AN ATTEMPT AT A BRIEF FAMILY
HISTORY OF THE LAIRDS OF DINWIDDIE
BY THOMAS SOMERILL
Note: This is taken from an
unpublished manuscript in the possession of the Family History Library of the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, catalog #
929.241/D619s. Chapters will be added as I have the time to retype them as the
original is very poor quality and not favorable to scanning.
Letter and Forward
Ch. 1. The Origin of the Name Dinwiddie.
Ch. 2. Dinwiddie. Etymology.
Ch. 3. Was Dinwiddie a Castle of Cartismandua?
Ch. 4. Armorial Bearings of Dinwiddie.
Ch. 5. The Lairds of Dinwiddie.
Ch. 6. The First Dinwidie and His Neighbors in Annandale.
Ch. 7. Were the Dinwiddies Celtic or Norman?
Ch. 8. Origin of the Dinwiddie Family.
Ch. 9. The Earliest Dinwiddie Recorded in Annandale.
Ch. 10. Aleyn Dunwythie of Ragman Roll.
Ch. 11. Alan de Dunwithie the Esquire.
Ch. 12. The Nameless Lairds.
Ch. 13. George de Dunwethy.
Ch. 14. Thomas Dunwedy. Of that Ilk (1498) slain by Jardines A.D. 1502.
Ch. 15. The Feud of Dunwedy and Jardine.
Ch. 16. The Murder of the Laird Thomas: 1502.
Ch. 17. The Murder of the Laird Thomas II. 1512.
Ch. 18. The Two Lairds Thomas, and Dunwedy Cadets in the Days of the Feud.
Ch. 19. Thomas Dunwedy III.
Ch. 20. Laird Thomas III and His Family.
Ch. 21. The Laird Alexander. The Last Dunwedy of Dunwedy.
Ch. 22. Lady Jane of Dunwoodie.
Ch.23. The Maxwells. Lairds of Dunwedie after A. D. 1568.
Ch. 24. Robert Maxwell. Laird of Dynwiddie (1568-1588).
Ch. 25. Laird Robert II.
Ch. 26. John the Tutor. Laird Robert II and Robert III, the Heir. The
Ch. 27. Lady Jean's Life at Dynwiddie. Troubles with the Johnstones.
Ch. 28. The Escape of the Maxwells (Young Maxwell and Dinwiddie) from Edinburgh
Ch. 29. Young Maxwell's Revenge. Murder of the Johnstone.
Ch. 30. Dynwiddie's Apologia. For his share in the Young Maxwell's exploits.
Ch. 31. Lady Jean and Her Tenants. The Dinwiddie Clan and Cadets about A.D.
Ch. 32. Clan Dinwiddie. A.D. 1600. Outlying Clansmen.
Ch. 33. The Laird Robert II, in the Dinwiddie and Johnstone Feud.
Ch. 34. The Laird Robert, Raider and "Border-Bulldog," and Sheriff of Annandale.
Ch. 35. Lady Jean Dinwiddie and Her Heirs.
Ch. 36. Robert Dinwiddie of Kirkmichael. 1608-1610. How he played a Bangastry
Ch. 37. Oliver Dinwiddie of Glenae. 1610-1617. Seneschal of Kirkmichael Barony
Ch. 38. Dinwiddies in Johnstone.
Ch. 39. The Mosstrooper Dinwiddie of Cleuch Brae.
Ch. 40. Dinwiddie of Moss-syde, and Governor Dinwiddies Ancestors.
3 Cromford Road
Wandsworth S W 18.
Nov 2, 1929
Dear Mr. Dinwiddie,
I have now sent the MSS as promised
of the Dinwiddie History which I hope you will be able to publish. I had kept it
to add some notes of Wills which seem to solve the ancestry of Governor
With kind wishes and hoping you are
in the best of health--my own is very indifferent.
Please acknowledge receipt of MSS.
