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The History of Stirlingshire
Chapter XXXVII – Landowners


There are several extensive estates in the county, but property is very much divided. Farms in the lower districts vary from 20 to 300 acres. In the hilly and mountainous districts, however, they are considerably larger.

THE CALLENDAR ESTATE (William Forbes, Esq.), which is one of the most extensive and valuable, stretches from the vicinity of Slamannan on the south and east to Greenhill on the west, falling down upon the river Carron at Camelon and Larbert, a length of about 15 miles. In Muiravonside parish, Mr. Forbes own the farms of Myrehead, which, in the valuation roll of the county for the year 1880-81, is valued at 380 pounds; Haining, &c., at 397 pounds; Waulkmilton, at 277 pounds; East Manuel, at 245 pounds; Avondale, at 170 pounds; Gilmeadowland, at 150 pounds; Manuel Haugh, at 83 pounds; and Snabhead, at 67 pounds. In Falkirk parish, he owns 40 farms; West Carmuirs, valued at 520 pounds; Mumrills, &c., at 520 pounds; Randieford, at 250 pounds; Woodburn, at 221 pounds; Middlesfield, at 200 pounds; Carmuirs, at 200 pounds; Loanfoot, at 200 pounds; Kilbean, at 192 pounds; Craigieburn, at 190 pounds; Lochlands of Carmuirs, at 180 pounds; West Newlands, at 164 pounds; Bogton, at 152 pounds; Muirhouses, &c., at 133 pounds; and Bantaskine, at 105 pounds. His grass parks are valued at 180 pounds; woods, copse, and underwood of Callendar, at 400 pounds; and mansion house, at 550 pounds. Pirleyhill and Standalane colliery is fixed at 1,264 pounds; and Loanfoot ironstone, at 846 pounds. In Larbert parish, he has Broomage Mains farm, which is valued at 146 pounds; in Dunipace parish, property valued at 2,735 pounds; and in Denny parish, lands and minerals, at 5,078 pounds. The total annual value of Mr. Forbes’ possessions in the county is as under:

Parish of Muiravonside 1,984 pounds
Parish of Falkirk 9,868 pounds
Parish of Larbert 146 pounds
Parish of Dunipace 2,735 pounds
Parish of Denny 5,078 pounds
19,811 pounds

Callendar, as we have previously stated, was purchased by William Forbes, Esq., of London, in 1783, for 85,000 pounds.

The Right Hon. The Earl of Zetland, of Kerse estate, is another large proprietor in the shire, holding property to the annual value of 10,850 pounds. In Falkirk parish, he has 16 farms, and amongst these, West Mains and West Thorn, valued at 290 pounds; East Thorn, at 334 pounds; Fouldubs, at 263 pounds; Walton, at 193 pounds; Dalgrain, at 178 pounds; Kerse Mains at 166 pounds; Dorrator, at 157 pounds; Cauldhame, at 155 pounds; Eastend, at 145 pounds; Seabegs Place, at 116 pounds; Westfield, at 131 pounds; and part of Thicket, at 108 pounds. His lordship’s grass parks at Kerse are valued at 370 pounds. In Bothkennar parish he also owns the following farms: - Heuck Island and Crofthead, valued at 290 pounds; Town Croft, at 209 pounds; Newtonplace, at 149 pounds; Carronflats, at 105 pounds; and lands of Crofthead, Towncroft, Thicket, and part of Newtonplace, at 266 pounds; while 2,076 pounds are set against the Zetland pit colliery. In Airth parish his lands of Halls of Airth are valued at 485 pounds; and those in Polmont parish at 1,830 pounds.

The Stirlingshire possessions of the Right Hon. The Earl of Dunmore, which lie in the parishes of St. Ninians and Airth are valued at 8,133 pounds. His lordship’s grass parks in hand are put down at 1,356 pounds, and the Dunmore Home farm, at 900 pounds.

William Graham, Esq. of Airth Castle, has an annual valuation of 2,601 pounds. His farms in the parish are Eastfield, valued at 235 pounds; South Greens, at 230 pounds; West Westfield, at 229 pounds; North Greens, at 230 pounds; Airth Mains, at 207 pounds; Dougalshole, at 189 pounds; and South Westfield, at 182 pounds. He also owns the farm of Auchentyre, in Bothkennar parish, which is valued at 116 pounds.

The Carron Company, who hold property in nine parishes of the county, are down on the valuation roll for 8,890 pounds. In Airth parish, they possess 4 letham farms, valued at 681 pounds; in Bothkennar parish, West Mains, valued at 92 pounds; in Muiravonside, Crosscroes, valued at 88 pounds; Kendrieshill, at 95 pounds; and Gateside and Shankend, at 40 pounds; in Polmont parish, Bellsrig, valued at 75 pounds; Burnside, at 50 pounds; Muirpark, at 40 pounds; and Wallacerig, with freestone quarry, at 214 pounds. In Falkirk parish they have 7 farms, and among these Jaw, valued at 250 pounds; Mungalmill, at 122 pounds; Middlethorn, at 104 pounds; and Mungalhead, at 96 pounds. In Larbert parish, the year’s valuation of their property is 5,191 pounds, 3,870 pounds of which is placed against the iron-works. In Dunipace parish they possess Herbertshire farm, valued at 102 pounds; in Denny parish they are down for 515 pounds; and in Kilsyth parish, for 657 pounds; of which 338 pounds is against ironstone.

The trustees of the late William Dawson, Esq. of Powfoulis, appear for 3,921 pounds. In Airth parish they have the farm of Mains of Powfoulis and Saltgreens, valued at 414 pounds; and Greendyke, &c., valued at 196 pounds; in Bothkennar parish, the farm of Middlerig and Stonehouse, valued at 362 pounds; Backrow, at 230 pounds; Upper Gairdoch, at 212 pounds; and Pinfoldbridge, at 176 pounds. The coal and iron-stone of South Mains is valued at 1000 pounds. In Falkirk parish their farms are Dalderse, valued at 425 pounds; Carronside and Langless, at 219 pounds; Coblebrae, at 143 pounds; Yonderhaugh, at 102 pounds; and Millflats, at 90 pounds.

