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The New Statistical Account of Scotland (1845)
Volume VI - Lanark
Parish of Hamilton


PRESBYTERY OF HAMILTON, SYNOD OF GLASGOW AND AYR.

THE REV. WILLIAM MEEK, D. D., THE REV. WILLIAM BUCHAN. MINISTERS.
[This Account was drawn up by the Reverend William Patrick, author of a Popular Description of the Indigenous Plants of Lanarkshire," &c.]

1.—TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY.

Name.—THE ancient name of this parish was Cadzow, commonly pronounced Cawgo or Caygae, the etymology of which is uncertain. From " Acts of Parliament published by command of his Majesty," we learn, that the name of this parish was changed from Cadzow to Hamilton, by virtue of a charter granted by James Second of Scotland, to James first Lord Hamilton, dated 3d July 1445. In the above carta erectionis we have the following words, " Et manerium dicti Jacobi, (i. e. of Lord Hamilton,) quod nunc le Orcharde norninatur, jacen. in baronia de Caidzhow, erit in futurum principale capitale messuagium onmium baroniarum, superi oritatis, et terrarum prenominatarum, cum pertinen. totius dominii predicti, et Hamilton vocabitur et intitulabitur;" from whence it appears that the manerium or manor-house of the Hamiltons, situated near where the palace now stands, was formerly called the Orchard.

Boundaries, Extent, &c.—The parish of Hamilton is situated in the rniddle ward of the county of Lanark, (of which the town of Hamilton is the capital) between 55░48' and 55░ 43' 18" north latitude. From Maidenlee in the south to Bothwell Bridge in the north, it is six miles in length; and from Rottenburn, where it meets with the parish of Blantyre on the west, to the bank of the Clyde opposite Carbarns, where it comes into contact with the parish of Dalserf, on the east, the distance is exactly the same across. The Clyde forms the north and north-east boundaries for about five miles, separating it from the parishes of Bothwell, DaIzel, and Cambusnothan. On meeting with Daiserf, at the above point opposite Carbarns, the boundary line takes a south-west direction, cutting off one house in the north-west end of the village of Lark- hail, crossing the Carlisle road about a furlong and a-half above the fourteenth milestone from Glasgow; and reaching the Avon opposite Fairholm, it runs along the banks of that water to Millheugli Bridge. After this, the parish of Stonehouse forms the south-east boundary for a mile and a-haif. Between the farms of Langfaugh and Craigthorn hill, the parish of Glasford coming in, forms the south and south-west boundaries, as far as Rotten- burn. From this point to Bothwell Bridge, the parish of Elan- tyre forms the western boundary. Thus we have Bothwell on the north, Daizel, Cambusnethan, Daiserf, and Stonehouse on the east, Glasford on the south and south-west, and Blantyre on the west. The figure of the parish is an irregular polygon. It contains 22.25 square miles, or 14,240 standard imperial acres.

Topographical Appearances.— Linnaeus remarks, that the ocean is the mother of the land; and it may be said with equal truth, that the Clyde is the mother of the lower lands of Clydesdale. This noble river, rising in the higher regions of Crawford, traverses a whinstone or trap district till near the falls above Lanark. Here the rocks suddenly change from crystalline trap to sandstone and shale. Through these softer materials the river seems to have forced a way. From a mild and placid stream, gently meandering through verdant meadows, and wide expanding pastures, it becomes all at once a turbid, unruly, boisterous torrent, deeply engulfed in gloomy defiles of perpendicular rocks, or rushing headlong over lofty precipices. Below the falls, the banks be- gin to expand, and at their bases fertile haughs or holms are formed. About eight or ten miles below Stonebyres, the last fail on the Clyde, the banks of the river, receding to a more than usual distance, leave a great extent of plain or level ground. These low and fertile haughs, chiefly on the west bank of the Clyde, with the gently sloping ridge behind, constitute the parish of Hamil- ton. There are a few hundred acres on the east of the Clyde, which ought of right to belong to the parish of Daizel.

Meteorology.—As a general rule, it is observable, that every 300 feet of altitude make a difference of about one degree in temperature. Thus when the barometer is 29.5 in the lower grounds, near the town of Hamilton, it is 29.007 on the higher ridge in the west; which ought to give an elevation of about 500 feet. The town of Hamilton is upwards of 80 feet above the level of the sea, —thus we have an elevation of 580 feet. Many neighbouring ridges are much higher; probably 750 or 800 feet. In these upper regions the temperature is generally one or two degrees lower than in the more sheltered vales in the Clyde, and the harvest is from a week to a month later. But besides the differences indicated by the thermometer and barometer, there are also very various hygrometrical results. After long-continued droughts, the columns of air being denser and of greater altitude in the vales than on the heights, buoy up the clouds, till attracted by the loftier ridges on the east and west, their cohesion is dissolved, and their contents precipitated. In this way the haughs and lower grounds on the Clyde are often parched with drought, while the heights on every side are saturated with rain. The qualities of air contributing to these results, also tend to promote exhalation in the lower grounds, and to relieve the soil and atmosphere from the superabundant moisture, so inimical to vegetation in the higher parts of the parish. From rain-gages kept here, and in a neighbouring parish, it appears that the average quantity of rain for five years was 20.003 inches. The average number of dry and wet days in each month has also been ascertained from tables kept for that purpose for ten years. The result is as follows:-

The above is only an average, from which there are wide deviations. In 1826, there was scarcely a drop of rain during March and April, and the three summer months; while in July 1828, rain fell on the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th3 12th, 13th, 14th, 18th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 26th, 28th, 29th; and in August on the 3d, 4th, 5th, 8th5 9th, 10th, 13th, 14th 20th 21st, 22d, 24th. It thundered on the 5th, 8th 12th. In September there were eight rainy days, and in October six. It generally thunders about the third Sunday of July,—a fact observable from neighbouring sacraments, happening on that day, seldom passing without electrical explosions.

The wind, on an average of years, is 230 days in the west; namely, about 55 days west, 55 north-west, and 120 south-.west. It is 110 days in the east, namely, 25 east, 50 north-east, and 35 south-east. It is seldom more than 25 days in the north and south.

Registers of the thermometer and barometer, kept here for three years by Dr King, R. N. vary so little from those kept at Glasgow, and published in the Glasgow Medical Journal, that it is unnecessary to give them a place. The barometer on an average ranges between 30.53 and 28.73. The thermometer is seldom above 75 in July, or below 15 in January. In the hottest days, in a small room facing the north, it fluctuates between 65 and 70. In mean monthly temperature, January is the lowest, namely, from 35 to 38, and July the highest, from 58 to 60. February and November are from 40 to 42; but November is the warmer of the two. The same analogy holds between March and October, the average heat being 45 to 47; but October is warmer than March. April is seldom so warm as September, nor is May so warm as August. The greatest heats and the heaviest rains are after the longest day.

From the above remarks, the reader will be enabled to form a tolerably accurate idea of the climate, The air is in general reputed healthful; and the splendid scenery around affords abundant scope for pleasant and exhilarating excursions. Fogs are not frequent, and rains less so than at some other places a few miles distant. Colds, consumption, fevers of different kinds, particularly a slow nervous fever, to be afterwards described, fluxes, and inflammation, in different forms, at times prevail here, as in other places around. Gravel and other calculous complaints are on the decline; but inflammations, palsy, and apoplexy, are supposed to be on the increase,—probably from what is termed the improved mode of living, and the more liberal use of ardent spirits and other stimulating liquors. Small-pox, which, in the year 1787, carried off seventy-five children in this parish, was for many years almost. unknown. Of late it has reappeared, but in a less fatal form. Among the list of new diseases we may mention dysentery, which was little known here till the spring of 1818. It appeared in that year in the months of March and April, and in the end of. June, and in July, August, and September. Thermometer, in the first period, greatest height 67; least height 29. The last days of March, and the first six of April, were foggy and calm; from the 8th to the 12th snow and rain fell; from that to the end of the month, windy, with a few calm days. Wind, N. E. and E. A year or two after, this disease made its appearance among the cavalry in the barracks, and as their surgeon had never seen it before, he very prudently called in medical assistance from the- town. It raged fearfully for some time; but the terror it excited has of late almost entirely given place to that of its more formidable successor, cholera. From July to November 1832, sixty-three individuals, mostly females, and many of them in the poorest circumstances, fell victims to this new and appalling scourge. The hospital near the barracks, and other incidental expenses, cost the parish upwards of L. 600. It has not since appeared in this place. The slow nervous or remittent fever, above alluded to, is a variety of the gastric fever of some authors, and is by many of our ablest physicians considered as being, perhaps, peculiar to Hamilton. It seems to have its source in the irritation of the digestive organs. [The symptoms, according to an amiable and much lamented individual, the late Dr John flume of Hamilton, are, "Headach often very severe; pain in the back and loins, and sometimes in the chest; sometimes delirium, but transient; never stupor, except immediately before death; variable pulse, but in general quick; frequent cough; heat and dryness of skin, alternating with chilliness, nausea, vomiting of bilious matters, pain in the epigastrium and bowels generally, want of appetite, white tongue, either pure or mixed with red red points, generally costiveness, and turbid urine.]

Frosts of long continuance are now of rare occurrence. The most remarkable were in the winters of 1708, 1715, 1739, (called the hard frost,) 1742, 17545 1776, 1788, 1796, and 1813. The heaviest snows of late have been in March and April,—as in 1820 and 1827. In 1809, a heavy fall of snow, on the 31st of May, and again on the 5th of June, did great damage in the orchards and woodlands, by breaking down the branches of the trees then in full verdure. On the 5th February 1831, several persons in this neighbourhood were lost in the snow.

Hydrograpliy.—The river Clyde and the other waters in the district are occasionally subject to great inundations. In 738, a flood destroyed 400 families. Grey, in his Chronicle, mentions another great spate on 25th and 26th November 1454, which brought down " hale housis, barnis, and millis," and obliged the inhabitants of Garion, near Dalserf, to take to their house-tops. To escape such catastrophes, the principal part of the Netherton stood on a high ground which the Clyde never inundated; and it was probably the fright which the above-mentioned flood occasioned that caused Lord Hamilton, the year following, to remove the Collegiate Church to the place where Hamilton Palace now stands. On the 12th of March 1782, the flood was nearly two feet higher than was ever remembered before; and the river rose about sixteen feet perpendicular above the ordinary level of low water. It overflowed a great tract of country, and appeared like an arm of the sea. The date of this flood, and the height of the water, are recorded on Hamilton Bridge. in the autumn of 1807, another great spate carried off a vast quantity of grain, then standing in the stook, and swept away the two centre arches of Hamilton Bridge. On the 9th February 1831, on the melting of the snow, the Clyde rose at Blantyre Mills to the height of twelve feet nine inches above its usual level; and at Hamilton Bridge it was within six inches of the flood-mark of 1782.

