullicate hankerchiefs were begun to be made about the year 1785.

The business of a regular distiller is but of recent date in Scotland. Mr William Menzies of Gorbals, Glasgow, was the first person in the west of Scotland who had a licensed still. He opened his distillery in Kirk Street in 1786, and his license was the fourth in Scotland; the houses of Messrs Stein, Haig, and another, having alone preceded him. At that period, the duties amounted to about one penny per gallon, and the best malt spirit was sold at 3s. per gallon.

In 1800, Messrs Tennant, Knox, and Company, established a chemical work at St Rollox; now carried on under the firm of Charles Tennant and Company, for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, chloride of lime, soda, and soap. This manufactory, the most extensive of any of the kind in Europe, covers ten acres of ground, and within its walls there are buildings which cover 27,340 square yards of ground. In the premises, there are upwards of 100 furnaces, retorts, or fire-places. In one apartment there are platina vessels to the value of L. 7000. In this great concern, upwards of 600 tons of coal are consumed weekly.

Messrs Henry Monteith, Bogle, and Company, established a manufactory for bandana handkerchiefs in 1802, now carried on under the firm of Henry Monteith and Company. This respectable firm also carry on the business of cotton-spinning and calico-printing. Their establishment at Blantyre is most extensive; while their splendid works at Barrowfield are probably unequalled in the kingdom. With the exception of an attempt on the continent, which proved unsuccessful, the manufacture of bandanas has been chiefly confined to this city. The manufacture of silk is but in its infancy here; but the throwing and other departments of the trade bid fair for prosperity.

Gas-Light Company.—A company for lighting Glasgow with gas was incorporated by act of Parliament in 1817, with a capital of L. 40,000, which has been increased from time to time to L. 150,000. The first street lamp was lighted with gas on the 5th September 1818.

The works are on a large scale, and, including subsidiary establishments in different parts of the town, occupy an area of 14,&31 square yards. The principal establishment now forms a square, of which one side is occupied by retorts, condensers, and other apparatus; and round the other three are ranged sheds, under which cannel coals are stored, to preserve them from moisture. These sheds are calculated to contain 6000 tons ; and to show at any time how much coal is on hand, they are divided into compartments, each containing a certain known quantity. The company have at present 152 retorts, each capable of making 5000 cubic feet of gas in twenty-four hours. Of these, 105 are required in winter, and 30 in summer. The gas holders are of a very large size, and are 8 in number, viz. 4 at the works, and 4 in different parts of the town. By this arrangement, the pressure of gas is equalised in all portions of the city and suburbs. Cast-iron pipes to convey the gas are laid on both sides of the streets, under the foot. pavements, so as not to interfere with the water pipes, and extend to more than 110 miles in length. In generating gas for the supply of Glasgow, upwards of 9000 tons of coals are annually consumed. The coke which remains after extracting gas from cannel coal, and the tar deposited on the cooling of the gas, are used for heating the retorts, and are found to be very economical fuel. Nor is the tar the only one of the liquid products that is turned to profitable account. The ammoniacal water is sold to be used in making cudbear dye, and the naphtha, in dissolving caoutchouc, for manufacturing water-proof cloth. The solution of lime, after having been employed for purifying the gas, is allowed to stand until the heavier part is precipitated; this is then collected and sold for manure, and the liquor which remains (none of the gas-work refuse is allowed to run into the common sewers of the city) is evaporated under the great bars of the retort furnace, thereby increasing the draught, and, consequently, the intensity of the fire.

As at other establishments, the gas is purified with lime ; but in addition to this process, it is made to pass through a solution of sulphate of iron, by which it is very much improved in purity. After being purified, it passes through a metre of a very large size, made by Mr Crosley of London, the patentee. Here the gas manufactured is measured, and by a beautiful contrivance, called a tell-tale, which acts by the combined motions of the metre on a common clock, the quantity passing through each hour of the day or night is registered; and the extent of any irregularity in the workmen, as well as the time at which it happened, is at once detected. The company have been peculiarly fortunate in procuring the services of Mr James B. Neilson, engineer, patentee of the iron hot-blast. To the scientific attainments of this distinguished manager, the company are chiefly indebted for their uncommon success, and for the most perfect and beautiful establishment of the kind in the kingdom.

In May 1835, the directors of the Gas Company drew up, printed, and circulated a short history of their affairs, of which the following is an abstract. In the act of 1825, the company became bound that the dividends should not exceed 10 per cent. on their stock per annum. From the commencement of the undertaking, they supplied the city and suburbs of Glasgow with gas, at prices below what were charged in any other city in the empire.

In 1818, the period at which the lighting of the city commenced, the charge for a single jet to eight o'clock was 12s. per annum. Since that period, the company have been enabled to make four successive reductions of the rates. In 1819, they reduced the rates L. 1800 per annum; in 1822, L. 1200; in 1830, L. 2300; and in 1833, L. 1600. The charge for a single jet lighted to eight o'clock, is now reduced to 6s. 6d. per annum. The aggregate amount of the rates paid by the consumers in 1835 is L. 30,000, and the number of payers about 10,000.

Chemical Works.—The process for dyeing Turkey or Adrianople red, was first introduced into Britain by Mr George Macintosh, at a dye-house which he established at Glasgow. The immense importance since attained by this branch of commerce in Britain owes its origin entirely to this circumstance.

Mr George Macintosh also commenced the manufacture of the dye stuff called cudbear, in Glasgow. This is a modification of the Florentine manufacture of orcella, or orseille, and is still carried on, on a large scale, by Mr Charles Macintosh, the son of the first named gentleman.

In the year 1786, Mr Charles Macintosh introduced from Holland, the manufacture of sugar of lead, sacclaarum saturni, or acetate of lead. This article had previously been obtained by importation from Holland; but in the course of a very short time, this state of matters was reversed, by Mr Macintosh exporting the article in considerable quantities to Rotterdam, the place from which a knowledge of the manufacture was first obtained. Independent of its use in medicine, sugar of lead is employed on the large scale in calico-printing, in the formation of the mordant called red colour liquor; in which process a double chemical decomposition is effected by the addition of the acetate of lead, to an aqueous solution of alum (sulphate of alumina.) Sulphate of lead is thus precipitated, whilst acetate of alumina, constituting the mordant, remains in solution. About 1789, Mr Macintosh modified this process by the substitution of acetate of lime, instead of acetate of lead. A similar decomposition, affording acetate of alumina in solution, in this instance takes place. By this process the selling price of the red colour liquor became lowered from three shillings per gallon, to sixpence, and under, per gallon. This process was never patented, and as it speedily became appropriated by others, the inventor derived scarcely any advantage from it. Many thousand pounds Sterling were annually expended on malt and barley, in the manufacture of sacc1 arum saturni, at Glasgow, between the year 1786, the period of the first introduction of the manufacture, and 1820, when pyroligneous acid prepared from wood was substituted for the malt vinegar, previously employed in this process.

In 1793, Mr Charles Macintosh introduced at Pollockshaws, numerous and important improvements in the art of dyeing fancy muslins, and in 1795, he established the first alum-work erected in Scotland, at Hurlet, in Renfrewshire, about six miles from Glasgow. Two other alum-works at Campsie, and in the parish of Baldernock in Stirlingshire, were shortly after established through his intervention, which works now yield an annual supply of 2000 tons of alum. The decomposed aluminous schistus found in the coal wastes is the material employed at these places in the manufacture of alum, —the price of which has been reduced from L. 25 per ton, at which it was when these works were established, to LC 12 and under per ton. Remarks upon the influence exerted by this cause, on the various branches of dyeing, calico-printing, tanning, and papermaking,—in all of which the use of alum is indispensable,--would be superfluous.

In 1799, Mr Charles Macintosh prepared for the first. time chloride of lime, in the dry form, which has since been denominated bleaching salt, or bleaching powder. This process he patented, and its manufacture, on a large scale, was carried on by Mr Macintosh and Mr Charles Tennant of St Rollox for many years. Mr Tennant had previously obtained a patent for the preparation of chloride of lime in the liquid state, denominated bleaching liquor, of which he was the inventor. The immense chemical works at St Rollox, since conducted on a scale of such magnitude and perfection by Mr Tennant, originated in this partnership.

In 1808, Mr Charles Macintosh established at the alum-works at Campsie, the manufacture of Prussian blue, triple-prussiate of potass, and iron or ferro-prussiate of potash. Soon afterwards he applied, for the first time, for the purpose of dyeing woollen, silk, and cotton, the salt termed triple-prussiate of potash, or hydro-ferrocyanic acid. This salt had only previously been known as a chemical reagent, prepared from Prussian blue, and selling at from 5s. to 6s. per ounce. Its use as a dye stuff', in substitution for indigo, is now universal over Europe; the price being reduced to about 2d. per ounce, or 2s. 6d. per pound. This substance is procured from the horns and hoofs of animals, as also the waste parings and clippings of horns and whalebone; and for these substances, and pot and pearl ashes, also employed in the process, a great annual outlay takes place.

The process for rendering fabrics of silk, woollen, cotton, or linen, waterproof, by means of a layer of caoutchouc, or Indian rubber, previously rendered liquid by solution in naphtha, being introduced between two separate pieces of cloth, which are subsequently thus made to adhere perfectly and permanently together by pressure, is also the invention of Mr Charles Macintosh. He for some time carried on the manufactory of these articles at Glasgow; but some time ago the business was transferred to Manchester. Mr Macintosh obtained a patent for this process. Previous to the introduction of this manufacture, the importation of caoutchouc into Britain was merely trifling,—its use being limited almost entirely to, stationary purposes; now it is imported in large quantities ; and, in order to supply the demand for it, it is understood, that the proprietors of several West India estates are planting for cultivation, the different species of Irtropha elastica and Urceola elastica, from which it is procured in the state of a milky juice, which coagulates on exposure to the atmosphere.

The process for converting iron into steel, by submitting it, inclosed in close vessels, to the action of carburetted hydrogen gas, is also the invention of Mr Charles Macintosh. This is also a patent process.

In 1823, the Royal Society of London marked their sense of Mr Charles Macintosh's services in the cause of science, by electing him a Fellow.

The calico-printing works of Messrs James and John Kibble and Company of Glasgow, on the banks of the Leven, are allowed to be the most complete of any in the kingdom.

Cashmere Yarn.—In 1830, the weaving of Cashmere shawls in this, country had become so important a branch of trade, as to induce the Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures in Scotland to offer a premium of L. 300 Sterling to the first person who should establish the spinning of Cashmere wool upon the French principle in this country. Up to that time the French had exclusively enjoyed the advantages of that trade ; and all Cashmere yarns used in this country in the manufacture of shawls and other fabrics had t.o be imported from France. The offer of this handsome premium, together with the other advantages which the carrying on of the trade held out, induced Captain Charles Stuart Cochrane, of the Royal Navy, to attempt, whilst in Paris, to find out the secret of this manufacture, which, after many difficulties and much delay, he at last accomplished ; and, in 1831, he took out patents for the introduction of this kind of spinning to the three kingdoms. In the autumn of that year, lie prevailed on Messrs Henry Houldsworth and Sons, of Glasgow, to purchase his patents, and they accordingly commenced the spinning of Cashmere yarn. After many difficulties, they succeeded, in 1832, in making better yarn than the French, and in the following year received from the Board of Trustees the L. 300 Sterling as the premium due for the establishing of the spinning of Cashmere yarn in this country. Since then, the manufacture has gone on but slowly, though gradually increasing in extent, and the day is not far distant when it may be hoped that the beauty of the goods made from Cashmere yarn will be duly appreciated by our ladies. One thing is gratifying, that, notwithstanding the cheapness of labour in France, and the long experience the French have had in this manufacture, we are quite capable at this moment of successfully competing with them in the market, although the French yarns can be admitted free of duty.

Establishment of Merino Yarn Spinning in Scotland.—At the same time that the late Captain C. S. Cochrane was engaged in Paris in finding out the manufacture of Cashmere yarn, his attention was attracted by the superiority of French merino dresses over those made in this country; and on inquiry he found that the peculiar manner in which the French spun the merino yarn was the principal cause of this difference. Captain Cochrane, accordingly, got all the information he could possibly obtain respecting this manufacture, and in 1333 established in Glasgow this peculiar mode of spinning merino yarn on the French principle. The Board of Trustees offered a premium of L. 300 Sterling to the introducer and establisher of this manufacture; which premium Captain Cochrane accordingly received in 1834,—his merino yarn being pronounced equal, if not superior, to the best French yarns. After this satisfactory result, the business was extended to meet the demand of the trade; but, unfortunately for the spirited introducer, death cut him short before his plans were fully brought to a profitable result. The business is in the meantime carried on by Messrs Henry Houldsworth and Sons, for the benefit of Captain Cochrane's partner; and from the soft and beautiful goods which can be made from this yarn, almost rivalling the Cashmere itself, there seems little doubt but that in a short time, when it becomes well known, the merinos of this country will successfully compete with those of the French.

Timber Trade.—The merchants of Glasgow send numerous ships to the East and West Indies, to America, and to the continent of Europe; but there is one firm which merits particular attention. Messrs Pollock, Gilmour and Company, who are chiefly engaged in the North American timber trade, have eight different establishments that ship annually upwards of SIX MILLIONS cubic feet of timber; to cut and to collect which, and to prepare it for shipment, requires upwards of FIFTEEN THOUSAND MEN, AND SIX HUNDRED HORSES AND OXEN in constant employment; and for the accommodation of their trade, they are owners of twenty-one large ships, the register tonnage of which is twelve thousand and five tons, navigated by five hundred and two seamen, carrying each trip upwards of twenty thousand tons of timber at 40 cubic feet per ton. All of which ships make two, and several of them three voyages annually. It may be truly said that this establishment is unequalled in Europe.

Messrs James and William Campbell and Company were the first in this city to occupy as a warehouse for the retail of soft goods, the upper flats of a tenement, instead of shops on the ground or street floor, and although the practice of having retail places of business on the second floor has since become pretty general in Glasgow, it is still a peculiarity of this city. The Messrs Campbells, too, were the first. who successfully resisted the practice, which had previously obtained very generally in Glasgow, in their line of business, of what in Scotch phrase, is termed "prigging," or deviating from the first price asked for goods sold in retail. They commenced business in 1817, in the Trades Land, head of Salt-market Street, from whence they removed in 1823, to premises built by themselves, and which they still occupy in Candleriggs Street.

This establishment, now embracing the wholesale as well as the retail business, the largest of the kind in the King's dominions out of London, contains 30,003 square feet of flooring. In these premises the public are supplied with nearly every description of goods of woollen, linen, cotton, and silk manufacture, and the arrangements are such that purchasers of the smallest quantities for private use are equally attended to and accommodated with those who make the most extensive purchases, for either home or foreign consumpt. Upwards of eighty persons are employed in the sale-departments of these warehouses, and the following is a note of the respective amounts of six years sales, which not only shows the progressive increase of the Messrs Campbells' business, but exhibits a fair criterion of the rapid increase, and commercial improvement of the city of Glasgow.

Besides these gross sales the company manufacture to the value of from L. 70,000 to L. 80,000 annually of the goods thus disposed of, giving employment from this department to nearly 2000 people. It may likewise be remarked, that, although several London houses turn a greater sum annually, in consequence of dealing largely in the more valuable descriptions of silk goods, it is understood that the Messrs Campbell serve as great a number of customers as any of those highly respectable metropolitan establishments.

The Tea Trade.--The Camden was the first vessel unconnected with the East India Company which brought a cargo of tea direct from Canton to Britain. She was consigned by China merchants to Mr William Mathieson of Glasgow, and her full cargo of Bohea, Congou, Cape Congou, Campio, and Souchong, was sold in the Royal Exchange sale-room of this city on the 14th of November 1834. A number of London and Edinburgh merchants purchased at the sale. The whole was sold at high prices.

V.—CIVIC ECONOMY.

Literature.—From the commercial enterprise which engages the time and attention of its inhabitants, this city cannot boast of a literary character. There are many individuals, however, of cultivated minds and extensive attainments, some of whom have formed themselves into societies for the promotion of literature and science. About the middle of the last century a literary society was established, consisting chiefly of the professors and clergymen of the city and neighbourhood, and reckoned amongst its distinguished members, Doctors Adam Smith, Trail, and Reid, and Mr John Millar, the celebrated Professor of Law. A literary and commercial society was formed about the beginning of the present century, and is composed of a number of gentlemen who meet for the discussion of literary and commercial topics. During the twenty-seven years in which records have been kept, upwards of 200 essays have been read by the society.

University.—The University of Glasgow is a corporate body, consisting of a Chancellor, Rector, Dean, Principal, with Professors and Students.

In 1451, Nicolas V., a pope distinguished by his talents and erudition, and particularly by his munificent patronage of Grecian literature, after having composed the great western schism, which for more than half a century had distracted the states of Christendom, was pleased to issue a Papal Edict, or Bull, establishing a stadium generale, or university in the city of Glasgow; the situation of which is described in the narrative as being, by the salubrity of the climate, and the abundance of all the necessaries of life, peculiarly adapted for such an institution. The instrument bears that. James II. King of Scotland had applied to the See of Rome for this grant; for although an independent sovereign might claim the power of erecting universities within his own dominions, he could not confer on the licentiates and doctors, who derived their qualifications from such seminaries, the privilege of acting as teachers and regents in all the seats of general study throughout the bounds of the Catholic church, without any examination or approbation, in addition to that which they received when they obtained their academical degrees. This faculty was bestowed by apostolical authority on the graduates of the University of Glasgow, along with all other liberties, immunities, and honours, enjoyed by the masters, doctors, and students, in the University of Bologna.

The University at first had received no endowments, and was for years possessed of no property except the University purse, into which were put some small perquisites on the conferring of degrees, and the patronage of two or three small chaplainaries. At first the University had no buildings of its own. It held its meetings in the chapter-house of the Blackfriars, or in the cathedral. But these defects were in some measure supplied by the liberality of James first Lord Hamilton, an ancestor of the noble house of Hamilton, who, in the year 1459, gave to the Principal, and other Regents of the. College of Arts, for their use and accommodation, a tenement with its pertinents, in the High Street of Glasgow, to the north of the Blackfriars, together with four acres of land in the Dow-hill. In the deed, the noble donor required the Principal and Regents, on their first admission, to declare on oath, that they would commemorate James Lord Hamilton, and Lady Euphemia, his spouse, the Countess of Douglas, as the founders of the college. Amongst other benefactors of the college, distinguished by their donations, chiefly for the support of poor students, were Ann Duchess of Hamilton, Robina Countess of Forfar, William Earl of Dundonnell, the Duke of Chandos, the Duke of Montrose, Leighton, Archbishop of Glasgow, Boulter, Bishop of Armagh, Mr Snell, Dr Williams, Dr Walton, Mr Zachary Boyd, and Dr William Hunter.