Against the property of Thomas George Dundas, Esq. of Carronhall, there is a total valuation of 3,220 pounds. In Bothkennar parish, farm of Kirkton and Closs, at 355 pounds; Carronhall farm, at 169 pounds; Carronhall Colliery, at 300 pounds; and harbour, &c., at Carronshore, 95 pounds. Under Larbert parish, the mansion house and policy of Carronhall is valued at 207 pounds; and the farm of Kersebrock and Powleys, at 209 pounds. For the lands in Dunipace parish the amount is 573 pounds.

The lands, &c., possessed by the Right Hon. Lord Thurlow, of Kinnaird, are valued at 1,981 pounds. The farm of Halls of Airth and Bellsdyke, at 340 pounds; Drum, at 340 pounds; Back o’ Dykes, at 205 pounds; Cuttyfield, at 200 pounds; Grass parks, at 163 pounds; and coal at Kinnaird, 173 pounds.

John Bell Sherriff, Esq. of Carronvale, appears for 1,256 pounds – the farm of Kersie Mains being valued at 650 pounds; South Kersie, at 356 pounds; and Carronvale, at 250 pounds.

For Mrs. Ann. C. Stirling, of Glenbervie, the amount is 1,256 pounds – the valuation of the farm of Shields being 170 pounds; of Hamilton farm, 145 pounds; of Grass parks, 344 pounds; and of her possessions in Dunipace parish, 439 pounds.

The sum against the lands, &c., belonging to Joseph C. Bolton, Esq. of Carbrook, M.P., is 2,234 pounds – for Wholeflatts, in Polmont parish, 290 pounds; for property in Dunipace parish, 523 pounds; and in St. Ninians parish, 1,421 pounds.

Next to Mr. Forbes, of Callendar, His Grace the Duke of Montrose is the wealthiest proprietor of the county lands. His yearly valuation is as follows: -

Parish of Buchanan 8,259 pounds
Parish of Drymen 4,000 pounds
Parish of Fintry 2,852 pounds
Parish of New Kilpatrick 105 pounds
Parish of Strathblane 361 pounds
Parish of St. Ninians 296 pounds
Parish of Kilsyth 688 pounds
16,561 pounds

His Grace owns the whole of the parish of Buchanan, which is about 29 miles long and 5 miles broad, with the exception of what belongs to the School Board and the minister’s manse and glebe, valued in all at 77 pounds. He has here 17 farms, with an acreage of 41,598 so that the estate only averages 4s. per acre. The lands and farm of Gartfarren are valued at 35 pounds; Cobrach, at 320 pounds; Benlomond and Blairvockie, at 1,100 pounds; Cashell and Sallochy, at 360 pounds; Corriearklet, at 270 pounds; Inversnaid, at 250 pounds; Gartincaber, at 170 pounds; Creityhall, at 165 pounds; Auchmar, at 160 pounds; Cailness, at 120 pounds; Grass parks, at 443 pounds; Woods, at 328 pounds; Rowardennan shootings, at 300 pounds; and Inversnaid shootings, at 250 pounds. In Drymen parish his Grace holds 14 farms, valued as above; in Fintry parish, 5; in Strathblane parish, the farm of Quinloch, and Mugdock castle; in New Kirkpatrick parish, Drumcloy and part of Milton, Milngavie; St. Ninians parish, the farm of Kirk-o’-Muir, and part of Todholes; and in Kilsyth parish, Slachristock, and a portion of Binns, Carronbridge.

In the parish of Drymen there are 76 farms – its extreme length being 15 miles, and breadth 10. Here there are numerous proprietors, but of the farms William Cunningham Bontine, Esq. of Gartmore, possesses 19, valued at 2,053 pounds.

The whole lands of Fintry, which are about 6 miles long by 5 broad, may be said to be owned between the Duke of Montrose and Sir George Home Speirs, Bart. There are 9 farms in the parish, and of this property Sir George holds a value of 1,465 pounds.

In Killearn parish there are 35 farms, and the chief proprietors are – Archibald Orr Ewing, Esq. of Ballikinrain, M.P., 2,395 pounds; John Blackburn, Esq. of Killearn, for the trustees of the late Peter Blackburn, Esq., 2,373 pounds; Vice-Admiral Sir Wm. Edmonstone, Bart., C.B., of Duntreath, 884 pounds; John James Pollock, Esq. of Auchineden, 831 pounds; David M’Larn Bryce Buchanan, Esq., Boquhan, 540 pounds; Michael Connal, Esq., Glasgow, 245 pounds; and Sir G.H. Speirs, Bart. (Glenboig farm), 210 pounds.

Strathblane parish is fully 5 miles long by 4 broad. Its farms number 19. The principal landowners are – Sir William Edmonstone, Bart., 1,940 pounds; Sir Andrew Buchanan, Bart., Craigend castle, 858 pounds; Miss Janet Gloriana Graham, 715 pounds; Allan G.B. Graham, Esq. of Fereneze, 587 pounds; John Cameron Graham, Esq. of Ardwell, Gatehouse-of-Fleet, 380 pounds; Misses Mary and Agnes Aitken, Lomond Lodge, Killearn (farm of Auchengillan) 230 pounds; Major Charles Campbell G. Stirling, of Craigbarnet (lands and farm of Broadyett and part of Hillhead, &c.), 576 pounds; Trustees of the late Ellis Wood, Esq. (printfield and land, Blanefield) 350 pounds; Ebenezer M’Allister, Esq., 332 pounds; Trustees of late Alexander T. Russell, Esq. (farms of Easterton and Bankhead) 240 pounds; and Trustees of Moses Provan, Esq., C.A., Glasgow (lands and farm, Townhead of Auchengillan), 108 pounds.