Besides the Clyde, the course of which has already been described, the parish is traversed by the Avon, (an old British word which signifies the "water,") and nine smaller streamlets or burns, six of which fall into the Avon, and three into the Clyde. All of these have their origin in the high grounds in the west and southwest of the parish. By time and perseverance (like their mightier chief the Clyde,) they have forced their way through great chasms in the sandstone rocks, forming magnificent heughs or ravines of great magnitude, infinitely varied, and richly wooded. These constitute part of the "beauties of Scotland," of which a stranger passing along the highway knows and sees but little. The Avon rises on the west, near the boundary line between the parish of Strathavon and the county of Ayr. After running for many miles through a pastoral country, and the better cultivated tracts of Avondale and Stonehouse, it enters the parish of Hamilton, at Millheugh Bridge. About half a mile onwards, it is at length engulfed in a stupendous and rocky defile, equal in grandeur, variety, and picturesque effect., to the finest scenery of the kind in Britain. It bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the celebrated banks at Roslin, near Edinburgh, but is finer, and on a more majestic scale. In many places the rocks tower up to the height of 250 or 300 feet, and are frequently crowned with stately oaks of great antiquity, and of singular and romantic forms. These noble banks are everywhere densely covered with hard-wood of numerous sorts, and of various tints; and at their summits on the west, Hamilton wood stretches far beyond. Near the centre of this gloomy chasm, the ruins of Cadzow Castle appear "like centinel of fairy land," on the summit of a lofty rock, nearly 200 feet above the bed of the Avon. On the opposite side of the river, oil east, the modern chateau or banqueting-house known by the name of Chateiherault, or Wham, arises with its red walls, its four square towers all in a line, its gaudy pinnacles, its globular and circular ornaments, and its beautiful flower garden. It was built after the model of the Citadel at Chatelberault in Poitou, about 1732. Near the northern extremity of this romantic deli, and about three miles from its commencement, the ancient terraced gardens of Barncluith, (or Baron's Cleugh,) the property of Lord Ruthven, appear on the west bank of the Avon, remarkable not only for their site and design, for their formal walks and topiary work, but also as affording the best specimen extant of an old garden in the French style, (misnamed Dutch, in compliment to William of Orangre,) as it existed iii the sixteenth century. After this, the Avon, beginning to emancipate itself from restraint, enters the haughs of Hamilton, and is lost in the Clyde, at Hamilton bridge. [This spot has given rise to a beautiful and popular song, (attributed, by mistake, to Burns,) "Where Avon mingles with the Clyde."]

Cadzow burn, which still retains the ancient name of the parish, rises in Wackenwae well, in Glasford, and runs through the town of Hamilton; after which it enters the Duke of Hamilton's lower policy, where it is arched over nearly to the point where it joins the Clyde, at the old ford and boat-house below Hamilton Bridge. Barncluith burn, which enters the Avon about half a mile east of Hamilton, is remarkable for six falls, (all in Hamilton wood,) each from 5 to 6 feet high. The banks of this burn, immediately below the fails, seem anciently to have been of more consequence than at present. Within half a mile of each other, we have Quhitecamp, now Silvertonhill, Castle-hill, and Covant burn, although no traces of a camp, castle, or convent are now to be found, nor is any history or tradition of them preserved. The above waters are all clear purling streams, running on a fine bed of sand and gravel, or on the bare sandstone or shale. The average breadth of the Clyde is from 80 to 100 yards. Its average velocity is from 2 to 8 or 10 miles an hour. In some places it is 10 or 12 feet deep, and at some fords and streams it is scarcely 1. Its temperature in July, when the thermometer was 650 in the shade, was 601.

The springs are all from the surface, and are formed by the intervention of clay and sand strata, the former holding water, and the latter permitting its free passage. The process of filtration is also promoted by the fissures in the metals, and the looser and more porous materials with which they are filled up. In well-digging, it is looked upon as a maxim, that there is no water till clay is reached, and penetrated quite through. Many of our best wells, however, are in the solid rock, and few of them more than 20 feet in depth. Their average temperature in July, when the thermometer was 65░, was 500. In the beginning of November, when the thermometer was 45, the temperature of the springs was nearly the same as in July. Many of the wells in Hamilton hold a calcareous substance (the carbonate and sulphate of lime) in solution, equal to a 1500th part of their volume. The carbonate of lime is a substance equally innocuous as common salt, and although the springs in which it occurs always produce a hard sort of water, which is not fit for washing or bleaching, yet for culinary purposes it is quite unexceptionable. There are several chalybeate springs in the parish, but none of these are in high repute.

Geology.—In forming an accurate and comprehensive view of the geology of this district, if we take the granite rocks of Galloway as the base, we have superincumbent upon them, 1. the greywacke of Leadhills and Wanlockhead; 2. the red sandstone over which the Clyde is precipitated at Lanark; and 3. the coal formation of the middle and lower wards, consisting of bituminous shale, coal, gray limestone, gray sand3tone, and clay ironstone; thus affording a beautiful illustration of the transition and carboniferous epochs. The sandstone rocks are, for the most part, in great masses, repeatedly broken by horizontal and perpendicular fissures. They vary from a few inches or feet, to 50 or 200 or 300 feet in thickness. The strata, with few exceptions, dip in a N. E. direction towards the Clyde. The dip varies from three to twelve degrees, or from one to four feet in twenty. In many places the dip is one in six. There is a small stratum of whin or trap in the S. W. of the parish, which attains its greatest altitude at Highcross-Knoll.

The soil superincumbent on the above strata is of various sorts. The extensive valleys along the Clyde are of a deep fertile loam on a sandy or loose gravelly subsoil. A remarkable tract of sandy soil, several miles in length, and about a mile and a-half in breadth, commences at Cunningar, runs through the farm of Merryton, and southwards by Raploch in Dalserf, and Kittipiuir in Stonehouse. On this soil it is observed that potatoes do not in general thrive well after the application of lime. In the middle of the parish the subsoil is mostly a yellow clay, (the Argilla cornmun.is of Linnaeus.) In the upper and bleaker parts, a bluish or grayish clay prevails, more or less impregnated with gravel and other siliceous substances. This last is the very worst description of soil. There is little or no peat in the parish. The surface on the whole " not being broken by any great irregularities, the land is all arable, except some steep banks by the sides of the river and brooks, a few swampy meadows in the upper part of the parish, and such parts as are covered with planting or natural wood, the extent of which is considerable." The haughs on the Clyde are all of transported soil, and seem at some former period to have formed the bottoms of lakes; for there is no haugh without its dam at the lower part of it, by which the water was no doubt once retained. Thus, the dam of the Hamilton haughs was a little below Bothwell Bridge; that of the Ross, Allanton, and Merryton haughs, at the camp of Dalzel. Dalserf, Dalpatrick, and Dalbeg haughs were dammed up at Garion Mill; and the haughs of Overton and Thrippet, at Milton Bridge. At what period the waters forced a passage through these several barriers, it is impossible now to ascertain. The bottoms of all our rivers and burns are imbedded with gravel, consisting of the debris of granite, basalt, quartz, and various other descriptions of rocks. In the bed of Cadzow burn, at the flesh-market, there are water-worn blocks of granite, and boulders of highly indurated red sandstone of two or three feet diameter, imbedded in the solid rock. In Barncluith burn, there are also large blocks of granite several feet in diameter, lying upon a bed of shale. It is well-known that there are no granite rocks nearer than forty miles and upwards, and the course of these burns is not more than six miles. The question, therefore, comes to be,—whence do these strangers come? Large water-worn masses of pure basalt are also found in the bed of every torrent, and wherever the soil is dug into.

Coal, lime, and ironstone, are found in various places. Coal is chiefly wrought at Quarter, about three miles south of the town of Hamilton. The same bed also extends a great way northwards in the direction of Glasgow, but owing to a slip in the- coal metals between the farms of Simpsonland and Carscallan, a little to the north of Quarter, the coal is sunk nearly 100 fathoms below its usual level; an accident which puts it almost beyond the reach of the inhabitants of Hamilton, Blantyre, and part of Bothwell; the strata not rising up again till near Cambuslang. The existence of this remarkable fracture is indicated by the coal metals on the banks of the Avon, and on other burns below the place where the break occurs, all dipping to the south-west.; whereas, above that particular spot, they, and indeed the whole strata of the district, with this single exception, dip to the north-east. The coal strata here resemble those throughout the county. At Quarter, the first bed worth working is the 10 feet or woman's coal, so called because it was once wrought by females. This is a soft coal, which burns rapid- ly; and although called the 10 feet coal, is in reality from 7 to 14 feet in thickness. Fifteen fathoms lower down, the ell coal occurs, so called because it was at first found of that thickness; but it is frequently from 4 to 6 feet thick. In the fire it cakes, or runs into a mass, and is much esteemed by blacksmiths. Ten or fifteen fathoms below the former, is the seam called the main-coal. This at Quarter is 5 feet 6 inches thick, and consists of four distinct varieties of coal. 1st, The ground coal, undermost, 20 inches thick, gummy and sooty. 2d, Immediately above it the yolk or jet coal, 6 inches thick, of a fine clear vitreous texture, like cannel coal, affording abundance of light. 3d, Parrot coal, 10 inches. 4th, Splint coal, 30 inches. This is the coal now wrought both by shanks and ingoing pits. The shanks at Quarter are about 30 fathoms. The mouths of the ingoing pits are on the banks of the Avon two miles above Hamilton. These pits communicate with each other; and at their farthest recesses, swarms of flies are often observed. They also abound with rats and mice. Below the main coal, the lump, hard, soft, and sour-milk seams of coal occur, each at the depth of about 15 fathoms, the one below the other. Between and above these, there are many smaller seams. The whole of the seams added together will give a thickness of from 20 to 24 feet. Coal is also wrought to the south at Plotcock and Langfaugh, but on a smaller scale. Some trifling seams have been found at Devonhill, on the west side of the parish. The coal is brought from Quarter by a railway along the banks of the Avon, and is laid down at Avon bridge, half a mile from Hamilton, at 3s. 9d. a-ton. Here horses and donkeys are employed to cart it into the town, at from 10d. to 15d. per ton. The donkey carts are of great service to poor l)e01)10, who get ten or twelve cwts. laid down at from 2s. 3d. to 2s. 6d. Upwards of 10,000 tons are here sold annually. About half that quantity is disposed of at Quarter to people on the Strathavon and Stonehouse side of the parish. There are various other collieries in the neighbourhood.

There are two principal beds or posts of lime, namely, a 4 feet bed below the 6 feet coal; and about 12 fathoms farther down, a 6 feet bed. The 4 feet bed crops out at Crookedstone, and the 6 feet bed at Boghead, in the south-west of the parish. This last is a dark lime of excellent quality, and is that which is chiefly made use of in building and agriculture. The tenantry on the Hamilton estate obtain it on very liberal terms.

A seam of ironstone, about 18 inches thick, occurs below the 4 feet lime, but it has never been wrought in this parish. It crops out at Crookedstone, and at Boghead. A similar seam, 15 fathoms below the splint coal, is wrought exactly at the same elevation near Newhouse in Bothwell, on the opposite side of the Clyde. Bails of ironstone, from the size of a pea to several inches in dia- meter, abound in the fire-clay connected with the coal formation. Rich seams of this valuable material are disclosed by the cutting of the railway on the Avon.

The above strata are the depositories of many organic remains. The following are a few of the most common and interesting.

Turbo Urii, Paludina fiuviorum, Pitasianella an, qulosa et minuta, Bellerophon Urii, in limestone Terebratula affinis, and probably many more of the same genus; Productus Martini et Lonqispinus,—the under valve has a few spines like mother of pearl; .Pecten papyraceus in shale ; Grypha minuta in a thin bed of clay above the lime; Nucula attenuata and gibbosa, in till on the banks of the Avon. Small pieces of black mineralized wood (Pitytolithus trunci) are found above the lime, so hard as to strike fire; and yet the component parts so distinct, that the bark, the diffeent years growth, and the pith, can be easily distinguished. They seem chiefly of the pine genus. Impressions of several genera and species of ferns (Phytolitlia totalis) are found in the bed of the Avon near the coal mines. These are inclosed in pieces of water-worn schist or blacs, which ought to be carefully broken in order to obtain the impressions entire. The plants thus procured are chiefly exotics. There are several petrifying springs, partictilarly one on a small rivulet which falls into the Avon above Cadzow Castle, where beautiful petrifactions of hypna are found. Beds of fuller's earth (Argilla fullonica) and potter's earth (Argilla leucargilla) are found in various quarters; and in one part a very pure yellow ochre (Argilla lutea) in considerable quantities.