The Reformation produced great disorder in the University, its members being elergymen of the Catholic persuasion, and its chief support being derived from the church. In 1577, James VI. prescribed particular rules with regard to the college, and the formation of its government, and made a considerable addition to its funds. The charter by which the King made these regulations, and gave that property, still continues to be the magna charta of the college, and is known by the name of Nova Erectio.

The business of the University is transacted in three distinct meetings, viz, those of the Senate, the Comitia, and the Faculty. The meeting of senate consists of the Rector, the Dean, the members of Faculty, and the other Professors. The Rector presides in this meeting, except when affairs are managed, for which the Dean is competent. Meetings of the senate are held for the election and admission of the Chancellor and Dean of Faculty, for the admission of the Vice-Chancellor and Vice-Rector, for electing a representative to the General Assembly, for conferring degrees, and for the management of the libraries, and other matters belonging to the University. The constituent members of the comitia are, the Rector, the Dean, the Principal, the Professors, and the matriculated students of the University. [The royal visitation of the University, in 1717 and 1718, deprived the Students of the right of voting in the election of the Rector, and appointed the election to be made by the plurality of votes in a University meeting, composed of the Chancellor, Dean, and Principal, (the office of Rector being vacant,) and all the Professors and Regents; the said members being restricted to a man of probity and judgment, of known affection to the government in Church and State, who is not a minister of the gospel, nor bears any other office in the University, It is believed that the regulations of this visitation originated in some feelings and jealousies connected with the political circumstances of the country, and had reference to the wish of persons attached to the interests of the Stuart family, being raised to situations of importance and influence. The royal visitation of 1727, prescribed a cumber of regulations which have been in force ever since. Inter alia, the right of electing a Rector was declared to be in all the matriculated Members, Moderators or Masters, and students. Some alterations were made on the distribution of the supports into nations. The Nato Glottianasive Clydesdaliae and the Natio dicta Rothsay, continued as originally settled. But into the Xatio Laudoniana sive Thcvidalicc were introduced, all matriculated members from England, and the British Colonies; and the Natio Albanie sive Trans- forthiarna was to include all foreigners.] The Recelected for a second year. It is the duty of the Rector to preserve the rights and privileges of the University, to convoke those meetings in which he presides, and with his assessors, whom he himself appoints, to exercise that academical jurisdiction amongst the students themselves, or between the students and citizens, which is bestowed upon most of the universities of Europe. The Dean of Faculties is elected by the senate. This office is held for two years, and by virtue of it, he is entitled to give directions with regard to the course of study, and to judge together with the Rector, Principal, and Professors, of the qualifications of those who desire to be created Masters of Arts, Doctors of Divinity, &c. The foundation of the office of Principal, almost coeval with that of the University, was confirmed by James VI. in 1577. It is in the appointment of the King. The Principal has the ordinary superintendence of the deportment of all members of the University, and is Primarius Professor of Divinity. The Professors of the University of Glasgow may be distributed according to the departments of knowledge to which they are respectively assigned, into four distinct faculties ; those of arts, theology, law, and medicine.

The Faculty of Arts comprehends the Professors of Latin or Humanity, Greek, Logic, Ethics, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, Practical Astronomy, and Natural. History. To this faculty maybe added the Professors of Mathematics, Astronomy, and Natural History. The faculty of Theology includes, besides the Principal, who, in right of his office, is first Professor of Divinity, three other Professorships, those of Divinity, Church History, and Oriental Languages. The faculty of Law consists of a single Professorship, that of Civil Law. The faculty of Medicine comprehends the Professorships of Anatomy, Medicine, Materia Medica, Surgery, Midwifery, Chemistry, and Botany. The Professors of Greek, Logic, Ethics, and Natural Philosophy, whose chairs were the earliest endowed in the University, are denominated Regents, and enjoy in right of their regency certain trifling privileges beyond their brother professors. The Regius Professors are those whose chairs have been recently founded, endowed, and nominated by the Crown, and they are members of Senate only, not of the Faculty of the college, viz. natural history, surgery, midwifery, chemistry, botany, and materia medica. *


The University Library was founded in the fifteenth century. It contains an extensive and valuable collection of books, amongst which are many beautiful editions of the classics. It is always increasing by donations of copies of every new work published in this country, as well as by books purchased by the fees received at matriculation, assisted by fees received from graduates, and by an annual payment from all students, who are entitled to the use of the library under certain limitations.

A small botanic garden adjoining the college was prepared for the use of the lecturer in botany in 1753; but, having from various causes, become unfit for its purposes, a very valuable botanical garden, consisting of eight acres, was formed in the neighbourhood of the city, by the citizens of Glasgow. The University subscribed L.2000 towards its erection, for the privilege of their Professor of Botany lecturing in the hall in the garden, and Government has subsequently given a similar sum in support of it. This garden, which was opened in the spring of 1818, is, for the variety of rare plants from almost every part of the world, not exceeded by any botanical garden in the kingdom.

The founder of the Hunterian Museum was the celebrated William Hunter, M. D. who was born in the parish of East Kilbride, in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, in 1710. By his will in 1781, he bequeathed to the Principal and Professors of the College, his splendid collection of books, coins, paintings, anatomical preparations, &c. and appropriated L. 8000 for the erection of a building for their reception. The collection is valued at L. 65,000, viz. medals, L. 30,000, books, L. 15,000, pictures, L. 10,000, miscellaneous, L. 10,000. The collection has been considerably increased of late years. The public are admitted every lawful day, on payment of 1s.

There are twenty-seven bursaries connected. with the College, varying from L. 5 to L. 40. They are held from four to six years. Besides these, there are two very valuable exhibitions. In the year 1688, Mr John Snell, with a view to support Episcopacy in Scotland, devised to trustees a considerable estate near Leamington, in Warwickshire, for educating Scotch students at Baliol College, Oxford. By the rise in the value of land, and the improvements which have from time to time been made on that estate, the fund now affords about L. 130 per annum to each of ten exhibitioners. Another foundation, by John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, of L.20 per annum, to each of four Scotch students of the same college, during their residence at Oxford, is generally given to the Glasgow exhibitioners; so that four of them have a stipend of L. 150 per annum. The exhibitions are tenable for ten years, but vacated by marriage, or on receiving preferment of a certain amount. The right of nomination belongs to the Principal and Professors of the faculty.

Candidates, to be eligible to Snell's exhibitions, must first be natives of Scotland, which the master of Baliol requires to be proved by the production of an extract from the parish register of births; secondly, they must have attended as public students at least two sessions at the University of Glasgow, or one session there, and two at some other Scottish university. Warner's exhibitions are in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishop of Rochester, who usually nominate on the recommendation of the master of Baliol College. Amongst the distinguished persons of several professions who have been educated on Mr Snell's foundation, may be mentioned Dr John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury; Dr Adam Smith; and Dr Matthew Baillie.

This University has had from its origin men of the highest talent and literary eminence among its professors and office-bearers. The names of Melville, Baillie, Leishman, Burnet, Simpson, Hutchison, Black, Cullen, Adam Smith, Reid, Miller, and Richardson, are conspicuous; and the names of Henry Dundas, Edmund Burke, Sir James Mackintosh, and other distinguished individuals, are to be found in the list of rectors.

Education.—The attention which has been paid to education in Scotland for centuries past has been acknowledged all over Europe. Amidst all the tumult and violence of civil contention, and at a time when the very existence of the Presbyterian church was at stake, the subject of education and of schools was never overlooked.

By act 43 Geo. III. cap. 54, the salaries of parochial schoolmasters, whose schools are not entirely confined in royal burghs, are to be fixed, from and after the 11th September 1803, at a sum of from 300 to 400 merks Scots, by the minister, and the heritors whose lands in the parish amount to L. 100 Scots.. In twenty-five years after the above period, or such after period as the salary shall be fixed, these heritors and minister are to modify a new salary, according to the average price of oatmeal, to be ascertained by the Exchequer, of the value of from one and a-half to two chalders, and so on from twenty-five years to twenty-five years ; and when there is not a proper school-house, a house for the schoolmaster, and a garden for him, containing at least one-fourth of a Scotch acre, the heritors of the parish must provide these. [The celebrated Dr South has, with much ability, enforced the great utility to be derived from attention to schoolmasters. "There is no profession," he observes, "which has, or can have, a greater influence on the public. An able and well principled schoolmaster is one of the most meritorious subjects in any prince's dominions; and schoolmasters are the great depositaries and trustees of the peace of the nation, having its growing hopes and fears in their hands. Nay, schoolmasters have a more powerful influence upon the spirits of men than preachers themselves; for they have to deal with younger and tender minds, and consequently have the advantage of making the first and deepest impression upon them."]

Grammar-School.—This seminary is of remote antiquity, but, like some similar institutions of long standing, little is known of its early history. There was a grammar-school at Glasgow in the early part of the fourteenth century. It depended immediately on the cathedral church, and the chancellor of the diocese had not only the appointment of the masters, but also the superintendence of whatever related to education in the city. The grammar-school continued to be a distinct establishment after the erection of the University, and considerable care appears to have been taken to supply it with good teachers. In 1494, Mr Martin Wan, Chancellor of the Metropolitan Church of Glasgow, brought a complaint before Archbishop Blackadder against one Dwne, a priest of the diocese, for teaching scholars in grammar, and children in inferior branches, by himself apart, openly and publicly in the said city, without the allowance, and-in opposition to the will of the Chancellor. The bishop having heard parties, and examined witnesses, decided, with the advice of his chapter, and of the rector and clerks of the University, in favour of the Chancellor. As far back as the sixteenth century, the situation of the master of the grammar-school was highly respectable; he was to be found among the non-rergentes, nominated to elect the Rector, and to examine the graduates. On the 28th of October 1595, the Presbytery directed the Regents in the college "to try the Irish scholars in the grammar-school, touching the heads of religion." At that period the school met at five o'clock in the morning. Mr John Blackburn, who was master of the grammar-school, and Lord Rector of the University in 1592, 1593, resigned his mastership in 1615, on being appointed minister of the Barony Church.

The records of the town-council have been searched in vain for the plan or system by which the school was conducted prior to the year 1707. Since that period, it has undergone various changes in the management and system of education. Sometimes the school was under the control of a rector, and at other times the office was laid aside. Sometimes the course consisted of five, and at others of only four years. In 1830, . the office of rector was abolished, and each of the four masters had the entire charge of finishing his own scholars during the four years. In 1834, this seminary underwent a very material alteration. From being a grammar-school, it may now be considered as an academy. Two of the masterships for Latin and Greek have been suppressed; and, in lieu of these, teachers of English grammar, elocution, French, Italian, German, writing, geography, and mathematics, have been introduced, and the name of the seminary has been changed to that of the High School. The school is under the immediate management of a committee of the town-council, aided by the advice and assistance of the reverend clergy of the city, and learned professors of the University.

Schools.—In a large community like that of Glasgow, where schools are ever shifting, it is difficult to ascertain the exact number; but the following abstract from Dr Cleland's Annals of Glasgow, lately published, will give the reader an idea of the extent of education in this city. In that work, the names of 144 teachers are published, from which it appears that, exclusively of the University and 13 institutions where youth were educated, there were 144 schools of every description ; that, including the public institutions, there were 16,799 scholars, of whom 6516 were taught gratis in the charity or free schools. These schools were all in the district of the royalty, containing about 75,000 souls. It appears from the same work, that Sunday schools were established in 1786; that there were 106 schools, 158 teachers, and 4668 scholars, viz. 2235 boys, and 2433 girls, besides 3 adult schools. An infant school society was instituted in 1826, and in 1827, the Glasgow Model School, the first in Scotland on the training system, was opened here under the auspices of Mr David Stow. In 1835, there are 6 infant schools, viz, the Model School in Salt Market, a school in Drygate, Chalmers' Street, Marlborough Street, John Street, and Cowcaddens; and two school-houses are about to be built in Gorbals, and one in Anderston. As it would be tedious to quote the rate of wages in the various schools, it may be sufficient to say, that they are from two to fifteen shillings per quarter.

The Lord Advocate having directed the parochial clergy of Scotland to furnish him with a detailed account of the schools in their respective parishes, a valuable statistical document may be expected in the course of the session of Parliament 1836. This, in connection with the periodical Reports of the Committee of the General Assembly for increasing the means of Education and Religious Instruction in Scotland, will exhibit the amount of education in a very satisfactory manner. The Committee's Report for 1833 gives a detailed account of five of the Glasgow parishes, viz. the College, Tron, St David's, St John's, and St James's. The Report is accompanied by a table showing the amount of population, number of parochial, endowed, Sabbath, and week day evening schools, number of scholars, salaries of teachers, number of persons unable to read and write, &c.

Andersonian University.—This seminary, founded by Mr John Anderson, Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, on the 7th of May 1795, and endowed by him with a valuable philosophical apparatus, museum, and library, was incorporated by a seal of cause from the magistrates and council of this city, on the 9th of June 1796. The university is subject to the inspection of the Lord Provost, and other official persons, as ordinary visitors, and is placed under the immediate superintendence of eighty-one trustees, who are elected by ballot, and remain in office for life, unless disqualified by non-attendance. The trustees consist of nine classes of citizens, viz, tradesmen, agriculturists, artists, manufacturers, physicians and surgeons, lawyers, divines, philosophers, and, lastly, kinsmen or namesakes. The trustees elect annually by ballot nine of their number as managers, to whom the principal affairs of the university are intrusted during the year. The managers elect by ballot from their number the president,* secretary, and treasurer. Although the views of the venerable and celebrated founder embraced a complete circle of liberal education, adapted to the improved state of society, it was found convenient at first to limit the plan to natural philosophy, chemistry, mathematics, and geography.

The business of the university commenced on the 21st of September 1796 by Dr Garnet's reading in the Trades Hall to persons of both sexes popular and scientific lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry, illustrated by experiments. Soon after this period, the managers rented, and then purchased, extensive premises in John Street. Dr Garnet having been appointed Professor of Experimental Philosophy and Chemistry in the Royal Institution of London, which had been formed on the model of this primary one, resigned his professorship, and, on the 18th of October 1799, Dr George I3irkbeck was appointed as his successor. In addition to what had been formerly taught, he introduced a familiar system of instruction, which he demonstrated by experiments free of expense. About 500 operatives attended this class, the greater part of whom were recommended by Dr William Anderson and Dr James Cleland. This mode of tuition, by which philosophical subjects are explained in ordinary language, divested of technicalities beyond the comprehension of the student, is continued with great success, at a small expense, and has been productive of the happiest effects to a valuable class of society. Dr Birkbeck resigned his professorship on the 5th of August 1804, and returned to London. Dr Andrew Ure was appointed his successor on the 21st of the following month, and, during a period of twenty-five years, discharged the duties of his office with great ability, when he also went to London to reside.

The affairs of the university becoming more and more prosperous, the trustees purchased from the city the grammar-school buildings fronting George Street, and having made considerable additions and alterations, the premises now contain numerous halls for the classes and for the museum, which has of late become very rich in its several departments. The university buildings were opened in November 1828, since which time the classes have been well attended, and soirees have been introduced with the happiest effect. The professions in 1835, are first, literature, philosophy and popular science: Classes, natural philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, mathematics, natural history, modern languages, oriental languages, drawing and painting in oil and water colours, and popular lectures on the veterinary art; and secondly, Medicine: classes, surgery, chemistry, medical jurisprudence, theory of medicine, anatomy, physiology, and midwifery.

Mechanics Institution for the Promotion of the Arts and Sciences. —This society was formed in 1823, by the mechanics of Glasgow, with the view of disseminating mechanical and scientific knowledge among their fellow operatives, particularly. those branches more immediately connected with their daily occupations. Lectures were given on natural philosophy and chemistry, when a fee of three shillings was paid'by each student, which was afterwards increased to ten shillings. From the formation of the society to the present time, the number of students has averaged yearly about 500. Free admission is annually given to the lectures on chemistry and mechanics, and also to the library,—to poor apprentices, one being admitted for every twenty tickets sold. In this manner 220 have been admitted since the commencement of the institution. In 1831, the society removed to large premises built for them in Hanover Street. A colossal statue of James Watt is placed on the pediment of the building, by a subscription of one shilling from each student in successive years. In the building there are commodious apartments for the numerous models and apparatus; and for the library, which now consists of 3128 volumes on science and general literature. In the session of 1835, there are three professors, who give lectures on natural philosophy, chemistry, popular anatomy, physiology, and phrenology. Fee for the course, eight shillings.

At the close of the session of 1834-35, Mr Leadbetter, the zealous and philosophic president of the society, stated, that the students were from about forty different trades,—a proof of the utility of the institution.* The entry book of the library shows an increased avidity for reading. During the six months of the session 7778 .isues were made to 399 readers, being an average of about 20 books to each reader. The British Association, from its perambulatory character, has given a new impulse to the study of science. " I expect to see ere long," said the indefatigable and talented President, " this body of men the concentration of all the scientific knowledge of Great Britain, encamped and setting up their crucibles in the city which first opened the portals of science to the mechanic and artisan, and which first invited the fair sex to a participation of the common benefits of a philosophical education." Exclusive of the above institution, there

are similar ones in the ,suburbs, with about 1200 students. In the Calton 450 students attended the natural philosophy class, of whom nine-tenths were operatives; 200 females attended the astronomy and geography classes, seven-tenths of whom were mill girls. From the foregoing facts let not the friends of elementary education undervalue the acquirements of science, nor the friends of science the benefits of a moral and religious education. It is true that the one does not embrace scientific instruction, and the other does not profess to impart moral and religious knowledge, but both contribute to improve and exalt the human character, and are therefore essential element's in a national education. Dr Chalmers has observed, that Christianity has every thing to hope and nothing to fear from the advancement of science, and he affords in his own character a striking instance of the benefits of scientific knowledge, ennobling the intellect, and adorning the Christian character.