Campsie parish, which is 7 miles in length and 6 in breadth, has 45 farms. The chief proprietors are – the Hon. Charles Spencer Bateman Hanbury Kincaid-Lennox, 8,217 pounds; Sir Charles Elphinstone Fleming Stirling of Glorat, Bart., 2,080 pounds; Lady Agnes J. Gordon, 1,345 pounds; Capt. John Warden M’Farlane of Ballincleroch, 1,179 pounds; Major Charles Campbell Graham Stirling of Craigbarnet, 1,043 pounds; James King, Esq. of Campsie, 1,042 pounds; Messrs. Hurlet and Campsie Alum Co., 850 pounds; Thomas Reid, Esq. of Carlston, 617 pounds; John Reid, Esq. of Hayston, 614 pounds; Alexander M’Nab, Esq. 589 pounds; J.S. Fleming, Esq. of Balquharrage, 491 pounds; James Ferrie, Esq., farmer, 269 pounds; Samuel M’Farlane, Esq., 259 pounds; Robert Dunlop, Esq. (Watshod and Balfleurs farm), 206 pounds; Mrs. James Laing (lands of Broadleys, Todhills, Sandyfaulds, &c.) 205 pounds; James Maitland, Esq., farmer, West Balgrochan, 160 pounds; Robert Buchanan, Esq., Blairquhosh (Crosshouse farm), 85 pounds; and William Simpson, Esq. (farm of Carlston), 60 pounds.

In Baldernock parish there are 14 farms. The principal landowners are – Robert Ker, Esq. of Dougalston, 1,408 pounds; John Buchanan Hamilton, Esq. of Leny House, Callander, 911 pounds; Hugh Bartholomew, Esq., 650 pounds; Trustees of late Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart. (farms of Back o’ Hill and Redbog), 403 pounds; Robert Moyes, Esq. (Easter and Wester Bogside farm), 536 pounds; Hon. C.S. Bateman Hanbury Kincaid-Lennox, 337 pounds; John Marshall, Sen., Esq. (Laverockhill farm), 230 pounds; William Johnston, Esq., Barraston, 200 pounds; Robert Ronald, Esq., farmer, 200 pounds; Trustees of late John M’Culloch, Esq. (East Blairskaith farm), 200 pounds; Mrs. Janet Colquhoun (Upper Blochearn farm, Torrance of Campsie), 180 pounds; Robert Watson, Esq. (farm of Bardowie and West Blairskaith muir), 178 pounds; George Donald, Esq., farmer, 160 pounds; Walter Craig, Jun., Esq., 112 pounds; The Old Man’s Friend Society, Glasgow (Blairnile farm), 75 pounds; Andrew Winning, Esq. (Balmore farm), 72 pounds; James Bowie, Esq. (farm of Whitefauld, Torrance of Campsie), 85 pounds; James Maitland, Esq. (farm of Balmore), 60 pounds.

There are 11 farms in the portion of New Kilpatrick parish that lies in Stirlingshire. The chief proprietors are – the Trustees of Sir George Campbell of Succoth, Bart., 1,683 pounds; Robert Ker, Esq. of Dougalston, 1,342 pounds; John Craig, Esq., Allander paper mill, 600 pounds; Messrs. Allander Printing Co., 600 pounds; Archibald Campbell Douglas, Esq. of Mains (farm of Keystone and lands of Craigdow), 577 pounds; Representatives of the late Alexander Dunlop, Esq. of Clober, 484 pounds; Rev. John Erskine Campbell Colquhoun of Killermont, 450 pounds; Mrs. M’Intosh’s Trustees (farm of Lower Barloch), 195 pounds; and James Wier, Esq. (lands and farm of Barrachan, Milngavie), 100 pounds.

Balfron parish has 28 farms. Its length is 11 miles, and breadth 3. The chief landowners are – Henry Ritchie Cooper, Esq. of Ballindalloch, 6 farms, 889 pounds; Archibald Orr Ewing, Esq. of Ballikinrain, M.P., 3 farms, 706 pounds; Sir George Home Speirs, Bart., 4 farms, 694 pounds; James Galbraith, Esq. of Balgray, 2 farms, 675 pounds; William C.G. Bontine, Esq. 4 farms, 461 pounds; and Major Charles C.G. Stirling of Craigbarnet, 1 farm, 299 pounds.

In Gargunnock parish, which is 6 miles long and 4 broad, there are 26 farms. The principal proprietors are – the Tutors of Alastair Erskine Graham Moir of Leckie (minor), 3,077 pounds; Capt. Henry John Fletcher Campbell of Boquhan, 1,783 pounds; John Stirling Stirling, Esq. of Gargunnock, 1,426 pounds; Patrick Francis Connal Rowan, Esq. (Meiklewood estate), 541 pounds; and Trustees of late John Gowans, Esq., Park Terrace, Stirling (East Culmore farm), 222 pounds.

In Kippen parish there are 30 farms, over a length of 8 miles and breadth from 2 to 4 miles. The largest holders of property are – W.C.G. Bontine, Esq., 1,929 pounds; Michael James Jamison, Esq., 916 pounds; Captain Henry John Fletcher Campbell, of Boquhan, R.N., 879 pounds; James Stirling, Esq. of Garden, 764 pounds; Thomas Littlejohn Galbraith, Esq., sheriff-clerk, Stirling (farms of Blackhouse and Little Kerse), 429 pounds; and Moses Buchanan Scoular, Esq. (farm of Middle Kerse), 280 pounds.

In the parish of Stirling, which is only 2 miles in length and 1 1/2 in breadth, there are 3 farms. The chief proprietors are – Cowan’s Hospital, 545 pounds; The Crown (part farm of King’s park), 364 pounds; Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh (Burghmeadow), 229 pounds; Messrs. James Sinclair & Co., Forthbank, 115 pounds; and Rev. George Alexander, D.D., minister first charge (fishings in Forth), 75 pounds.

There are 7 farms in Alva parish, all of which are possessed by James Johnstone, Esq. – Strude, 503 pounds; Balquharn, 414 pounds; Myreton, 365 pounds; Burnside, 364 pounds; Carsiepow, 250 pounds; Boll, 170 pounds; Greenhead, 146 pounds; and lands of East and West Bank, 74 pounds – annual valuation in all, 2,286 pounds.