Zoology.—Under this branch, as the parish is not a little distinguished, a rather lengthened description may be allowed. Among the quadrupeds, we may mention Martes abietum, the mertrick or pine-martin. It is very common here, producing its young in the old nests of the crow and magpie, on the summits of the loftiest trees. It is very ravenous, and is frequently caught in stamps. The weasel, ermine and foumart, abound; and also the otter, badger, wild-cat, hedgehog, &c. The Cervus capreolus, or roe, is an occasional visitant. Five of these were seen in a flock in Hamilton woods last year (1833). That variety of Sorex araneus which has the "upper parts dusky-gray, under yellowish white," is occasionally observed. An individual has also a stuffed specimen, (killed here) of what appears to be the S. quadricuudatus of Linnus.

The woods here are extensive, and vocal with birds. The four species which follow, have not hitherto obtained a place in the Scottish Fauna. 1. Pernis apivorus, honey buzzard, shot at Chateiherault in the autumn of 1831. 2. Saxicola rubicola, stone-chat. This bird has built for many years at the root of a furze bush near Hamilton. It forms a curious road into its nest, about half a yard in length, through the long grass. The eggs are blue, with rufous spots at the larger end. A fine male of this species, shot a mile from Hamilton, is in possession of Mr Kirkland, weaving agent. [Since writing the above, I have seen another male of the rubicola shot at Haspielaw, in this parish. A pair had been observed flying about during the summer, and probably had their nest there.] 3. Gurruca sylviella, lesser white-throat. This bird, supposed to be confined to England, is common here. The nest is sometimes in a hedge, but more frequently among long dry grass, by the side of a wood, four or five inches from the ground, and generally overshadowed by a twig of bramble or some other shrub. The nest is more compact than that of the larger white-throat, which, in addition to its numerous names, is here called "Beardy, and Blethering Tam." The song of the sylviella is sweeter and more perfect than that of the common sort, and its eggs are also very different. 4. Gurruca salicaria, or sedge warbler. An individual of this species is now in the collection of a person named Mowat. It was killed by a boy throwing a stone (last summer) near a marshy place on the Clyde.

Among the rarer birds of Scotland, the following are pretty common here : Fringilla montium, twite, or heather linnet.. This bird gravely represented in some popular works on ornithology, as building in France, and as being "occasionally caught by the London bird-catchers," is here common enough, and is well known to almost every schoolboy. The nest is generally in a heather bush, in a brae, or slight declivity, and is very skilfully concealed. It resembles that of the common linnet, but is smaller, and is mostly lined with wool. In autumn, especially when frost begins, they descend in flocks to the lower grounds. Muscicapa grisola, spotted flycatcher: This bird, as far as can be ascertained, is in this district confined to the vale of the Clyde at Hamilton and Bothwell. It builds in out-houses and in wall-trees, in the most frequented places. It is a tame and silent bird, and disappears in September. Sylvia piwmicurus, redstart or red-tail, is exceedingly abundant. The Gerthiafamiliaris also occurs in the parish. The Gurruca atricapilla or black-cap is common, but here it seems to lose that varied and melodious song for which it is famous in the south, and on account of which it is sometimes called the mock nightingale. The Afotacilla flava, or yellow wagtail, is here called the Seed Lady. Motacilla boarula, or gray-wagtail, which some naturalists say is " chiefly observed in winter" is most common with us in summer, and builds among stones, and on the rocks by the sides of rivulets. It is asserted that the siskin, Fringilla spinus, builds here, but upon no sure authority. The goatsucker, the missel-thrush, the dipper, the yellow-wren, the crested-titmouse, the bullfinch, goldfinch, starling, &c. are common. The missel-thrush builds in orchards, and lines with clay beneath the small wrack, except where the branches of the tree embrace the nest. Opposite these there is no plaster work, the branch itself affording abundance of shelter. A person kept a tame one in Hamilton, which sung remarkably well. The Alcedo ispida, or kingfisher, builds here regularly.

A large heronry may now be seen in Hamilton haughs. There were about thirty nests this season. The heron seems to prefer the loftiest trees for building on, especially those a little elevated above the rest, by the nature of the ground on which they stand. These birds are frequently attacked by the carrion-crow, on their return from their fishing expeditions, and the prey snatched from them. The jackdaw, although he in general prefers old ruins for his breeding place, builds here abundantly in the holes of the old oaks in Hamilton wood. In the month of May they spread themselves over dry old pastures, where they pick tip vast quantities of insects, caterpillars, and beetles. At this season they forsake their old companions the rooks; but return to them again in autumn. A nest of the C'ypselus opus, or swift, was got this summer with three young. [About two years ago, many of the inhabitants of Hamilton were attracted to Mr Fisher's at Claud's-burn, in the neighbourhood of the town, to see a robin red- breast feeding a young cuckoo, which it had hatched. The little bird had been a pet during the winter, but leaving its master, and searching out for a mate in the spring, met with this misfortune. The toil of feeding so large a bird as the cuckoo, which by this time was flying about the orchard, soon compelled robin to apply once more to his former benefactor for assistance; and it was curious to see the fond dupe come and peck worms, and other viands, out of Mr Fisher's hand, and carry them off. directly to his great insatiable pseudo nestling.]

The following species are often shot.: Laiiius excubitor, cinereous shrike. It appears chiefly in autumn, and sometimes attacks the call-birds of the bird-catcher in their cages. Bombycilla garrula, wax-wing, or Bohemian chatterer. These are irregular visitants. Three individuals were shot in 1830 with hops in their stomachs. A vast, flock of them appeared in the Laughs of Hamilton in the winter of 1782. They are regarded as birds of evil omen. Loxia curvirostra, or cross-bill, Emberiza nivalis, or snow-bunting, Fringilla montifrinyilla, mountain-finch, or cock of the north, and many other winter birds are observed. No species of Picus or woodpecker has ever been observed in this part of Scotland. In winter many species of sea-fowl, chiefly first year's birds, are shot on the Clyde. The erne is ofteh observed. Yunx torquilla was lately shot.

Of the reptile kind, the Anguis fraqilis, or blind-worm, is very common at Chatelherault. It is so brittle that it readily breaks if let fall, or when suddenly laid hold on. Having no poison fangs its bite is not venomous. It hides in holes in the winter, and is sometimes seen abroad in the spring, by the beginning of March. Some years ago a vast number of young vipers, with some old ones of great magnitude, were turned up when digging a plot of ground near Woodyet. These, in the true viper spirit, struck their long barbed tongues against the spades of the workmen with great violence, and seemed very angry at being thus invaded in their ancient domains. This species is very venomous. Vast quantities of frogs are sometimes found congregated in moist marshy places, many feet below the surface. About a hogshead-full were dug up some years ago, near the margin of a spouty ditch, in the high parks of Hamilton.

There are abundance of fish in the Clyde and its tributaries. Of these, the Leuciscus rutilus, roach or braize, is the most uncommon. The other species are the salmon, trout, pike, perch, bach, minnow, lampreys, silver eels, and small flounders. The lampreys may be congregated in vast quantities by throwing a piece of carrion into the water. [The horse-muscle, Mytillus anatinus and M. cygneus, are plentiful in the Clyde. They sometimes contain small pearls; but these are in general coarse and ill-coloured.]

That disputed species, the par or samlet of Pennant, abounds at particular seasons. Dr Fleming, in his History of British Animals, observes, that this species is now " generally considered as the young of Salmo trutta, or sea-trout, or of the salmon." That it is not the young of time sea-trout is certain; for, although we have myriads of pars, no such species as sea-trout was ever found here. It may be said, they are spawned below, and come up the water; but it does not appear how so small a fish as a par could get over Blantyre dam, three miles below Hamilton. The lowering of the dam at Miliheugh, on the Avon, now going on, will allow the passage of the salmon, but not of smaller fish; and if after this the par is found above the dam, we may conclude it is the spawn of the salmon. Nous verrons.

The eggs of insects seem to be distributed as universally, and with as much care, as the seeds of plants. The number of these "little wonders" inhabiting this part of Scotland is truly astonish- ing; and, although some pretty good collections of them have been made, they have not hitherto been half investigated. The following are a few of the most interesting: Coleoptera, or beetles. 1. Silpha quadripunctata. An insect of the above species was found here in 1826. This is an exceedingly rare insect. 2. Rlzagium bfaciatum. 3. Leptura quadijfaciata. To these we may add the three following species, namely, the Scarabeus melolont/ta, S. brunneus, and S. horticola. Dr Rennie mentions the Melolontha or cockchaffer as occurring (in this end of the island) only at Sorn in Ayrshire. It is certainly fortunate for Scotland that an insect so very destructive iii its habits is of so very rare occurrence; but still several places in this country are occasionally subjected to its ravages. In the summer of 1833, a great deal of grass was destroyed by this insect, and many thousands of them were caught at Chatelherault.

Among the Hemiptera of this parish, we may now record Blatta Americana, which has probably been brought over in raw sugar. The cock-roach occasionally secretes itself in a pot of jam or jelly, where it attains an enormous size, and assumes a darker and more glossy hue ; but it loses somewhat of its activity by this over-indulgence of its appetites. It is brought with baggage from sea, but soon disappears.

Of Lepidoptera, there are here many rare species. Among the butterfly tribe we may mention, Vanessa Atalanta or red admirable. This species is pretty common. The caterpillar is solitary, and feeds on the nettle. The butterfly appears in August, and, it has been said, lives through the winter. The Vanessa Jo, or peacock butterfly, is more rare. The caterpillar feeds on the nettle, and the perfect insect appears in July. The T/iecla quercus, or purple hair streak, is found in May and June. The Ilipparchia rna'š/crra, or gate-keeper, and the H. agerza, or speckled wood, are also found. The Lycana alsus, or small blue, is common here. The Hesperia 7' es, or dingy skippers and Vanessa cardui, or painted lady, may he also mentioned. Vast flights of this last species occasionally occur on the continent. It is one of the few insects found in all quarters of the globe. The following moths also occur: Saturnia Pavonia minor, or emperor moth. This is an early and elegant insect, appearing in April and May. The caterpillars feed on the bramble and dog-rose. Pygara bucephala, or buff tip moth, is common in some seasons, and very rare in others. The Gerura vinula, or puss moth, Acoterontia atropos, death's head moth, Lasiocainpa rubi, fox-egger-moth, Smerinthus populi, Zygena flupendula, Microglossa stellularum, Plusia gamma, and many other species occur. Biston betularis, is as if a pepper-box had been dusted on its wings. Abraxas gross2dariata is common in some seasons, and in others very scarce. These keep chiefly to the lower grounds, and in many places, only 50 feet above Hamilton, are never met with at all. Among the fruit moths the Bradyepetes dolabraria, is the greatest scourge of the orchard. Various species of Ilepialus, supposed to be found only in England, occur here. The Gleophorafagana, and P/tragmatobiafuliginosa are very rare insects.

Among the Hymenoptera, we may note Ichneumon luteus, I. manfestor, and two varieties of Ghrysopa reticulata.

Botany.—As nearly all the phnogamous plants have already been published in a " Popular description of the indigenous plants of Lanarkshire," we will only mention the three following among the rarer species: 1. A variety of Antirrhinum repens. The stem is simple, and has four linear leaves in whorls from top to bottom. The whole plant is glabrous, and is found on an old wall, to the north of Hamilton wood. 2. Gnicus eriopliorus. This magnificent plant is now common in waste ground at Woodyet. 3. G/irysocoma Linosyris, or flax-leaved-goldilocks. This plant, a native of the south, has lately appeared on the banks of the Clyde, in a very remote spot, in great abundance. The roots or seeds have probably been brought down by the water.

A description of the Crypogamia, of this parish and district is now in preparation.

II.----CIVIL HISTORY.

Historical Notices.—In 1153 and in 1289, the old Scottish kings held their courts at Cadzow; which continued to be royal property till after the battle of Bannockburn. This district has been occasionally the scene of important events, which, as they are well known in Scottish history, need not be here particularly noticed.