Newspapers.---The first newspaper published in the west of Scotland was the Glasgow Courant, which appeared in the year 1715. It was published three times a-week, consisted of twelve pages in small quarto, and was sold for three-halfpence, or "one penny to regular customers." The second number contained a letter from Provost Aird, Colonel of the regiment of Glasgow Volunteers, detailing his views in regard to the Duke of Argyll's ultimate success at Sheriffinuir. The name of the paper was soon changed to that of the West Country Intelligence, which only survived a few years. From 1715 till the present time, there have been twenty-one attempts to establish newspapers in this city, and out of that number, eleven still survive. The names of the papers, the dates of their commencement, and the periods of publication, are as follows:—The Glasgow Courant in 1715; the Journal in 1729; the Chronicle in 1775; the Mercury in 1779; the Advertiser in 1783 ; but in 1804 its name was changed to that of the Herald; the Courier in 1791; the Clyde Commercial Advertiser in 1805; the Caledonia in 1807; but in the same year it merged in the Western Star; the Sentinel in 1809; a second Chronicle in 1811; the Scotsman in 1812; the Packet in 1813; a second Sentinel in 1821; the Free Press in 1823; the Scots Times in 1825; the Evening Post in 1827; the Trades' Advocate in 1829; the Liberator in 1831; the Scottish Guardian and the Argus in 1832; and the Weekly Reporter in 1834. The eleven surviving papers are, the Journal, published once a-week; the Herald, twice; the Courier, three times; the Chronicle, three times; the Free Press, twice; the Scots Times, twice; the Evening Post, once; the Liberator, once; the Scottish Guardian, twice; the Argus, twice; and the Weekly Reporter, once; so that in Glasgow there are twenty newspapers published weekly. It would be invidious to state the circulation of each paper, even if it could be accurately obtained. It is, however, known, that the circulation of the Herald on each publishing day for some years past has exceeded 1800, and that during the quarter from the 1st of March to the 1st of June 1834, its advertisements amounted to 3291.

Libraries, &c.—The first circulating library in the west of Scotland was established in Glasgow in 1753, by Mr John Smith Senior, who lent out books at the rate of one-halfpenny per volume. There are now many circulating as well as public and private libraries in Glasgow. Of the public libraries, exclusively of those belonging to the University, to Anderson's University, and to other literary bodies, the more valuable are Stirling's, which was instituted in 1791, the Glasgow in 1804, and the Robertsonian in 1814.
Of late years a number of book societies have been established in Glasgow. They are conducted on a plan similar to that of circulating libraries, with this difference, that the books belong to the readers themselves, who are chiefly of the working-classes. The periodical book publishing trade, which, till about the year 1796, was scarcely known in Scotland, is carried on in Glasgow to an extent surpassing that of any other town in this part of the kingdom. By a late Parliamentary report, it appeared that in Scotland there were 414 book-hawkers, technically termed "canvassers" and "deliverers," who, in seven years, collected L. 44160 per annum in sixpences and shillings; and five-sixteenths of the whole belonged to Glasgow.

The Maitland Club, which was established in this city a few years ago, is similar to the Bannatyne Club of Edinburgh, or the Roxburgh Club of London, by the reprinting of valuable and scarce old books for private. use, or printing for the first time curious and rare manuscripts illustrative of the history, literature, or antiquities of Scotland. The club takes its name from Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, an Officer of State during the minority of James VI.; and who like Bannatyne, did much service to Scottish literature, by compiling nearly all the poetry of the nation then in existence.

During the last thirty years several magazines and other periodical works have been published here, but none of them have succeeded. The Church of Scotland Magazine bids fair for permanency.

Poor.—The proper management of the poor is every where important, but in a great manufacturing community, subject. to numerous vicissitudes, unknown to small towns and rural districts, it is peculiarly so. The poor in nine of the ten parishes of the city are maintained by an assessment on the inhabitants, aided by certain donations, and the collections or offerings at the church doors; whilst the poor of the other parish are maintained on a separate plan, to be afterwards mentioned, and the poor of the two suburban parishes of Barony and Gorbals by a tax on rental, aided by donations and offerings. Soon after Dr Chalmers' [This distinguished divine, now a Corresponding Member of the Royal Institute of France, received his degree of D. D. from the University of Glasgow, and of LL.D from the University of Oxford,—literary honours which we believe never before met in the person of a Presbyterian clergyman.] admission to the Tron Church on the 21st of July 1815, he discovered that a great improvement might be made in the mode of maintaining the poor, and particularly that assessment might be dispensed with. Having explained his views to the magistrates, he was translated to the newly erected church and parish of St John's, that he might be the better able to develop his plan. Accordingly, on the 18th of August l 819, the town-council unanimously resolved that Dr Chalmers should have a "separate, independent, and exclusive management and distribution of the funds which may be raised by voluntary or charitable collections at the doors of St John's Church for the relief of the poor resident in said parish." The scheme was continued by Dr Patrick Macfarlan, the clergyman who succeeded Dr Chalmers, and is still continued by Dr Thomas Brown, the present incumbent ; and after a trial of sixteen years, the energies of what is emphatically called the agency have not decreased. There is no intricacy in the scheme. The members of the congregation are liberal in their voluntary offerings at the church doors. The parish is divided into small districts; numerous elders and deacons, to whom districts are assigned, visit their respective poor, bywhich means imposition is easily detected, and the distribution of the fund to the legitimate poor more surely and easily accomplished. It redounds much to the credit of the parochial scheme, that St John's parish not only supports its poor without assessment, but the parishioners are assessed as other citizens for the maintenance of the poor of the other nine parishes.

We have preferred taking the following abstract from Dr Cleland's Statistical work in 1831, to any statement which could be made for 1835, as we have the advantage of the Government enumeration for the former year, to enable our readers to draw results. Number of paupers in the city and suburbs on the 31st of December 1830, with the expense of maintaining them during that year.

The population in the city and suburbs being 202,426, and the number of paupers 5006, there is one pauper for every 40.43 persons. The population of the ten parishes in the city being 89,847, and the number of paupers 2309, there is one pauper for every 38.91 persons. The number of paupers in the city and suburbs being 5006, and the amount of their maintenance L. 17,281, 18s. 0½d. gives to each pauper L. 3, 9s. 0.5d. The number of paupers in St John's parish being 70, and the amount of their maintenance L. 241, 19s. 1d. gives to each pauper L. 3, 8s. 10 1/12d.

Abstract of the Expenditure of the Benevolent and Charitable Institutions of Glasgow, exclusive of Widows' Funds, Benefit Societies, Charity Schools, and Maintenance of Paupers.

The affairs of the following societies are conducted at the Religious and Charitable Institution Rooms:


The following list was prepared a few years ago by Dr Cleland for a public purpose. Although the expenditure of some of the institutions may now vary a little, the aggregate ,amount may be taken as pretty near the truth.


* The number of patients in the hospitals and asylums on the 25th March 1831 was 709, viz, in the Royal Infirmary, 304; of whom males, 143; females, 161; under 30 years of age, 148. In the Lunatic Asylum there were 264, viz. insane, 212; of whom, males, 99; females, 113; under 30 years, 46; idiots, 11; of whom, males, 8; females, 3 ; under :30 years, 5; silly in mind, 41; of whom, males, 9; females, 32; under 30 years, 0. In the Lock Hospital there were females, 27; under 30 years, 23. In the Magdalene Asylum there were 33, all under 30 years. In the Deaf and Dumb Institution there were 37; males, 22; females, 15; under 20 years, 36. The blind persons in the Asylum and Town's Hospital were 40; males, 26; females, 14; under 30 years, 27. Eye Infirmary, 4; males, 2; females, 2; under 30, 2.

Presbytery of Glasgow, and Synod of Glasgow and Ayr.—The Presbytery formerly consisted of ten ministers of the city, and those of the twelve surrounding parishes, viz. Barony of Glasgow, Gorbals, Rutherglen, Cumbernauld, Carmunnock, Cadder, Campsie, Govan, Kirkintilloch, Kilsyth, Cathcart, and Eaglesham, with their elders; but as the thirteen ministers of the chapels of ease have now been raised to the status of parish ministers, the clerical members of Presbytery are increased to thirty-five. The Presbytery of Glasgow in 1835, for the first time, sent six ministers and three elders to the General Assembly.

The synod consists of eight presbyteries, viz. Glasgow, Ayr, Irvine, Paisley, Hamilton, Lanark, Dumbarton, and the new Presbytery of Greenock.

The following is a view of the, progressive stipends of nine of the ministers of Glasgow. Till 1788, the stipends were paid in Scots money, viz, in merks converted into pounds Sterling.

The stipend of the minister of the Cathedral Church (St Mungo or Inner High) is paid in victual from teind (converted into money,) * viz. 12½ chalders of meal; 12½ chalders of barley; L. 30 in money; and a glebe, which has been feued under the authority of Parliament. This stipend, when grain is at a moderate price, amounts to about L. 500. It is very remarkable, that the stipend of the Barony parish, with the largest population in Scotland, was only 2000 merks Scots, (L.1 11, 2s. 2d.) till 22d February 1815, when the Court of Teinds raised it to 22 chalders of victual, and L. 30 in money. The glebe was afterwards authorized to be feued. When the Gorhals parish was erected on 20th February 1771, the stipend was L. 90. It has since been increased to L. 300.

Church Accommodation.—In 1831, the population of the city and suburbs, as before stated, was 202,426, and the total sittings in the various places of worship in the city and suburbs 73,425: viz. in the Established Church, 30,928; Seceders, Dissenters, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics, 42,497. This is in the proportion of one sitting to 2.75-100th persons, or 20,291 sittings less than the amount required by law.

On 1st July 1835, the House of Commons presented a humble address to his Majesty, who has been graciously pleased to appoint a commission "to inquire into the opportunities of religious worship and means of religious instruction, and the pastoral superintendence afforded to the people of Scotland, and how far these are of avail for the religious and moral improvement of the poor and of the working classes, and with this view to obtain information respecting their stated attendance at places of worship, and their actual connection with any religious denomination, to inquire what funds are now or may hereafter be available for the purpose of the Established Church of Scotland, and to report from time to time, in order that such remedies may be applied to any existing evils as Parliament may think fit."

When the time occupied, and the expense incurred in preparing for the church is considered, no one will presume to say that the aspirant for the holy ministry is actuated by mercenary motives; it .is, therefore, the duty of those who benefit by their labours to provide for their temporal wants in a suitable manner, so that their spiritual instructor may be enabled to devote his whole energies to the duties of his sacred office. As the livings of two of the clergymen of this city arise from teinds, the following account may not be uninteresting:

In the case of the minister of Prestonkirk against the heritors of that parish in 1808, the Lord President Hope, then Lord Justice-Clerk, in giving his opinion, said, 11 When we look back to the history of past ages, we find that the tithes of Scotland were at no time the property of the heritors. From the very earliest period which we can trace our history, the tithes were the property of the state, reserved by the state, and by the state appropriated, or at least applied, as a fund for the purpose of maintaining the clergy. Let us consider the situation of an heritor in the light of a purchaser of land. Did any such pay one farthing as the price of the tithes? Certainly not. They always are, and always have been, deducted from the rental in calculating the price of the estate. What is taken from the tithes for the maintenance of the clergy is not, therefore, taken out of the pocket of the heritors; for, merely as a proprietor of land, he can have no right to the tithes either by purchase or inheritance. On the point of law, I never was clearer on any question in my life. In point of authority, I look to Lord Stair, as the highest with which I am acquainted. On the subject of tithes he says, 'They were at all times the property of the Church or state.' He adds, that, ' into whatever hands they pass, teinds carry along with them, as a burthen affecting them, competent stipends for the ministers who are, or who shall be, elected; in other words, that, into whatever hands teinds may come, they are inherently necessarily burthened with the maintenance of the clergy." The Lord Justice- Clerk then said, "Where has there been since the world began such a body of clergy in point of virtue, learning, piety, and a faithful discharge of their parochial duties? The clergy of Scotland, I am proud to say, have never been equalled by the clergy of any nation upon earth. Much reason would the landholders of this country have to be contented and satisfied, though the burden of maintaining such a body of clergy had been ten times greater than it is. Still more reason have the heritors of Scotland to be satisfied with their lot, when they compare their situation with that of the landed proprietors of any other country."

Lord Craig "would not go over the ground occupied by his learned brother, but would say, of all men in any Christian country in Europe, the proprietors of land in Scotland have least reason to complain of the state of the teinds. By the law of Scotland, they possess advantages with regard to teinds which no other country in Christendom enjoys. "As the Church of Christ includes an order of men who devote their time and study to the discharge of the duties of the pastoral office, and who have been expressly educated for that purpose, they are entitled to a competent maintenance from those for whose good they labour; and the provision for the clergy of the Church of Scotland, though inferior to that of other ecclesiastical establishments, is, on the whole, respectable. The allowance to the clergy out of the tithes of the parish was at first but scanty, but their stipends have been gradually augmented. Indeed, if, while other orders of men are getting forward, the stipends of the ministers of the Established Church had remained stationary, the-accumulation of national wealth, by relatively sinking those who minister at the altar into abject poverty, would have rendered them contemptible, and the Church would have been supplied solely from the lowest orders of the people. It is a branch of political wisdom, therefore, to save the Established clergy from this degradation, which would undermine their usefulness, and might render them but little anxious to preserve the welfare and stability of the state." [Hill's Theological Institutes, p. 282.]

It has been said, that clergymen in the discharge of the sacred duties of their office belong to no particular class of society, mixing, as they necessarily do, with the high, the low, and the middle grades. In Glasgow the clergymen have always been highly respectable, and at no period more so than at. present. The Established churches in Glasgow are all uncollegiate. The ministers prepare and preach two sermons every Sunday, and in rotation preach on Thursdays in St Mary's Church, and Hope Street and St Mary's Churches on Sunday evenings. They preach occasional charity and missionary sermons. They examine the youth of their congregations in class meetings, and give partial ministerial visitations in the families of their parishioners. To visit the whole in the present overgrown state of the parishes would be next to impossible. They visit the sick, and assist the kirk-session in the proper distribution of the poors' funds;—they superintend the schools in their parishes,—and, in obedience to the wishes of the pious founders of some of the benevolent institutions of the city, they share the management with the magistrates; and their attendance on funerals, kirk-sessions, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies, occupies a considerable portion of their time. The bare recital of the above must convince every one of the laborious duties of a city parochial clergyman; and as to pecuniary remuneration, it is barely sufficient. for present purposes, leaving little or no provision in case of a widowed family.

The clergymen of Glasgow have long moved in the first rank of society. Their dwelling-houses and their domestic expenses are necessarily on a scale suited to their rank. In addition to the Government and local taxes, they are subjected to clerical ones, and they readily contribute to private and public charities ; and when it is considered that their sons usually receive a university education, and their daughters that which is suited to their station, the wonder is, how a city clergyman can bring up his family on his stipend, not to speak of his making any after-provision for them. In 1831 there were 58 clergymen in the city and suburbs who received stipend, varying from L. 150 to L. 500; the average to each was within a small fraction of L. 268. If the maintenance of the whole clergy was chargeable to each individual in the community, it would only amount to Is. 54d. in the year,—a sum small, indeed, when compared with the important benefits received.

The corporation of the city are proprietors of the Established churches, and receive the seat rents. That the church is not burdensome to the community is evident from the following official statement for 1834, by which it appears that the ecclesiastical revenue exceeded the expenditure, L. 487, Is. 7d. as under:

* By Act 48 Geo. III. 6, C. 138, no stipend can he augmented until twenty years after the date of the last decreet of modification. The incumbents of the Cathedral and Barony Churches were entitled to apply for an augmentation on 22d February 1835.

Individuals inimical to establishments think that the interest of the sums laid out in building the churches should form a part of the expense of the Establishment. Without admitting the principle that parochial churches should support themselves; on the contrary, believing that the law and the practice is otherwise, it may be well to see how the churches in Glasgow came into the possession of the corporation. In the first place, the Cathedral and Outer High Churches belong to the Crown, the corporation being at the expense of seating them. The College Church was given to the corporation by Queen Mary; and on its becoming ruinous, it was rebuilt chiefly by private subscription. At present a very great proportion of the seats belong to the College or to private individuals. The Ramshorn Church in like manner was built chiefly by subscription. It has lately been rebuilt, under the name of St David's, at the expense of the corporation. This church, and its beautiful tower, after deducting the amount of sales of burying places in the crypt, cost the corporation little more than L.3000. St Enoch's Church, originally intended for a chapel of ease, was built chiefly by subscription, but was soon afterwards acquired by the corporation for a parish church. It has lately been rebuilt on very favourable terms; as the corporation, after receiving interest for the sum laid out, gained L. 132, 17s. 6d. per annum, as appeared from a printed paper which Dr Cleland addressed to the corporation when the church was finished. This saving arose chiefly from additional seats and better accommodation.

The collections at the doors of the Established churches average rather more than L. 1800 per annum, which, when added to the sum of L.487, 1s. 7d. surplus revenue, is much more than would pay the interest of the expense of building the Established churches. The poor in this city, as is elsewhere stated, are supported by an assessment on the inhabitants, whether belonging to the Established Church or to the Dissenters. The collections at the doors of the Established churches go to reduce that assessment, but those received at the doors of the Dissenters chapels do not go to the fund, but are applied to purposes connected with their own body.

City Mission.—The want of church accommodation, and the total inability of the clergymen of the city to attend to the religious wants of a numerous class of the community, many of whom have no desire for religious instruction, led to the formation of the City Mission. The society was instituted upon the 1st of January 1826, for the purpose of promoting the spiritual welfare of the poor of Glasgow and its neighbourhood, by employing persons of approved piety, and otherwise properly qualified, to visit the poor in their own houses, for the purpose of religious discourse, and to use other means of diffusing and increasing amongst them a knowledge of evangelical truth. In December 1831, there were twenty-two licentiates or students of divinity employed at salaries of L.40 each ; twenty of these were on full time, viz, four hours per day, and the other two on two-thirds time. In addition to the city mission, a parochial mission was instituted in 1832, and there are now one missionary in every parish, and two or three in the large ones.

Roman Catholics.—The number of Roman Catholics has greatly increased in Glasgow of late years. The following is a brief account of their rise and progress.

Although popular opinion ran very strong against the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion in this city till after the mitigation of the penal statutes, Bishop Hay occasionally came from Edinburgh, and celebrated mass in a clandestine manner in a room in Blackstock's back tenement, Salt Market Street, to the few Catholics who at that time resided here.

An act of Parliament having been passed for repealing certain penal statutes in England enacted against the Roman Catholics, in the 11th and 12th years of William III., a bill was brought into Parliament for repealing these statutes in Scotland, which excited great alarm in that part of the kingdom. In Edinburgh, a mob assembled on 3d February 1779, and burnt Bishop Hay's house and valuable library, and the house of Principal Robertson would have shared the same fate, had it not been protected by the military, he having expressed himself favourable to the repeal of the penal statutes.