The principal landowners in Logie parish, where there are 12 farms, are the Right Hon. Lord Abercrombie of Airthrie Castle, 1,925 pounds; Sir James Edward Alexander of Westerton, 1,102 pounds; Bridge of Allan Hydropathic Company (Limited), 450 pounds; Trustees of late James Robertson, Esq. (farm of Cornton, Causewayhead), 283 pounds; Bridge of Allan Water Company, 245 pounds; General Trustees of the Free Church of Scotland (farm of West Haugh), 200 pounds; and Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh (part lands of Dunmyat and Blairlogie), 142 pounds.

The 6 farms of Lecropt parish belong to the Trustees of the late Sir William Stirling Maxwell of Pollok, and are valued at 1,810 pounds.

In St. Ninians parish, which has the highest valuation of the county, there are 140 farms. The chief proprietors are John Murray, Esq. of Touchadam and Polmaise, 9,824 pounds; Sir James Ramsay Gibson Maitland, Bart., 5,700 pounds; Sir Henry James Seton Stewart, Bart. of Touch and Allanton, 2,586 pounds; Trustees of the late William Simpson, Esq., 2,286 pounds; George Frederick William Callander, Esq., 2,160 pounds; Major Herbert Buchanan of Arden, 1,943 pounds; Michael Hugh Shaw Stewart, Esq. of Carnock, 1,670 pounds; Rev. James M’Gibbon Burn Murdoch, vicar of Riverhead, Seven Oaks, Kent, 1,077 pounds; Allan’s Hospital, 968 pounds; Trustees of late William Wilson, Esq. of Skeoch, 924 pounds; Cowan’s Hospital, 850 pounds; Alexander Wilson, Esq. of Alford, Dunblane, 696 pounds; Captain David Stewart, London, (farm of Stewarthall and Balfornought), 653 pounds; John Dick, Esq., Stirling, 635 pounds; Alex. Binning Munro, Esq. of Auchenbowie, 627 pounds; Alex. Bennet M’Grigor, Esq., Glasgow, 575 pounds; Alexander Henry Murray Menzies, Esq., 350 pounds; Trustees of late Edwin Sandys Bain, Esq., 350 pounds; John Saunders Muschet, Esq. of Birkhill, 318 pounds; Mrs. Anna Bow, or Monteath (farm of Small Burn, Bogside, and Kermock), 315 pounds; Robert M’Brayne, Esq., Glasgow (farm of Craigannet and Kirkburn), 300 pounds; Mrs. Elizabeth Honyman Gillespie of Torbanehill, 283 pounds; Adam Smith, Esq. (farm of Meikle Canglour), 273 pounds; Sir Robert Stewart, Q.C., Allahabad, India (Glenhead farm), 255 pounds; Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (farm of Whitehouse), 230 pounds; Peter Lennox, Esq., of Oakfield, Helensburgh (farm of Muirhill, Glendales, and Briglandsteal), 230 pounds; Trustees of late John Christie, Esq., 210 pounds; James M’Pherson, Esq., Townfoot of Dundaff (grass lands), 185 pounds; Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh, 180 pounds; Mrs. Elizabeth Dobbie (farm of Easter Craigannet, Denny), 145 pounds; Robert Buchanan, Esq., 183 pounds; Trustees of the late Alexander Munnoch (farm of Wester Cringate), 124 pounds; and James Turnbull, Esq., Hallquarter of Canglour, 118 pounds.

In Kilysyth parish there are 32 farms. The principal proprietors are Sir William Edmonstone, Bart., of Duntreath, 6,783 pounds; Trustees of the late John Wilson, Esq. of Hill Park, 429 pounds; including farm of Berryhill, 150 pounds; Auchinreroch, 135 pounds; and Auchenvalley, 85 pounds; Joseph Wilson, Esq., Glasgow, 395 pounds; Heirs of the late Andrew Walters, Glenample (lands and farm of Inchterf), 197 pounds; John Christie, Esq. of Slafarquhar (lands of Slafarquhar and Bentend), 300 pounds; Henry Morrison, Esq., Orchard, 120 pounds; John Wilson, Esq. of Banknock, 95 pounds. The minerals on the Kilsyth estate (Messrs. William Baird & Co.) are valued at 2,823 pounds; and Banton coal and iron (Henry Caddell, Esq. of Grange), 879 pounds.

Denny parish has 70 farms. The principal landowners apart from Mr. Forbes of Callendar, are William Wilson, Esq. of Banknock, 960 pounds; William Ritchie, Esq. (farm of Knowehead, &c.), 280 pounds; Peter Lennox, Esq. (farms of Overton and Easter Langhill), 230 pounds; A. M. Monteath, Esq. (farm of Greenburn), 154 pounds; Mrs. John Laing of Leys, 154 pounds; Thomas Keir, Esq. (lands of Linns), 119 pounds; Trustees of Mrs. Campbell (farm of West Thomaston), 115 pounds; Executors of the late Robert Millar, Esq. (Bankhead farm), 110 pounds; Mrs. Agnes M’Farlane (farm of Broadside), 105 pounds; D.W. Paterson, Esq. (farm of Garvauld), 110 pounds; Trustees of the late William Wilson, Esq., W.S., Edinburgh (farm of Cowdenhill), 95 pounds; and John Hay, Esq. (Glenhead farm), 90 pounds. The Banknock colliery (J.W. Burns, Esq. of Kilmahew) is valued at 423 pounds.

In the parish of Dunipace there are 30 farms, and the chief proprietors, in addition to those already mentioned, are John Harvie Brown, Esq. of Quarter, 1,604 pounds; Messrs. William Baird & Co. (Denovan farm), 143 pounds; and the Representatives of Alexander Duncan, Esq. (farm of Risk, Denny), 130 pounds.

Larbert parish has 18 farms. The property of Sir William C. Bruce, Bart., of Stenhouse, is valued at 1,685 pounds, of which 285 pounds is placed against the Tryst ground; that of Henry Cadell, Esq. of Banton, at 336 pounds; Larbert House (John Hendrie, Esq.), with Broomage farm and grass parks, 722 pounds; and the Stirling District Lunacy Board, 670 pounds – 40 pounds of that valuation being against the farm of Gowkhill.