Covenanters.—In November 1650, Cromwell sent General Lambert; and Commissary General Whalley, to Hamilton, with five regiments of cavalry to overawe the west-country Covenanters, or to bring them over to his own terms. They were there attacked by Colonel Kerr, with 1500 horsemen from Ayrshire. The Covenanters succeeded in securing a number of the horses; but Lambert having rallied his forces, overtook the "spoil encumbered foe" two miles west of Hamilton, killed Colonel Kerr and about 100 of his troops, and took many prisoners.

On Sabbath 1st June 1679, Captain Graham, (afterwards Viscount Dundee,) on his way to the field of Drumclog, seized, near Hamilton, John King, a field preacher, and seventeen other people, whom he bound in pairs, and drove before him towards Loudon Hill. Mr King, who was probably in disguise, is described by Crighton as a "bra' muckle carl with a white hat, and a great bob of ribbans on the back o't." The Covenanters, after their success at Drumclog, deeming it unlawful to fight on the Sabbath except in self-defence, returned to the field of action, where they offered UI) thanks to the Almighty for the victory they had gained; after which they took some refreshment in Strathaven, and marched to Hamilton in the evening. Next day, (June 2d,) flushed with victory, they resolved to make an attack on Glasgow. One division of them, commanded by Mr Hamilton, attempted to penetrate by Gallowgate, and another party entered by the High Street. But Lord Ross had so completely barricaded the streets, and made such a resistance, that the Covenanters were soon compelled to retire, with the loss of Walter Paterson of Carbarns, and five of their party killed, and several wounded. After their repulse at Glasgow, they rallied on Tollcross muir, and returned to Hamilton. The more moderate party (June 20) drew up a paper, which afterwards obtained the name of the " Hamilton Declaration." The purport of it was to forbear all angry disputes and mutual recriminations for the present, to disclaim any intention to overturn the Government, civil or ecclesiastical, and to refer all matters of importance to a free Parliament, and a lawfully chosen General Assembly. This proposal was, of course, rejected by the violent party. Their guard was attacled in the night-time at Hamilton Ford, and one of their number (James Cleland) killed. On Saturday 21st June, the Royal army, under the Duke of Monmouth, about 5000 strong, reached Bothwell Muir, within two miles of the Covenanters' camp. On the morning of Sabbath, 22d June 1672, the Covenanters, amounting to about 4000 men, were posted between the Clyde and the town of Hamilton, on the brow of the brae near Bothwell Bridge. Rathillet, Hall, and Turnbull, with three troops under their command, and one piece of brass ordnance, guarded that important pass. The result of this most unfortunate rencounter is well known. The Covenanters were put to flight. rphe)T fled with great loss chiefly in the direction of Glasford and Strathaven. Gordon of Earlston had reached the parish of Hamilton with a party of Galloway men, when they met their discomfited brethren at Allowshill, near Quarter, where Gordon was met and killed. A great number of the Covenanters found shelter in Hamilton woods; and the amiable Duchess Anne Hamilton, requesting that the soldiers might not be permitted to enter her plantations, Monmouth instantly gave orders to that effect. About 1200 men were taken prisoners on the spot.

Historical Notices.—The Hamiltons were great opposers of the Union. In 1707, when that event took place, 500 troops assembled at Hamilton to resist it by force of arms. It was expected that 7000 or 8000 would have met; but the Duke of Hamilton disapproved of the measure.

In the year 1744, a fire took place in Barrie's Close, which raged with unabating fury for eight days. The town's-people were at length so completely exhausted, that they were compelled to call in assistance from the country. A whole street of houses was burned, and their ruins were allowed to remain for many years.

On the death of the Duke of Douglas in 1761, the house of Hamilton, as male representatives of the Douglasses, laid claim to the estates, under a persuasion, that Mr Douglas, son and heir of Lady Jane Stewart, sister of the Duke of Douglas, was a supposititious child taken at Paris from the real parents. A long law-suit was the result. It was decided in Paris, and in the Court of Session, in favour of the Hamiltons; but on an appeal to the House of Peers, was ultimately decided in favour of Mr Douglas, since created Lord Douglas.

In 1777, Douglas Duke of Hamilton, coming of age, raised in Hamilton, for the service of the country, the 8d Regiment of Foot, which afterwards highly distinguished itself in the American war.

On 11th June 1782, the Duke of Hamilton, as Duke of Brandon in England, was called to take his seat in the House of Lords as a British Peer. This paved the way to all the Scottish nobility who have since attained similar honours and privileges.

Eminent Men.—This parish has been the birth-place and occasional residence of many eminent characters. The celebrated Dr Cullen, sometimes represented as born at Lanark in 1712, appears distinctly from the session books of Hamilton to have been born two years later in the parish of Hamilton. Dr Cullen was magistrate of Hamilton for several years.—.The celebrated Lord Cochrane, now Earl Dundonald, spent many of his early years in the parish.—The father of the late Professor Millar of Glasgow was parochial clergyman here; as was also the father of the late Dr Baillie of London, and of his celebrated sister, Joanna Baillie.

Family of Hamilton.—The estate of Cadzow, now Hamilton, comprises more than one-half of the parish. It had remained in the Crown from a very remote antiquity, till 1316, when it was bestowed on Walter Fitz Gilbert do Hamilton, by Bruce, immediately after the battle of Bannockburn. It has continued in the hands of his descendants ever, since. This noble family, although the first in the kingdom for rank, has not been above 600 years in Scotland. The first of them is supposed to have been an English gentleman of the line of Mellent and Leicester. In 1445, they were ennobled by the title of Lord Hamilton. In 1474, James first Lord Hamilton married the Princess Mary, eldest daughter of James II. King of Scotland, and widow of Thomas Boyd, Earl of Arran. By this connection his descendants came to be declared in Parliament, on the demise of James V., in the event of the death of Mary Queen of Scots, next heirs to the Crown, and have, in consequence, been ever since regarded as a branch of the royal family. They were created Dukes of Chatelherault, in France, on carrying Queen Mary thither. They were made Dukes of Hamilton by Charles 1. and Dukes of Brandon in England by Queen Anne. In consequence of the marriage of Anne Duchess of Hamilton to Lord 'William Douglas, eldest son of William first Marquis of Douglas by his first wife, Lady Mary Gordon, the Hamilton family are now Douglasses by the male side.

Buchanan, and some of his followers, represent the Hamiltons as dependents on the Douglasses, and as becoming great by betraying them to James II., who murdered the Earl of Douglas in Stirling Castle with his own hand, although he had a safeguard. It is farther asserted, that James III. forced the wife of Boyd, Earl of Arran, to forsake her husband, and marry Lord Hamilton. These statements, there is reason to believe, were invidious on the part of Buchanan, and made in order to please his patron the Earl Murray, a great enemy of the Hamiltons. Boetius (book 12, chap. 5,) says, that the first daughter of James II. was married to Lord Boyd, who had by her a son and a daughter; and that after the death Of Lord Boyd, this daughter of James II. was married to Lord Hamilton; in that way the Hamiltons are "decorit in the King's blood." This edition of Boetius was translated by Bellenden, who, being contemporary with the lady, is better authority than Buchanan, who lived a century after.

Silverton Hill.—Silverton Hill, anciently Quhitecamp, the place from whence the Harniltons of Silverton Hill take their title, has dwindled down to a small farm, which has repeatedly changed owners. This family broke off from the ducal house in 1449. Sir Frederick Hamilton of Silverton Hill, Bart. collector of the East India Company's revenues at Benares, is the fourteenth in descent.

Earnock.—The estate of Earnock, in the west of the parish, was for many generations the property of a family of the name of Roberton, the descendants of Robert, brother of Lambin Fleming, to whom Malcolm IV. gave these lands; part of which are now called Kennedies, and belong to Mr Roberton. Earnock was sold about fifty years ago to Mr Semple, and about 1810 to A. Millar, Esq. the present proprietor.

Ross.— One-half of the lands of Ross or Inveravon were, by Robert Loudon, brother to Alexander II., conveyed to the monks of Kelso, and the King granted a charter confirming the grant in 1222. The half belonging to the monks was obtained by John, the brother of Walter Fitz Gilbert, about 1339, and the other half from David, the son of Walter. Sir William Hamilton of Preston is the lineal representative of this family. The estate at present belongs to Captain Robertson Aikman.

Motherwell.—The lands of Motherwell on the east of the Clyde, now in possession of the Hamilton family, were given by Malcolm IV. to a person of the name of Tancard, a Fleming, and his son, Thomas Fleming, disponed them to the monks of Paisley. There is a famous well here, dedicated formerly to the Virgin Mary, and hence the name Motherwell.

Nielsland.—Nielsland was probably part of the territories of the Crocsof Crocstoun, who had the lands of Nielstone in Renfrewshire. This estate belonged, as far back as. 1549, to John Hamilton de Nielsland. The first of this family was a younger son of Hamilton of Raploch. In 1723, Grizel Hamilton, as sole proprietrix of Niels- land, &c. sold these lands to Margaret Bryson, widow of Mr John Muir, minister of Kilbride, in whose hands, and those of her heir, it remained for a few years. It is now the property of.1)avid Marshall, Esq.

Barncluith. The estate of Barncluith belonged in ancient times to a family of the name of Machan, and came into the possession of a younger son of Sir Robert Hamilton of Bruntwood by marriage. Lord Pressmennan, a Senator of the College of Justice, and many other eminent individuals, were of this family. Of late, it became by marriage the property of Lord Ruthven.

Allanshaw, Darngaber, Edlewood, Mirritoun, and Udstoun, formerly seats of different branches of the Hamiltons, are now mere farms. The Hamiltons of Fairholm, descendants of the fourth son of Thomas Hamilton of Darngaber, are still a good family in the south-east side of this parish.

Antiquities—Gadzow 'Castle.— The most prominent antiquity in the parish is Cadzow Castle, already alluded to. [David I. dates his charter to the High Church of Glasgow from Cadzow Castle.] It stands in Hamilton-wood, on the summit of a precipitous rock; the base of which is washed by the Avon. It is not known who were its founders ; although it is probable that Caw or Cay was the first of the royal race who took up their residence in this quarter. It continued in the possession of the Crown until it was granted by Robert the Bruce to Sir Walter Fitz Gilbert. Ever since, with only two short interruptions, it has been in the hands of his descendants. The first of the interruptions alluded to was about the year 1581, when it fell for a short time into the hands of Captain Stewart. The other suspension (equally short in duration) was in 1654, when, by Cromwell's act of grace and pardon, William Duke of Hamilton, deceased, was excepted from all benefit thereof, and his estates forfeited; reserving out of them L. 400 per annum, to his Duchess during her life, and after her death, L. 100 per annum, to each of his four daughters, and their heirs for ever. The Castle of Cad- zow seems to have been repaired, at different periods. The keep, with the fosse around it, a narrow bridge on the south, over the fosse, and a well inside, are still in good preservation, and are all of polished stone, of a reddish colour. Several vaults, and the walls, probably, of the chapel, and other offices, are still visible. Cadzow Castle has been celebrated in a fine ballad by Sir Walter Scott. The Castle of Darngaber (i. e. the "house between the waters," or, as some have supposed, the " hiding place of the goats,") in the S. E. side of the parish, is said to have been built by Thomas de Hamilton, son of Sir John de Hamilton, Dominus de Cadzow. Its ruins stand on a small knoll at the extremity of a tongue of land, where two rivulets meet. The foundations only of this ancient fortress can now be traced. They are entirely of flat shingly stones, without lime, and seem never to have been subjected to a tool. Small vaults have been discovered, which are not arched, but drawn together as conduits sometimes are. It is probable, therefore, that Thomas de Hamilton did not build, but only repaired, this Castle.

