Many genealogists and
family historians will be familiar with the Marquis of Ruvigny’s famous
series on the Blood Royal of England, both Plantagenet and Tudor. In those
volumes he traces mainly indirect descents, and many of the lines end with
quite ordinary people rather than just the aristocracy. He extols such
genealogical research as equally as important as direct lines. Many,
however, will be unaware that there are Scottish connections and here we
begin that with Malcolm Canmore (1031-1093) who is famous for returning to
Scotland from exile in 1056/7 and defeating Macbeth, who murdered his
father, King Duncan 1st in 1040.
Malcolm’s first wife was
Ingibiorg, daughter of Finn Arnesson, Jarl of Holland, and by her he had
nine children including Duncan II King of Scots, born in 1060 and murdered
in 1094. Duncan had married in 1090 Ethelreda, daughter of Gospatrick Earl
Malcolm Canmore married
secondly, in 1069, Margaret (later canonised as Saint Margaret) Atheling
(1043-1093) daughter of Edward Atheling ‘The Exile’ (d.1057) Prince of
England, by Princess Agatha of Hungary (d.after 1067). Agatha was a daughter
of King Stephen (969-1038 and later canonised as a Saint) of the House of
Arpad, whose ancestry can be taken back to Atilla the Hun. Malcolm and
St.Margaret had six children, and here we shall treat with Princess Matilda
((1079-1118) who married in 1100, Henry 1st ‘Beauclerc’ (b.1069
at Selby, Yorks. – d. 1st December 1135 in Normandy) King of
England. They had William IV Duke of Normandy (1101-1120), and Princess
Matilda (b.1102, d. 30th January 1164, and buried in Rouen
Matilda married firstly,
in 1114, Henry V (1081-1125) of the Salian House, a Holy Roman Emperor. She
married secondly, on 17th June 1728, Geoffrey IV ‘Plantagenet’
(b.1113, d. September 1150 and buried in St.Julian’s Church, Mans, France) a
son of Fulk V Count of Anjou and King of Jerusalem (d. at Acre in 1143.)
Details of Fulk’s ‘career’ and end in Palestine can be found in Sir Steven
Runciman’s epic “Kingdom of Jerusalem.” Matilda and Geoffrey had Henry II
Plantagenet, King of England (1133-1189) and he married, in 1152, the famed
Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204).
Of the five children
of Henry & Eleanor, I propose to deal with here the two lines of Princess
Eleanor (1162-1214), and her rather notorious brother, King John
Eleanor married in
1177 Alphonso VII King of Castile (1155-1214) and they had six children of
whom Princess Berengaria (1181-1244) married in 1198 Alphonso IX King of
Leon (1166-1230), who in turn had Ferdinand III King of Castile and Leon
(1200-1252) who married, in 1237, Joan of Aumale (d.1278). The daughter of
Ferdinand and Joan was Princess Eleanor of Castile (b.1244, d.1290 at Harby,
Nottinghamshire) who married in October 1254 at the Monastery of Los Heulgas,
near Burgos, Spain, as his first wife, Edward 1st Plantagenet (b.June
1239 at Westminster, - d.7th July 1307 at Lanercost Priory,
Cumberland) King of England, from whom Kings Edward II and III and their
descendants all descend. Edward and Isabella’s daughter, Princess Joan, was
born before September 22, 1272 at Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem, whilst Edward
1st was on Crusade. (See below for a further descent to Edward 1st.)