THE FAMILY OF DINWIDDIE OF
The Dinwiddies are an ancient
Scottish family of Annandale, whose surname is derived from their old estate,
and the Lairds of Dinwiddie wrote themselves "of that ilk" for at least four
They appear on the famous Ragman
Roll which may be considered the Scottish equivalent for the Norman Roll of
Battle Abbey in all matters of family antiquity.
Although the Dinwiddie family gave
an early Governor to Virginia, who lives not only in history but in the pages of
Thackeray, yet at home in Annandale it never attained any higher title than
But to the true Scotsman to be
entitled to use the style "of that ilk" is naturally a prouder distinction than
any royally-bestowed title.
DINWIDDIE OF DINWIDDIE, when his
banner went abroad in old Annandale, probably looked down with as lofty a scorn
on the mushroom nobles (the mere King's minions of the degenerate days) as did
Gladstone of Gladstone, in Scotland, Okeover of Okeover, in Staffordshire,
Gatacre of Gatacre, in Shropshire, and many another old English Commoner, whose
fathers had been lords of the little realms as far back as historic record
Although Robert Dinwiddie, the
Governor of Virginia, is perhaps the only man of his name who has made an
imperishable mark in history, doubtless if we could recover the lost annals of
Annandale as told in the forgotten ballads of its long dead Minstrels, we should
find the DINWIDDIES shining very bravely in song and story.
Little as we know of the Lairds of
Dinwiddie, (before the present Essay, a few paragraphs in Notes and Queries, and
a passing reference by Miss Johnstone in her Annandale book, practically
represented all the accessible information printed), enough record exists to
show that they were active, valiant and brave; typical border Chieftains.
Thus it is not mere procession of
ghosts, who are only names, that I have endevoured here to call back for a
moment from shadowland: and if my poor effort to clothe the dry bones of
genealogy with a little romantic flesh and blood is a failure, the fault is
mine--for these ghostly LAIRDS OF DINWIDDIE were once bubbling over with fiery
life, and drank the cup of existence joyously, even to the dregs.
The Lairds of Dinwiddie had all the
virtues of the Borderer; if they had some of the Border vices, as was
inevitable, there is no stain of savagery, such as sullies the memory of their
friends and neighbours, Maxwells and Johnstones. So far as we can fairly judge
from the scanty records, there seems always a calmer strength, more prudent if
none the less daring, in Dinwiddie, than in either of their neighbours Johnstone
or Jardine. To this we may add that in the interminable feuds of Annandale the
Lairds were always loyal to the core to their chosen party. No taint of disgrace
ever touched them, and nothing could ever tempt them from their fidelity to
their friends. They were ever ready in fight and feud; always thirsty for
adventure, from the very first, -now, serving for a moment the brave Plantagenet
Conqueror of the coward Baliol, tomorrow among the loyal and faithful vassals of
the Bruce: riding in foray, and invasion with their kinsmen and neighbours over
Solway and far beyond "Merrie Carlisle", behind the banner of St. Andrew, to
return with the spoil of the English: ever ready to rally for Annandale; to
march on a Mosstroopers' raid; or to duel in the feud of Johnstone and Jardine
and to die by the foeman's daggers, victims to their staunch partizanship.
Bold, reckless, turbulent
Border-Lairds, the last Dinwiddie forfeited his lands by a rash disloyalty to
the Stuarts shared by all Annandale. The name vanishes from that ilk, with his
daughter, who retained the homestead: but loyal Dinwiddies were still left, her
near kinsmen; and although the last Lairds of Dinwiddie were of the Maxwell
name, it is almost impossible to doubt that these also inherited the blood of
the true Dinwiddie of Dinwiddie.
To the very end of Scottish
independence until the Union put and end to the Border Warfare, we find
Dinwiddies among the ever-fighting Lairds of Annandale; but as the new days of
peace and puritanism dawn after A.D. 1603, the Chiefs of the family are caught
by the glamour of Glasgow, and emerge again from a brief obscurity as busy
Merchants. They attain the Provostship of the City. Finally Robert adventures in
Virginia and as Governor of a Crown Colony dies the most distinguished man of
his name, and leaves his fair fame and worthily won honour for sweet example to
all who bear it after him.
THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME DINWIDDIE
Dinwiddie, (Dunwedy, or Dunwythie)
whence the Lairds derived their surname, is a prehistoric fortified hill, 871
feet above sea-level, in the parish of Applegarth, County Dumfries, Scotland.
The old Lairdship is in the very heart of Annandale, about 5 miles N.N.W. of
Lockerbie and Lochmaben. There is today a station at Dinwiddie on the Caladonian
Railway, more than a mile S.W. of the hill, and a stream called Dinwiddie Brook
still bears the name. The hill itself was crowned with two ancient
fortifications, and an its S.E. slope is a graveyard, said to be that of an
ancient Chapel of the Templars. These military monks are traditionally supposed
to have had a Preceptory on or near the hill, to which belonged this ancient
DINWIDDIE A CHAMELEON PLACE-NAME
The name Dinwiddie as a surname is
clearly territorial, and derived from the estate. This again was evidently named
from the old prehistoric hill-fort.
Its exact meaning, is hardly so
clear, although to most modern Scotsmen it sounds freely translated something
like "The Castle of the Dismal Gallows".
Like many other ancient names, there
is some doubt whether the obvious meaning is the correct one, and DINWIDDIE is a
peculiarly typical example of what might be called the Chameleon class of Place
names: a class which seem to have varied their original meaning through the
centuries, appearing to take new meanings as the Chameleon exhibits new tints,
and puzzling the observer to decide which is the true colour. Like the Chameleon
these Chameleon-names have no absolutely true meaning or colour now: they have
blended all the traditional tints of their composite syllables, and reflect now
one, now another, to the ears of modern men.
1. There is no doubt whatever as to
the first syllable of Dinwiddie. It is the old Keltic word"DIN" (Brythonic) or
DUN (Gaelic), a fortified stronghold, originally always meaning a "HILL-FORT" or
"HILL". It is usually found in place-names combining both meanings, signifying
"a stronghold built on a hilltop" as in DUNEDIN (Edinburgh), DUNFERNLINE,
It is equivalent also to the
Latinized Keltic "DUNUM" found in the ancient CAMALODUNUM, in old Britain and
LUGDUNUM (Lyons) in old Gaul, fortresses named after antique deities CAMALOS and
LU, whose worship first consecrated the citadels. Many other examples are
scattered over Europe, landmarks on the Conqueror's pathway of the Keltic
2. The second syllable "WIDDIE".
This is the chameleon-syllable, and
we may at once discard as improbable, if not impossible, the idea of a Saxon
origen; although the unscholarly Scotman might easily be forgiven for seeing in
it the WIDOW'S CASTLE, and a hundred years back even an unlettered Englishman
would scarcely have been laughed at for thinking it necessarily the same.
The earliest recorded forms of the
name also seem to tempt us to jump at obvious derivations. DUN-(WIDIE/WYTHIE)
and DUNWEDY, the two earliest forms are full of suggestions for easy guesses
like the DUNWOOD, or the WILLOW-CASTLE, but these are far to tame and
commonplace names for that grim old Hill-fort, which was probably towering in
sight of the first Legions who marched along the new-made Roman Road that ran
below DUNWYTHIE and threaded Applegarth Valley before yet a Saxon foot had
stepped on the Scottish soil.
It is therefore impossible to doubt
that whatever its original spelling and sound may have been DINWIDDIE, or
DUNWYTHIE, or as in the earliest form DUNWEDY (DUNVEDY) the old fortress had a
purely KELTIC name and origen. As we find DUN is the earlier form, the hillfort
near Applegarth may have been occupied by the SELGOVAE, the most ancient known
inhabitants of Annandale, probably Gaels, akin to the Picts of Galloway, who
like the SELGOVAE, later mingled with the Brythonic Conquerors.