In Glasgow, the measure was viewed with so much alarm, that eighty-five societies were formed to oppose it; and Mr John Paterson, a spirit-merchant, was appointed to keep up a correspondence with Lord George Gordon, at that time the head of the Protestant association in London. During the discussion in Parliament, a mob collected on Sunday the 5th February 1780, during the time of divine service, and would have destroyed the dwelling-house of a Catholic where mass was being celebrated, had not Provost French and the other magistrates arrived in time to prevent it. On the Thursday following, being a day appointed for a national fast, a mob collected in King Street, and destroyed the shop of Mr Bagnall, a potter. Having completed their work of devastation, they went to Tureen Street, and destroyed his manufactory, for no other reason but that he was a Roman Catholic.

The increase of Roman Catholics in Glasgow may be dated from 1791. At that time the spirit for emigration from the North Highlands to America was such as to drain the country of many of its best labourers. The services of these hardy Northlanders being required at home, Messrs George M'Intosh, David Dale, Robert Dalglish, and other extensive manufacturers, invited them to this city, and to such as were Roman Catholics, security was promised in the exercise of their religion. The Tennis Court, in Mitchell Street, was fitted up as a temporary chapel, and the Reverend Alexander M'Donald, now Bishop of Upper Canada, was appointed priest in 1792. Mr M'Donald was succeeded by the Reverend John Farquharson in 1795. Soon after that time the number of Roman Catholics increased so much, that, in 1797, they built a small chapel in the Gallowgate, near the barracks. In 1805, Mr Farquharson was succeeded by the Reverend Andrew Scott. From this period the number of Roman Catholics increased so rapidly, that, in 1815, the foundation stone of a new chapel was laid in Clyde Street. This spacious edifice, in which there is a magnificent organ, was opened with great solemnity on the Sunday before Christmas 1816; after which the chapel in the Gallowgate was appropriated to another purpose. The number of Roman Catholics continuing to increase, the Lancasterian school-house in Gorbals was converted into a Roman Catholic chapel in 1828. In 1831, there were 26,965 Roman Catholics in this city, and their number has increased considerably since.

On 21st September 1828, the Reverend Andrew Scott was raised to the dignity of Bishop of Eretria in the Archipelago, and coadjutor vicar apostolic to Bishop M'Donald for the western district of Scotland. Mr Scott was consecrated bishop with great solemnity by the Right Reverend Bishop Paterson of Edinburgh, assisted by Bishop M'Donald of Lismore, and Bishop Penswick of Liverpool.

Prior to 1821, there was only one priest resident in Glasgow; at that period there were two; in 1826, four; and in 1829, the number of clergymen was increased to five, viz. the Right Reverend Bishop Scott, the Reverend John Murdoch (now Bishop,) the Reverend John M'Donald, the Reverend William Stewart, and the Reverend Charles Grant. [On 16th June 1835, a solemn dedication of St Margaret's Nunnery, Edinburgh, took place in its beautiful Saxon Chapel, and at the same time an interesting and affecting ceremony took place on the admission of three young persons, who then entered their noviciate into the community of the Sisters of Charity. The Right Reverend Bishop Carruthers, who officiated in chief, attired in gorgeous sacerdotals, sprinkled the chapel with holy water. The sermon was delivered by Bishop Murdoch of Glasgow, from the front of the altar. In eloquent and powerful language the Right Reverend Preacher alluded to the havoc which the Reformation had made in the Catholic institutions of this country, and also to the fiery bigotry which, even in recent times, had consigned to the flames the only Catholic chapel in Edinburgh; and while he contrasted the persecuting fury of former times with the enlightened spirit and toleration of the present, he at the same time earnestly disclaimed alluding to these things as matters of reproach to Protestants. He adverted to them merely as facts in history, and proceeded to describe in animated terms the progress which, in spite of all obstacles and difficulties, the Catholic religion was making in every part of the country; rearing up temples which adorned the spots where they were placed, and giving promise of the ultimate triumph which he felt assured that religion would one day obtain.]

Licenses to sell Spirits.—The number of persons licensed to retail spirituous, liquors in the ten parishes of the city being 1393, and the number of families, 19,467, gives one licensed person or public-house to o families. If the number of persons who retail spirituous liquors without being able to obtain a license were taken into account on the one hand, and the number of temperate families who never use a public-house on the other, it may be said, that in Glasgow there is at least one place where spirits are retailed for every twelve families.

Pawnbrokers.—The business of a pawnbroker was not known in Glasgow till August 1806. At that period an itinerant English pawnbroker commenced business in a room in the High Street, but was obliged to give up at the end of six months, for want of business; and it was not until the 8th of June 1813, that John Graham, a disbanded town-officer, set up a regular pawnbroking office. There are how twenty-two licensed pawnbrokers in the city.

River Clyde.—As the River Clyde, in a commercial point of view, is of the utmost importance, not only to Glasgow, but to the western district of Scotland, a short sketch of its improvements must be interesting. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the channel of the river for about thirteen miles below Glasgow was so incommoded by fords and shoals as to be scarcely navigable even for small craft. But in 1556, the inhabitants of the burghs of Glasgow, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, entered into an agreement to excavate the river for six weeks alternately, with the view of removing the ford at Dumbuck and some lesser fords. By the exertions of these parties, small flat-bottomed craft were brought up to the Broomielaw at Glasgow, which was then only a landing shore: there being no regular harbour for more than a hundred years after that period. In 1653, the merchants of Glasgow had their shipping harbour at the bailiery of Cunningham in Ayrshire; but that port being distant, and the land carriage expensive, the magistrates of Glasgow treated with the magistrates of Dumbarton for ground on which to build a harbour and docks at Dumbarton. After much discussion the negotiation was broken up, the magistrates of Dumbarton considering that the great influx of mariners would "raise the price of provisions to the inhabitants." The magistrates of Glasgow then turned their attention to the Troon and here they were again repulsed from a similar reason. In 1662, however, they succeeded in purchasing thirteen acres of ground from Sir Robert Maxwell of Newark, on which they laid out the town of Port- Glasgow, built harbours, and made the first dry orgravingdock in Scotland. Soon after the Revolution in 1688, a quay was formed at the Broomielaw, at the expense of 30,000 merks Scots, or L. 1666, 13s. 4d. Sterling. The east end was at the mouth of St Enoch's Burn, and the west at Robertson Street.

The magistrates having got a shipping port and a quay, directed Mr Smeaton, the celebrated engineer, to inspect the river, and report his opinion. On the 13th of September 1755, he reported inter alia, that the river at the ford at the Point House, about two miles below Glasgow, was only one foot three inches deep at low water, and three feet eight inches at high water. He proposed that a lock and clam should be made at the Marlin- -ford, in order to secure four and a half feet water up to the quay at Glasgow. The lock was to be seventy feet long, and eighteen feet wide, and so deep as to take in a flat-bottomed lighter, at four anti a-half feet draught of water. An act of Parliament was procured for the above purpose, but happily nothing further was done in it.

The magistrates soon after this required the assistance of Mr John Golborne of Chester, who reported on the 30th November 1768, that the river was in a state of nature, and that at the shoal at Kilpatrick sands, and at each end of the Nushet Island, there was no more than two feet water. He then proposed to contract the river by jetties, for eight miles below Glasgow, and to dredge and deepen it at an expense of L. 8640. Mr Golborne having suggested that a survey of the river should be made, the magistrates employed Mr James Watt, afterwards the celebrated improver of the steam-engine, who, along with Dr Wilson and Mr James Barrie, reported, that several parts of the river from the Broomielaw to the Point House, had less than two feet water. In 1770, an act of Parliament was procured, by which the members of the city corporation were appointed trustees, with power to levy dues. The trustees then contracted with Mr Golborne for deepening the river; and in January 1775, he had erected 117 jetties on both sides, which confined it within narrow bounds, so that vessels drawing more than six feet water came up to the Broomielaw at the height of the tide. On the 7th of September 1781, Mr Golborne made an estimate for bringing vessels drawing seven feet water, to the Broomielaw. Since that period several eminent engineers have suggested improvements, the greater part of which have been carried into effect. On the 22d of August 1799, Mr John Rennie, civil-engineer, London, gave a detailed report respecting the deepening of the river, as did also Mr Thomas Telford, civil-engineer, London, on 24th May 1806; Mr John Rennie again on the 24th of December 1807; Mr Whidbey of Plymouth on the 22d of September 1824; Mr John Clark, superintendent of the river, on the 11th of November 1824; and Mr Charles Atherton, civil-engineer, Glasgow, in 1833.

In 1825, the trustees obtained another act of Parliament appointing five merchants not connected with the corporation, additional trustees on the river; and increasing the dues on all goods passing on the river from Is. to 1s. 4d. per ton, and on the ad-measurement of all vessels coming to the harbour, in name of harbour dues, from 1d. to 2d. per ton. The same act authorized dues to be levied for the use of sheds, according to a regulated schedule, the former dues of is. per ton on coals having been taken off.

Mr James Spreull was appointed superintendent of the river in 1798, and until his death in 1824, he was enthusiastic in every thing that related to its improvement. The increase of trade at the Broomielaw, in consequence of the improvements of the river, almost exceeds belief. Less than fifty years ago, a few gabbards, and these only about thirty or forty tons, could come up to Glasgow: by the year 1831, vessels drawing thirteen feet six inches of water were' enabled to come up to the harbour; and now large vessels, many of them upwards of 300 tons burden, from America, the East and West Indies, and the Continent of Europe, are often to be found three deep along nearly the whole length of the harbour. During the year 1834, about 27,000 vessels passed Renfrew Ferry; and at some periods in the year between twenty and thirty passed in one hour. A few years ago the harbour was only 730 feet long on one side, it is now 3340 feet long on the north side of the river, and 1260 on the south. Till of late years there were only a few punts and ploughs for the purpose of dredging the river, now, there are four dredging-machines, with powerful steam apparatus, and two diving-bells. Till lately there was no covering for goods at the harbour, and but one small crane for loading and discharging, now, the shed accommodation on both sides of the river is most ample, and one of the cranes for shipping steam-boat-boilers, and other articles of thirty tons, made by Messrs Claud Girdwood and Company may, for the union of power with elegance of construction, . challenge all the ports in the kingdom. The river for seven miles below the city is confined within narrow bounds; and the sloping banks formed of whinstone, in imitation of ashlar, are unequalled in the kingdom, whether their utility or their beauty be taken into account.

Till 1834 the river and harbour dues were annually disposed of by public sale, but now they are collected by the trustees. The following is a statement of the amount of tonnage and harbour dues in the years specified: In 1771, the first year's dues were L. 1021; in 1810, L. 4959; in 1812, L. 5525; in 1815, L. 5680; in 1833, L.20,260; in 1834, L. 21,260,--exclusive of L. 1564 for shed dues. The dues for the year ending on 8th July 1835 amounted to L. 31,497. The sum of L. 8673, which has this year been added to the revenue, arises partly from the new mode of collection, and partly from the great increase of trade. The public are chiefly indebted for the change in the mode of collection to Mr James Hutchison, and Mr James Browne, two of the trustees.

In virtue of an old charter, the burgesses of Dumbarton are exempt from river dues. From the time the exemption was first claimed on 9th July 1825, to 8th July 1834, they amounted to L. 4722, 13s. viz, sailing vessels L. 803, 13s. 4d; steam ditto L. 3918, 19s. 8d, less L. 170, 3s. 1d. paid by shareholders in steamboats, who were not burgesses of Dumbarton.

The river dues have been greatly increased by steam navigation, as appears from the following statement. From 8th July 1833 to 9th July 1834, the river dues collected stood to the gross revenue as follows: Total tonnage on merchandize 70¼ per cent. ditto by sailing vessels, including ferries, 38 5/6 per cent; ditto by steam ditto 31 5/8 a per cent.; quay dues by ditto, 15 1/6per cent: ditto by sailing ditto 5 1/5 per cent; shed dues 5 7/12. per cent.; ferries, 3 5/8 per cent. Total steam to total sailing vessels as 87 7/60 to 100.

The trustees in 1834, appointed Mr David Logan, civil-engineer, a gentleman of great experience and scientific acquirements, to direct the improvements of the river. At present great and meritorious exertions are making in widening the harbour and the narrow parts of the river, and deepening it throughout. While the present trustees are entitled to high commendation for their exertions, it is not our intention to detract from the merits of the former trustees. Mr Golborne laid the foundation of the improvements of the river, but it is to the praiseworthy exertions of individuals composing the improvement committees during the last twenty years, while following out the suggestions of the civil-engineers, that the river has been brought to a state of so great perfection. At that period the revenue, as has been already shown, was under L. 6000, yet with that comparatively small suns, unaided by the large revenue since obtained from steam navigation, important improvements had been made, and it is no more than justice to Provost Dalglish (for a long time chairman of the improvement committee) to say, that, to the energies of his mind, sound judgment, and unwearied exertions, the public are greatly indebted for the splendid improvements on the river. The present trustees, with a revenue of L. 31,497, subject only to the interest of the debt, amounting at last balance to L. 125,231, 14s. 10d., will be enabled to do a great deal towards the general improvement of the river.

Since the deepening of the river, ship-building has been introduced here. A large steam vessel for the Mediterranean trade was lately launched at Glasgow.

Application of the Steam-Engine in propelling vessels.—The application of steam in propelling vessels long engaged the attention of men of mechanical genius. In 1736, Mr Jonathan Hulls obtained a patent for 11 a new invented machine for carrying vessels or ships out of or into any harbour, port, or river, against wind and tide, or in a calm;" but this scheme did not succeed. In 1781, the Marquis de Fouffroy made some unsuccessful experiments in propelling vessels by steam on the Saone at Lyons. In 1785, Mr James Rumsey of Virginia, and Mr John Fitch of Philadelphia, made several experiments, which were also unsuccessful. In the same year, Air Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, Dumfries-shire, made several experiments with paddles, on twin and triple vessels, worked by men and horses, an account of which he published in February 1787. Soon after this, Mr Miller, built a boat with two keels, between which he introduced a propelling paddle; and Mr William Symington of Falkirk, applied the steam-engine to it; and in 1788, Mr Miller and Mr Symington made an experiment with it on Dalswinton pond. But after several attempts, it was found that the engine and wheel were so inefficient, as occasionally to require the assistance of manual labour at a windlass. Some time after this, Air Miller caused a larger engine to be made at Carron Works, and an experiment was made with it on the Forth and Clyde Canal, which, though answering better than the former, did not succeed. In 1794, the Earl of Stanhope constructed a steam-vessel with paddles under her quarters, but with no better success. In 1801 and 1802, Lord Dundas, then Governor of the Forth and Clyde Navigation, employed Mr Symington to construct a steamboat for that canal, but this boat, from what Mr Symington called the "opposition of narrow minds," was laid up in a creek near Bainsford Bridge, where it remained as a wreck for many years. 1sIr Taylor and other ingenious individuals also failed in their laudable attempts.

The whole race of steam propellers having thus left the field one by one, without being able to effect their object, the ground was occupied by Mr Henry Bell, [Mr Bell was born in the parish of Torphicihen, Linlithgowshire, on 7th April 1767. He died at the Baths, Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire, on 14th November 1830.] who, having a turn for mechanics, made a steam-engine of three horse-power, and employed Messrs John Wood and Company, ship-builders in Port-Glasgow, to build a boat for him, which lie called the Comet. [The progress in steam navigation of late years is truly wonderful. In January 1812, there was not a steam-boat in Europe excepting the " Comet," of three horse power, at Glasgow. Now almost every navigable river in Europe is teeming with them. Some of the Glasgow boats have now upwards of 240 horse power.] On 18th January 1812, the Comet began to ply between Glasgow and Greenock, and made five miles an hour against a head wind, whilst, by simply increasing her power, she went at the rate of seven miles an hour. This was the first vessel that was successfully propelled on a navigable river in Europe, and it is very remarkable, that, notwithstanding the great progress in mechanical science, no improvement has yet been made on Mr Bell's mode; although numerous efforts have been made here and elsewhere for that purpose. It is true that boats go swifter now than formerly, but the propelling system remains the same. To this brief account of the origin of the steam-propelling system in this country, it must be added that the Americans preceded us fully four years. In October 1807, Mr Robert Fulton, an American engineer, launched a steam-boat at New York, which plied with great effect between that city and Albany, a distance of 160 miles.

The above tonnage is register measure; carpenter's measure in steamm-vessels is about one-third more. All the new boats either for the out-sea or river trade, are of greater engine power, and are much more splendidly fitted up for the accommodation of passengers than heretofore. The speed is also greatly improved. The Liverpool boats in 1831 were thought to have made good passages, when they performed the run from Liverpool to Greenock, a distance of 220 miles, in twenty-four to twenty-six hours. It is now done much sooner. On Wednesday, 24th June 1835, the steam-packet City of Glasgow, belonging to Messrs Thomson and Macconnell, left Greenock, and arrived in Liverpool in the unprecedentedly short period of seventeen hours and fifty-five minutes; and the steam-packet Manchester, belonging to Messrs James Martin, and James and George Burns and Company of this city, left the Clarence dock, Liverpool, on Monday evening the 15th December 1834, and arrived in Glasgow, a distance of 240 miles, discharged and loaded her cargoes, and was back again in the same dock within the short period of sixty hours. This was done in the dead of winter, and shows what may be accomplished by steam navigation, from studying the tides in the Mersey and Clyde. The cabin fares for the river boats are rather less than one penny per mile, and for out-sea boats rather more. To Liverpool the fare is L. 1, 5s.

While locomotive engines have succeeded on our rail-roads to admiration, the steam carriages on the common road from Glasgow to Paisley have been abandoned.

The Forth and Clyde Navigation.--In 1768, an act of Parliament was obtained for making a canal from the river Forth, at or near the mouth of the river Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the river Clyde, at or near Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton, with a collateral cut. to the city of Glasgow. On the 10th of June in that year, Sir Lawrence Dundas dug out the first spadeful of earth for the formation of the canal, and it was opened from the eastern to the western sea on the 28th of July 1790. On the 11th of November in the same year, the basin at Port Dundas was finished. The length of the navigation from the Forth to the Clyde is 35 miles, and the cut to Glasgow, 2½ miles. There are 39 locks on the canal, namely, 20 from the Forth to Glasgow, and 19 between the great aqueduct and the Clyde. The length of the locks between the gates is 74 feet, the width 20 feet, and the fall 10 feet. The medium width of the surface of the canal is 56 feet, at bottom 27 feet; and the depth nearly 10 feet. The rise from the east sea to the summit level of the canal at Wineford Lock is 156 feet ; and the descent to the Clyde 150 feet, so that the Forth at the east end of the canal is 6 feet lower than the Clyde at Bowling. This great canal, which required 22 years for its completion, was one of the most arduous to execute in the kingdom; having to encounter rocks, precipices, and quicksands ; in some places it runs through a deep moss, and in others it is banked 20 feet high. It crosses many rivulets and roads, as well as 2 considerable rivers, the Luggie and the Kelvin. The bridge over the latter, which consists of four arches, and carries the canal across a deep valley, cost L. 8509. The canal is supplied with water by eight reservoirs covering 721 acres, and containing 24,902 lock-fulls of water.