In Airth parish there are 34 farms – Bellsdyke farm (Robert William Gillespie Stainton, Esq.) is valued at 396 pounds, and the minerals at 125 pounds; Pocknaive farm (Charles Edward Walker Ogilvie, Esq.), at 213 pounds; farm of Neuck (the Hon. Lady William Godolphin Osborne Elphinstone, of Bantreath), at 100 pounds; and Brackenlees (Mrs. James Foord), at 82 pounds.

Bothkennar parish has 16 farms – farm of Westerton (Guardians of Henry Callendar, Esq. of Prestonhall) is valued at 280 pounds, and the colliery at 150 pounds; lands of Thislet, Howkerse, and Pinfoldbridge (Alex. Nimmo, Esq., Falkirk), at 146 pounds, and the coal at 576 pounds; farm of North Newton (Trustees of the late Alex. Bell, Esq.), at 137 pounds, and the coal at 168 pounds; farm of Springfield (Messrs. J.S. & G.G. Mackay), at 120 pounds, and colliery at 100 pounds; farms of Orchardhead and Hardilands (Charles E. Walker Ogilvie, Esq.), at 193 pounds, and minerals at 230 pounds; farm of Bellsdyke (R.W.G. Staniton, Esq.), at 134 pounds, and colliery at 125 pounds; Land of South Mains (Mrs. J. Watt or Beveridge, Culross), 41 pounds, and minerals 80 pounds.

There are 107 farms in the parish of Falkirk – farms of Redbrae, Lippy, and Glenrig (Mrs. Eliza G.W. Ralston), valued at 276 pounds; part of Merchiston and Mungal (Mrs. J.G. Stainton), at 240 pounds; Mid and Easter Newlands (Thomas S. Maccal, Esq.), at 190 pounds; farm of Newhouse (Trustees of William Marshall, Esq.), at 172 pounds; Dyke (James Haldane, Esq., and others), at 155 pounds; Jaweraig (Trustees of William Scott, Esq.), at 105 pounds; Oakerdyke (Mrs. Margaret Thomson Rankine), at 73 pounds; farm of Strathavon (J.S. Douglas, Esq. of Polmunckshead), at 70 pounds; lands of South Bantaskine, &c. (John Wilson, Esq.), at 396 pounds; Summerford, &c. (Ralph Stark, Esq.), at 151 pounds; and colliery pit, Redding (His Grace the Duke of Hamilton), at 350 pounds.

Many of the resident proprietors in the parish of Polmont, though the value of their lands be not great, are possessed of independent fortunes from other sources; and for several generations the same estates have been held, in various instances, by family succession. There are 39 farms in the parish. Abbotsgrange (Charles Stirling Home-Dummond Moray, Esq. of Blair Drummond) is valued at 700 pounds; Bowhouse (D. S. Robertson, Esq. of Lawhead), at 510 pounds; Polmonthill and Middlerig (His Grace the Duke of Hamilton), at 395 pounds; Inchyra Grange (Finlay Anderson, Esq.), at 307 pounds; Reddock (G.K. M’Callum, Esq. of Braco), at 242 pounds; Saltcoats (James Aitken, Esq.), at 191 pounds; Crossgatehead (William Napier, Esq.), at 160 pounds; Awells (William Hodge, Esq.), at 150 pounds; Powdrake (Miss M.B. Ferguson, Rivalsgreen), at 140 pounds; Overton, Polmontside, Loanhead, Candylands, Oxgang, and lands of Polmont house (Major John Kincaid Smith), at 512 pounds; Candie (Alexander Robertson, Esq.), at 120 pounds; and Powdrakes (Trustees of the late Henry Aitken, Esq. of Darroch), at 107 pounds.

Westquarter estate (T.L. Fenton-Livingston, Esq.), is valued at 1,026 pounds; Millfield (Thomas Hinton Campbell, Esq.), at 522 pounds; Parkhall (Thomas Livingstone Learmonth, Esq.), at 308 pounds; Lathallan, including farm of Nicolton (Mrs. Henrietta O’Valiant or Spens), at 209 pounds; Whiteside (Trustees of Duncan M’Millan, Esq.), at 162 pounds; and Meadowbank (Trustees of the late Matthew Waddell, Esq.), at 324 pounds.

In Muiravonside parish there are 54 farms. Andrew Stirling, Esq., whose valuation is 1,034 pounds, owns, in addition to the Drumbowie minerals (500 pounds), the farms of Castlehill, West Bowhouse, East Bowhouse, and Muirland, with grass parks valued in all at 336 pounds. William Stirling, Esq. of Tarduf, who possesses the lands of Greenknowes and Lochhead, with the farm of Gillanderland, has a valuation of 321 pounds. Henry Cadell, Esq., owns the farm of Melon’s place, valued at 101 pounds; Woodside, at 65 pounds; and grass parks, Quarter lodge, at 18 pounds; Thomas Newton, Esq., the farm of Parkhill, Burnside, and Eastfield of Wellshot, at 378 pounds; Alexander Dick, Esq., Knowhead and Haugh of Craigend, at 151 pounds; George Gray, Esq., Windy-yett and lands of Hareburn, Avonbridge, at 225 pounds; Andrew Stevenson, Jun., Esq., Whiterig, Manuelrig, etc., at 221 pounds; the Trustees of the late James Russell, Esq. of Arnotdale, whose valuation is 1,164 pounds, own the farms of Bogo, Blackbraes, Craigmad, Wester Blackrig, etc.; Alexander Peddie Waddell, Esq., W.S., Kaemuir and Hillhead, valued at 148 pounds; the Trustees of Alexander White, Esq., Glenhead, Glenend, East and West Hirst, and Hirst Park, at 250 pounds; N.W.J. Strode, Esq., the farm of Candie, at 90 pounds; Robert Clarkston, Esq., Toravon lands, at 100 pounds; John Calder, Esq., the Hill farm, at 70 pounds; John Boyd, Esq., the lands of Greencraig, Hillhead, Beedyke, and Harestanes, at 114 pounds; Andrew Bryce, Esq., Blackstone farm, at 120 pounds; Miss Ann Black, grass lands and farm of Hillend, at 132 pounds; and George Bayley, Esq. of Manuel, grass parks and lands valued at 488 pounds.