Even if future discovery should
prove DINWIDDIE and earlier form than DUNWYTHIE or DUNVEDY (in which case the
DIN would decide in favour of a Brythonic rather than Gaelic fortress) yet still
the conquering BRITONS (who were of the tribe of the BRIGANTES from North
England) may have merely re-named an older "DUN" of the Gael.
Mr. Johnson in his Place-Names of
Scotland, although apparently unaware of any earlier record of the name than
A.D. 1500, comes to a similar conclusion. His "perhaps" leaves it a little
doubtful; but he distinctly favours a GAELIC meaning, which if true, tantalises
us with shadowy glimmerings of some lost romantic legend of the first builder of
DUNWYTHIE and even suggests an actual historic PRINCESS as the first LADY OF
DUNVEDY, or DUNWEDY.
Romantic as this may appaer let us
remember Annandale is a romantic land, and especially remember Tradition is full
of gleams of Truth to the true antiquarian~ez_ndash~nay, often truer than printed or
THE LAIRDS OF DINWIDDIE. The first
Laird. A.D. 1191.
The earliest recorded ancestor of
the Dinwiddies and probably actually the first Laird of that Ilk, is at present
only known from a passing reference in Miss C. L. Johnstone's "History of the
Johnstones". She calls him Dinwoodie, but as her book does not quote the actual
charter in which he appears as a witness, no significance attaches to this
spelling. What we are actually told is that among a number of gentlemen of
Annandale who attended the first Feudal Court held by William De Brus as Lord of
Annandale, were the ancestors of most of the Families who afterwards became
prominent there; and that one of these Vassals of the Bruce was the ancestor of
William De Bruce held this Court at
his Castle of Lochmaben in A.D. 1191, the year of Coeur de Lion's depature for
the First Crusade. Bruce went with King Richard to the Holy War soon afterwards,
and with him went most of his knights and retainers, so it almost follows that
the first Dinwoodie was a crusader, A.D. 1191.
The preparation for the Crusade must
have been the chief business at that memorable Court in Annandale, and it must
have been attended by all those Knights and Esquires who held land by military
service under the Bruce.
Dinwoodie, whose lands were only 5
miles northward from Lochmaben, was there with his nearest neighbours Johnstone
and Jardine, in whose respective descendants the future Dinwiddies were to fin
their loyalest friends and fiercest foes.
THE CHARTER TO WHICH DINWOODIE WAS A
Dunegal son of Udard resigns to
William de Bruce of Annandale nearly 100 acres of land in Wormambie(?) and 50
acres in Annan.
This land was regranted to Gilbert
From other early deeds and charters
connected with Annandale Miss Johnstone identifies this Gilbert Fils John with
Gilbert de Johnstone, ancestor of the Johnstones and the Marquesses of
It is extremely likely, if not quite
a certainty, that Johnstone, originally Johnnestoun, the family estate, took its
name from this Gilbert's father John.
Johnstoun or Johnstone was the next
Lairdship northward to Dinwiddie (see the sketch map of Annandale).
Note: The actual Charter appears in
the Duchy of Lancaster (24) Charters. Box A No. 132. The date is approximately
fixed by the fact that William de Bruce fought in Coeur de Lion's Crusade. Miss
Johnstone probably had other evidence before her, fixing it definitely as A.D.
1191. A copy of the Charter is hereafter given in Ch. 9.
THE FIRST DINWOODIE/DINWIDDIE AND
HIS NEIGHBORS IN ANNANDALE.
With the first Dinwoodie as fellow
witnesses to the Charter of A.D. 1191 were the ancestors of seven other
neighboring Lairds of Annandale manors. These were:
1. Kirkpatrick. Roger de
2. Herries. William de Herez.
3. Jardine. Humphrey del Gardin.
4. Corrie. Hugh de Corri.
5. Hoddam. Robert and Udard de Hodalmia.
6. Pennersax. Richard de Penresax.
All these Lairds were close
neighbors of Gilbert Johnstoun. The lands of the Laird of Dinwoodie were just
midway between Johnstoun Kirk, and mile northward and Applegarth Kirk 2 miles
south, where Jardines were already planted in their apple garden whence they
seem to have derived their later name. I have found a William de Applegarth
witnessing a Bruce Charter in A.D. 1170. (Fletchers Yorkshire Charters)
This is all we know of the first
Dinwoodie. We are fairly safe in assuming he was a Crusader with William de
Bruce and King Richard Coeur de Lion, but it is noteworthy that he is found as
witness to a Johnstone deed: for throughout all the after history of the two
families we find them closely linked in friendship and marriage. The only
actually known wife of a Dinwiddie of Dinwiddie was a Johnstoun. Dinwiddies were
always loyal to Johnstouns in all their feuds and twice at least proved
themselves literally true till death, even dying in their cause by the Jardine
The question now arises, "who were
these first Dinwoodies? Of what race? Were they new men, or of ancient Annandale
WERE DINWIDDIES CELTIC OR NORMAN?
1. ADAM, AEDH, OR AIDAN.
Neither of the two earliest
Christian names borne by DINWIDDIES are very helpful in deciding this question,
as both ADAM and ALAN were in Coeur de Lion's days used equally by Normans (or
Bretons) and Celtic Scotsmen.
ADAM never seems to have been used
by the Hebrews, except to name the Father of Mankind, from "Adama" Red Earth of
No Jew is found bearing it in the
Old Testament and it seems Father Adam's first human namesake was probably a
Scotsman. Miss Charlotte Young in her History of Christian Names says "The first
time Adam comes to light again is amont the Keltic Christians of Ireland and
Scotland. It is not improbable it was first adopted, according to a frequent
Gaelic fashion, as the ecclesiastical name most resembling the native one of
"ANDH"(?) or "unreadable". Anyhow it was made famous in Scotland by the great
Abbot of Iona in the 7th century, called in the Dog-Latin of the time Adamnanus,
This may account for any early Scots
Churchmen: but any Aedhs among the laity would be likelier to become Aidans, as
in the case of the legendary founder of Edinburgh, (the real King Aidan of the
6th century). There is actually no clear evidence that Adam became a popular
Scottish name till as Miss Young says, the Gordons became so fond of it. But
this was later that the first Dinwiddie's day; therefore as no less than 3 Adams
are among the witnesses to the Charter of 1191 in Annandale it is quite as
likely that they were all merely namesakes of Adam De Bruce, the Baron of
Skelton, and of other Adam Bruces, kinsmen to the Lords of Annandale.
Alan was a common Norman and Breton
name probably originally Celtic, and Dinwiddies may have adopted it from the
Celtic Galloway Princess, of whom the most famous was that Alan (father of
Dervorgilla, the mother of King John Baliol), who was their contemporary. But
Alan had also been a Bruce name in Normandy.
ORIGIN OF THE DINWIDDIE FAMILY.
Like so may other old Scottish
families, the Dinwiddies cannot be absolutely proved to be of Scottish origin.
In their case the chances are almost even, that they are of Norman origin like
the Johnstones, or indigenous Kelts of Annandale like that Dunegal son of Udard,
who gave up his lands to Gilbert, fils John, when the first Dinwiddie signed the
Charter of 1191. All we are sure of is that Dinwiddie was one among the group of
"kindly tenants"who shared Bruce's great fief of Annandale and whose great
privileges from their Overlord and easy terms of service have led to the
traditional Annandale belief that many if not most of them were cousins and
kinsmen of, or at least allied by marriage to, the Bruce suzerains.
