Exports of pig iron via
Gothenburg rose steeply at this time, in step with the increasing
production in Värmland. Scandinavian timber exports to Britain had
previously been mainly from Norway, where the Ostlandet forests,
conveniently situated near the coast, had been exploited. Now, in spite of
the difficulty of transport, the Swedish forests also began to be
exploited. Business in Gothenburg flourished.
Timber from Värmland was
soon being shipped abroad via Lake Vaner and the Trollhätte Canal, which
had been built in 1800 to join the lake with the sea. The leading figures
in this development were Robert and James Dickson, from Kelso and
Montrose, who settled in Gothenburg in the early 19th century. Their firm,
James Dickson and Co., was one of the largest merchant houses in
Gothenburg, rivalling even David Carnegie and Co., and having as its main
area of operations the factories, sawmills and forests of Värmland. With a
merchant fleet that was for some time the largest in Sweden they exported
Swedish iron and timber, working in cooperation with the eldest brother
Peter, who managed the London firm of Dickson Bros. Return cargoes were
made up of colonial goods, which were in great demand in Sweden.
The most outstanding period
in the history of the firm was just before and during the Crimean War,
when the Dicksons also shifted the emphasis of their operations from
Värmland to the rich forests of Norrland, at the northern end of the
Baltic. The firm’s local manager in Norrland was James Robertson Dickson,
who built loading stations on one river after another, and organised
timber-ways down which the timber was floated to the great water saws on
James Jameson Dickson and
Oscar Dickson (who was created baron by Oscar II) were among the great
Swedish philanthropists in the late 19th century, and they made donations
not only to Gothenburg but to a variety of scientific institutions,
including the Nordiska Museet in Stockholm. Both Adolf Eric Nordenskiöld,
the famous Arctic explorer, and Artur Hazelius, who founded the Nordiska
Museet, benefited from their generosity.
William Gibson (1783-1857)
was one of the most outstanding members of the Scottish colony in
Gothenburg in the early 19th century. Born in Arbroath, where his father
was a sailmaker and shipowner, he left Scotland for Gothenburg at the age
of 14, and was employed in an ironmonger’s. By the age of 23
he was able to open his own business, and like many others he made a
fortune out of timber and iron exports during the Continental blockade.
The depression in 1815 hit him very hard, and for a number of years
afterwards he seems to have tried his hand in building and construction.
In the early 1820’s, however, he began, following his father, to
specialise in rope-making and sail-making. In 1834 he moved his factory
from Gothenburg out to Jonsered, east of the city, and here he and his
friend and partner, Alexander Keiller, built up, with the help of Scottish
and English workmen, the highly modern factory that soon dominated the
entire Scandinavian market. A foundry was added and in the 1850’s an
engineering shop that produced agricultural machinery. A cotton spinning
mill and a weaving mill were also added around this period.
After the death of William
Gibson, the management of the Jonseredfabriken was taken over by his son
William (1816-65), who developed the engineering shop in particular, and
with great success started to manufacture timber processing machines,
which came to be of great importance for the Swedish timber industry. The
latter’s son, William Gibson III (1848-1917), successfully carried on the
proud traditions of the firm, and still further expanded its production
Alexander Keiller (1804-74) was a
technician of outstanding versatility. Born in Dundee, he came to
Gothenburg in 1826 and became William Gibson’s partner and colleague,
helping to build up the great enterprise at Jonsered. After the two
friends had separated, in 1839, he founded a mechanical engineering shop
that soon became one of the largest in Sweden. He also founded a shipyard,
and was active as a wholesale dealer. He turned his hand also to mining.
The inner harbour of Gothenburg. Detail of engraving
by Elias Martin's
school, around 1780.
During the 1860s Alexander Keiller
ran into financial difficulties, but succeeded finally in consolidating
his position. Of his many concerns, the shipyard in particular grew –
under the name of Gotaverken – to be one of the largest in Scandinavia.
This was largely due to the work of his sons Alexander and James Keiller.
Absolute monarchy was
buried in Sweden with Charles XII. A few months after his death in 1718 a
new constitution was accepted, which gave the Riksdag strongly increased
powers, at the expense of the monarch. The era in Swedish history known as
the "Age of Freedom" had begun. As yet, however, this was far from being a
religious and spiritual freedom. And the grip of the Lutheran State Church
on the Swedish people had not been weakened.
Pietism was at this time
winning more and more adherents. Characteristically enough it had won
great ground among the comparatively few of Charles XII’s many officers
who had returned to Sweden after often more than ten years as
prisoners-of-war in Russia. Without hesitation, however, the Lutheran
priesthood tried to suppress Pietism. By the Conventicle Edict of 1726
religious meetings of "known and unknown, few or more" in private houses
were forbidden. The aim was to preserve unity of religion, but
unfortunately by this edict laymen were excluded from all church
The result of this blow was
that Pietism developed in an increasingly radical direction. The
Conventicle Edict was to keep many Swedish tempers boiling, and the
victory of freedom on this particular frontier was only to come into sight
130 years later. Its champions at this time found inspiration to a
great extent in Scotland, whose Free Church was described by one of them
as "a lantern in the hills, a brilliant light for all Protestants, in the
beam of which they can see and behold the glory and power of Jesus Christ,
His grace and mercy, Who still today confirms his Word, and does not allow
Himself to be without witness."