There are 39 farms in Slamannan parish. James Rutherford, Esq., M.D., Woodielee, Lenzie, owns Easter Loanrig, valued at 110 pounds; Mrs. Eliza G. Waddell Ralston, Balmitchell, at 120 pounds; Alexander Reston, Esq., Easter Whin and Wester Burnhead, at 115 pounds; Miss Aitken, Darroch lodge and Newfield dyke, at 120 pounds; Mrs. Margaret T. Rankin, Southfield, at 110 pounds; Binniehill, at 95 pounds; and Thrashiehill and Blackrig, at 160 pounds; James Gowans, Esq. of Gowanbank, Edinburgh, East Burnhead, at 106 pounds; Andrew Aitken, Esq., and others, Drumclair, at 145 pounds; Matthew Cleland, Esq., Crosshill and Whitehill, at 70 pounds; Alexander Watt, Esq., Roughrig, Todsbuchts, at 100 pounds; and James Paton, Esq., Edinburgh, lands of Avonhill and farm of Craigend, at 164 pounds.

Mere acreage means nothing, as showing the monetary value of the districts of such a county as Stirling. Few shires are so much diversified in the productive quality of their lands. All along the thinly-populated line, from Buchanan to Gargunnock, for example, there is a preponderance of bare rocky uplands and barren moss or heath, of which the yearly average value per acre scarcely reaches the sum of ten shillings. In Strathblane, however, there is an acreage of 9,068, with a valuation of 9,236 pounds; in Baldernock, 4,322, with 6,610 pounds; in the portion of New Kilpatrick, 2,747, with 11,859 pounds; and in Campsie, 17,872, with 27,834 pounds. Here, the residential estates, too, although not so extensive as several of those farther west, are on the whole of richer quality in their soil, and more generally wooded.

The tract of country along the foot of the Ochils is well known for its rare fertility. The acreage within the shire, from Stirling on to Alva, is 9,176, with a valuation of 48,670 pounds, being an average of about five guineas per acre. Airthrie castle and Westerton are naturally rich estates. Their grounds are not only finely-wooded, but the deep verdure of their pastures are in complete harmony with the prolific yieldings of the outlying fields. The average value per acre of Logie parish, in which they lie, is fully 7 pounds 10s.

On the south side of the Forth, eastward, the soil is also exceptionally good in quality, in spite of the general presence of minerals. The Sauchie estate has been long noted, both for its fine timber and the luxuriance of its grass. It stretches for about three miles from north to south, with the old and new mansion-houses lying concealed in the woods on the east. All the ordinary wild fruits – rasps, brambles, blaeberries, sloes, and nuts are very abundant over the grounds. Indeed, we have seen the first-mentioned berry so rich and numerous in one of the copses, as to fully justify the local simile of "soldiers’ coats outspread." Along the eastern portion of the estate, from the old "Black Row," runs the public road to Loch Coulter and Fintry.

Polmaise, too, with Airth and Dunmore – although a considerable area of moss lies throughout this tract – are not less valuable in fertile fields and extensive plantations. None of the estates, however, are of any great length; but they are highly cultivated, and most tastefully kept.

More than one-third of Bothkennar parish belongs to the old estate of Kerse (Earl of Zetland). Here coal is extensively wrought and continues a leading industry south through the Grangemouth, Redding, Muiravonside, and Slamannan districts. Many of the farms or lands were originally purchased and are, in many instances, now held, for the value of the minerals underground. The residential estates over this eastern portion of the shire are of no account, with the exception of the few small but picturesque policies in the neighbourhood of Polmont. We have already referred to those further west – the most interesting of which, within a distance of ten miles, are West Quarter, Callendar, and two Bantaskines, Larbert, Dunipace, Glenbervie, Torwood, and Carbrook.

In Muiravonside parish, which has an acreage of 7,963, with a valuation of 11,507 pounds, Mr. Stirling, for the minerals of Drumbowie, is down on the roll for 500 pounds; His Grace the Duke of Hamilton, for coal work, 398 pounds; Mr. Strode, for coal and ironstone, 160 pounds; the Trustees of Mr. Alex. White, for Craigend brick work, 180 pounds; and Mr. Alex. Dick, for free-stone quarry, 168 pounds.

Slamannan shows by far more waste ground than any parish in the county, and whatever soil is clear of moss is generally inferior and cold. It is, however, a valuable mineral field. Mr. John Watson’s colliery has a valuation of 2,119 pounds; Drumclair, 1,031 pounds; Mr. Matthew Clelland’s minerals, 150 pounds; and Southfield (Mrs. M.T. Rankine), 971 pounds.

Westquarter estate (T.L. Fenton-Livingston, Esq.), as we have shown, is comparatively small, but its beautiful glen and romantic linns render it very attractive. It possesses, too, the mellower charms of antiquity in various phases, such as are associated with its historical stones, and relics of ancient armoury.

In the adornment of Millfield grounds, the late proprietor, Mr. Miller, took a special delight. Scarcely a stranger, in days bygone, came to the district who was not taken to the sweet little estate for the enjoyment of the principal local treat. At that time the clever engineering of the demesne into romantic features was a novelty, but these are still carefully preserved in all their original picturesqueness.

Callendar estate (Wm. Forbes, Esq.) is one of the largest as well as one of the most interesting properties, historically, in the county. Its woods cover several hundreds of acres, and its fields, for the most part, are fairly fertile. In its ancestral mansion both Queen Mary and Prince Charles Stuart found hospitality; while General Monk had the house for a home while his troops remained in Scotland.