If the Dinwiddies were Norman
adventures who went to Annandale behind the Bruce banners, they may have gone
there soon after A.D. 1124 when the first Robert De Bruce became Lord of
Annandale, or it may be when Robert's son William De Bruce the Crusader married
Isobel, daughter of King William the Lion of Scotland in 1183 the splendour of
the Bruce's royal alliance may have tempted them to seek fortune over the
It is just as likely, since their
first known Christian names were Adam and Aleyn, that Dinwiddies were indigenous
Scotsmen of ancient Annandale linage; perhaps already at home there before the
transfer of the valley to the Bruce, which brought the new men of Norman blood
to mix with the old Keltic chiefs and to wed their daughters; thus founding the
wonderful blend of dashing Norman and fiery Briton which became the typical
Annandale breed, a fierce and passionate race with all the warm-blooded virtues
and only the warm-blooded vices. Of this Annandale breed Dinwiddie is a typical
family, like their friends the Maxwells, and it may well be their unknown
ancestors were old Keltic chieftains with pedigrees going back even to the days
The Earliest Dinwidies Recorded in
1. Adam De Dunwidie.
2. Adam DE Dunwudui.
3. Sir Alan De Dunwidi the Seneschal of Annandale.
To the following Charters of the
Annandale Bruces the first known Lairds of DUNWIDIE were witnesses.
1. Charter of A.D. 1191. 2 silken
tags but no seaals. (Duchy of Lancaster Charters). (Charters beforre 1214). Box
A. No. 132.
DUNEGAL son of UDARD resigns and
quit-claims to WILLIAM DE BRUCE and his heirs, in full court (Plenaria curia) a
Caracute of land in WEREMUNDEBI, and half a caracute in "ANANT" with a toft, for
the use off GILBERT FILS JOHN.
Witnesses: William......? Adam de
Seton, Robert de Hodalmia, (Hoddam) (x) Humphrey del Gardin (Jardine) Adam file
Adam, Richard de Penreaax, William de Herez, L......? Murdac, Udard de Hodalmia,
(x) Hugh de Corri, Hugh son of Ingebald, Walter de Walram, Patrick Brun,
W......Walbi, (x) ADAM DE DUNWIDIE. (x) Robert de Crosseble, (Crosby) (x)
Richard de Bosco, Robert de Levingtona, (x) Roger de Kirkpatrick, Malcolinn
Loccard, (x) Robert de Tremor, William de Henevile, (x) Hugh Maleverer, and many
(Six of the above witnesses, those
marked (x) were living in A.D.1216, and witness Bruce Charters at that date).
2. From the JOHNSTONE CHARTERS at
A CHARTER of William de Brue Lord of
Annandale (1190-1214), (probable date before 1200, as Johnstone does not yet use
the territorial surname). Confirming to ADAM de KARLIOLO (Carlyle) the lands of
KYNEMUND which GILLEBERT file JOHN had given him in exchange for the lands of
x William de Heriz.
x Ade fils Ade,
x Udard de Hodelmo.
Hugo de Brus
x sons Roger de Corr
x Henry Murdac.
x Gillebert fils Johannes (Johnstone)
William de Heriz junior.
x Hugo Mauleverer.,
x William de Henevile,
x Ada do Dunwithie..
x Rio del Bois..
Roger Fils Udardi..
Symon Capelan. And many others.
All those starred (x) signed the
Charter of 1191 before the Crusade ( Charter I) but Henry Murdac is probably son
of MUROAC 1191 and Roger De Corri son of Hugo.
3. A CHARTER of William de Brus
(before 1214) confirming to IVO DE KIRKPATRICK the lands of PENNERSAUGHS.
William de Heriz. x Gillebert de
Richard de Bois.. Roger de Kirkpatrick.
Hugo de Corri. Robert de........
Umfrido de Gardino (Jardine). William de Heneville.
Robert de Crossebi. x Alano de Dunwidi.
This Charter reveals an earlier Alan
than the Seneschal who signs a later charter.
4. Another Charter quoted in "Baine
Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland", and assigned to circa A.D. 1218.
ROGER son of WILLIAM FRANCISCUS (the
Frrenchman) quit-claims to SIR ROBERT DE BRUS, Lord of Annandale, and his heirs
2 Oxgangs of land which the granter held of him in the territory of Anand,
towards WEREMUNDEBI, for the excambion of 2 oxgangs of land, which Wm.
Franciscus the granter's father formerly held of the said Sir Robert in farm in
the tenement of Moffat.
Sir John de Rumundebi (Weremundebi?)