Mr Kirkman Finlay of Castle Toward, the present governor, was elected to that important office on 20th March 1816. At the following balance the rate per cent. on each original share of L. 100 was L. 25. The annual average revenue during sixteen years previous to Mr Finlay being appointed governor, was L. 30,323, 7s. 6d.; and the annual average revenue during sixteen years after it was L. 46,680, 11s. 4d.

. In 1832, there were 2 steam passage-boats on the canal ; each of 24 horse power. These boats went at the rate of six miles an hour. In 1833, the steam-boats gave place to swift iron boats, which travel at the rate of 10 miles an hour. Five of these boats leave Port Dundas for Stirling and Edinburgh, and return every lawful day, and two additional ones are in a state of preparation. In 1832, the revenue from steam and heavy drag boats was L.1213, 19s. 5d.; in 1833 from the swift boats L. 3007, 19s. Id.; and in 1834, upwards of L. 5000.

Monkland Canal.—This canal affords a cheap communication between the city of Glasgow, and the collieries in the parishes of Old and New Monkland, distant about 12 miles. The canal was originally 35 feet broad at the top, and 24 at the bottom, depth of water upon the lock sills 5 feet, and the smallest depth throughout any part of the canal 4 feet 6 inches. The banks have been recently raised, by which a greater depth of water is procured. At Blackhill there are 4 locks of 2 chambers, each chamber 71 feet long, 14 feet broad, and 12 feet deep. The head level at the top of Blackhill is continued to Sheepford, a distance of 8 miles, where there are 2 single locks of 11 feet 6 inches each, which carries the canal to the river Calder. In the spring of 1813, 3 passage-boats began to ply to Sheepford, about a mile from Airdrie. This canal has been productive to the stockholders for a number of years past.

Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan Canal.—The expense of land-carriage from Glasgow to the west coast through the fertile counties of Renfrew, and Ayr, abounding with coal and limestone, suggested a water conveyance. The operations on the canal commenced in May 1807, and the navigation opened between Glasgow and Johnstone on the 4th of October 1811. Although the canal was opened at that period, the trade did not commence till April 1812. The length of the canal from Port Eglinton to Ardrossan is 32½ miles, from Port Eglinton to Johnstone 11 miles, breadth at top 30 feet, at bottom 18. feet, and depth 4 feet 6 inches. There are no locks on that part of the canal yet executed, viz. between Port Eglinton and Johnstone; but when the canal is carried forward, there will be eight near Johnstone to raise the canal to the summit level, and thirteen to fall down to the harbour of Ardrossan. On the 6th of November 1810, passage-boats were put on this canal; but Mr William Houston, of Johnstone Castle, has the merit of introducing swift iron boats.

The great increase of passengers may be seen from the following statement.

The passengers did not all travel from Glasgow to Johnstone, many of them leaving at intermediate stages. During the months of July and August 1834, 50,000 persons took passages on the canal;—the number in one day was 2500. The proportions of the best cabin and second cabin passengers are, one-fifth of the best cabin passengers at one penny per mile, and four-fifths of second cabin passengers at three farthings per mile. The average total fare on the canal is therefore sixteen-twentieths of a penny per mile. The swift boats on the Forth and Clyde, and Union Canals, ply at similar rates.

Union Canal.—The Union Canal was begun on the 3d of March 1818. It is 312 miles in length from Port-Hopetoun, near Edinburgh, to Port-Downie, near Falkirk. The navigation for ten miles west from Port-Hopetoun was opened on the 22d of March 1822, and to Port-Downie early in May thereafter. The canal is on a level line for 30 miles from-Port Hopetoun,-----the re- maining distance is occupied by 11 locks, each 10 feet deep, so that the Union Canal at the head of the locks is 110 feet above the Forth and Clyde Navigation. The Union Canal is 40 feet broad at the top, 20 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet deep. This canal has not yet been productive to such stockholders as have not an interest in the Forth and Clyde Navigation.

The Garnkirk Railway from Glasgow to near Airdrie was partially opened on the 2d of July 1831. On l st February 1832, the locomotive engine, the "Glasgow," built by Messrs Johnston and M'Nab of this city, hauled a train of 36 loaded coal waggons 84 miles, a gross weight of about 145 tons, in 1 hour and 7 minutes, thus carrying a load of twenty times her own weight. This was the first locomotive engine made in Scotland on the improved construction.

Stage-Coachies.—Stage-coaches were first used in Scotland in 1678. The first mail-coach from London to Glasgow arrived at the Saracen's Head on Monday the 7th of July 1788. At that period the mail went by Leeds, a distance of 405 miles, and arrived in 65 hours, travelling at nearly 61 miles in the hour; in 1835 the mail goes by Wetherby, a distance of 395 miles, and arrives in 41 hours. The speed from Carlisle to Glasgow is at the rate of 11 miles an hour. On the 10th of January 1799, Mr John Gardner of the Bucks Head, Glasgow, started a coach to Edinburgh with four horses, which performed the journey of 42 miles in 6 hours. The time now occupied on the road by stage-coaches is about 42 hours.

In 1833 there were on an average 61 stage coaches, which departed from, and returned to Glasgow, every lawful day. The mails every day are,—to London, 2; Edinburgh, 12; Paisley, 13; Hamilton, 3; Lanark, 3; Perth, 2; Stirling, 2; and to other towns, 22. These coaches were drawn by 183 horses, and 671 horses are kept for them. They accommodated 832 passengers; via. inside 284, outside 548.

The intercourse with Glasgow by coaches, steam-boats, track-boats, and rail-roads, is so great that it almost exceeds belief. As some of the coaches and steam-boats depart and arrive more than once a-day, and the mail-coaches every day, the following may be taken as a low average of passengers by stage-coaches, and steamboats; while the others are from the books of the respective companies. During 1834, 61 stage-coaches, each averaging twelve passengers, arrived and departed during 313 lawful days. This gave 458,232 persons in the year. By 37 steam-boats, 25 passengers each 579,050; by the swift boats oil the Forth and Clyde Navigation and Union Canal, 91,975; by the light iron boats on the Paisley Canal, 307,275; by the boats on the Monkland Canal, 31,784; and by the Glasgow and Garnkirk Rail-road, 118,882; the gross number of passengers amounting to 1,587,198.

Private Carriages.—Mr Allan Dreghorn, timber-merchant and builder, was the first person who started a private carriage in this city. It was made by his own workmen in 1752. The number of carriages in the city and suburbs charged with duty in 1832 was 402, viz. stage-coaches 61; hackney carriages 140; private carriages, 201, viz, with four wheels 114, two wheels 87. The private carriages have increased considerably during the last two years.

Relays of post-chaises did not exist in Scotland except on the roads from Edinburgh to London, till the year 1776; and even in England, relays are of comparatively recent date. Mr John Glass-ford and Mr Andrew Thomson Senior, Glasgow merchants, went to London on horseback in the year 1739. At that period there was no turnpike road till they came to Grantham, within 110 miles of London. Up to that point they travelled upon a narrow causeway, with an unmade soft road upon each side of it; and they met from time to time strings of pack-horses, from thirty to forty in a gang,—the mode by which goods were transported from one part of the country to another.

Mills.—The town mills on the Molendinar Burn, erected about the middle of the fourteenth century, supplied from the Hogganfield and Frankfield lochs, are not of so much use to the inhabitants as they were before steam-mills were introduced. The water and steam-mills on the river Kelvin, at Partick and Clay-slap, belonging to the corporation of bakers, are very extensive, and of a superior construction. The establishment contains a large steam-mill, seven water-wheels, twenty-two pairs of stones, (Bourdeaux Burrs,) six boultin, and three shoaling machines. The granaries and kilns are proportionate to the mills, which can grind 1.2,000 bushels of wheat weekly. The bakers got-a grant of their old mill at Partick from the Regent Murray, for their services at the battle of Langside on 13th May 1568. The value of the mill property is upwards of L. 50,000.

Markets.—The markets for butcher-meat, fish, cheese, butter, &c. have been much neglected of late. The great increase of the town has induced persons at a distance from the markets to resort to shops. The live-cattle market is, however, an exception, and is entitled to particular notice. Prior to the year 1818, the principal butchers in this city were frequently obliged to travel a circuit of seventy or eighty miles to purchase cattle in lots, and to rent expensive parks in the neighbourhood of the city to graze them in; but since the erection of the live-cattle market, the mode of supply is completely changed. In 1818, the magistrates fitted up a spacious market-place, between the great roads to Edinburgh, by Gallowgate and Duke Street, in which there are a commodious inn, stables, sheds, a byre to contain 120 bullocks in view, and 260 pens to contain 9360 sheep. This market-place, allowed to be the most complete in the kingdom, occupies an area of 29,560 square yards, or rather more than six imperial acres, is paved with whinstones, and enclosed with stone walls. Since its formation, graziers and dealers from Aberdeenshire to Dumfries-shire, and from Berwickshire to Argyleshire, find it their interest to send their cattle to this market, where they find a ready sale, and return in cash. It is admitted that this market has been of great use to all classes of the community, excepting perhaps the more wealthy butchers. The graziers and dealers are benefited by a regular sale, without running the risk of bad debts. The public have a more regular and plentiful supply of butcher-meat of the best quality. The butcher is saved the trouble, and the public, the expense, of travelling. The butcher of small capital, who formerly had not the means of getting good meat, can now go to market; and if his capital be equal to the purchase of a bullock, and a dozen of sheep or lambs, he can compete with his more wealthy brethren. Monopoly is now unknown. The dues of the market were let by public sale in 1832 on lease, at L. 1075 per annum, which leaves an annual profit to the trustees of upwards of L. 500. It was Dr Cleland who projected and established this important market..

The advantages arising from this market have induced the Irish graziers to send cattle to it. On the 18th December 1834, the Green Isle steamer arrived in Glasgow from Drogheda, loaded exclusively with cattle and pigs. This was the first cattle-carrying steamer that arrived in the Clyde, and the traffic is to be continued. In 1822, a few rumps of beef were sent by the Edinburgh butchers to the Glasgow market, and this trade has increased so much, that during 1834, 7210 rumps were sent to Glasgow, the average value of each being 20s.

Public Buildings.—In a work of this nature, an architectural description of the public buildings in Glasgow would be superfluous. We shall therefore confine ourselves merely to mentioning a few of the most prominent of those appropriated for ecclesiastical purposes, and a few for the civil concerns of the city. For ecclesiastical, the first in order is the Cathedral, which is allowed to be the most splendid edifice of old English architecture that is to be found in Scotland. Its length from east to west is 319 feet, width 63 feet, height of the nave 90 feet, and of the choir 85 feet.

In this edifice there are 2 steeples, 147 pillars, and 159 windows of various dimensions, many of them of exquisite workmanship.

St Andrew's, St David's, and St Enoch's Churches, and the Albion Street, George Street, and Wellington Street Chapels, belonging to the Dissenters, are fine specimens of architecture. For civil purposes the Royal Exchange is prominent. This building, from designs by Mr David Hamilton, a native of Glasgow, is remarkable for its beauty, its extent, and its architectural decorations. Mr Hamilton was also architect to Hamilton Palace, one of the greatest architectural ornaments in Scotland. The Hunterian Museum, from designs by Mr William Stark, is a beautiful model of a Greek Temple. The Royal Infirmary by Adams, and the Lunatic Asylum by Stark, are at once ornamental and appropriate for their respective purposes.

Streets and Squares.—The streets, with the exception of some of those in the old part of the town, are all sixty feet wide, and the houses are built of stone and covered with slate. There are four squares, viz. Blythswood's, George's, St Enoch's, and St Andrew's. The three former are planted with shrubberry, and St Andrew's Church stands in the centre of the last.

Burying Grounds.—There are twenty burying grounds in the city and suburbs. [When the northwest burying ground was formed, it was distant from houses, but now, from the great increase of population, it is in the very centre of the city, sur.. rounded by houses on all sides, and consequently very offensive to the neighbourhood. As it would be a very arduous undertaking to remove a public burying ground, where there are burying places for more than 500 families, I)r Cleland suggested throwing the whole burying ground into a grand vaulted cemetery, the groined arches supporting a floor of upwards of 7000 square yards, to be appropriated for public purposes. This magnificent scheme, of which a plan was lithographed at the expense of the corporation, and widely circulated, would not only relieve the town of a nuisance, but from the central situation of the ground, would give an excellent opportunity for bazaar purposes, while light and air would be preserved for the health of the inhabitants.] The Necropolis, formed by the Merchants' House in 1830, in their elevated park adjoining the cathedral, in imitation of the cemetery Pere la Chaise in Paris, stands unrivalled in the kingdom for picturesque effect.

[Mr Rickman, the celebrated architect, who gave the design for St David's Church in this city, in his work on Gothic Architecture, 3d edit., p. 336, says, "That the crypt of the cathedral of Glasgow is not equalled by any in the kingdom. The piers and groins are all of the most intricate character, the most beautiful design, and excellent execution. The flowered capitals of the piers are much like those of York." The choir of the cathedral was renovated several years ago by the corporation, in a manner which does it great honour, so much so, that it is not too much to say, that the Cathedral Church of Glasgow is unrivalled in Scotland. But to the regret of every man of taste, the magnificent nave has been allowed to get into a state of great dilapidation. The arches, and the tabernacle work, and the images at the rood-loft at the east end are in decay, and the mullions and flowing tracery of the windows in the north and south facades, are in a similar condition. The west end is bounded by a bare wall, erected 170 years ago, and quite incompatible with the grandeur and architectural effect of the other parts. Such is the condition of the nave of the Glasgow cathedral. Instead of its being a great ornament to the city, it is calculated to impress strangers with the lowest estimate of the taste and public spirit of the citizens of Glasgow.

Impressed with the importance of the measure, Dr Cleland frequently suggested to the public the renovation of the nave, and at length, on the 22d October 1329, he drew up, printed, and widely circulated, an appeal to his fellow-citizens, and commenced a subscription for this important and necessary work, but owing to an unexpected difficulty, raised on the part of the crown, to whom the edifice belongs, the projected improvements were postponed. The public mind thus directed, never lost sight of the scheme. In 1832, Mr Archibald M'Lellan, then a member of the town-council, and president of the Dilletanti Society, suggested, in his valuable work on Cathedrals, that the Outer High Church, then deeply affected by dry rot, should be abandoned as a place of worship, and restored to the nave. While this magnificent scheme would have had no chance of success in 1829, as matters then were, there is now every prospect of its being carried into effect, from the circumstance of that church having, in 1835, been formally declared by two eminent physicians, an unfit for a place of worship. The corporation, as proprietors of the seats, having thus no alternative, have commenced the building of a church in High John Street, in lieu of the Outer High Church. The nave, including the space now occupied by that church, will then be a receptacle for monuments to departed worth, and the grand entrance to the Cathedral Church. Even in its present dilapidated state, there are monuments in the nave, which would be considered elegant in Westminster Abbey, and worthy of a place in St Paul's Cathedral.

There is now every reason to believe that Government will contribute liberally to the renovation of the Cathedral out of the burgh and barony teinds, Dr Cleland having lately had an opportunity of pointing out the defects to the Right Honourable Sir John Cam Hobhouse, at that time Chief Commissioner of the Woods and Forests, which Board has been lately entrusted with the management of the Crown ecclesiastical edifices.

Some time prior to 1817, his Majesty's Government resolved that in future they would not give a tack of Crown teinds without a fine of three years free teind. On 5th July 1823, William Smith, Esq. of Carbeth-Guthrie, then Lord Provost, and Dr Cleland attended the Exchequer Court in Edinburgh, and obtained a tack of the teinds for the corporation and the Barony-heritors on the following terms:

]

Monuments and Statues.—Amongst others may be enumerated an equestrian statue of William III. erected at the cross; an obe. lisk in Honour of Lord Nelson, in the Green ; a pedestrian statue of Sir John Moore, in bronze, on a granite pedestal, by Flaxman, in George Square; a pedestrian statue of William Pitt, in marble, by Flaxman, in the Town-Hall; a trophy monument in honour of Lieutenant-Colonel Cadogan, (71st, or Glasgow Regiment,) in, marble, by Hamilton, in the nave of the cathedral; a pillar surmounted by a statue in honour of John Knox, by Forrest, in the Necropolis; a pedestrian statue of James Watt, in bronze, on a granite pedestal, in George Square, by Chantry; also a pedestrian statue of James Watt, in marble, by Chantry, in the Hunterian Museum; and an architectural monument, with a statue of William M'Gavin, by Forrest, in the Necropolis. It has not yet been determined in what part of the town the monumental column in honour of Sir Walter Scott is to be placed.

Theatre.—Previously to the Reformation, and for some time afterwards, pantomime representations of the history of our Saviour, his miracles, and passion, were exhibited in this city. It does not appear that any theatrical representation was allowed in this city from the Reformation in 1560 till 1750. At the latter period, Mr Burrell's dancing-hall in the High Street was used for that purpose,—being four years after the theatre in the Canongate of Edinburgh was opened, which was the first regular theatre in Scotland after the Reformation. In 1752, a booth or temporary theatre was fitted up adjoining the wall of the archbishop's palace, in which Digges, Love, Stampier, and Mrs Ward performed. Messrs Jackson, Love, and Beate, comedians, built a regular theatre in the Grahamston suburb, which was opened in the spring of 1764 by Mrs Bellamy, and other respectable performers. On the first night of performance, the machinery and scenery were set. on fire by some disorderly persons. When the stage was refitted, the theatre was occasionally kept open, but with very indifferent success; and at one o'clock on the morning of the 16th April 1782, it was burnt to the ground. There was no theatre in Glasgow from this period till January 1785, when the Dunlop Street Theatre, erected by Mr Jackson, was opened by Mrs Siddons, Mrs Jourdan, and other performers. From this period the taste for theatricals increased so much, that a subscription was set on foot for a theatre upon a large scale ; and on the 24th of April 1805, the most magnificent provincial theatre in the empire was opened in Queen Street., at an expense of L. 18,500. It was let on lease for L. 1200 per annum ; but it was soon found that the taste for theatricals did not keep pace with the sums laid out for accommodation and splendour. The premises were then let at the reduced rent of L. 800 to others, who also failed to implement their engagement, and even when the rent was lowered to L. 400, it was paid with difficulty. The property was then sold at a price, only equal to the outstanding debts and ground rent, so that the shareholders got nothing. This splendid edifice was burned to the ground on the forenoon of the 10th of January 1829; a gas light, having come in contact with the ceiling of one of the lobbies, leading to the upper gallery. After this catastrophe, the old theatre in Dunlop Street was enlarged and embellished by Mr Alexander; and is found to be quite large enough for the play-going people of Glasgow and neighbourhood.