Joan of Acre (d.1307) married on 30th April 1290, firstly, and as
second wife, Sir Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Clare, Earl of
Hertford and 8th Earl
of Gloucester (b.2nd September 1243, Christchurch,
Hants., - d.7th December
1295 Monmouth), a descendant of Dermod MacMurrough, King of
and a prominent nobleman who was a commander for the royal cause
battle of Evesham. Isabella, sister of Gilbert’s father, had
de Bruce, Lord of Annandale (1210 – 1294) and they were in turn
grandparents of King Robert 1st ‘The Bruce’. Sir
Gilbert de Clare and his wife
Princesss Joan had, as well as a son Gilbert, the 9th
married in 1306 to Hugh le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester
Lady Margaret de Clare, who married (1) Piers Gavestone,
Earl of Cornwall
(beheaded 1312) and (2) Hugh, Lord Audley (see below);
Elizabeth de Clare (c1290,- 4th November,1360, Bardfield,
founder of Clare College, Cambridge. This lady was buried at
Ware Priory, in
Hertfordshire, with her third husband Sir Roger, Lord d’Amory
Baron of Armoy in Ireland, who had his first summons to
1317/8. He was engaged in the wars of Scotland, and was governor
times of Knaresborough Castle, Gloucester Castle, and
He joined in the confederacy against the Spencers and with
Thomas Earl of
Lancaster marched on Burton-upon-Trent, and thence to Tutbury
where he fell ill, never to recover. Lord d’Amory and Elizabeth
de Clare had
two daughters: Eleanor (or Agnes?) who married John de Raleigh,
the famous Sir Walter; and Elizabeth, who married John 3rd
(d.1371), Knight Banneret, of Wirmegay in Suffolk. T.C.Banks
that this Lord Bardold did homage and was summoned to parliament
but Burke states that he was first summoned in January 1338,
“participated in the glories of the martial reign of King Edward
III.” They had:
William 4th Lord Bardolf, of Wirmegay (1358-1386),
who served in the French and Irish wars, latterly under John of Gaunt, and
who was summoned to parliament as early as 20th January 1376. He
married, after 1366, Agnes (d.after 1386), daughter of Sir Michael Poynings
(d.1369), 2nd Baron Poynings of Bures, a veteran of the battle of
Crecy. (One of Lord Poynings great granddaughters, Eleanor Poynings
(d.1482), married Henry Percy (1421 – 1461) 3rd Earl of
Northumberland). Lord Bardolf and Lady Agnes Poynings had two children that
we know of: his heir Thomas 5th Lord Bardolf, of Wormegay, who
died following the battle of Bramham Moor (& through whose daughter descend
the Viscounts Beaumont), and Lady Cecily Bardolf, of whom later.
(1167- d.19th October 1216 at Newark, Notts), King of
England, famous in the Robin Hood fables, and for signing the Magna
Carta, brother to Princess Eleanor (1), above, as well as Richard The
Lionheart. King John had a natural daughter, Joan (of whom, below)
Agatha, daughter of Robert Ferrers, Earl of Derby.
John’s second wife wife,(his first marriage to Isabella de
Clare being annulled) whom he married on 24th August 1200, was
Isabella (d.1246 and buried in Fontevrault Abbey, Anjou, France) daughter of
Almar Taillfer, Count of Angouleme. By her he had five children, one of whom
was Henry III Plantagenet (1207- d. 16th November,1272 at
Westminster) King of England, whose son was King Edward 1st of
England, whom we have noted already, above.
King John’s daughter, by
Agatha, daughter of Lord Ferrers, Joan, married
Llewellyn ab Iowerth, Prince of North Wales who died in 1240, and was buried
at Conway. Their daughter Gwladys Ddu ap Llewellyn, married in 1230 Ralph de
(d. 6th August 1246) 5th Baron of
Wigmore. His son and heir was Sir Roger de Mortimer, (b.c1231, d. 26th
October 1282 and buried with his ancestors in Wigmore Abbey) 6th
Baron of Wigmore. Sir Roger married in 1247, Matilda (d.1301) daughter of
William de Braose who had been hanged by Llewellyn in 1230. Sir Roger and
Matilda had a family of six children that we know of, one daughter, Isabella
marrying the Fitzalan ancestor of the Earls of Arundel. We are concerned
with the son and heir, Sir Edmund de Mortimer, (d.before July 1304) 7th
Baron of Wigmore, who married Margaret, daughter of Sir William de Fandles.