Sir Humphrey de Kirkpatrick, and Sir Roger, his brother.
Sir Gilbert de Johnstone, Sir Robert de Herice,
Sir Humphrey Mauleverer, William de Henevile,
ADAM DE DUNWUDHI. And others.
(Duchy of Lancaster Charters.)
Box A. No. 127.
5. CHARTER - grant by ROBERT BRUCE
Lord of Annandale probably circa 1220 - to ROBERT DE CROSSEBI of commony in the
Wood of Stapleton.
Umfrid de Kirkpatrick. Hugo fils
Domino Ada de Carnoto. Robert de Heriz.
x Domino Gilberto de Joniestoun (Johnston.)
Domino Alano de Dunwidi. And others.
The grantee of this Charter ROBERT
de CROSSEBI, (Crossby) was married to Juone de Dinwidi a sister or aunt of Alan.
(Historical families of Dumfriesshire).
6. Charter in "Duchy of Lancaster
Charters. Box A. No. 126. (Also in Bain). Dated temmpo Henry III (1216-72) but
assigned by Bain to some period before A.D. 1245, which may be taken as
"Adam de Crosseby quit-claims to SIR
ROBERT DE BRUS and his heirs all his lands and holdings with Saltpits and mill
etc. in the vill of Cumbertrees, in exchange for 64 acres of land given to him
by Sir Robert in GRETNA (Gretna Cross near Gretna Green).
The first three witnesses are
SIR ALAN DE DUNWIDI.
Sir William de Mortaigne
Sir William de Carliol (Carlyle) (Ancestor ofThomas Carlyle's family)
The other witnesses include
Sir Engram de Musceus.
Sir Adam de Carnots.
Robert de Heriz.
Hugh fil Hamelin.
Sir William, Vicar of Annand.
Adam le Clerk, etc.
The first witness to this Charter is
fully described as SIR ALAN DE DUNWIDI the SENNNNESCHAL OF ANNANDALE.
Thus we find about A.D. 1245 the
Laird of Dinwiddie is among the most prominent of those Knights who followed the
fortunes of the great Norman Barons who divided their allegiance between King
Henry III and Scottish King Alexander II, and SIR ALAN DE DUNWIDI, as Seneschal
of the great domain of Annandale, must have been a valiant wise and faithful
vassal, wielding all the power of his Overlord, and leading in peace and war all
the Annandale Chieftains; Kirkpatrick, Carlyles, Johnstones, Jardines, and
Herries. He doubtless led Annandale for King Alexander II against the Galloway
rebels A.d. 1235, etc. This is our only glimpse of him through the mist of 700
years, but it shows us clearly enough that DUNWIDIE of DUNWIDIE was already of
knightly rank and SIR ALAN, the Seneschal, was Chief in Annandale.
ALEYN DUNWYTHIE OF RAGMAN ROLL
The next Lord of Dunwidie seems to
be a son and namesake of Sir Alan, the Seneschal of Annandale. His overlords the
Bruces were now among the competing claimants for the throne of Scotland, but
this did not prevent him (like all the other Annandale vassals of Bruce)
swearing fealty to King Edward I of England at Berwick on Tweed in A.D. 1296 and
his signature appears among those of nearly all the gentlemen and yeomen of
Scotland in the great list called Ragman Roll.
The presence of Alan's name on this
list says nothing really decisive as to his patriotism of partisianship with
England; for every noble name in Scotland is there, and every gentle name that
can be traced as far back as 1296. Only the doughty William Douglas was daring
enough to refuse to sign. So among the signatures of Ragman Roll we find on one
of the parchments signed a Berwick on Tweed, 28th Aug. 1296. Aleyn Dunwythie.
It is well known that Ragman Roll
takes its curious name from the numerous seals of the subcribers which still
dangle from it, bearing in many cases the armorial insignia stamped on the wax.