Cock-Fighting.—In former times cock-fighting was so prevalent in this part of the country, that on certain holidays, school-boys provided cocks, and the fight was superintended by the master. But as civilization advanced, this practice gradually disappeared, and at length the amusement in the estimation of many came under the denomination of cruelty to animals. During the latter part of the last and the beginning of the present century, cock-fighting in this city was conducted in a clandestine manner. In 1807, our cock-fighting amateurs, finding a vacant temporary building in Queen Street, made preparations for fighting a main, but when the sport had just commenced, a portion of the city and county magistrates made their appearance and dismissed the meeting. Since that period mains have occasionally been fought here without the interference of the authorities. Of late, however, the desire for this amusement has so much increased, that in this year (1835) a spacious building has been erected for a cock-pit in Hope Street, on the joint stock principle. This building, which is seated for about 280 persons, has suitable accommodation for the judges, handlers, and feeders, and is inferior in nothing to the Westminster pit, but in its dimension-. The company who frequent. the Glasgow cock-pit do not belong to the "exclusives;" for here we have all grades from the senator to the journeyman butcher.

Corporation of Glasgow.—Glasgow was governed by a Provost and Bailies so early as the year 1268. In 1605, the constitution of the burgh was settled in three distinct bodies, viz. the towncouncil, the merchants' and the trades' houses. The town-council consisted of certain persons from the rank of merchants and trades. In 1801, some alteration was made on the constitution; and from that period till 1833, the corporation consisted of a Provost, five Bailies, twelve Councillors from the merchants, and eleven from the trades rank, a master of work, and a treasurer. The Gorbals and water bailies were chosen from the council, who elected themselves. One-third went out of the council every year, and could not return for three years. The merchants' house sent a list of three persons to the council, from which they elected one to be Dean of Guild; and in like manner the trades' house, when one of the three was elected convener.

Since 1833, when the Burgh Reform Act passed, the Town-Council has been chosen by the Parliamentary constituency, consisting of upwards of 7000 persons, who pay a yearly rent of at least L. 10.- The city is divided into five wards, each ward electing six Councillors. The Dean of Guild and Convener of the Trades are elected by their respective houses. When added to the Councillors, they elect a Provost, five Bailies, a Treasurer, and Master of Work; one-third of the Councillors go out of office every year, but may be immediately re-elected. The revenue of the city varies from L. 15000 to L. 16000.
Previously to the passing of the Reform Act, the burghs of Glasgow, Rutherglen, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, elected one individual to represent them in Parliament; but since that act has been in operation, the above-mentioned constituency for Glasgow return two Members to Parliament. The first Members under the Reform Act were Mr James Ewing of Levenside, and Mr James Oswald of Shieldhall, both merchants in Glasgow.

In thus giving a brief account of the former and present constitution of the corporation of Glasgow, it has been shewn that the Burgh Reform Act has placed the management of the corporation affairs in the hands of Councillors elected by those who enjoy the ten pound franchise. That the time had arrived when a salutary Reform in the Scotch burghs became necessary is admitted by all who had the good of their country at heart; abuses in the lapse of ages having crept into the management of many of them.

It is, however, gratifying to know, that, for more than a century bypast, the managers of the corporation of Glasgow have been distinguished for ability, purity of conduct, and integrity in the discharge of their multifarious duties. The city, from having had a mean appearance, is now the most splendid of any manufacturing city or town in the empire. Nor has their exertions been con6ned only to the embellishment of the city; for trade, commerce, and numerous benevolent institutions have prospered in their hands, and when they surrendered their trust to the Reformed Town-Council in November 1833, the funds were in a flourishing condition.

Several years ago, when that able and indefatigable reformer, Lord Archibald Hamilton, advocated Burgh Reform in the House of Commons, his Lordship stated in the Committee of which he was Chairman, that the affairs of the city of Glasgow were conducted in the most honourable and open manner. Indeed, the faithful and disinterested management of the corporation concerns of Glasgow has long been acknowledged all over the country.

Of the Reformed Town-Council the citizens of Glasgow have not yet had much experience. There is, however, one part of their conduct, which, as we consider it an evil, we animadvert upon, in the hope of repressing it in their successors. Some of the councillors, unwarily, or it may be from ambition, pledged themselves to certain measures, and thereby became delegates of a party, instead of being representatives of the whole community. This is to be regretted the more, as a majority of the council have suspended a part of the local taxes for a purpose not affecting the general interest. Should this measure be carried into effect, which the best informed consider illegal, it will necessarily prevent their successors from improving the city, building churches, reducing church seat-rents for the poor, maintaining market-places, gaols, and other local services,—for which such taxes were long since granted by royal authority or legislative enactment.

It was to be expected that, in a great community like this, there would be some political demagogues who, intoxicated by the power conferred on them by the Burgh Reform Act, would abuse it; but let us indulge the hope, that, when the political effervescence has had time to subside, the electors and elected will join hand in hand for the public good without respect to political party, and that the future councillors, like many of those now intrusted with the municipal concerns of the city, will be men of integrity and honourable feeling, whose every effort will be to promote the good of the community.

Gaol and Court-Houses.—For a number of years previous to 1807, the gaol at the cross had become deficient in almost every requisite. Situated in the centre of the city, without court-yards, chapel, or infirmary, it contained no more than thirty-two apartments for the accommodation of prisoners of every description, collected occasionally from the populous counties of Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, and invariably at the justiciary circuits,—having very slender accommodation for the local courts of justice, whilst that for the circuit court of justiciary was quite inadequate. Impressed with the necessity of affording more suitable accommodation for the courts of justice, and more convenient and healthful apartments for prisoners, the magistrates and council, on the 13th of February 1807, resolved to erect a new gaol and public offices in a healthy situation adjoining the river, at the bottom of the public green. This building, which cost L. 34,800, contains, exclusively of the public offices, 122 apartments for prisoners. As there is a water-closet in each gallery, every individual prisoner, debtor and delinquent, has access to one of them, and to an unlimited supply of pure filtered water from the Water Company's pipes; and pipes are introduced into each court, from which they are daily washed, and the air in them frequently cooled in hot weather. There are two rooms, with anti-rooms, insulated from the gaol, for persons under sentence of death, and so constructed, that irons are never used. It is believed that this is the only prison in the kingdom where persons under sentence of death are not put in irons. Every room is provided with the necessary utensils at the expense of the corporation. There is a well-aired Infirmary room, though it is seldom used, from the healthiness of the prisoners; and the chapel is seated to contain about 200 persons. The governor's house is so constructed, that, from his sitting parlour, he can overlook both court-yards. The justiciary hall is so spacious as to contain about 500 persons. It is, however, much to be regretted that there are some radical defects in this gaol.

The number of incarcerations in the gaol for debt has of late years happily decreased, whilst the incarcerations for delinquency have been rather on the increase.

In 1831, it was ascertained for Government that there were 630 persons incarcerated for debt, viz. on Justice of Peace decrees, 110; Sheriff's decrees, 287 ; acts of warden, 61; letters of caption, 150; warrants medit. fugea, 22.

For delinquency, 758; viz, on criminal warrants, 679; deserted from the army, 42; lawburrows, 11; breach of sequestration, 9; breach of servitude, 5; breach of game-laws, 1; Crown debtors, now classified with delinquents, 11. During the last seven years there have been no deaths among the debtors, and only 4 among the delinquents.

The average number of delinquents committed yearly during five years, ending on the 31st December 1834, was 667. From 1765 to 1830, 89 persons were executed in Glasgow, of which number 5 were females. During the first 12 years there were only 6 persons executed, whilst in the last 12 there were 37. During 66 years previously to 1831, there were 26 in which there were no executions, 15 in which there was 1 each year; ten, 2; seven, 3; four, 4; one, 5; and two in which there were 6. From the 29th of September 1830, to the 20th of January 1834, 12 persons have been executed in Glasgow, viz. 11 males, and 1 female; of whom 6 were for murder, 1 for rape, 1 for hamesucken, 1 for robbery, and 3 for housebreaking and theft. From the 4th of May 1818, to the 8th of October 1834, 6 persons received sentence of death, but had their punishment commuted to transportation for life, viz. 4 males and 2 females; of whom I for murder, 1 for hamesucken and rape, l for robbery, and 1 for housebreaking and theft; the two females for issuing forged bank notes.

Bridewell.—The Bridewell in Duke Street was opened on the 8th of May 1798, and supported by the corporation funds for upwards of twenty-four years. This building, which still remains, consists of six stories, and contains 105 cells. Although but ill suited for classification, it answered the purpose for a number of years; but, from the great increase of population, and consequently of crime, in the city and county, it was agreed that the new buildings should be so large as to contain the city and county prisoners, combining the improvements which experience had pointed out. The authorities having procured an act of Parliament for assessing the city and county for building and maintaining a Bridewell, they erected a set of buildings so well suited for the purpose, as to be the admiration of all who have made prisons and prison-discipline their study. This prison, which adjoins the former one, was opened on the 25th of December 1824. It combines all the advantages of modern improvement, security, seclusion, complete classification, and healthful accommodation.

The commitments in 1834 were as follows:

The average number daily in the prison was 320; viz. males, 162; females, 158.

* The following abstract statement of the General Penitentiary at 11Sillbank, Middlesex, taken from the report of a committee, whereof the Right Hon. Lord Bexley was chairman, (ordered to be printed by the House of Commons on 10th of March 1831,) may be contrasted with the foregoing statement of the Glasgow Bride-well. On 31st December 1830, there were in the Penitentiary 566 prisoners, viz. males, 405; females, 161.

It appears from the above statement, that, besides the sum of L. 116, 5s. 3d. paid to inmates, the produce of the work performed maintained all the prisoners, with a surplus of L. 401, 14s. 11d. —which surplus goes to lessen the expense of repairs on the buildings, and the salaries and wages. The whole deficiency, amounting to L. 590, 10s. divided by 1967, the number committed, shows that the net expense to the public for every committal is no more than 6s., the average period of residence being 59'-2 days. Taking another view, the deficiency of L. 590, 10s. where applied to 320, the daily average of inmates, shows the expense of each prisoner to be L. 1, 16s. 11d, per annum, 2s. 10d. per month, or about 8½ d. weekly.

This distinguished establishment, so creditable to the city and county, while inferior to no prison for discipline and cleanliness, is conspicuous for the economy* with which it is managed. The bare recital of the foregoing facts forms a high panegyric on the talents and industry of Mr Brebner, the governor.

House of Refuge.—During the last thirty years, several attempts have been made in this city to reclaim vagrant boys, but hitherto without effect. This arose chiefly from the youths being already confirmed in evil habits, and from the want of an asylum and rigid superintendence. To abate this moral pestilence, a subscription has lately been entered into, which now exceeds L. 10,500, for the erection of a permanent House of Refuge in this city. Four acres of the lands of White-hill have been purchased, and a plan by Mr John Bryce, architect, combining all the recent improvements, has been adopted. To those who, like us, have long witnessed the depravity of a class of society to be found in all large manufacturing communities, this announcement must give great satisfaction, and to none more than to the Right Honourable the Lord Justice-Clerk, (Boyle,) who so often from the Bench, in lamenting the number and depravity of young thieves, recommended a house of refuge.

The number of orphans, and, what is even worse, the number of children of depraved parents, thrown on the public without any one to take care of them, almost exceeds belief. A great proportion of these children are brought up in ignorance, in idleness, and vice, without the fear of God, and very little of man. To prevent those evils in the very young, and to mitigate those in more advanced years, is the benevolent object of the managers of this institution.

While the infant and Sunday schools are thrown open to children of this class of society, an asylum in the House of Refuge will be found for those in more advanced years,—where moral and religious instruction will be communicated, and mechanical trades learned, by which, with the fostering care of the managers, while in the asylum, and after they leave it, they may become useful members of society.

Police.—Till the appointment of a statutory police in 1800, the citizens of Glasgow performed the duties of watching and warding. The buildings in Albion Street are very extensive, and were the first in Scotland erected for the exclusive purpose of police.

Of the concerns of the establishment, which is placed under the management of the magistrates, and one commissioner for each of 35 wards chosen by the rate payers, the following is an abstract for 1834: Disbursements L. 15,033, 13s. 62d. The receipts arise from 1s. per pound on rents exceeding L. 15, and on lower rents less proportionally. Besides the superintendent, collector, clerk, surveyor, and surgeon, there are 8 heads of departments, 3 lieutenants, 58 officers, 135 night-watchmen, 8 coal weighers, 21 lamplighters, 50 firemen, and 20 supernumeraries; in all 308 persons on the establishment. There are 2050 gas lamps with single jets, and 47 with 3 jets; in all 2097 lamps. Of this number between 800 and 900 are taken down in the summer months.

Bridges.—Bridges are a sort of edifices very difficult to execute, on account of the inconvenience of laying foundations, and walling under water. There are three stone bridges, and one timber bridge over the Clyde at Glasgow, exclusive of Rutherglen stone bridge at Barrowfield in the Barony parish.

The original timber bridge over the Clyde having gone into decay about the year 1340, Bishop Rae built a stone bridge at Stockwell Street in 1345. The bridge was originally twelve feet wide, and consisted of eight arches. In 1777 an addition of ten feet was made to its breadth, and two of the northmost arches, built up for the purpose of confining the river within narrower bounds. The communication between the city and the southwest parts of Scotland for more than 400 years was by this bridge. In 1820-21, it was greatly improved by the formation of footpaths, suspended on very tasteful iron framings. The bridge as it now stands is 415 feet long, and 34 wide within the railing.

The foundation stone of the Jamaica Street Bridge was laid on the 29th of September 1768, by the Right Worshipful Provost George Murdoch, acting provincial grand master mason for Glasgow, The bridge had seven arches, was 30 feet wide within the parapets, and 500 feet in length. The design was given by Air William Mylne, architect in Edinburgh, and executed by Mr John Adam.

The foundation stone of Hutcheson's Bridge was laid in 1794, by Provost Gilbert Hamilton, near the foot of Salt Market Street, to connect the lands of Hutchesontown with the city. It had five arches, was 406 feet long, and 26 feet wide within the parapets. On the 18th of November 1795, during an uncommonly high flood in the river, it was unfortunately swept away, after the parapets were nearly completed.

The foundation stone of a new bridge for Hutchestown was laid on the 18th of August 1829, by the Right Worshipful Robert Dalglish, substitute grand master mason for Glasgow, and preceptor of the hospital. This bridge is built on the site of the former one, from a design by Mr Robert Stevenson, civil-engineer; it is 36 feet wide within the parapets, 406 feet long, and has five arches. Mr John Stedman, contractor.

The Timber Bridge at Portland Street, erected in 1832, is 30 feet wide within the railing, has a carriage way and two side pavements. It was designed by Air Robert Stevenson, civil-engineer. Mr William Robertson, contractor.

The increase of trade and population in the city and adjacent districts having been such as to render the Jamaica Street or Broomielaw Bridge unfit for its purposes, the trustees resolved to remove it, and to erect in its stead a bridge which would afford more suitable accommodation, such as the increasing population of the neighbouring districts required. Having obtained an act of Parliament, they procured a design from Air Thomas Telford, civil-engineer, and contracted with Messrs John Gibb and Son, for building the bridge. It is faced with Aberdeen granite, and has a very gentle acclivity. It is 560 feet long over the newals, and 60 feet wide over the parapets; it has seven arches, and is wider than any river bridge in the kingdom.

To commemorate the rebuilding of this bridge it was resolved that the foundation stone should be laid with masonic honours. Dr Cleland having been requested to act as grand director of the ceremonial, preparations were made on a magnificent scale. Having procured a commission for the Lord Provost to lay the foundation stone, from the Right Worshipful Henry Monteith of Carstairs, provincial grand-master for Glasgow, the director requested the very Reverend Principal Macfarlan to preach the sermon in the cathedral, the Rev. Dr Macleod of Campsie, to act as grand-chaplain, and Mr Watson, superintendent of police, as grand-marshal.

-In addition to the civic and ecclesiastical authorities of the city, the procession was honoured by the Magistrates of the following burghs, viz. Rutherglen, Irvine, Renfrew, Paisley, Hamilton, Gorbals, Port-Glasgow, Greenock, Pollock-Shaws, Calton, Airdric, Anderston. Besides the Grand Lodge of Scotland, thirty-two provincial mason lodges attended the procession in all the splendour of the craft. *

The details of this ceremonial, the most splendid that ever took place in Glasgow, have been preserved in a pamphlet, printed at the expense of the Trustees.

Banks.—The Bank of Scotland was established by charter in Edinburgh in 1695, and the following year in Glasgow; but was recalled for want of business in 1697. In 1731, it was again established in Glasgow, and recalled in 1733, from a similar cause. In 1749, the Ship Bank commenced business. This was the first. bank belonging to the city; and till lately it was called the Old Bank. Since 1749, a number of banks have been established in Glasgow. The Glasgow Arms Bank commenced business about the year 1753, the. Thistle Bank in 1761, and the Glasgow Merchants' Bank, and Messrs Watson's and Thomson's banking-houses were formed shortly afterwards. The Royal Bank of Scotland, which was established by charter in Edinburgh in 1727, sent a branch to Glasgow in 1783. The Glasgow Banking Company commenced operations in 1809, the Glasgow Union Banking Company in 1830, and the Western Bank in 1832. These banks, with the exception of the Arms, Merchants, Thomson's, and Watson's, still continue to do business in Glasgow. There are also in Glasgow a branch of the British Linen chartered bank, and fourteen branches from provincial banks.

Provident Bank.—A provident or savings bank was opened in Glasgow on the 3d of July 1815, wherein deposits of Is. and upwards are received, bearing interest at the rate of two and a-half per cent., -,then the sum amounts to 12s. 8d., and has lain one month in the bank. The following is a statement of the concerns of the bank for 1834. It is open every day for deposits, and twice a-week for payments.

It is very gratifying to know, that, during nineteen years, the working-classes in Glasgow have so managed their savings, as to entitle them to L. 10,662, 18s. interest, which, but for this institution, might have been laid out for purposes quite unavailing in the hour of need. The country generally, and the industrious classes particularly, lie under deep obligations to the Rev. Dr Duncan of Ruthwell, the founder of the provident bank scheme.