Their son, Roger de Mortimer (b.c1286) 8th Baron Wigmore, who was created
1st Earl of March, but died at Tyburn, London, on 29th November
1330 after being hung drawn and quartered. He was buried in Wigmore Abbey a
full year later. He had married before October 1306, Joan (1286 - 1356)
daughter of Peter de Geneville by his wife Joan, daughter of Hugh, 12th
Comte de Lusignan. Sir Roger, Earl of March, and Joan, had five children,
one of whom was killed in a tournament at Shrewsbury. We are concerned with
their daughter Katherine de Mortimer, who married Thomas de Beauchamp (d.circa
November 1369) 3rd Earl of Warwick, a Knight of The Garter. Their
daughter, Phillipa de Beauchamp (d. before September 1386) married Hugh, son
and heir to Ralph, 1st Earl of Stafford, Knight Banneret and K.G.,
(1299 – 1372) and his wife Margaret (d.1347), daughter to Hugh Lord
Audley and Margaret de Clare (see above). Hugh 2nd
Earl of Stafford, K.G., died 26th September 1386 in Rhodes,
whilst returning home from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. His body was returned
and buried in Stone Priory, Staffordshire.
Upon reaching Hugh 2nd Earl of Stafford two
distinct descents from Malcolm Canmore merge – one through the natural
daughter of King John of England and the Princely House of Wales, and
another through John’s wife, Isabella Taillfer via King Henry III
Plantagenet, of England. Two other descents which have also merged in
Princess Joan of Acre, are those of her parents, Eleanor Princess of Castile
and Leon and Edward 1st King of England, both descendants of
Henry II Plantanagent, King of England & Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Hugh 2nd Earl of Stafford (d.1386) had a daughter
Catherine Stafford, who is buried in the Collegiate Church of Wingfield in
Suffolk. She married before September 1385, Sir Michael de la Pole, 2nd
Earl of Suffolk, who died in battle before Harfleur in France, and whose
body was transported back to Wingfield Church for burial. They had numerous
children of note. One daughter, Agnes, married Sir John Bussey, knight, of
Lincolnshire, from whom that family descend. One of the Earl’s sons, Sir
Thomas de la Pole, knight, died in 1433 whilst being held hostage by the
French for his brother, William. Sir Thomas had married Anne, daughter of
Nicholas Cheney, Esquire, and they had a daughter Katherine.
We return now to Lady
Cecily Bardolf, a descendant, as shown above, of two of the children of
King Henry II Plantagenet: Princess Eleanor (1162-1214) and King John,
merging in their descendant Princess Joan of Acre. Lady Cecily married,
before 1409, Sir Brian Stapleton (1379 -17th August 1438),
knight, Sheriff of Norfolk, and son of Sir Miles Stapelton (d.1417), K.G.,
of Bedale & Ingham, another descendant of Malcolm Canmore through his son
King David 1st (d.1153), his son Henry Earl of Northumberland and
Huntingdon (d.1152), his son David Earl of Huntingdon (d.1219), his daughter
Margaret who married Alan Lord of Galloway (d.1234), their daughter
Devorguila (d.1290) who married John de Balliol of Barnard Castle (d.1269),
their daughter Matilda or Agnes who married Bryan FitzAlan, Lord of Bedale &
Hagget (d.1306), their daughter Matilda or Agnes (b.1298) who married Sir
Gilbert Stapleton, knight (d.1321), their son, Sir Miles Stapleton, K.G., of
Bedale & Ingham, who died in 1365 and is buried in the chancel of Ingham
Parish Church, and his son, the abovementioned Sir Miles Stapleton, K.G.,(d.1417)
whose son was
Sir Brian. He and Lady
Cecily Bardolf had a second son, Brian Stapleton of Kessingland, Suffolk;
and they had a daughter, Anne, married to Thomas Heath, of Hengrave,
Suffolk. Their eldest son was:
Sir Miles Stapleton,
knight, Lord of Ingham Manor, Norfolk (d.1466), married Katherine,
daughter of Sir Thomas de la Pole (d.1433, France, see above),
brother of the Duke of Suffolk, a further merging of descents from Malcolm
Canmore. They had two daughters, Elizabeth and Jane. Jane Stapelton married
(1) Sir Christopher Harcourt, ancestor of the Stanton Harcourt and Abingdon
families, and (2) Sir John Hudleston (or Hodleston) also with issue;
Elizabeth married three times: (1) Sir John Fortesque, Chief Justice of the
King’s Bench, (2) Sir Edward Howard, Lord High Admiral, and (3) as his
second wife) Sir William Calthorpe, of Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, who died in
1494 and was buried in the White Friars Church, Norwich. He was an important
nobleman and sometime High Chamberlain of England, Ireland and Acquitaine.