At an early stage of the
struggle two Scottish zealots crossed the North Sea to help their fellow
Free Churchmen. The first one to come was missionary John Paterson, in
1807 sent by the Religious Tract Society in London, to work for the
spreading of spiritual writing in Sweden. On his initiative, the
Evangelical Society was founded to work to this end in 1808 and a few
years later also the Swedish Bible Society.
In 1830 there came to
Sweden the Methodist preacher George Scott, whose twelve years stay in
Sweden coincided with a very flourishing period for the Swedish revivalist
movement. His main object in coming was the cure of souls among his
countrymen in Stockholm, but he soon established intimate contacts with
Swedish Free Churchmen. During his journeys to England and the United
States he collected money for their support. He met stubborn resistance
from the Lutheran priesthood and from certain political circles, and once
his life was actually threatened during a service.
A third Scot who was of
great help in the Swedish Free Church movement was James Lumsden, a
Professor of Aberdeen University. After a visit to Sweden in the 1850s he
published his book Sweden—Its Religious State and Prospects: with some
Notices of the Revivals and Persecutions which are at Present taking place
in that Country. For the rest of his days he maintained a lively
correspondence with his Swedish friends, helped them financially, and
contributed many articles to Swedish religious publications. In 1852 he
wrote expressing his pleasure that people in Sweden had at last become
conscious of the fact that basic principles of religious freedom had been
expressly stated in § 16 of the Swedish constitutional reform of 1809.
It was along this line that
the long struggle for freedom at last began to give result. In 1865 James
Lumsden’s closest friend in Sweden, Hans Jacob Lundberg, founded
Evangeliska Fosterlandsstiftelsen, the Swedish Evangelical Foundation,
which became the leading organ of the revivalist movement. Two years later
the hated Conventicle Edict was rescinded, and practically complete
religious freedom had become a fact.
The founder of the Swedish
Salvation Army, Hanna Ouchterlony, was also of Scottish origin, one of her
ancestors having immigrated in the middle of the 18th century. After
establishing herself as a bookseller in a small town in Southern Sweden in
the early 1870’s, when the emancipation of women was still in its early
stages in Sweden, she underwent a religious crisis that brought her into
contact with Bramwell Booth. In 1882 she was appointed by William Booth to
be pioneer of the Salvation Army in Sweden, and thanks to her outstanding
talent for organisation it rapidly established a foothold in this country.
In 1888 she established the movement also in Norway, and was later active
at the Salvation Army headquarters in London.
The Thorburn Family
The Thorburn family stem
from the county of Roxburgh in south Scotland. William Thorburn moved from
there to Leith, and became a wholesale dealer in tea. He lived 1756-1844,
and had numerous children including William and James.
James Thorburn emigrated to
Gothenburg, where he attained burgership as a wholesale merchant in 1819.
Together with a countryman, William Brodie, he ran the wholesale firm of
Brodie and Thorburn. After some years in Sweden he ran into financial
difficulties, and his elder brother William was sent over, in 1822, to
clear things up.
1780-1851, visited Norway on his way home from Gothenburg in 1822 and
attracted by the scenery bought the estate of Kasen, outside Uddevalla,
from the Kock family, for a barrel of gold. In the following year he
moved, with his wife, Jessy Macfie Thorburn, and his four sons, and his
daughter, to Kasen. It is possible that he had only intended to use his
new estate as a summer residence, but he disagreed with his brother George
over the business in Scotland and stayed in Sweden. To begin with he lived
purely as rentier, but from 1825 he operated a shipping company
with four ships that he had taken over when settling his brother’s affairs
in Gothenburg. During the 1840’s he liquidated this business, which had
brought him little but trouble.
He realised at an early
stage the possibilities of Swedish oats as an export commodity, but it was
really his sons who built up the family’s grain export firm. A
contributory cause of his interest in agriculture may have been the
marriage of his daughter in 1845 to a landowner, Edward Nonnen of Degeberg,
an Englishman who was one of the great reformers of Swedish agriculture.
Shortly before his death, William Thorburn was made an honorary member of
the Skaraborg County Agricultural Society.
The two sons took over the
business on their father’s death. William F. Thorburn was 31 and Robert M.
Thorburn 23 in 1851. The firm came to play a dominant role in Swedish
grain exports. These were only a temporary phenomenon in the Swedish
economy, but during the decades that followed large quantities of oats
were shipped to England. The two brothers had a sister who married another
Scot, William A Macfie.