The most perfect, and indeed, the only tumulus, properly speaking, in this parish, is at Meikie Earnock, about two miles south of Hamilton. It is at present about 12 feet diameter, and 8 feet high. It was formerly muchý larger, and hollow at the top. When broken into, several urns were found, containing the ashes of human bones, some of them accompanied by the tooth of a horse. There was no inscription seen, but some of the urns, which were all of baked earth, were plain, and others decorated with moulding, probably to distinguish the quality of the deceased.

In the haugh, to the north of the palace, there is an ancient moat-hill, or seat of justice. It appears to be about 30 feet diameter at the base, and about 15 or 16 feet high, and is flat at the top. When it stood formerly in the midst of the town, it formed part of time garden of an alehouse, and was dressed with the spade, and adorned with plants. It cannot be less than eight or nine hundred years old, as no erections of the kind have been in use since the reign of Malcolm Canmore.—Near the moat-hill is an ancient stone cross, about 4 feet high, bearing no inscription. It is said to have been the cross of the Netherton.

In the south side of the parish a remarkable stone, about 6 feet high, but leaning considerably to one side, gives the name "Crooked Stone" to the district. It is of freestone, and evidently very ancient. Mr Chalmers notices these bended stones as cromlechs, of Druidical origin. A neighbouring farmer lately set it upright.; leaving posterity to wonder why it was called " crooked stone."

Among the antiquities of this place may be recorded the gardens at Barncluith. There are here three dwelling-houses and three gardens, namely, an orchard, a kitchen, and flower- garden. The flower garden is cut out of a steep bank on the Avon, two or three hundred feet high, and is divided into five terraces. These are flanked by terrace walls, covered with espaliers of various descriptions. The borders of the walks are crowded with a variety of evergreens cut into fantastic forms. In the centre of the great walk is a handsome pavilion, fitted up with rustic chairs, and other curious pieces of furniture. Here a pair of house-martins have constructed a nest on the skeleton of a dolphin's head, which is nailed to the wall above the fire-place. These gardens and buildings were probably constructed by John Hamilton of Barncluith, commissary of Hamilton and Campsie, about 1583. This individual was son of Quintin Hamilton, who was killed fighting in the Queen's cause at the battle of Langside. Tradition says he was deeply skilled in mathematics.

Palace.—Hamilton Palace was originally a square tower, about 20 feet long, and 16 feet wide. The old part of the house, as it now stands, was erected about 1591; and it was afterwards almost entirely rebuilt about 130 years ago. The front (now the back) facing the south, was ornamented with pillars of the Corinthian order; and two deep wings were added, in the form of a Roman H, much in:the style of Greenwich Hospital. In 1822, additions, on an extensive scale, were begun under the present Duke by Mr Hamilton, as architect, and Mr Connel, (builder of Burns' Monument at Ayr,) as builder, which promise to render the Palace of Hamilton one of the largest and most magnificent structures of the kind in Britain. The modern part consists of a new front, facing the north, 264 feet 8 inches in length, and three stories high, with an additional wing to the west, for servants' apartments, 100 feet in length. A new corridor is carried along the back of the old building, containing baths, &c. The front is adorned by a noble portico, consisting of a double row of Corinthian columns, each of one solid stone, surmounted by a lofty pediment. The shaft of each column is upwards of 25 feet in height, and about 3 feet 3 inches diameter. These were each brought in the block about eight miles from a quarry in Dalserf, oil immense waggon constructed for the purpose, and drawn by thirty horses. The principal apartments, besides the entrance hail, are, the tribune, a sort of saloon or hail, from which many of the principal rooms enter; a dining-room, 71 by 30; a library and billiard-room; state bedrooms, and a variety of sleeping apartments; a kitchen-court, &c. The gallery, 120 feet by 20, and 20 feet high, has also been thoroughly repaired. This, like all the principal rooms, is gilded and highly ornamented with marble, scagliolo, and stucco-work. The stables and offices, now erecting between the town and the Palace, are every way worthy of the splendid edifice of which they are an appropriate accompaniment. The palace stands close upon the town, on the upper border of the great valley, about half a mile west Of the conflux of the Clyde and Avon. As a curious statistical fact, we may state, thatthere were employed in building the addition to the palace 28,056 Ions, 8 cwts. and 3 quarters of stones, drawn by 22,528 horses. Of lime, sand, stucco, wood, &c. 5534 tons, 6 cwt., 1 quarter, 7 lbs., drawn by 5196 horses. In drawing 22,350 slates, 62,200 bricks, with engine ashes, and coal-cuim to keep down the damp, 731 horses were employed. Total days during which horses were employed for other purposes, 658k. In the stables, there are 7976 tons of stones, drawn by 5153 horses. Of lime, sand, slates, &c. 1361 tons, drawn by 1024 horses; besides 284 days of horses employed for other purposes. The stables, according to plan, are only about half-finished.

Picture Gallery.—The interior equipments of Hamilton Palace are not less tasteful or magnificent than its exterior, and are a fair counterpart of the gorgeous pile in which they are contained. The collection of paintings, now greatly on the increase, has been long considered the best in Scotland. Daniel in the lion's den is a noble picture, and has often been described and admired. The portraits of Charles I. in armour oil white horse, and of the Earl of Denbigh in a shooting dress, standing by a tree, with the muzzle of a gun grasped in his right hand, and the butt of it resting on the ground, with a little black boy on the opposite side of the tree pointing out the game—both by Vandyke—are also master-pieces of art. An entombment of Christ by Poussin, an Ascension piece by Georgione, a dying Madona by Corregio, a stag-hunt by Sneyder, a laughing boy by L. Da Vinci, and an admirable portrait of Napoleon by David, painted from life, by permission granted to the present Duke of Hamilton, are all well known works of art of great value. The east staircase contains a large altar-piece by Girolamo dai Libri, from San Lionardo nel Monte, near Verona, of the Castieri family, with a Madona and child placed in a chair above them—(vide Vasari, edition 1648.) In the breakfast-room is a picture by Giacomo da Puntormo of Joseph in Egypt receiving his father and his brothers, into which is introduced the portrait of Beronzino: (vide Vasari.) In the same room, by Luca Signorelli, the circumcision of the infant Christ, supposed to have been painted by Sodoma: (vide Vasari, edition 1648:) and a portrait by Artonelli of Mycena, said to have been the first painter in oil, 1474. This is still in a state of admirable preservation. The great gallery and principal apartments contain also a large collection of family portraits, and other paintings, by Vandyke, Kneller, Rubens, Corregio, Guido, Rembrandt, Titian, the Carraccis, Salvator Rosa, Carlo Dolce, Guercino, Georgione, Poussin, Spagnoletti, Reynolds, Hamilton, &c. Here, if any where in Scotland, is

"An art akin to nature's self,
So mighty in its means, we stand prepared
To see the life as lively mocked, as ever
Still sleep mocked death."

A number of antique vases adorn the principal rooms, particularly one in the new dining-room, of gialloantico, in the form of a tripod, of great beauty, and of extraordinary dimensions, being 5 feet 3 inches in height, 14 feet 3 inches in circumference, and 9 inches deep. The vase itself is supported by a circular central pillar of beautiful form, richly carved and fluted, and with three square fluted pilasters at the sides, each resting on a lion's foot, and terminating with a lion's head—the whole standing on a base of beautiful African marble. In the breakfast-room and small drawing-room are two slabs of porphyry upon gilt bronze legs, formerly composing part of an altar-piece at Rome. Both slabs are of oriental porphyry, of equal size, and of great beauty. In an adjoining room there is a cabinet covered with a slab of Malachite (Cuprum Ărugo, Lin.) of the most splendent lustre imaginable. There are also a great many antique cabinets in the different apartments, enriched with Mosaic and all sorts of precious stones; particularly a casket of ebony ornamented with gilt bronze, and oriental stones in relief, formerly belonging to the Medici family. At the upper end of the gallery is the present Duke's ambassadorial throne, brought from his embassy at St Petersburgh, and placed between two antique magnificent busts of oriental porphyry, the one of Augustus and the other of Tiberius; and on the walls, on each side of the throne, are two capital portraits of George III. and Queen Charlotte, painted soon after their marriage. Fronting the throne, at the other end of the gallery, is a magnificent large architectural door of black marble, the pediment being supported by two oriental columns of green porphyry, unique in their kind, and supposed to be the finest of that material in Europe. These will afford a faint idea of the gorgeous splendour which reigns within the walls of Hamilton Palace. The collection of pictures may amount to about 2000 pieces, of which about 100 are at Chaterherault. The value of the prints alone in the Duke's possession, none of which are ever exhibited to strangers, and many parcels of which, I believe, are not yet unfolded, are worth from L. 10,000 to L. 15,000. It is impossible to form any idea of the value of the paintings. Many of the cabinets are worth L. 1500; and a single table has been estimated at L. 4000. The value of the plate, including a magnificent gold set, is probably about L. 50,000.

Earnock House, 4'c.—Earnock House is pleasantly situated on the higher grounds, in the west, amidst abundance of plantations. It is a modern square building, well adapted for a gentleman of moderate fortune. It has very fine pleasure grounds, and an excellent garden, tastefully laid out, and furnished with glass-houses both for fruits and plants. The houses at Ross, Fairhill, and Grovernount, are also large and handsome buildings, abounding with whatever can contribute to convenience or comfort. There are also respectable residences at Nielsland, Fairholin, and Edlewood. There is a curious fog-house at Grovemount, of great dimensions, tastefully conceived, and skilfully executed, which cost a considerable sum in fitting up.

Jew Prison, &c.-----On Tuesday, 10th June 1834, the foundation stone of the new prison and public offices was laid at Hamilton, with masonic honours. [The glass vessel containing the coins, newspapers, &c. having been deposited beneath the plinth of one of the intended columns in front of the public offices, was dexterously dug into on the night of the 2d November 1834, and the most valuable part of the hoarded treasure extracted. The thieves who thus bearded justice in its own peculiar domains have not yet been detected.] The offices consist of a distinct building in front of the prison, of two stories. In the west end, in the lower flat, there are three rooms for the sheriff-clerk, with a record- room. The town-clerk has four rooms in the east end. In the centre, there is a court room, 37 feet long, and 32 broad. In the, upper story, there is a large hall, for county meetings, &c. 47 feet 10 inches by 32 feet, with an adjacent room, 15 feet by 12 feet 1-1 inch. The prison, which stands at a little distance behind, is three stories high. It is 80 feet 9 inches in length, and 32 feet 4 inches in breadth, comprising in all 45 cells, and 6 water-closets, with a large day room for debtors, 19 feet by 13, and four other rooms for them, each 9 feet by 7j-, besides two day rooms for other prisoners. The first flat, with 12 cells, is to be used as a Bride- well. The second flat has 16 cells and 4 day rooms. The upper flat is to be appropriated to debtors. It also contains separate apartments for females. The governor's house stands between the public offices and the prison. In the under story, there is a kitchen, a servants' room and bed-room, and a bath for the gaol. There are four apartments in the upper story. The prison and governor's house are to be surrounded with a wall 15 feet high, inclosing a large court, half an acre in extent. These buildings are now in a forward state. They stand on the high grounds, to the west of the town, on the Blantyre road, near the Cavalry Barracks. The old prison and court-hall at the Cross, built in the reign of Charles I., are soon to be demolished. The present town-hall, near the old gaol, has also been bought up. The butcher-market, with shambles, stand on the brink of Cadzow burn, near the middle of the town. This is a modern erection of respectable appearance. The meal-market, in the Muir Wynd, has long been in disuse. The public fire-engines, ladders, &c. are kept here. There are other fire-engines belonging to the pa- lace and barracks; and an old ladder is pointed out, which is said to have been used at public executions. The Cavalry Barracks are much in the style of those at Perth and Edinburgh. Besides stables, with accommodation above for the men, there are officers' barracks, an hospital, and riding-room. These occupy a large space of ground, and are surrounded by a high wall.