By Sir William, Lady
Calthorpe had five children: Edward, of Ludham, who left issue; John, of
Cockthorpe; Sir Francis, of Burnham Thorpe (d.1544), who married (1)
Elizabeth Wyndham, and (2) Elizabeth Berney, with issue to the latter
including Bridget, who married Edward Eden of Martham; Elizabeth, who
married Francis Haselden from whom descend that family and also the Paytons
of Cambridgeshire; and Ann, whose body lies in St.Mary’s Church, Bury
Ann Calthorpe had
married Sir Robert Drury (died 2nd March 1536, at Hawstead and
buried in a monumental and magnificent tomb in St.Mary’s Church, Bury
St.Edmunds, Suffolk). Sir Robert was Lord of the Manors of Thurston and
Hawstead, Suffolk, a barrister of Lincoln’s Inn, Privy Councillor and
Speaker of the House of Commons. Sir Robert was present at the funeral of
the young Prince Henry in 1511 and is noted as one of the knights who bore
the canopy. He was buried in a monumental and magnificent tomb in St.Mary’s
Church, Bury St.Edmunds, Suffolk.
Between 1510 and 1513 he
was engaged with various collegues in the attempt to pacify the Scottish
border by peaceful methods. He was a witness to the marriage of Princess
Mary on 9th October 1514 and was knighted in 1516. He was present
at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, and has a long list of other
important appointments to his credit, too numerous to mention here. The site
of his family’s London home is still called Drury Lane. Sir Robert Drury
and Anne Calthorpe had two sons:
Sir Robert, of Hedgerley,
Bucks, who married Elizabeth Brudenell with issue, one of whom was Sir
William Drury, Marshall of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and later Lord Justice of
Ireland; and Sir William (d.1589), Lord of Hawstead Manor, who married
Elizabeth Stafford (d.1578) with issue, amongst whose descendants can be
found the families of Wray, Irby of Boston, Clifford, Ayscoghe of Skelsey
through to the Hanbury-Tracys and so to the present Lord Sudeley.
Sir Robert and Ann Drury
also had four girls: Anne, who married (1) Sir George Waldegrave (d.1528)
knight, of Smallbridge, and (2) Sir Thomas Jermyn (d.1552) knight, of
Rushbrooke; Bridget, who married Sir John Jernegan (d.1556) knight, of
Somerleyton; Elizabeth, who married Sir Philip Boteler; and finally, Ursula
Ursula Drury (d.1523 v.p.,
and buried in Hawstead Parish Church) married, before 1520, Sir Giles
Alington (1500-1586, and buried in the chancel of Horseheath Parish Church)
Lord of the Manor of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire, who also had Calthorpe and
Cheney ancestry. According to Burke, this family descend from Sir Hildebrand
de Alington, Under-Marshall to William the Conqueror at Hastings. Sir Giles
and Lady Ursula had a daughter who married John Spencer of Althorp, the same
family from whom the late Diana, Princess of Wales descended.
Sir Giles & Ursula also
had a son, Sir Robert Alington (b.1520 - d.22nd May 1552, buried
in Horseheath Parish Church). He married Margaret (c1552 – 1598, buried in
Holy Trinity Church Bottisham, Cambridgeshire) daughter to Sir William
Coningsby, King’s Justice. They had a large family of eight children:
George; Giles (d.1573) who married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Spencer,
knight, of Althorp, by his wife Katherine Kitson, with issue; James; Alice,
who married (1) William Sewster of Steepemorden and (2) Edward Talkerne or
Talkhorne; Ann, who married Arthur Breame, in Essex; Elizabeth, who married
Thomas Some, of Bradley; Frances, who married John Coooke, of Rochford in
Essex, and Beatrix who was born about 1550.
married, as his first wife, a wealthy landowner and armiger, John
Killingworth (c1547 – 23rd May 1617; buried in Pampisford Parish
Church, Cambridgeshire.) His second wife was Elizabeth, daughter of William
Cheyney, Esq., and by her he left two sons, William and John. By his first
wife, Beatrix Alington, John Killingworth had six children: John (died
young); Giles, of Pampisford, who married (1) Anne Hewick and (2) Elizabeth
Hare; Margaret; Elizabeth; Alington; and Beatrix (d.1626).
