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Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland
IX. The Gaels


"Holland," by which name they are still known. In Roscommon and Mayo the name became Nuallachain, and was Anglicized as Nolan. The O’Scanlans (O Scannlain) of south Galway and Clare are kinsmen to the O’Shaughnessys and O’Heynes, and a branch of them spread southward as an ecclesiastical sept, being formerly erenaghs of Gloyne in Gounty Gork.

Ui Briuin
The Ui Briuin descend from Brion, who was the brother of Fiachra, ancestor of the Ui Fiachrach, and of Nial, ancestor of the Ui Neill; all mentioned above. The Ui Briuin divided into several branches, including the Ui Briuin Ai, Ui Briuin Breifne, and the Ui Briuin Seola. These tribes, or more accurately their respective tribal dynasties, alternated the kingship of Connacht, much as their ancestors had formerly done with the Ui Fiachrach (this had not been a regular alternation: Sometimes the kingship would alternate between branches of the Ui Briuin or Ui Fiachrach themselves in immediate succession before going over to the other tribe). The real expansion of the Ui Briuin dates from about the middle of the eighth century, from which time they began to extend their power beyond their various sub-tribal centers in central and northeastern Gonnacht.

The Ui Briuin Ai rose in the late eighth century to firmly take possession of Cruachu and the overlordship of the subject tribes, or "alien tuatha" of Connacht. This they accomplished from their relatively narrow strip of original patrimony, which lay south of Cruachu in north-central Roscommon, and extended over the upper reaches of the River Suck into central Connacht. Their chief dynastic family, which was also the chief dynastic clan of the whole Ui Briuin, were the Siol Muireo.dhaigh (Silmurray), who derived their name from their ancestor Muiredach Muillethan, King of Connacht, who died in 702.

The Siol Muireadhaigh included a number of very important families, chief amongst them the O’Connors (O Conchobhair). The O’Connors descend from Conchobhair, king of Connacht, who died in 882 (their name is more directly taken from a namesake of Conchobhair’s in the late tenth century). They separated into three great branches, the O’Connors of Sligo; the O’Connors of central Roscommon, the head of which family was known as O’Connor Roe (the Red O’Connor); and the Royal O’Connors themselves, kings of Connacht, the head of whom is still known as the O’Connor Don (the Brown O’Connor). Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, the first to take the family name, was High King of Ireland in the mid twelfth century.

The O’Malones (O Maoileoin) are a branch of the O’Connors, and were long distinguished ecclesiastical family at Clonmacnoise, of which several were abbots and bishops. Several of the family were prominent Jacobites in the wars of the seventeenth century. The O’Mulconrys (O Maolchonair) also are a branch of the O’Connors. They were a great literary family, and served as hereditary poets and chroniclers to their clan, the Siol Muireadhaigh. Their


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