South Bantaskine (John Wilson, Esq.), in its northerly grounds, which rise with some boldness from the banks of the Union Canal, consists of a succession of gentle "hillocks" and hollows stretching about a mile in length from east to west. An inviting plantation surrounds the nobly-situated house. And impressive is this woodland for the genuine lover of nature. Now, as the day-light fades, the sweet melodies of the birds are momentarily hushed. Extreme is the silence. But hark! the stillness is suddenly broken by the blackbird’s song. The brilliant burst of music, however, is like the flicker of a dying light. Along the southern boundary of the estate runs a public road called "Standalane," from which is seen one of the grandest landscapes that any portion of the country presents – a valley, indeed, tempting one to think that not in all Italy could a finer vale be found. And besides its rare beauty, its connection with historical incident, has turned it into classical ground. It formed one of Wallace’s battlefields in the stirring times of the Wars of Independence, and the spirit of Prince Charles still hovers around it. Not yet has it had any tribute from the poetic muse, but the spell which the great Scottish knight threw over its fields will remain, so long as patriotism is a ruling feature of the national character. A considerable part of the country to the south and west of Standalane is very bleak, and the barren character of the district is shown by the scantiness of its human habitations. Those that are to be seen are either farm-houses or labourer’s cots; but, when Bonny bridge, Dennyloanhead, and Castlecary appear in the valley, the landscape loses much of its dreary appearance. Patches of cultivated ground and stretches of undulating pastureland, with occasional pieces of woodland scenery, covering some rounded knoll, is the pleasing prospect which meets the eye. Still, all through this moorland strath, from Glenfuir westwards, the antiquarian with a taste in this direction may find great scope for the exercise of his science. There are, for instance, the Roman wall and its fort-vestiges.

North Bantaskine (James Wilson, Esq.,) is fully entitled to a place of some consideration among the notable estates of Stirlingshire. The grounds contain some of the finest specimens of the yew, larch, plane, and chestnut in the county, together with a fine fragment of the Roman wall. The lawn in front of the mansion is in beautiful condition, and the garden and green-houses are also in a very perfect state. Mr. Wilson, who only became proprietor of the place about two years ago, has not only enlarged, but greatly improved his residence.

About a mile east of the Larbert Tryst-ground lies Kinnaird house (Lord Thurlow) –

"A rural mansion on the level lawn
Uplifts its ancient gables, whose slant shade
Is drawn, as with a line, from roof to porch,
Whilst all the rest is sunshine."

Here Robert Bruce, the preacher, and James, the Abyssinian traveller, spent their latter years, and both died within the grey old building. There are still veterans in the parish who have a vivid remembrance of the traveller’s physique – sturdy champion as he was of his name – and tell with zest many amusing stories of his home-life: of Bruce, when he rode out one day, having been pitched from horseback into the heart of a plot of whins at the Goose-muir; of the profound pity, too, that existed all over the country-side for the steed he rode, whose back was strikingly "howed" from the man’s extraordinary weight; and of "daft Jamie Wilson’s" services on the occasion of the great funeral – marching in front of the burial procession with drawn sword and open Testament. The lands of Kinnaird, which consist chiefly of farms, are rented at from 4 to 5 pounds an acre. Coal, however, of good quality, both for domestic and foundry use, is also extensively wrought over the estate; and beyond the immediate surroundings of the shaft-bottoms the pits are comparatively dry. Their air-currents are likewise so thorough as to render the remotest excavations –

"Those caves whaur vent’rous men
Hae houkit mony a fathom ben."

fresh and cool, even though several of the passages are not more than 2 feet square.

Any reference to the estates of the shire would be imperfect without allusion to that of Stenhouse, the property of Sir William C. Bruce, Bart. The mansion, in part, is one of the oldest in the county, and within the grounds stood that puzzling piece of antiquity, Arthur’s O’on. An avenue, breaking off from the main one between the two lodges, and lined on either side with trees of great size, leads to the baronet’s residence, which, however, has been let for some years to a Glasgow brewer. The property, with its other fields, or farms, has the widely-known old Tryst-ground – a common of about 80 acres. Stenhousemuir was also feued off the estate. The village does not present any special features of interest to the stranger, but it has a sturdy and independent look for all that, and numerous handsome villas are growing up around. Its position is certain to insure its success, as well because of the fine open character of the neighbourhood, as because of the rapid and frequent railway communication it enjoys to and from Glasgow.

Larbert estate is one of the smaller sort. Snugly embosomed among trees, it has, however, many features of beauty. Pasture lands, wood, and a lovely sheet of water, much prized by the local curlers, all combine to form a pretty property. Originally, it was possessed by Sir Gilbert Stirling – a perfect type of old noblesse – from whom it passed into the Chalmers family, and was latterly purchased by John Hendrie, Esq. Opposite the south-eastern extremity of the grounds lies the parish grave-yard, where repose alike the ashes of the men of yesterday and of those who fought the battle of life hundreds of years ago. Many of the tomb-stones which lie scattered about are very old, and exhibit the sculpture marks of a rude and unlettered age – "arms, angels, epitaphs, and bones" – such as are not uncommonly seen in country burying-grounds.

"You ask me where I would be laid,
In what beloved spot
I would repose my life-tired head –
It matters not.

"You ask me if this heart would like
Some one to trace my name
On the memorial-stone of grief –
‘Tis all the same.

"But stay! methinks I’d like to sleep
By Carron’s gentle flow –
I’d like to have an humble stone –
Well! be it so."

Dunipace estate, which belongs to John Harvie Brown, Esq., is rich in historical interest. It is situated in a vale of great beauty, falling back northwards from the banks of the Carron; while the two mounds referred to in an earlier chapter stand out boldly in the foreground of the mansion. Close by their base is an "auld kirkyard," into which not a jarring sound enters to break the dead silence of the sleepers, nor a breath of wind gets admission to wave the long rank grass that hides many a neglected grave. A dyke, 5 feet high, conceals while it surrounds the burial-ground; and out of the walls grows the sweet-eyed feather-few – an herb, from its stimulant virtues, popular with the botanist. At the east corner an aged elm outspreads its massive branches; while a plane opposite, like some hoary saint with uplifted arms, seems ever imploring a blessing on the hallowed wild. Within the enclosure are also the barberry, the henbane, the bracken, and a variety of common shrubs. About forty years ago a chapel stood close to the churchyard, in which Dr. Knox, who was at that time minister of the united parishes of Larbert and Dunipace, occasionally preached. An old friend of the writer’s, who was present at several of the meetings, says, further, that so numerous were the bats throughout the building the young folks used to catch them during divine service and bring them out of church in their handkerchiefs and pockets.