III.—POPULATION.

The state of the population at different times is as follows:

The total increase, since 1755, is 5698, or about 75 per annum.

From a census taken some months ago, and which seems to be ac- curate, there has been an increase of 309, which may be attributed to the introduction and flourishing condition of a lace-manufactory, which now employs a great many females. Out of 982 males and females, there are in this parish:

The whole gives 127 males, and 140 females. This was the year of the cholera,—a disease which carried off many individuals, particularly females. There appears in this parish to be one baptism per annum to 27 persons, one burial to 45, and one marriage to 117 nearly. Throughout the whole of England the proportion is 33, 49, and 120; and in Wales, 37, 60, and 136. The advantage is every way on the side of the above countries; but this does not proceed from any superiority in their climate or mode of living, but merely from the fact, that the averages above alluded to, take in town and country, whereas as regards this parish, they refer only to a manufacturing population, a great proportion of whom are doomed to damp shops, stooping postures, meager fare, and long hours. The rural districts of Scotland offer very different results. The folIowing is the number who died monthly, between 1833 and 1834. It will be found to fall short of the corresponding year above by 20; the number buried in the Relief burying-ground, are not included in this list.

There are on an average about 10 still-born children per annum. In the cholera year there were 14. Some people occasionally arrive here at a great age; but there are few at present above ninety.

The property of the parish is possessed by 133 heritors. Besides the noble family, there are about eight gentlemen of independent fortune. Sixteen individuals occupy land to the value of L. 50 per annum, and upwards. There are about 38 unmarried men, 50 years of age and upwards; 150 widows, and about 100 unmarried women, above 45. The number of families in the town is 1670; and in the country, 388. The average number of children in each family is 4. There are 710 inhabited houses in the town, and 303 in the country. About 8 houses are now building, and none are uninhabited. Number of insane, fatuous, blind, deaf, dumb, 15. Many poor persons of this class were cut off in 1833.

During the last three years there have been 110 illegitimate births in the parish.

IV.-INDUSTRY.

The whole of this district is remarkably well-fenced and wooded; and when seen from the higher grounds on the east of the Clyde, appears like a large well-stocked orchard or garden. The coarse and waste lands are chiefly on the outskirts of the parish, in the south and west. The principal woods are Bar-Michael wood, (Michael's Fort,) near Bothwell Bridge, Ross wood on the Clyde, and Hamilton wood on the Avon, and Barncluith burn. Spontaneous coppices rise every where, near the sides of the rivers and burns, and where-ever the banks obtain a sufficient elevation, they are entirely veiled in a mass of foliage. Forest trees of all kinds, capable of standing the climate of Scotland, thrive, especially in the lower parts of the parish. Some of them attain to a great age. On poor land in high exposures, the larch, since it has been introduced, has thriven better than any others. Next to it is the Scots fir. The silver fir, the spruce, the Pinus balsamea or Balm of Gilead fir, the pitch pine, and the Finns Canadensis are also often planted. In one place the Finns cedrus, or cedar of Lebanon, has attained a goodly size. But in Hamilton wood there is little or no fir, and the hardwood is abundant. The "old oaks" behind Cadzow Castle cover several hundred acres, and are evidently of great antiquity. [Some of these are English oaks, supposed to have been planted by King David, first Earl of Huntingdon, about the year 1140.] Many of the trees have attained an enormous size, measuring 36 feet in circumference. One near Wood House, called the "boss tree," is capable of containing at one time eight individuals of the ordinary size. The chase in which these venerable combaters of time are now vegetating is browzed by about four-score white cows of the ancient British breed. Their bodies are milk-white, their ears, muzzles, and hoofs black, and the shin in front, above the hoof, is mottled with black. They are perfectly docile, except when they have calves. On these occasions they manifest an uncommon attachment to their young, by carefully concealing them when dropt, and defending them when attacked. The varieties of the ox are very numerous, and may be multiplied to almost any extent. This variety bears the greatest resemblance in colour to the Madagascar, Tinian, and African ox. A good many fallow deer are fed in a field on the opposite bank of the Avon.

Orchards.—The cultivation of the orchards, although not carried to such a length, nor perhaps so well understood as in some of the neighbouring parishes, is still not entirely neglected. A great pro- portion of the houses both in the town and country have gardens or orchards attached to them ; and when the fruit sold better than at present, these sometimes brought considerable sums. Pears thrive better than apples. The jargonelle, when on the wall, arrives here at great perfection. Some very large crops have been gathered of late. Currants, gooseberries, and other small fruit are also cultivated in large quantities, and mostly disposed of at Glasgow. The gooseberries, however, have been greatly deteriorated of late in quality, by the injudicious practice of introducing new sorts from England, which is naturally not so good a climate for gooseberries as Scotland.

Husbandry.—The crops sown here are, wheat, oats, pease, beans, barley, hay, some flax, and great quantities of potatoes. Wheat is raised on all the lands on the Clyde, and also on some of the farms in the higher part of the parish. It is either sown on fallow or after potatoes, but seldom after oats or pease and beans. The time of sowing is from the end of August to the 1st of November. The quantity sown is from 7 to 12 pecks, Linlithgow measure, per Scots acre; the produce from 8 to 16 bolls of the same measure. Oats is the principal spring corn. From two-thirds to three- fourths of the land tilled is sown with this seed. Late seed is sown on the lower and earlier grounds, and early seed on the higher and later grounds. Tweeddale and Blainsley oats have long been known. The Polish, Essex, Friesland, or great Dutch and red oats have also been tried. But of the new sorts the potato oat is the best. From 12 to 18 pecks, county measure, are sown on the acre; and the produce varies from 4 to 18 bolls. Pease and beans are chiefly raised on the lower grounds. These are, for the most part, ordinary horse-beans, and a kind of late gray pease, usually accompanying them. From 14 to 18 pecks, wheat measure, are sown on an acre, and they sometimes yield as much as 18 bolls of the same measure. Formerly a considerable quantity of barley of an excellent quality was produced here, particularly in the lower parts of the parish; but the backward springs, and cold inconstant summers, which began to prevail towards the end of last century, have almost banished it from this quarter of the country. It is now seldom sown, except for the purpose of cleaning and paring land for the reception of artificial grasses. Red, white, and yellow clover, rye-grass, &c. are cultivated for hay and pasture, and no person now lays down land to rest without sowing the seeds of these plants upon it. The produce of hay is from one to three tons per acre, besides an after-growth, which is generally pastured on, or cut for green food, the autumn being seldom favourable for making it into hay. A little flax is occasionally sown for domestic use. Rye thrives well below trees, and might be profitably introduced into orchards. A great many new, or natural grasses, have been brought into cultivation; but it remains to be seen whether this practice will turn out most profitable to the agriculturist or the seedsman. Potatoes are planted from the middle of April to the middle of May, principally in drills made by the plough. Many families in the town take small plots of ground for the season, from the neighbouring farmers, which they plant with this root. Large fields of potatoes are also sold in lots to the town's people when they are ready for digging. Upwards of twenty-four tons have been taken from an acre. Eighty bolls were this season produced on a single acre, about two miles from Hamilton. The rare occurrence of famines in the present day is chiefly to be attributed to the abundance of this root; and yet, Cobbet, to establish a theory, would deprive the poor of this table, which " God has prepared for them in the presence of their enemies." The potatoes threatened a failure in some places about the end of the summer. When the diseased plants were pulled up, the seed was found to swarm with little black worms or maggots; but whether these animals were the cause of the disease, or the mere attendants of that corruption by which it was followed, we are not prepared to decide. The culture of carrot, turnips, cabbage, &c. is scarcely practised here, except in gardens. Turnips now sell at 3d. per stone, and carrots at 6d.

The modes of cultivation and rotation of crops are so various that it is impossible to give any idea of the average quantity of land applied to any particular purpose. The dairy is here an object of considerable importance. The milk is mostly made into butter and butter-milk of excellent quality, and sold in the town. About 110 milk cows supply the town with sweet-milk. There are in the parish altogether about 900 dairy cows, besides young stock. The feeding of calves is also well understood, although a few still send slink or unfed veal to market; a revolting practice which, for the benefit both of seller and consumer, ought to be put down by law. The cows here are a slight variety of the Ayrshire breed. They are a little longer in the leg, rounder in the body, and not quite so heavy in the hind quarters;-but handsomer, and equally good milkers. They are mostly red-brown, more or less mixed with white. A moderately good milk-cow gives eight Scotch pints, or sixteen quarts a day; and many of them give upwards of twice that quantity. During the summer months certain cows have been known to yield a pound of butter per day. This, however, is much beyond the average produce of the dairy, and it is perhaps near the truth when we average each cow at from L. 4 to L. 8 of profit per annum.

Rent of Land.—The average rent of grazing is from L. 2, 10s. to L. 3, 10s. per cow or ox. Farms are mostly let on leases of nineteen years; but in some instances they are only let from year to year. The rent is paid in money, or occasionally in grain. The amount paid varies with the soil. In the higher grounds few spots let on permanent lease for less than 15s. per acre; while in the lower farms on the Clyde the rent is as high as L. 3 and L. 3, 10s. per acre. A very large proportion of the parish lets at from L. 1, 5s. to L.2, 5s. per acre. Some fields near the town which have lain long in pasture have been let for a few years at upwards of L. 12 per acre. Much of the pasture in the haughs brings upwards of L. 4 per acre. About 1500 cows and oxen are annually fed in this parish. The tilling of the ground employs about 280 horses. Wilkie's iron plough is now almost universally used.

Rate of Wages.—Labourers have from is. 3d. to 1s. 6d. per day, with victuals, and 2s. without. When regularly employed their wages are from 6d. to 10d. per week. Women have from 6d. to 10d. per day. Upwards of 130 masons are now employed at from 2s. 10d. to 3s. a-day. Mason's labourers have 10s. a-week; carpenters have about 2s. 8d. a day; or from 16s. to 18s. a week.

Much has of late been done in fencing and draining. The hedges on the Duke's estate, in particular, are remarkably well kept. Among the disadvantages with which the agriculturist has to contend are, small farms, deficiency of capital, and competition for leases, by which too much is offered, and thus the farmer too frequently is little better than the servant of the laird; at the same time, it ought to be remarked, that the rental of land is generally supposed to be somewhat lower here than in some other places in the neighbourhood. This may probably arise from the fact, that clay soils are cultivated at more expense than any other description, as requiring greater force of men, cattle and implements, and absorbing an immense quantity of manure.

Quarries.—There are six freestone quarries in the parish, wrought by upwards of fifty men. The number of colliers is about 120. The average gross rental of the landward part of the parish is L. 11,537, 6s. 3d.; and of the burgh L. 8638, 4s. 7-d. Total L. 20,175, 19s. 10d. nearly.

Produce.—The average gross amount of produce raised, as far as can be ascertained, is as follows:

Cambric Weaving.—Hamilton has been the principal seat of imitation cambric weaving since the introduction of the cotton trade into Scotland. The reeds run from 200 to 3000, which are the finest sells that cotton has been wrought into. The number of looms in Hamilton is 1291, and in the country 53. This was at one time a thriving branch of trade, which in the course of fifty years added to Hamilton whole streets of houses, chiefly built and inhabited by industrious weavers. Forthe last fifteen or twenty years, however, it has been on the decline; and, if possible, is still getting worse. The average wages are from Gd. to Is. 6d. per day; out of which must be deducted is. a-week for expenses, and lOs. per annum for loom-rent. A house with a room and kitchen, and a four-loom shop, lets at from L. 5 to L. 6. Many of the older and more experienced hands better their circumstances considerably by teaching apprentices. The females are employed in winding weft, or in tambouring.