(bur. 19th September 1626, Great Shelford, Cambs.) married John
Austin, “a prosperous farmer,” (baptised 2nd February 1572 at
St.Mary the Virgin Church, Great Shelford, and bur. there 1st Febuary 1619).
Both husband and wife are mentioned in her father’s Will. They had four
children: Robert, b.1608; Mary, b.1607; James, b.1614, who married c1633 a
lady whose Christian name was Grace – with issue; and
Alington Austin (b.1601
– buried at Great Shelford 1st February 1651) who was left £80
plus gold jewelry and other items in her father’s Will. She married on 29th
May 1622, in the church of St.Mary the Virgin, Great Shelford,
Thomas Howling, a Yeoman
farmer in that locality. He was baptised at Great Shelford on 26th
May 1595 and was buried there on 10th May 1648. Thomas and
Alington Austin had three children that we know of: William, born 1624;
Mary, born 1626 and married 1643 to John Maris; and Thomas, another farmer
(baptised at Great Shelford on 1st February 1623, and also buried
there on 27th May 1683). By his 1st wife Sarah,
(buried at Great Shelford on 24th October 1654), he had a
daughter, Martha, born 15th May 1652.
Martha Howling (1652 –
buried July 12, 1702 at Great Shelford) married, on 20th January
1676, at Great Shelford, yet another Yeoman farmer, Richard Tunwell
(baptised 27th May 1645 at Fulbourne, Cambs.,- bur. 14th
January,1713 at Gt.Shelford), whose family is mentioned in Cambridgeshire
records as far back as 1316. He owned both freehold and copyhold lands
totalling about 160 acres near Great Shelford and had a lease of all the
lands of Freville’s Manor as well as most of those belonging to Bury Manor,
of which he was a Juror to the Court Baron. His name appears on the Roll of
Parliamentary Voters. This couple had six children, of whom Richard, a
Yeoman (1687-1719), and
Thomas, a farmer, but
described in his Will as a “gentleman”. This Thomas Tunwell (baptised 26th
March 1689 and buried 25th August 1726 both at Great Shelford)
married on 21st September 1714 at St.Botolphs Church in nearby
Cambridge, Constance Brewster (bapt.21st September 1691 daughter
of John Brewster and Hester Kemp, and buried on that day in 1714, both in
Great Shelford.) They had John and Thomas, both Yeoman, Sarah, who married
Thomas Banks, and Constance.
(baptised at Great Shelford on 20th December 1715, and buried
there on the 9th May 1775) married on 5th September
1747, in St.Catherine’s Hall Chapel, Cambridge, William Deane, a farmer of
Great Shelford. He was baptised on 1st November 1719 at
Whittlesford, Cambs., and buried at Great Shelford on 17th April
1763. They had five children: Constance, who married John Heffer in 1768,
Sarah, William, Thomas, who married Elizabeth Newling in 1786, and
John (baptised 2nd
December 1753 and buried 21st December 1832, both at Great
Shelford). In the Letters of Administration for his estate, he is described
as a Yeoman. He married 3rd February 1780 at the parish church of
Hauxton, Cambridgeshire, Esther Turner, (b.c1759 and buried 27th
April 1817, Gt.Shelford), by whom he had twelve children, all of whom,
unless otherwise indicated, were born/baptised, married and died at Great
John, bapt. 21st
May 1780, d.c1782;
William, bapt.23rd December 1781, d.13th June 1847;
married 31st March 1803 Sarah Cock.
John, bapt.26th October 1783, d.20th July 1851;
married 26th March 1805 Ann Ansell.
Thomas, b.c1785, d.5th July 1786.
Constance, bapt. 1st January 1786; married 19th
October, 1807 James Butler, with issue.
Thomas, bapt. 20th April 1788; married 23rd January
1810 Sarah Butler.
James, bapt. 12th
July 1790; married 31st October 1809 Mary Searle, daughter of
William Turner and his spouse, Mary Newling.
Sarah, bapt. 26th May 1793; d.1830, at Trumpington, Cambs;
married 6th April 1815 John Haggis.
Stephen, bapt. 11th July 1796; married 8th July 1817,
Oliver Turner, bapt. 15th July 1798, d. 1st December
1826; married 8th July 1821 Fanny Townsend.
George, bapt. 10th May, 1801.
