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The Social and Industrial history of Scotland, from the Union to the present time
By James MacKinnon (1921)


PREFACE

In a recently published work (Messrs Blackie & Son) the author eviewed the Social and Industrial History of Scotland from the earliest times to the Union. In the present work he reviews this branch of Scottish History from the Union to the present time.

There is room for such a work, in view of the widespread interest at the present time in social and industrial history, and the lack of an adequate review of that of Scotland during the past two centuries. The valuable works of Sir Henry Craik and Dr Mathieson do not go beyond 1843, and are, besides, largely concerned with politics in church and state. The special work of Mr Bremner on The Industries of Scotland, published in 1869, is full of valuable information as far as it goes, but is rather ill-arranged and ill digested. The half century from 1869 to the present time has been largely left in abeyance by the historian. It is one of extraordinary and complicated development, particularly in the industrial sphere, and should appeal strongly to the reader of to-day, inasmuch as it is bound up so closely with his own experience.

The lack of special works on this part of the period has made the writing of this one no easy task. The Author has had to search over a wide field for his material, and has found difficulty at times in obtaining first-hand information. He has by no means exhausted the field, and professes only to give a review which, while intended for the general reader, as well as for teachers and students of Scottish history, may serve as an introduction to farther intensive study. To this end, he has added, at the conclusion of each part, a list of sources from which he has drawn his material.

He desires to express his obligations to many friends from whom he has received valuable information in the course of his studies—in particular, to his colleagues, Professors Wallace and Hudson Beare; Dr Oliver, Principal of the South of Scotland Central Technical College; Dr David Murray, Glasgow; Sir John Lindsay, D.L., Town Clerk of Glasgow; Mr Paton, City Chamberlain, and Mr Fenton, Depute City Chamberlain, Edinburgh; Sir John Ross, LL.D., Dunfermline; Mr J. L. Innes, Kirkcaldy; Mr James E. Bell, Mr Duncan McGlashan, and the late Mr David Deuchars, M.V.O., Edinburgh; Mr Nicholson, Librarian, Mr Cuthbertson, Assistant Librarian, and the Staff of Edinburgh University Library. To Mr James A. R. MacKinnon, LL.B., Advocate, he is indebted for valuable legal information and for useful suggestions in the course of reading the proofs.

Edinburgh, February, 1921.

CONTENTS

PART I

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

1. General Aspects
2. The Progress of Agriculture
3. The Progress of Industry and Commerce
4. The Growth of Towns
5. James Watt and the Steam Engine
6. Social Conditions
7. Education-and Culture
8. Religious Life
9. The Rise of-Scottish Art
10. Poor Relief and Crime
Sources

PART II

THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES

1. General Features
2. The Progress of Agriculture
3. The Mining, Iron and Steel Industries
4. Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering
5. The Textile Industries
6. Secondary Industries
7. The Rise and Extension of Railways
8. Commercial Enterprise
9. The Scottish Trade Union Movement
10. Education
11. Culture
12. Printing and Publishing
13. Art
14. Religious Life
15. Poor Relief
16. Municipal Enterprise and Social Progress
17. Shadows of Social Life
Sources


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