The property of Dunipace formerly belonged to the Primroses, but was forfeited through a service done the Highlanders on the occasion of the second battle of Falkirk. Here Edward I., in 1301, signed a warrant to his plenipotentiaries for a truce with the Scots, and Sir William Wallace was also familiar with the finely wooded strath. But two thirds of the arable lands in the parish lying partly of a substratum of sandstone, and partly on whin-rock, is rendered of a very inferior quality. Jean Livingston, at whose instigation, her husband, John Kincaid, of Wariston, Edinburgh, was cruelly murdered in 1600, was, by birth, connected with Dunipace. She was young and he was old. The ill-fated marriage form, the subject of an old Scottish ballad: -

"It was at dinner as they sat,
And when they drank the wine,
How joyful were laird and lady
Of bonnie Waristoun!

"But he has spoken a word in jest;
Her answer was not guid;
And he has thrown a plate at her,
That made her mouth gush bluid."

Murderer and accomplice having been caught while still bearing unequivocal marks of guilt, were immediately tried by the magistrates of Edinburgh, and sentenced to be strangled and burned at a stake. The lady’s father, the laird of Dunipace, who was a favourite of James VI., used all his influence to procure a pardon for his unfortunate daughter; but all that could be obtained from the king was an order that she should pass away by decapitation, and at such an early hour as to make the execution as little of a spectacle as possible.

We had almost omitted to mention the Stirlingshire poet, William Cameron, author of "Dinna cross the burn, Willie," who was born in this neighbourhood, December 3, 1801. Like David Gray, the Merkland bard, whose life was "but a piece of childhood thrown away," he was, in earlier life intended for the ministry, but ultimately became, through the death of his father, one of the schoolmasters of Armadale. His first song, "Jessie o’ the Dell," had its origin in Miss Jessie Harvey of the Mill. Then followed into equal popularity, through drawing-rooms, nurseries, concert halls, workshops, and farm steadings, such beautiful melodies as "Meet me on the Gowan Lea," "Bothwell Castle," "Morag’s Fairy Glen," "Far may ye roam," "My Willie and me," &c.

Carbrook estate, the property of J.C. Bolton, Esq., M.P., lies on the very edge of all Torwood’s historical traditions and incidents. Nature may be seen in wilder aspects, but the scene of quiet beauty which meets the eye both within the grounds and in their surroundings cannot fail to linger in the visitor’s memory. Nothing could be finer than the golden tints imparted to the contiguous heights and plantations as the wave of ebbing day recedes towards the west. The Glen is situated a few yards distant from the famous old thorn on the estate. Its dell, as may readily be imagined, is thickly covered with brushwood and brackens, but it has also a musical burn in its rocky centre, which in spate seasons bounds with real Cascadian passion over the Sheep’s Linn that lies a short way down. The streamlet has a tenantry of trout, too, and by the angler, with the freedom of its waters, many a decent lot of "beauties" must be basketed. Not a few local Waltonians take the liberty occasionally of an hour’s cast, and the finny folk (all praise to their considerate courtesy!) take as frankly to the bait of the trespasser as to that of the proprietor.

Buchanan house, on the east side of Loch Lomond, near the right bank of Endrick water, a mile west of Drymen village, is the seat of the Duke of Montrose. It succeeded a previous mansion which was accidentally burned in 1850, and has extensively-wooded grounds. Strathendrick, opening fully to the view at the adjacent shores, extends away to the east like a vast landscape garden, with George Buchanan’s monument standing like a sundial in its centre, and the Lennox hills engirdling most of it like a grand defensive barrier. Under the name of Sweet Ennerdale it is celebrated in the old song of the "Gallant Grahams."

Finnich Glen, which lies about two miles distant, is a romantic gorge through sandstone rock, with mural sides nearly 100 feet high, but not more than 10 feet wide; and has, in one part, a large tubular mass of rock called the Devil’s Pulpit.

Gartness house was a favourite residence of Napier, the inventor of logarithms; and at the Pot of Gartness is a cauldron-shaped cavity, with a picturesque cataract, in the course of the Endrick. Killearn house, Carbeth house, Boquhan Place, and Ballikinrain, all interesting mansions, are in the vicinity of Killearn village; while a short distance south are Dualt Glen and Carnock Glen – two romantic wooded ravines, with traversing streamlets and waterfalls. Duntreath castle, adjacent to Blane water, was long noted for its dungeons, stocks, and other appurtenances of strong feudal domination. Balglass castle, on the left bank of the Endrick, claims a high antiquity, and is said to have given refuge to Sir William Wallace.

Flander moss, which extended formerly about 14 miles from the vicinity of Gartmore to that of Stirling, is an extensive, but flat and uninteresting territory, rising no higher at the very watershed between the river systems of the Clyde and Forth than 240 feet above sea level. It was formed partly by the decay of the Caledonian forest, and underwent modern reclamation to the aggregate of nearly 10,000 acres, chiefly by means of channel cuttings to the Forth. The improvement operations resulted in excellent meadow and arable land, and yielded several interesting Roman relics, now preserved in the antiquarian museum of Edinburgh.

Leckie house, near the base of the Lennox hills, is an elegant mansion in the old baronial style, and has charming grounds, commanding brilliant views of the upper basin of the Forth, and of the frontier Grampians. Touch house is the seat of Sir Henry J.S. Stewart, Bart., and stands in a picturesque ravine, traversed by a brook with a fine waterfall. Craigforth mansion takes its name from a bold, bosky crag of similar formation to Stirling Hill and Abbey Craig. If the disembodied spirits of the old marauders of the Highlands could revisit the scenes of their power and their feuds, and see the change that time has wrought on this meet nursing ground for a brave and energetic race, it is difficult to imagine with what kind of feelings they would be seized. Would they not endeavour, all sinewless though they are, to beat back the invader – civilisation? Would there not be an aerial wail of all the Macgregors, "We’re landless, landless, Gregalach?"

The annual value of the real property of the shire, as assessed in 1812, was 189,626 pounds; in 1815, 218,761 pounds; in 1842-3, 272,634 pounds; and in 1880-1, 406,153 pounds.


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