Lace-Manufactory, &c.—The old lace-manufactory of this place, which was introduced by one of the Duchesses of Hamilton, has for many years been all but extinct. But about eight years ago a Mr Galloch introduced a new manufactory of lace, which was improved on by Mr John Gowans, and is still increasing. About. twelve respectable houses are now engaged in this lucrative and thriving branch of trade, and new firms are daily forming. It employs upwards of 2500 females, in this and the neighbouring parishes.. The lace is a sort of tainboured bobinette. Vast quantities of black silk veils of peculiar patterns are also manufactured here. There is a great and increasing demand for both of the above articles throughout the whole of Britain, and also in America, and the colonies. A weaver's wife can make higher wages at this trade than her husband. Many thousands of check-shirts have of late been manufactured here, and sent out to Australasia. The stocking weaving, tanneries, saddle, and shoe trades seem to have dwindled away considerably, since the publication of the former Statistical Account.

V.—PAROCHIAL ECONOMY.

Town.—The town of Hamilton stands on a rising ground, gently sloping towards the east, about a mile west of the conflux of the Avon with the Clyde. Cadzow burn runs nearly through it. The ancient town stood farther to the east, in the Duke's pleasure grounds, and was called the Netherton. That part of the present town which stands near the flesh-market and the public green, appears to be the most ancient. The rocks behind the flesh-market are about twenty feet high, and were once occupied by a mansion, called the Ha' or Hall, of which an antique dove-cot, (which gives the name of Doo-cot-ha' to the place) is the only memorial now remaining. On the opposite side of the burn, stood a mill, called the Ha' Mill, which has given the name of " Shilling Hill" to the street where it stood. When the tun, ton, or town collected round this place it was called Ha-mill-ton. So says tradition but history, which is more to be depended on, gives, as we have already seen, a different and more satisfactory account. The date of the foundation of the lower town cannot now be ascertained. It has been long swept away. But that the upper town is also of great antiquity appears from the fact, that it was considerable enough to be erected into a burgh of barony in the year 1456 by James II. In 1548, Hamilton was created a royal burgh by Queen Mary; but Bailies James Hamilton and James Naismith consented to resign that privilege in 1670, by accepting of a charter from Duchess Anne, by which Hamilton was constituted the chief burgh of the regality and dukedom of Hamilton. A lawsuit was entered into by the magistrates, &c. in 1723, before the Court of Session, for the restoration of their ancient rights ; but it was not till 183, that the inhabitants were reinvested with the privilege of sending a member to the House of Commons. There are at present about 300 ten pound franchises upon the roll. At last municipal election, 126 voted on the radical interest, and 118 for the more moderate party. There were about 55 votes unpolled. The town is in the hands of a Provost, three Baihies, a Treasurer, a Town-Clerk, and seven Councillors. Four new councillors are elected annually, the four eldest on the list going out.

Revenues of the Town.—The revenues of the town are considerable, and arise chiefly from lands within time burgh, and shares in Hamilton Bridge, &c. The sums received and paid out by the treasurer, from 5th November 1833, to 15th October 1834, are as under: -

The town-court is held on Thursdays. This is also the seat of the Sheriff-court for the middle ward. About twenty-five procurators are licensed to practise before it; of whom eighteen belong to Hamilton. The court day is Friday. The Justice of Peace Court sits on the first Monday of every month. There are also a record of seisins, a tax-office, a stamp-office, and an excise-office.

In 1816 a Trades Hall was erected in Church Street. There is a spacious hail in the upper storey for the meetings of the trades, while in the under flat there is every accommodation for a respectable tavern.

Besides numerous societies or trades, (which are all in terms of the act 5th William IV. chap. 40) there are a St John's Lodge No 7, and two other mason lodges, two gardener's societies, and a 'Wallace friendly society.

Gas-Work.—A gas-work, on a very elegant plan, was erected in Hamilton by subscription, in the summer of 1831, at the expense of L. 400. Three hundred L. 10 shares were subscribed, of which L. 8 has only been uplifted, and from the advance in the price of such shares as have been transferred, there is a fair prospect of the subscribers being liberally remunerated for their outlay. From experiments made at this work by Mr Burns, the present manager, it appears that a cubic foot of the richest cannel coal produces about 400 cubic feet of gas. The price of gas when sold by meter is 10s. per 1000 cubic feet, or is. per 100 cubic feet. Every cubic foot is nearly equal to five imperial gallons; of course 500 imperial gallons only cost is. which is at the rate of about 3d. per puncheon. Besides private lights there are now about 130 gas lamps illuminated throughout the town for nine months in the year, from sunset to sunrise, with the exception of five nights at each full moon.

Supply of Water.—On Saturday, 24th May 1834, an attempt was made in this town to bring into operation the Burghs Police Bill (3 and 4 William IV. c. 46, 14th August 1833,) in whole or in part, but more especially as regarded bringing a better supply of water into the town. As the franchise in that case embraces all persons "occupying premises of the value of not less than L. 10," a great many individuals came forward and threw out the bill. It cannot, of course, be brought forward again in less than three years. It has since been proposed to form a water company, with a capital of L. 2000, divided into 500 shares, of L. 4 each. The water is to be brought in pipes, from two different quarters; the united distance of both places being about three miles, and the average diameter of the pipes in which it is to be brought three inches. This proposal is not yet carried into effect.

Means of Communication, &c.— Hamilton is 101 miles S. E. of Glasgow, 36 W. of Edinburgh, 15 N. W. of Lanark, 7 N. of Strathaven, and 8 miles S. of Airdrie. The market-day is Friday. This town, along with Falkirk, Lanark, Linlithgow, and Airdrie, has the privilege of sending a Member to Parliament. There are in the parish about 15 miles of turnpike road, and about 30 miles of parochial roads. The great Glasgow and London road passes through the town; and also an Edinburgh and Ayr road. This last was made in the year 1755, and, if we except the road between Glasgow and Edinburgh, was the first great turnpike road which was made in Scotland. A new road to Ayr was lately opened, about seven miles to the south of this. A great improvement is now making in Hamilton on the London road, for the purpose of avoiding the brae in Muir Street, and cutting off the awkward elbow at the cross. The new line of road is upwards of 700 yards in length. Above Hamilton Green it crosses the rivulet Cadzow by a stupendous bridge of three arches, each 60 feet span. The top of the parapet wall is about 60 feet above the bed of the burn. The contract is about L.2050. A handsome new bridge on the same line of road was lately thrown across the Avon. A few hundred yards above it, there is an old bridge of three arches, which is said to have been built at a very remote period, at the expense of the monks belonging to the monastery at Lesmahagow. Hamilton Bridge over the Clyde, on the Edinburgh road, is a handsome structure with five arches. It was built by authority of an act of Parliament, and was finished in 1780. It is still burdened with pontage for foot-passengers. Bothwell Bridge over the Clyde, on the road to Glasgow, is undoubtedly the oldest structure of the sort in Lanarkshire. It is not known when it was built. It was till lately only 12 feet wide, but it has now 32 feet of road-way. rilliere is a private bridge over the Avon at Fairhoim, and another at Ross. The Glasgow and London mail-coach passes through Hamilton twice a-day; at thirty minutes past eight in the morning, for London, and at fifteen minutes before one in the afternoon for Glasgow. There are Glasgow and Edinburgh bags at thirty minutes to eight morning, thirty minutes to twelve noon, and at five afternoon. There is also a post between Hamilton and Strathaven. The gross revenue of the post-office here is at an average L. 982 per annum. Thirty years ago there was only one coach on the Wednesdays between Hamilton and Glasgow; at present there are seven coaches daily, besides the mail-coach. Other seven coaches daily pass and repass to places south of Hamilton. About 128 horses are kept in the town, of which number seventy are employed in this trade.

Flesh-market.—The number of cattle slaughtered in the shambles at Hamilton during the following periods is as follows:

Ecclesiastical State.—The year 1585 is the epoch of the Presbyteries of Lanark and Glasgow. About 1590, or earlier, the large Presbytery of Glasgow was dismembered, by the erection of the Presbyteries of Hamilton and Paisley. The parishes of Eaglesham, Cathcart, and Carmunnock, belonged to Hamilton Presbytery till 1596, when they were restored to Glasgow, and the parish of Kilbride substituted in their place. The Presbytery includes the fourteen parishes of the Middle Ward. [A new Relief Presbytery has lately been established in this town, including ten congregations; Rev. Mr M'Farlane of Hamilton, Clerk.] The oldest date in the Presbytery records is 6th September 1687. The oldest date in the parochial register is 15th January 1650. The books of the town-council go back only to 3d October 1701; but it is believed that many older ones, at a remote period, got into the possession of private individuals, and still exist.

The ancient parish of Cadzow, now Hamilton, included formerly the chapeiry of Machan, (i. e. the "little plain,") now the parish of Dalserf. Chalmers, in his Caledonia, (Vol. iii. p. 683,) informs us, that " David I. with consent of his son, Earl Henry, granted the church of ' Cadihou,' with its pertinents, in perpetual alms to time church and bishops of Glasgow, and this grant was confirmed by the bulls of several popes, inter 1170 and 1186." The church of Cadzow, with the lands of Barlanerk and Badlerjiock, became afterwards the appropriate prebend of the Dean of the see of Glasgow. In 1273, William Frazer, a younger son of the Frazers of Tweeddale, was Dean of Glasgow and Rector of Cadzow, when he was appointed Chancellor of Scotland. In 1454, Andrew Muirhead, a son of Muirhead of Sauchope, was Rector of Hamilton, and afterwards Bishop of Glasgow. Hamilton, by the influence of the first Lord Hamilton, was made a collegiate charge in 1451; and thereupon a new church was built with a choir, two cross aisles, and a steeple, all of polished stone, and highly ornamented. It was finished in April 1462, and George de Graham appointed Provost. The patronage of this establishment was vested in Lord Hamilton; but the patronage of the parish church of Hamilton continued, as before, with the Bishop of Glasgow. Manses, gardens, and glebes were provided for the provost and eight prebends; besides a manse, garden and glebe, for a chaplainry, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. There is a farm at Edlewood still called the chapel. At the epoch of the Reformation, Mr Archibald Karry, "the vicar pensioner," had twenty merks yearly; and the dean had L. 349 in money, 16 bolls of meal, 24 boils of oats, and 24 capons yearly. A plate of the old collegiate church is given by Grose in his Antiquities of Scotland. This building continued till 1732. One of the cross aisles still remains, and is used as a burying-place by the Hamilton family. On a stone cross, on of the walls, is cut out "Galatians, chapter vi. verse 14."

After Popery had been abolished in Scotland, and the Presbyterian form of worship introduced by the act 1588, c. 99, had been established by that of 1592, c. 116--two ministers were settled in Hamilton, upon a provision of eighteen chalders of victual. Readers or catechists seem also to have been appointed in this parish. In 1574, Mr John Davidson, minister, together with the kirk-land of Hamilton, had out of the third of the deanery of Glasgow L. 82, 11s. 1d., and out of the third of the priory of Blantyre, L. 27, 15s. 6d., together with L. 23, and 18 boils of meal out of the parsonage of Canibuslang. Mr Robert Raa, reader at Hamilton, had L. 22, 4s. 5d. of stipend. In 1590, Mr Davidson was first minister, and Mr Gavin Hamilton, second minister, of Hamilton. The latter had 4 chaldersand 4 bolls of bear, I chalder 4 boils of meal, and 12 boils of wheat. Mr John Raa, reader, had out of the vicarage of Hamilton L. 4, 8s. 10d. and out of the deanery of Glasgow, L. 17, 15s. 6d. For many years after, there was only one minister, with a stipend payable out of the third of the deanery of Glasgow. By the act 1606, c. 1, the bishops were restored to their temporalities; and by 1617, c. 2, the manses, glebes, and other patrimony, with certain restrictions, were also restored. With the interruption only of the period of Cromwell's usurpation, episcopacy continued down to 1689, when presbytery was fully restored. Soon after (May 13th 1692) Mr Robert Wylie, formerly minister of Askirk, was admitted minister of Hamilton, on the understanding, that, as formerly, he was to have a colleague. In that view, an address was presented to the presbytery, praying leave to give a call to Mr Alexander Findlater, who having been lately set- tied in the parish of Avondale, was very reluctant to quit his flock. Strong objections were accordingly made by Mr Findlater and the commissioners from Hamilton, which ended in a reference by the presbytery to the synod. After a good deal of procedure, which was carried the length of suspending Mr Findlater for resisting to be removed to Hamilton, he at length complied, and was admitted as second minister, January 9, 1695. Mr Wylie, the first minister, complains that " the presbytery were so far from assisting him in getting Hamilton provided with another minister, conform to their promise to him at his entry, that they did, without any valid ground, what in them lay to impede the same." Of all the heritors who concurred in attaining this desirable object, none was more anxious to carry the measure into execution than Anne Duchess of Hamilton.