Post-Office.—The arrangements of this office are not surpassed, if indeed equalled, by any out of London. In 1806, when Mr Bannatyne was appointed post-master, the establishment consisted of a post-master, 3 clerks, a stamper, and 6 letter-carriers; and there were 4 penny post-offices attached to it for the delivery and receipt of letters in the neighbouring district. Receiving-houses in the town for letters to be taken to the post-office had been tried, and had been given up on finding that they were not used. There were two deliveries of letters made daily to every part of the town and suburbs. The Glasgow establishment in 1835 consists of a post-master, 10 clerks, 2 stampers, a superintendent of letter-carriers, and 19 letter-carriers; and there are 26 penny post-offices, and 9 sub-offices attached to it, for the correspondence of the surrounding district. It has 12 receiving-louses distributed in the different parts of the town, the letters put into which are carried to the post-office, to be made up in the separate lines of mails, as they are successively dispatched. There are four complete deliveries of letters now made daily to every part of the town and suburbs; and an answer may be received the same day to a penny post letter put into the office, or a receiving.-house, in time to be sent out with either of the two first deliveries.

The number of penny post letters for Glasgow delivery, exclusively of those delivered through the 26 out-penny offices, was, from October 1833 to October 1834, 192,491 ; and the amount of the revenue derived from them, L. 802, Os. lid. When it is considered, that, in 1833, the revenue was only L. 1700 more than in 1815, whilst the population had increased in the same period upwards of 72,000, and the increase of correspondence in a still greater ratio, we are led to believe that the revenue is greatly defrauded by private carrying.

Rental and Stamps.—The rental of the city and suburbs in 1834 was L. 539,466. Amount of stamps sold in 1828, L. 91,213; in 1830, L.103,802; in 1834, L. 110,930.

Water Companies.—Prior to 1804, the city was scantily supplied by twenty-nine public, and a few private wells. In 1806, the Glasgow Water Company was incorporated, and in 1808 the Cranston Hill Company. From their commencement, till 31st May 1830, the companies had laid out L. 320,244, 10s. id. on their works, which are now considerably extended. In 1831 there were 38,237 renters of water in the city and suburbs. Rates for 1834: Houses rented under L. 4, 5s. per annum; ditto L. 4 and under L. 5, 6s.; L. 5 and not above L. 6, 7s. 6d.; all above L. 6, 64 per cent., or is. 3d. per pound on rental. Public works; high service, i.e. in the more elevated parts of the city, L. 12, 10s. for 1000 gallons per day; low service L. 6, ditto; workmen for drinking, 6d. per head; founderies 1s. per man; lowest charge for a public work, L. 4. Counting-houses, 5s. to 10s. 6d.; water-closets in ditto, 5s. to 10s. 6d.; horses, 4s.; cows, 3s.

Amount of Butcher-Meat, Bread and Milk, consumed in Glasgow.--As the office of Parliamentary Hide Inspector has lately been abolished, the amount of butcher-meat consumed in Glasgow cannot be ascertained with accuracy; we have therefore taken the amount for 1822, from Dr Cleland's folio Statistical Work, when the population was 147,043.

• A Glasgow tron stone contained 16 lbs. of 22½ ounces. Meat is now sold by the imperial stone of 14 lbs. of 16 ounces.

Public Green.—There is probably no town of equal extent in the empire which can boast of such a park as the Green of Glasgow, whether we consider its extent, its use to the inhabitants in its walks, its wells, and its trees, or its picturesque effect on the bank of a beautiful river. The sheep park at the bottom, and the ride and drive of two and a-half miles, give an air of grandeur to the whole. The Green contains 136 imperial acres, and there is grass growing on it now, where grass never grew before. The present state of this splendid park forms a great contrast with what it was before its improvements were intrusted to Dr Cleland. Twenty years ago, the surface of the Low Green was inundated by every swell in the river. The Calton Green was separated from the High Green by the. Camlachie Burn, and the High Green from Provost's Haugh by a deep gott or ditch, from which issued numerous springs, all of 'which are now contained in spacious tunnels. The Calton Green and the Haugh were so much destroyed by powerful springs, that, even with the assistance of open drains, the Green was so soft, as frequently to prevent walking on it even in the greatest drought, while in soft weather it was utterly impassable. The Camlachie Burn, which was formed into a dam for moving machinery to raise water from the river for the use of the washing-house then opposite to Charlotte Street, being frequently stagnant in the summer months, became very offensive. At that period the only entries to the Green from the west were by crooked lanes from the Salt Market Street and the slaughter-house. At the bottom of the Green, now the site of the public offices, the corporation of skinners had a triple range of tan-pits supplied by filthy water from the Molendinar Burn, which ran open in the middle of a narrow street, and the slaughter-house was placed immediately to the west of the tan-pits on the bank of the river, now East Clyde Street. The dung of the slaughter-house, and the intestines of slaughtered animals were collected in heaps, and allowed to remain for months, long after putrefaction had taken place. A glue-work and a manufactory of therm from the intestines of animals recently slaughtered; and rees fitted up for the retail of coals and culm, completed the nuisance. The batik of the river, east from the Stockwell Street Bridge was used by the police as a receptacle for. the filth of the streets.

Coal in the Green.—Unsuccessful attempts having been made from time to time to find coal in the lands belonging to the corporation, Dr Cleland procured permission to make the experiment of boring in the green. He began by erecting a temporary building, into which none were admitted but two operatives and occasionally a mining engineer. The operation of boring commenced on 18th December 1821, and ended on 17th September 1822,—the chisel during that period having gone through various strata to the depth of 366 feet 1 inch, including various seams of coal. A regular daily journal of these operations he embodied in a report, accompanied with folio engraved plans and sections exhibiting the extent of the coal field, and the thickness of seven seams found in the bore, viz. mossdale, rough ell, rough main, humph, splint ell, splint main, and sour-milk, containing in whole about 1,500,000 tons; so that if the output was restricted to 15,000 tons annually, the coal field in the Glasgow Green would last 100 years. Although Dr Cleland has shown, and eminent mining engineers have subsequently certified, that the corporation of Glasgow is possessed of this valuable property, we have no desire in the present state of the funds, to see the beautiful green cut up even with a single coal-pit.

It appears from the Rev. Mr Bowers' account of Old Monkland in the former Statistical Account of Scotland, that, in 1792, Mr Hamilton erected the first steam engine in Scotland at Barrachine for drawing up coals from a pit. Mr Dixon's "Fire-Work" coal pit takes its name from its being the first of the Glasgow pits where coal was drawn up by fire or steam. [It is a curious fact, which we believe is not generally known, that, previous to the year 1775, all colliers and other persons employed in coal works in Scotland, were, by the common law of the land, in a state of slavery. They and their wives and children, if they had assisted for a certain period at a coal work, became the property of the coal master, and were transferable with the coal work, in the same manner as the slaves on a West Indian estate were till lately held to be property, and transferred on a sale of the estate. Besides the law founded on the usage of the country and decisions of the courts, sundry Scotch statutes were enacted for regulating this description of slavery.]

That the citizens of Glasgow have ever been loyal, patriotic, and generous, may be collected from the foregoing brief account of the city. When the country was suffering under civil war they raised an armed force in defence of their civil and religious liberties, and when menaced by the enemies of their country, they stood nobly forward in its defence. In times of local distress their liberality knows no bounds, and their support of religious and benevolent institutions has never been surpassed in any community. That the citizens of Glasgow have done honour to departed worth, reference is made to the statues and monuments erected in their city, and that their gratitude is not confined to the dead will be shewn from the following splendid acts:

Mr James Dennistoun, of Golfhill, one of his Majesty's Deputy-Lieutenants for the county of Lanark, manager and principal partner of the Glasgow Banking Company, retired from business in 1829. On that occasion a number of the principal inhabitants of the city and neighbourhood, taking into consideration the high character which Mr Dennistoun bore in the community, and the estimation in which he was held by all classes, resolved to request his acceptance of a public dinner as a mark of their esteem and regard. Mr Dennistoun having accepted the profered compliment, the dinner was given in the great hall of the Royal Exchange Buildings on 2d December 1829. The Honourable Alexander Garden of Croy, Lord Provost in the Chair, Samuel Hunter, Esquire, Croupier, and thirty-six gentlemen of the first respectability acted as Stewards. Long before the chair was taken upwards of FOUR HUNDRED gentlemen had taken their places. [At six o'clock the Lord Provost entered the hall, accompanied by Mr Dennistoun, Sir John Maxwell of Polloc, Bart., Mr Campbell of Blythswood, M. P., Mr M<xwe11, Younger of Polloc, M. P., Mr Robinson, Sheriff of the county, Mr Monteith of Carstairs, Mr Finlay of Castletoward, Mr Ewing of Levenside, Mr Campbell of Ballimorc, Mr Dalglish, preceptor of Hutchison's IIospital, the Very Reverend Principal Macfarlan, the Reverend Professor Macgill, the Reverend Professor Chalmers, Mr Dennistoun of Dennistoun, Mr Fergus of Strathorn, Mr Stirling of Kenmure, AIr Houldsworth of Cranstonhill, Mr Buchanan of Dowanhill, Mr Smith of Carbeth-Guthrie, Mr Dunn of Duntocher, Mr Alston of Auchinraich, Mr Macfarlan of Kirkton, Mr Kincaid of Kincaid, &c. &c.]

The company, which was most respectable, was composed of all political parties. As the festival was given in honour of the private virtues of a most excellent man, politics were excluded. The object in view, the respectability of the company, the talent displayed in the speeches, and the sumptuousness of the entertainment, were never surpassed in this city. [The speech of the Lord Provost, in proposing the toast of the day, was distinguished for fine feeling and graceful delivery, and the writer cannot resist the opportunity to add the following part of it. After some introductory remarks his Lordship said, "We are assembled this evening to pay a tribute to the excellence of the character of the guest on my right, and certainly I hazard nothing when I say, that never was tribute more rightly deserved, or more sincerely offered, for the manifestation of our admiration of such genuine worth is alike due to him, and honourable to ourselves. Johnson said of Burke, that no one could by chance take shelter with him in a shed to shun a shower, without perceiving that lie was a great man. Now it may be said of Mr Dennistoun with truth, that no one could meet him, however trivial the occasion, without perceiving that he was a good man. But I am well aware, Gentlemen, that you all know the estimable qualities for which our friend is so much beloved; that you all know his warmth of heart, his social kindness, his unassuming, but manly manner, his liberality in business, and his generosity in friendship: and I feel most confident, that I speak not only the sentiments of every one present, but of every one who has the good fortune to know Mr Dennistoun, when I assert, that, if ever a man possessed the full and undivided esteem and respect of society during a long period of active usefulness, it was Mr Dennistoun, and if ever a man carried with him to the great enjoyments of domestic life, the affectionate good wishes of all, it was Mr Dennistoun ; and, Gentlemen, I shall only add, because it is to the honour of humanity, that I do believe Mr Dennistoun is without an enemy."]

A number of the inhabitants of Glasgow, "taking into their consideration that Dr Cleland, who had recently retired from public life, had discharged the arduous duties of an important office for upwards of twenty years, with honour to himself and great benefit to the community;" called a public meeting; which was held on the 7th August 1834, when it was unanimously resolved that some mark of public approbation should be given to him. Accordingly, the magnificent sum of L. 4603, 6s. was subscribed in a few weeks by 285 individuals of all grades of society, from his Grace the chief of the Scottish nobility to the industrious artisan. The committee of subscribers are now erecting an ornamental building in Buchanan Street, which is to be handed down as an heirloom in the family of him on whom they have conferred the distinguished and unprecedented honour. The building is designated "THE CLELAND TESTIMONIAL."

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS.

Abstract view of the State of Society in Glasgow at various periods.

From 1500 to 1550.---Prior to this time the inhabitants of this city and neighbourhood were governed by churchmen, who kept them in such a state of ignorance and superstition as was truly deplorable. Towards the end of this period the principles of the glorious Reformation began to be acknowledged, when it pleased God to raise up powerful agents. in Edinburgh, and Glasgow in the persons of Knox and Melville.

From 1550 to 1600.—During this period the Reformation took place. The great body of the people, however, still retained their fierce and sanguinary disposition. This is strikingly marked in their being constantly armed. Even their ministers were accoutred in the pulpit. The number of murders, cases of incest, and other criminal acts which were turned over to the censures of the church, but too plainly point out the depraved character of the people.

From 1600 to 1650.—The distinguishing character of the people during this division of time is marked by a certain malignity of disposition. Their belief in and treatment of witches, second-sight, &c. afford strong symptoms of superstition grounded on ignorance; and the profanation of the Sabbath, by working and rioting on that day, displays gross profanity.

From 1650 to 1700.—During the beginning of this period and the end of the former, the people, who had become more civilized, and paid more attention to moral and religious duties, were dreadfully harassed and persecuted by an intolerant government, who seemed determined to enforce a form of religion which was inimical to the people. The abdication of James II., and with him the exclusion of the Stuart family, brought about the happy Revolution, which put an end to the religious troubles.

The union with England, which took place soon after this period, opened up a spirit for trade hitherto unknown in this city, and the increase of population is truly astonishing. In 1774, at the induction of the Rev. Dr Burns, the Barony parish did not contain 8000 souls,—its population now amounts to 85,385. This venerable and justly respected minister, (who it is believed is now the father of the Church of Scotland,) has exercised the ministerial functions in the Barony parish for a period of sixty--five years, viz. four years as assistant to Mr Laurence Hill, and sixty-one as the minister of the largest parish in Scotland. Dr Burns has served a cure for a longer period than has fallen to the lot of any Presbyterian or Episcopalian clergyman in this city since the Reformation in 1560, and there has been no Roman Catholic bishop or archbishop since the renovation of the see in 1129, who held his office for such a length of time. This is a proof of good health and a sound constitution. But, what is of more importance to his parishioners, he unites evangelical principles with the meekness of a true Christian. His popularity, which increased through a prolonged life, was that which arises from a faithful discharge of duty. About two years ago (then in his ninetieth year) he retired from the more active duties of his station. In 1829 the Crown appointed Dr Black to be his assistant and successor,—an appointment which gave entire satisfaction to the minister and the parishioners.

"At the commencement of the eighteenth century, and during the greater part of the first half of it, the habits and style of living of the citizens of Glasgow were of a moderate and frugal cast. The dwelling-houses of the highest class of citizens in general contained only one public room, a dining room, and even that was used only when they had company,—the family at other times usually eating in a bed-room. The great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers of many of the present luxurious aristocracy of Glasgow, and who were themselves descendants of a preceding line of burgher patricians, lived in this simple manner. They had occasionally their relations dining with them, and gave them a few plain dishes, put on the table at once, holding in derision the attention, which they said, their neighbours, the English, bestowed on what .they ate. After dinner the husband went to his place of business, and, in the evening, to a club in a public-house, where, with little expense, he enjoyed himself till nine o'clock, at which hour the party uniformly broke up, and the husbands went home to their families.

"The wife gave tea at home in her own bed-room, receiving there the visits of her "cummers," (female acquaintances,) and a great deal of intercourse of this kind was kept up, the gentlemen seldom making their appearance at these parties. This meal was termed the "four hours." Families occasionally supped with one another, and the form of the invitation, and which was used to a late period, will give some idea of the unpretending nature of these repasts. The party asked was invited to eat an egg with the entertainer, and when it was wished to say that such a one was not of their society, the expression used was that he had never cracked a hen's leg in their house. This race of burghers living in this manner had, from time to time, connected themselves with the individuals, or even companies trading extensively on their own capital were to be found.

"The first adventure which went from Glasgow to Virginia, after the trade had been opened to the Scotch by the union, was sent out under the sole charge of the captain of the vessel, acting also as supercargo. This person, although a shrewd man, knew nothing of accounts; and when he was asked by his employers, on his return for a statement of how the adventure had turned out, told them he could give them none, but there were its proceeds, and threw down upon the table a large 'hoggar' (stocking) stuffed to the top with coin. The adventure had been a profitable one ; and the company conceived that if an uneducated, untrained person had been so successful, their gains would have been still greater had a person versed in accounts been sent out with it. Under this impression, they immediately dispatched a second adventure, with a supercargo, highly recommended for a knowledge of accounts, who produced to them on his return a beautifully made out statement of his transactions, but no 'hoggar.'

"The Virginia trade continued for a considerable time to be carried on by companies formed as has been described. One of the partners acted as manager : the others did not interfere. The transactions consisted in purchasing goods for the shipments made twice a-year, and making sales of the tobacco which they received in return. The goods were bought upon twelvemonths credit, and when a shipment came to be paid off, the manager sent notice to the different furnishers, to meet him on such a day, at such a wine-shop, with their accounts discharged. They then received the payment of their accounts, and along with it a glass of wine each, for which they paid. This curious mode of paying off these shipments was contrived with a view to furnish aid to some well born young woman whose parents had fallen into bad circumstances, and whom it was customary to place in one of those shops, in the same way that, at an after period, such a person would have been put into a milliner's shop. These wine-shops were opposite to the Tontine Exchange, and no business was transacted but in one of them." [We are indebted to the Scrap-Book of Mr Dugald Bannatyne for the above part of this abstract included in inverted commas. There are few individuals in any town who have teen so very generally useful as Air Bannatyne. For more than half a century he has devoted a great proportion of his valuable time and talents in promoting the mercantile and manufacturing interests of this city, and his long and friendly intimacy with his near relative DLUGALD STEWART gave him a taste for literature which has greatly benefited his country. When the Chamber of Commerce and Manufactures in this city was instituted in 1783, under the auspices of Mr Patrick Colquhoun, at that time Lord Provost, and a public-spirited and distinguished merchant in Glasgow, Mr Bannatync rendered his assistance, and has held the office of secretary ever since Mr Gilbert Hamilton's death in 1809. The original members of the chamber are now all dead, with the exception of its able and much respected secretary.]

Prior to the breaking out of the American war, the 11 Virginians," who were looked up to as the Glasgow aristocracy, had a privileged walk at the Cross, which they trod in long scarlet cloaks and bushy wigs; and such was the state of society, that, when any of the most respectable master tradesmen of the city had occasion to speak to a tobacco lord, he required to walk on the other side of the street till he was fortunate enough to meet his eye, for it would have beers presumption to have made up to him. Such was the practice of the Cunningliams, the Spiers, the Glassfords, the Dunmores, and others ; and from this servility the Langs, the Ferries, the Clay-tons, and others who were at the head of their professions, and had done much to improve the mechanical trade of the city, were not exempt. About this period, profane swearing among the higher classes of citizens was considered a gentlemanly qualification; and dissipation at entertainments was dignified with the appellation of hospitality and friendship; and he who did not send his guests from his house in a state of intoxication was considered unfit to entertain genteel company. Latterly, the rising generation of the middle class, better educated than their fathers, engaged extensively in trade and commerce; and by honourable dealing and correct conduct, procured a name and a place in society which had been hitherto reserved for the higher grades. Since the opening of the public coffee-room in 1781, the absurd distinction of rank in a manufacturing town has disappeared. Wealth is not now the criterion of respect, for persons even in the inferior walks of life, who conduct themselves with propriety, have a higher place assigned them in society than at any former period of the history of the city.