Elizabeth, bapt.11th September 1802, d. 3rd May 1804.
James Dean, (who appears in 1843 in the ratepayer’s books for Great
Shelford, and was still living there when the 1851 Census was taken) and
Mary Turner had the following issue:
James, (mentioned with
his father in the rates book in 1843,) b.c1811, d.18th January
1867; married 25th March 1832 Sarah Huckle, with issue.
William, bapt. 8th May 1814, d.19th October 1835.
Mary Turner, bapt. 17th July 1816.
Susanna, bapt. 8th March 1819.
a farmer, bapt. 7th July 1821, d.21st July 1863;
married 5th April 1852 Sarah Alexander (1816 -17th
March,1899) from Belfast who described herself as “a member of the
Presbyterian Church of Scotland”, with issue, two girls: Sarah Ann, and
Elizabeth (Sarah Ann being a great grandparent of the writer.)
Joanna, bapt. 11th July 1824, d. 17th September 1827.
Elizabeth, bapt. 12th April 1826.
It will be seen from
this study that a great many families can claim an descent from royal
ancestors and from other illustrious aristocratic houses. Over the centuries
and down through the generations families and their wealth have become
dissipated and this is demonstrated by the latter families here who were
smallholders and Yeoman farmers whose Wills and other documentary mentions
show them to be of modest standing. They are nevertheless of the Blood
Royal. Indirect descents remain a
It has been said that
endless pages of exacting sources in journals are an irritant to many and so
I propose here to give only those which may be of use to those wishing to
verify the above.
The sources on the
Plantagenets and other early royal and illustrious families are numerous and
can be consulted in any good library, but see in particular:
The Plantagenet Roll
of the Blood Royal (4 vols) by The Marquis of
Ruvigny & Raineval, London, 1907.
The Blood Royal of Britain
(Tudor Roll) by the same author, London, 1903.
The Dormant & Extinct Baronage of England
by T.C.Banks, Barrister, London, 1808.
Baronia Anglica Concentrata,
or Baronies in Fee by Sir T.C.Banks, Bt., London, 1844.
Burke’s Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited & Extinct Peerages London, 1883.
The Manors of Suffolk by
W.A.Copinger, M.A.,LL.D., F.S.A.,London, 1905.
The Visitation of Suffolk
The Visitation of Norfolk
1563 by William Hervey, Clarenceux King of Arms; and 1613 by John Raven,
Richmond Herald. Edited by Walter Rye, London, 1891.
The Visitation of Yorkshire
1563/4 by William Flower, Norroy King of Arms. Edited by
Charles B.Northcliffe, M.A., of Langton. London, 1881.
The Visitations of Yorkshire
1584/5 by Robert Glover, Somerset Herald; and 1612 by Richard St.George,
Norroy King of Arms. Edited by Joseph Foster, London, 1875.
The Visitations of Cambridge
1575 & 1619 by Henry St.George, Richmond Herald, edited by John W.Clay,
Monumental Inscriptions & Coats of Arms from
Cambridgeshire recorded by John Layer, c1632, and
William Cole between 1742 and 1782. Edited by W.M.Palmer, M.D., F.S.A.
A History of Horstead and Stanninghall, Norfolk
by Percy Millican, Norwich, 1937.
Burke’s Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland.
The History of the family of Drury
by Arthur Campling, F.S.A., London, 1937.
Journals of the
Cambridgeshire Family History Society, notably 1984; August 1994; February
1995, but others also not noted here. Articles by B.Lamble, Alan Bullwinke,
and Gordon Boundy.
Monumental Inscriptions for Cambridgeshire,
available from the above society.
Parish Register Transcripts for St.Mary’s, Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire.
Agatha – The Ancestry Dispute
in The Scottish Genealogist, vol.XLIX,no.3, Sept.2002.
Mrs Lorraine Freeman, 5 Wolseley Street, Rooty Hill, Sydney, 2766, N.S.W.
Gregory Lauder-Frost, a professional genealogist, has been a member of the
Society of Genealogists, London, since 1977. He joined the Scottish
Genealogy Society, Edinburgh, in 1981 and is also a member of its governing
Council. In 1989 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries,
Scotland. He is the author of numerous historical and genealogical essays.