The present church stands on a high ground (at one period) to the south of the town; but it is now more centrical, from the streets which have been built to the south and west. The body of the church is a circle with four cross aisles. The design, which in general is accounted very elegant, was by Adam the elder. It is capable of containing about 800 sitters. The minister of the first charge has a glebe of about twenty-seven acres, which was oxcambed some years ago for three acres and a-half in the Hamilton haughs. No manse has as yet been erected upon it. The minister of the second charge has a manse but no glebe. The stipend of both is the same, namely, 16 chalders, half meal, half barley, payable in money, at the highest fiar prices of the county, L. 5 Sterling for communion elements, and L. 2, 15s. 6d. to each of the ministers, according to use and wont. The number of communicants male heads of families is about 260. The charge is about to be uncollegiated quoad sacra. A new church, capable of containing 1100, and proposed to be in connection with the establishment, is now building. [A proportion of not less than one-sixth of the whole is reserved for the poor. Fifty of the sittings are let at 2s. each, and the rest rise by a graduated scale of 3d. on each row till they reach 6s., which is the highest price of any in the church.] Of the various sectaries prevailing here, the Relief is the most prosperous. There are two meeting houses of this persuasion, one built in 1761, in Muir Street; and another erected in Brandon Street in 1832. The old congregation give their pastor L. 200 per annum, including a manse; the second congregation give L. 100 per annum, without a manse. An Antiburgher meeting house was erected at Blacks-well in 1761, and a New Light Burgher house, near the church, towards the end of last century. These are not in so thriving a state as their neighbours. A tabernacle, in connection with the Congregational Union of Scotland, has lately been re-opened in Black's-well, and an interim preacher appointed. The Old Scots Independents have a meeting house in an upper chamber in the Back-of-the-barns. The Macmillans or Cameronians have also preaching in a hail once a month, and are attempting to establish a station here. The Roman Catholics have public worship once a month in the Mason's Lodge. It is well attended by the Irish. The priest comes up from Glasgow. There are few of any other sect. There are several Bible and Missionary Societies, and also a very useful Orphan Society, for which frequent contributions are made. The collections at the church door on public occasions are usually from L. 12 to L. 18.

The Cameronians have lately obtained a disjunction from the congregation at Wishaw-town, and meet regularly here once a month; as do also the. Roman Catholics once in six weeks. The number of families Dissenting or Seceding is 907; of Roman Catholic families, 45.

Education.—Number of schools in this parish at last examination, and the number of scholars attending each.

The salary of the grammar-schoolmaster is L. 34, 4s. : and hi fees may amount to L. 50. As session-clerk lie has about L. 30 per annum. The fees paid at the grammar-school are 7s. 6d. for Latin, and 10s. 6d. for Latin and Greek, per quarter. The ladies' school fees are from 5s. to 10s. 6d. per quarter. The grammar school of Hamilton is of ancient date, and has no doubt been instrumental in producing that superior civilization, courtesy of manners, and ardent pursuit of literature, for which many of the inhabitants of the place are supposed to be distinguished. In 1588 we find Lord John Hamilton granting a bond, still in possession of the corporation, settling for ever on that school the yearly sum of L.20 pounds Scots. The present school-house is a venerable pile, near the centre of the town, containing a long wainscotted hall, emblazoned with the names of former scholars, cut out in the wood, as at Harrow. Many of these are from foreign climes, and from all parts of Britain. Pillans, Whale, Gillies, and other eminent teachers have been masters of this school; and the present teacher, the Rev. George Shaw, is not inferior in classical attainments, assiduity and success as a teacher, to any of his predecessors. The ladies' schools have also been of great service in instructing the understandings, and in contributing to the accomplishments, useful and ornamental, of the female sex.

The Hamilton Sabbath School Society has under its charge 7 schools and 238 scholars. The number of scholars attending the Societies' schools are not so numerous as formerly, as a number of the town clergy have commenced Sabbath schools connected with their own congregations. These schools include above 300 young persons.

Library, &c.—There is a public subscription library in the town, which was instituted in 1808, principally through the instrumentality of the late Dr John Hume. It now contains upwards of 3000 volumes. For many years it prospered exceedingly; but since the managers began to be chosen by popular election it has been gradually on the decline. There are several other public libraries, but all of them are on a smaller scale.— A mechanics' institution was established about eight years ago, a good library collected, and lectures delivered regularly once a fortnight on a variety of interesting topics; but as soon as the novelty of the thing ceased, its supporters gradually dropt away. But the inhabitants of this parish are not singular in preferring that sort of knowledge which costs the least trouble and expense. It has revived again with great spirit.

Poor.—The charitable institutions and other provisions made for the poor of this parish are considerable.

1. The Duke's Hospital. This is an old building, with a belfry and a bell, at the Cross of Hamilton, which was erected in lieu of one which formerly stood in the Netherton. The pensioners used to reside here, but it is now more profitably let out for their behoof. It contributes to the support of 12 old men, at the rate of L. 8, 18s. each per annum, with a suit of clothes once in two years. It is proposed to increase the number to 15.

2. Aikman's Hospital. This hospital was built and endowed in 1775 by William Aikman, Esq. proprietor of an estate in the parish, and some time merchant in Leghorn. The house stands in Muir Street. Four poor men have here a free house, L.4 annum, and a suit of clothes every second year.

3. Rae's Mortification. Mr John Rae, and a few other well- disposed people, formerly inhabitants, mortified money to the care of the town-council, the interest of which, L.9, 2s. 4d., appointed for the relief of poor householders, is mostly paid to the poor yearly.

4. Robertson and Lyon's Mortification. Mr Robertson was a native of Hamilton, and sometime sheriff-clerk of Lanark. It contributes L. 4 yearly to nine poor men.

5. Miss Christian Allan, who died in 1785, bequeathed to the care of the kirk-session, for the behoof of the poor, L. 50, the interest of which is paid yearly.

Besides the above, the kirk-session have,-

1. An orchard at Fairneygair, left some years ago by Mr William Torbet, which lets at L. 10 per annum.

2. A legacy of L. 50, the interest of which is to be divided among five poor female householders named by the kirk-session.

3. A legacy of L. 50, of which little more than L. 30 was realized, to be expended in clothing the most indigent of the poor.

4. A donation of L. 100, the interest to be applied in educating twelve poor children.

The collections at the church door amount per annum to about L. 90; average amount of mortcloth dues per annum, L. 30.

The average weekly number of persons on the session funds is 14. There are 238 poor people on the parish, supported at the rate of about L. 14 per week, or L. 800 nearly per annum. The allowance to each individual is from 6d. to 2s. 6d. per week. Immense numbers of beggars go about seeking alms; and people with passes from Glasgow (often forged) are numerous and troublesome. Of late, many little children, from six to twelve years of age, are permitted to beg from door to door. Something ought to be done, for the sake of these poor creatures themselves, to put down this practice; as it is well known that their parents are often able enough to work, and do work, but take this cheap mode of supporting their miserable offspring.

Prison.—The old prison in Hamilton was built in the reign of Charles I., and, although a handsome building in its day, has now gone much into disrepair. It has been bought up, and will soon all be removed, except the steeple, town clock, and bell. As this is the place of confinement for the delinquents of the Middle Ward, it may not be uninteresting to show the number of debtors and criminals confined here for the last twelve years. Besides the following, it ought, however, to be recollected, that many prisoners from this ward are taken to Glasgow.

It would appear that criminals are on the increase and debtors on the decrease.

Fairs.—Hamilton in former times was a great mart for lint and wool, and was attended by persons from all parts of the country. At present, however, that trade has taken a different channel, and only a small quantity of lint (and no wool) is now sold here. Our fairs have in consequence dwindled into a mere shadow of what they once were, and at present are little better than larger market days. There are five principal fairs in the year.

The absurd practice of keeping up the old and new style is still observed in our fairs; bit, fortunately, the terms are now all kept by the new style.

Inns, &c.—There are two inns in the town which keel) post chaises, one that hires out gigs and cars. There are several excellent and very respectable secondary inns and taverns for the accommodation of travellers, &c.

There are 110 public-houses in the town and parish, in which ardent spirits or malt liquors are sold.

MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS.

An English traveller who visited Scotland in 1723, thus describes the people: " The common people wear all bonnets, instead of hats; and although some of the townsmen have hats, they wear them only on Sundays, and extraordinary occasions. There is nothing of the gaiety of the English, but a sedate gravity in every face, without the stiffness of the Spaniards; and I take this to be owing to their praying and frequent long graces, which gives their looks a religious cast. Certainly no nation on earth observes the Sabbath with that strictness of devotion and resignation to the will of God. They all pray in their families before they go to church, and between sermons they fast; after sermon, everybody retires to his own home, and reads some book of devotion till supper, which is generally very good on Sunday, after which they sing psalms till they go to bed. There is no dinner prepared on the Sabbath, and, in inns, travellers are obliged to put up with bread and butter, or a fresh egg, or fast till after the evening sermon, when they never fail of a hot supper." According to custom, the eating department forms a considerable item in this English gentleman's account. But the fasting here spoken of, and what relates to dress, (and, it is to be feared, some other practices,) have long passed away.

About the middle of last century, and a good deal later, the practice of hard drinking was very common. About the time of the American war, politics and infidelity began to be introduced. Of late a reaction has taken place. Infidelity is no longer fashionable, and religion is now either warmly embraced, or, if neglected in its essential duties and requirements, it is uniformly spoken of with respect. Trade has also been equally fluctuating as manners, religion, and morals. At one period the malting trade formed no inconsiderable branch of industry in this town. Many memorials of this trade are still to be found, and the richest and oldest society in Hamilton is the Society-of-Maltsters, although no such employment, as a distinct branch of trade, is now carried on. The linen trade, which at one period supported so many of the town's people, is now also nearly extinct. The imitation cotton cambric trade, which in 1792 had reached its maximum, has for many years been on the decline; and it is to be feared that the formidable combinations among the weavers may in time cause the manufacturers either to invent new machinery, or to seek out some other channel for their work. 'While i now write, about 300 weavers are parading the streets with a web which had been given out by a house in town below the " table prices," which they prescribe to the manufacturer. At the same time, the weaving is paid at a rate which cannot procure for the workman the ordinary comforts, or even the necessaries of life. The lace trade, established here about eight years ago by a house at Nottingham, which sent down a number of English women, who took up schools and taught the tambourers here the art, is now in a thriving state, and is contributing greatly to the happiness and comfort of the community. The building of the addition to Hamilton Palace, the erection of the new buildings already alluded to, the formation of Duke Street, which has just been completed, and many other improvements which are going forward, have contributed in no small degree to the support of a large portion of the community. Upon the whole, since the publication of the former report, this town and parish have increased in inhabitants, in wealth, in domestic comfort, in morals, in manners, and religion, as may be seen from the foregoing account.

July 1835.


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