Families, as has been already said, who were formerly content to live in the flat of a house in the Old, have now princely self-contained houses in the New Town. Entertainments are now given more frequently, and the mode of giving them is materially changed. Persons who formerly gave supper parties and a bowl of punch, are now in the way of giving sumptuous dinners, entertaining with the choicest wines, and finishing with cold punch, for which Glasgow is so celebrated. The value of the table-service, and the style of furniture in the houses of many of the Glasgow merchants, are inferior to none in the land. In drinking there is a mighty improvement: formerly, the guests had to drink in quantity and quality as presented by their hosts; now every person drinks what he pleases, and how he pleases,—after which he retires to the drawing-room, and drunkenness and dissipation at dinner parties are happily unknown. Profane swearing is considered highly reprehensible; so much so that swearing in good society is never heard. The working-classes are better lodged, clothed, and fed, than formerly; and since the formation of the Water Companies, they are more cleanly in their houses, and healthy in their persons.

With the exception of Hutchison's Hospital, the Town's Hospital, the incorporations, and a few societies, our numerous charitable and benevolent institutions, and the :hole of our religous institutions, have been got up during the last forty years. Since 1791, when the former Statistical Account of Scotland made its appearance, the Bible and Missionary Societies, and the City and Parochial Missions, have been called into existence. These and similar institutions bid fair for improving the morals of the most worthless of our population. The inhabitants of this city are justly characterized as charitable and humane; and on all proper occasions the feeling of compassion and of active benevolence is never wanting. Though this be the general, it is, however, by no means the universal character of the population, for there are many persons among us who live as if they existed only for themselves, and desired to know nothing but what may be conducive to their own private advantage. Persons who are placed in circumstances above the labouring artisan may be classed into three divisons.

The first in order, but last in respect, are those who, though wealthy, or at least in easy circumstances, lend a deaf ear to the tale of woe, and neither contribute their time nor their means to the relief of the wretched.

The second are those who give none of their time to the public, and whose charities are in a manner extorted through the influence of respectable applicants or the force of public opinion. Than this class, who may be considered the drones of society, there are none more ready to find fault with the administrators of the general concerns of the city, and none more anxious to grasp at that patronage which so justly belongs to those who give so much of their valuable time to the community without fee or reward.

The third class are those who voluntarily contribute their time and money to the service of the community in the various departments of usefulness. Through the providence of God, this class of late years has greatly increased in number, respectability of character, and worldly estate, which, when taken in connection with other circumstances, have tended greatly to the increase of religion, morality, and active benevolence. The spirit which actuates the benevolence of Glasgow is ever present in times of difficulty. The knowledge of this important fact should tend greatly to prevent discontent in the minds of the indigent, and mitigate their sufferings in times of distress.

Since the commencement of the present century, Glasgow has greatly increased in scientific knowledge, and many of her citizens have rendered essential service to their country.

The fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held in Edinburgh from the 8th to the 15th September 1834, consisted of a number of persons, from all countries, many of them the most distinguished in Europe for scientific acquirements. While a considerable number of the citizens of Glasgow were admitted members of the Association, the following were elected office-bearers, viz. Secretary to the Chemistry and Mineralogy Section, Thomas Thomson, M. D., F. R. S., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Glasgow.—Members of Committee, Charles Macintosh, F. R. S. and Charles Tennant, M. H. S. S. —Member of Committee in the Natural History Section, William Jackson Hooker, LL. D., F. R. S., Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow.—Secretary to the Statistical Section, James Cleland, LL. D.

The following very valuable paper, drawn up by Principal Macfarlan, came too late to be inserted in its proper place in this article: and though a very small part of it has been anticipated, our readers may be gratified to receive it entire.

"The origin of the name Glasgow is like that of most other places, involved in uncertainty, and it would be useless to repeat the fantastic conjectures of antiquarians and etymologists, with regard to its meaning. Perhaps the most probable conjecture is that which derives it from the level green on the banks of the river, for many ages its greatest ornament. Glas-achadh in Gaelic, pronounced Glassaugh, or with a slight vocal sound at the termination Glassaughu, signifies the green field, or alluvial plain, and is strictly descriptive of the spot in question. The name of the town, as -ordinarily pronounced by Highlanders, corresponds closely to this derivation. In ancient British, Glasgow has the same meaning, and it is applied to other places, having a similar locality in other parts of Scotland.

"The origin of this city is lost in the obscurity of the middle ages. At the Roman invasion, the part of Scotland in which it lies was inhabited by a British tribe called by that invading people the Damnii, and was mostly included within their province of Valentia. On the retirement of the Romans, the provincials were left to their own resources, and their previous peaceful habits changed into a state of constant warfare in defence of their territories against, first, the inroads of the Northern Caledonians or Picts, then the invasion of the encroaching Saxons from the east, and latterly the assaults of the martial Scots, who, emigrating from Ireland, settled in the districts now called Argyleshire and Galloway. With all these invaders they maintained a precarious conflict during a period of four centuries. From the researches of modern historians it appears highly probable that Alpine, the last King of the Scots, as a separate people, lost his life in combat with Strathclyde Britons, near Dalmellington in Ayrshire, and not, as more generally reported, contending for the Pictish crown in the eastermost district of Scotland. About the middle of the sixth century, Kentigern, or, as his name appears in the ancient Welsh narratives, Cyndeyrn Garthys, makes a figure in their history as a distinguished ecclesiastic. He is associated as archbishop with the celebrated Arthur, then Sovereign Prince. His Episcopal seat is said by the same authority to have been established at Penrynrioneth, which was also the seat of the monarchy, and seems to have occupied nearly the present site of Dumbarton. Kentigern, from his pious, benevolent, and amiable character, seems to have acquired the appellation of Mungo, used in several languages as an epithet of fondness and endearment. The conduct of Marken, the successor of Arthur, in insulting and banishing the Saint, was believed to be avenged by his premature death. The surname of Bountiful, bestowed on the next Prince Ryderick or Roderick, seems to have been acquired by his favour to Kentigern, to recall whom from banishment was one of the first acts of his government. It has been reported by tradition, that the space now occupied by Glasgow had been previously covered by an extensive forest, within the recesses of which were celebrated the religious rites of the Druids. It is well known that the first teachers of Christianity generally established their churches on the spots which had, in the estimation of the people, been previously hallowed by the habitual performance of their devotions. It is probable that Kentigern, following this principle; founded his church here on the vestiges of the Druidical circle. This took place, as is commonly reported, about the year 560, and he died in 601, leaving the infant town which had begun to spring up under the shadow of that stately church, the foundation of which he is said to have laid, and where at his death he was interred, under his paternal benediction. According to Spottiswood, he was the pupil of St Sevirinus Bishop of Orkney, was distinguished by the strict performance of all that were considered pious and meritorious exercises, and lived to a very great age. After his death, his memory appears to have been held in high veneration, and in many parts of Scotland there were religious houses which, as well as his own extensive see, claimed the patronage of his name and the benefit of his prayers. This account of the origin of Glasgow, drawn from unvarying tradition, and confirmed by notices scattered in contemporary chronicles, derives additional confirmation from the armorial bearings of the see. These are described in Edmonstone's Heraldry, as follows: Argent a tree, grow-in; out of a mountain base, surmounted by a salmon in fesse, all proper; in the salmon's mouth an amulet, or; on the dexter side, a bell pendent to the tree, of the second. Discarding the monkish fables respecting the origin of each separate part of this cognizance, we may conclude with little danger of mistake, that the tree referred to the ancient forest which surrounded the cathedral, the bell to the cathedral itself, the ring to the Episcopal office, and the fish to the scaly treasures poured by the beautiful river below at the feet of the venerated metropolitan.

"During 500 years the history of Glasgow presents an entire blank; but the existence and the importance of the see during that period, is demonstrated by the inquisition made in 1115, by David then Prince of Cumberland, and afterwards King of Scotland, into the lands and tithes previously belonging to the church of Glasgow. These appear from that document to have been of great number and extent, embracing a multitude of parishes in the southern and western districts of Scotland. This fact sufficiently shows that, during the period in which no traces of its history can be found, the cathedral not only existed but was largely endowed. It may, however, have suffered many vicissitudes and even occasional demolition amidst the disasters of the kingdom of Strathclyde, the bloody contests of the Scottish princes, and the fearful devastations of the north-men. In the beginning of the twelfth century, when the connection of the Scottish sovereigns with the Saxon and Norman kings of England gave stability to their authority and comparative tranquillity to their dominions, the church was revived, and the Episcopate reinstated. John Achaius, originally chaplain to David I., and afterwards High Chancellor of the kingdom, was consecrated Bishop at Rome in 1115, and the restored revenue was speedily employed by him in restoring the dilapidated fabric of the cathedral. His labours to this end are said to have been completed, and the renovated pile to have been consecrated in 1133. It is not certain whether that edifice had been, as was generally the case, erected at first on a partial and limited scale, or whether it was in one of the succeeding reigns, as is inferred from a charter for its reconstruction, destroyed by fire, but it is clear that the greater and by far the more splendid part of the fabric that still exists was built under the direction of Joceline, who became bishop in 1174, and that the choir was consecrated by him in 1197. During the same reign, (that of William I. or the Lion,) a charter was granted, erecting Glasgow into a royal burgh, in favour of the pious and holy Saints Kentigernus and Jocelineus and their successors. And for many ages this burgh existed under the auspices of the successive bishops. Innumerable circumstances, indeed, mark its ecclesiastical origin. Bishop Turn-. bull, in 1451, founded the still existing 'university; and the growing importance of the town was obviously owing to the assemblage of ecclesiastics, many of them of great power and opulence, around the archiepiscopal residence. To this rank the see was elevated during the episcopacy of Bishop Blackadder, near the end of the fifteenth century. Bishop Cameron in 1433 enjoined his prebends, thirty-two in number, to erect houses for themselves in the vicinity of the cathedral, and always to reside there. As the city extended, religious houses were . multiplied. A collegiate church, to which the original name of St Marv's has been lately restored, was founded in the Trongate, and governed by a provost and eight prebends. A convent of Black Friars was established on the east, and one of Gray Friars on the west side of the High Street. The church of the former, rebuilt in 1699, still exists as one of the city churches, and their grounds are believed to have formed the original part of the college gardens. Many chapels crowded the city and the suburbs, the names of most of which are now forgotten, and their revenues have disappeared. The University, as has been already mentioned, was founded by Bishop Turnbull under the authority of a bull issued by Pope Nicholas V. dated 7th January 1451. It formed a corporate body, consisting of a Chancellor, Rector, and Dean, with Doctors, Masters, Regents, and students in the several faculties into which it was divided. One of these was known as the paedegogium, or College of Arts. In 1459, James Lord Hamilton bequeathed to the principal regent of that College some buildings and several acres of land, on part of which the present College was afterwards erected. The College of Arts was restored and endowed by King James VI., in 1577, and its property has since been augmented from various sources. It is governed by the meeting of Faculty, or College meeting, consisting of the Principal and the Professors who originally belonged to, or have since been received into its body. This meeting exercises the administration of the whole revenue and property of the College, the patronage of eight professorships, and the presentation of the parish of Govan. They also administer discipline, either as a body, or through a part of their number called the Jurisdictio Ordinaria, amongst the College students. The University is governed by the Senate, consisting of the Rector, the Dean, and all the Professors, whether belonging to the College or not. Meetings of this body are held for the election and admission of the Chancellor and Dean of Faculty; for the admission of the Vice-Chancellor and Vice-Rector; for electing a Representative to the General Assembly; for regulating and conferring; degrees; for the management of the libraries; and for all other business belonging to the University. In the Comitia, where, besides the members of senate, all matriculated students have a place, the Rector is elected and admitted to his office, public disputations are heard, inaugural discourses are delivered, the laws of the University are promulgated, and prizes for merit distributed annually."

ADDENDA.

A Jews synagogue was opened in this city in September 1823. AIr Moses Lisneihm is their priest, Hebrew teacher, killer, inspector,, marker, and sealer. It appears from a report of a Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1828, that in London the office of priest and killer merges in the same person, and that no Jew can use meat unless the animals are slain with a peculiar knife, and marked with Hebrew seals. The Feast of Tabernacles, which used to be celebrated by the Glasgow Jews in Edinburgh, is now observed in this city.

Edward Davies, son of Mr Edward Davies, optician, was the first that was circumcised in Glasgow. The rite was performed by Mr Michael on 18th July 1824. The Jews resident in Glasgow in 1831 were 47 in number, viz. males, 28, females, 19. Above twenty years of age, 28; below ditto, 19 ; born iii the following countries, viz. in Prussian Poland, 11; in various parts of Germany, 12; in Holland, 3; in London, 5; in Sheerness, 10; in Glasgow, 6. The increase since 1831 is but trifling.

A burial ground has been made for the seed of Abraham at the north-west corner of the Necropolis. It is separated from the Christians' burying-ground by an ornamental screen, on which are inscribed the beautiful and appropriate words from Byron's Hebrew Melody, beginning, "Oh! weep for those that wept by Babel's stream."

The community are greatly indebted to Mr James Ewing, LL.D. one of the Members of Parliament for the city, for having projected the Necropolis, and to Mr Laurence Hill, LL. B. collector to the Merchants' House, for his unwearied exertions in promoting the interests of this beautiful and romantic cemetery.

Tides in the Clyde.—The following is taken from the valuable Tide Tables prepared by the late Dr Heron, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Anderson's University. The tide at Greenock is two hours earlier than at Glasgow. At places situated near the ocean, the tide flows nearly as long as it ebbs. At Greenock it generally flows rather above six hours—but at Glasgow it flows only for five hours, and ebbs about seven; this, however, is modified by the winds.

The tide produced by the moon is nearly three times greater than that occasioned by the sun, and the former thus predominating, the interval between the consecutive combined tides is found almost to coincide with the moon's progress in her periodic course. This interval, however, is modified by the distance of the luminaries from the earth, their declinations, and other incidental circumstances.

At new and full moon, the influence of the sun and moon united produces the elevation which is called spring tide. From these periods, the tides gradually decrease, until the moon arrives at the quadratures, when the high water is only the difference between the lunar and solar tides, and is termed the neap tide. The tides now increase daily, till the following spring tide, when the sequence already noticed recurs. Spring tides, however, do not happen on the days of full and change, nor neap tides on the day that the moon enters the quarters, but about two days after.

The tide-wave rolling northward from the Atlantic Ocean, on its arrival at the British isles, divides into three branches; one proceeds up the English channel; another enters St George's channel, south; the third flows round the west and north coast of Ireland, and meets the second branch near the Isle of Man.
The tide that flows up the Clyde is derived from the two latter branches; and it is easy to conceive how it must partake of the irregularities produced on them by the action of high winds, and hence the anomalies that sometimes are observed, when no apparent cause is operating on the Clyde itself. Likewise high winds in the Clyde affect the time and elevation of high water; and by considering the form and course of the Frith, it is obvious that a gale from a northerly quarter, by opposing the flow of the tide, will cause the time of high water to be earlier, and the height of the tide to be less than otherwise would be the case, while a gale from an opposite direction, acting in concert with the flowing tide will produce a contrary effect.

Iron Steam-Boat.—Since the part of the article relating to steam-boats went to press, a launch of rather a novel nature has taken place at the Broomielaw Harbour. Messrs Tod and M'Gregor, engineers, constructed a steam-boat, every part of which is of iron excepting the boards of the deck; and having all her machinery and equipments complete, and her steam up, they placed her on a carriage in their works, from which she was taken on 16th July 1830' to the large crane at the harbour, and being lowered into the river, she immediately proceeded on a trial trip, when she went against a head wind at the rate of eight miles an hoar. This pretty little vessel, named the Plata, is 45 feet long from stem to stern, 9 feet on the beam, and 17 feet over the paddle boxes. She draws 22 inches water, and her whole weight is eleven tons when her boilers are filled. She is propelled by two high pressure engines, each of five horse-power—the cylinders are 61 inches diameter placed horizontally--the stroke 2 feet 4 inches. She is kept in motion for five hours with 5 cwt. of coals, and has accommodation for twelve cabin, and twenty-five deck passengers. This vessel, built for river navigation in foreign parts, is the property of Mr Robert Jamieson, of the firm of Messrs Jamieson, M'Crackan, and Company. She is to be taken to her destination on the deck of one of the company's ships.

Old and New Style.—The dates narrated in this account of the city prior to 1751 are in the old style, and those which follow that period are in the new. The following explains the cause of the change.

In the year 1751, it was found that, from the year being computed to be rather longer than it really was, it gradually encroached upon the seasons. It was found that the spring equinox, which at the time of the General Council of Nice in 325, happened on or about the 21st March, in the year 1751, happened about the 9th or 10th, and that the error was still increasing, and would, if not remedied, cause the equinoxes and solstices to fall at very different times of the year from what they had done in time past. An Act of Parliament in 1751 (24th Geo. II. Chap. 23,) was therefore passed, proceeding upon the preamble of the facts now stated, and calculated to correct the error which had crept in, and to prevent the like happening again. Eleven days, therefore, were struck out of the following year to rectify the error; and to prevent it happening again, the years 1800, 1900, 2100, and every hundredth year, were declared to be common years of 365 days, except 2000, and every four hundredth year, which were made leap years; thus taking away about three days in four centuries.

Umbrellas.—In 1782 the late Mr John Jamieson, surgeon, returning from Paris, brought an umbrella with him, which was the first in this city. For a number of years, there were few used here, and those were made of glazed cotton cloth. As almost every child at school, mechanic and servant are now provided with an umbrella, there are probably more than 100,000 of them in use in this city.

Mode of Estimating Numbers at Field Meetings.—As very erroneous estimates are frequently made respecting the number of persons attending field-meetings, public executions, &c. it may come near the truth to estimate a promiscuous population standing close together at six to a square yard; thus a park of an imperial acre will contain 29,040 persons, and a Scotch acre 36,624 persons.

As Scots money is frequently referred to in the foregoing article, its value in Sterling money is taken from Dr Jamieson's Etymological Dictionary.

July 1835


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