Unfortunately if Aleyn Dunwythie's arms or device originally appeared they must
have become indecipherable, or it may be as armorial seals were only just
beginning to come into favour Aleyn did not add his seal to those of the greater
nobles--in any case although many are recorded, it seems the armorial bearings
of Dunwythie are not found there.
Little or no significance can be
attached to the order on the list of signatures in which Aleyn's name occurs, as
there is no systematic grouping in neighbors do not sign in groups but
apparently indiscriminately, some at Berwick, some at Roxburgh, or elsewhere.
It may be interesting to record here
the names of those signing immediately before and after Aleyn Dunwythie. It may
well be some were friends or Annandale men. The list runs as follows: Thomas de
Nesbyt. John de South Lyntone. John Le Engleys. Aleyn Dunwythie. John Le Fils
David. Adam Spollard.
It may be more than mere chance that
Aleyn signed next after John the Englishman, for unlike most of these unwilling
swearers he kept his oath of fealty to England as far as we can judge by the
scanty records of his family. We know certainly that either Aleyn himself, or as
is far likelier, a son of the same name, was still doing good feudal service to
the King of England 17 years later. So whether John the Englishman was friend of
Aleyn or not the indications seem to be that the Dunwiddies do not appear to
have been partisians of the Bruce overlord's claim to the Kingship of Scotland.
If we could be sure Aleyn is
identical with Alan the Esquire of 1313 we could safely conclude he favoured
Baliol, (the English party), even against the Bruce.
But it is unlikely in these warlike
days that the son of a powerful Knight of Annandale such as the Seneschal
Dunwidi must have been, would have failed to win the spurs of Knighthood himself
before 1313. Alan the Esquire is in all probability son of Aleyn of Ragman Roll.
This is made more likely by a consideration of the dates on the suggested
pedigree, (Chapter 9), which gives 122 years from Adam I to Alan III (the
Esquire). This, taking the usual 30 years for a generation, would give the
Esquire as definitely of the 4th generation (great-great-grandson of Adam).
This leaves the after life of Aleyn
of Ragman Roll unkown unless some unexpected evidence ever turns up.
He may have remained true to the
Baliol and English Party. But we must remember that the tradition of loyalty to
the Bruce as the immediate overlord of the Dunwidies would be stronger than any
tradition of loyalty to either English or Scottish kings in the past, or than
any regard for enforced vows of fealty and signatures to Ragman Rolls in the
immediate present so Aleyn may have later joined young Robert Bruce in his early
struggle for the throne.
There is absolutely no evidence
either way; all that can be said is, if the Laird of Dinwidie was not a
partisian of his suzerain but a supporter of John Baliol and England, he was by
no means alone or exceptional among the Annandale Chieftains, who as feudal
retainers of the Bruces ought to have rallied to Robert the Pretender.
Quite a number of Annandale Lairds
kept the vows of fealty to England, recorded on Ragman Roll, including the
"Carlyle" and the "Kirkpatrick" of that day. The latter, (although he was that
Sir Roger Kirkpatrick whose red dagger "made siccar" the death of the Red Comyn
when Bruce struck him down in the chapel of Dumfries) had left Bruce to serve
the English King. It is by no means unlikely that Dunwythies and Kirkpatricks,
close neighbors as they were, were linked by friendship, possibly by marriage,
anyhow young Alan Dunwithie chose to follow the banner of Kirkpatrick, (1313).
ALAN DE DUNWITHIE whom we assume to
be son and successor in Dunwithie Lairdship to the ALEYN of Ragman Roll is known
to us from the following record in the Scottish Exchequer Rolls. Lochmaben
Castle was the great Bruce fortress and the centre of their Annandale Barony.
Only five miles from the Dunwidie and Kirkpatrick homesteads it had no doubt
before A.D.1313 numbered among its garrison many a clansman and chieftain of
these names, hitherto among the loyalest of the Knights of the Bruce. But early
in the great struggle for the throne the famous ROBERT BRUCE had lost his castle
of Lochmaben, which had surrendered to the English, led by their Prince of
Wales, who soon afterwards became King Edward II. So, from that time, A.D. 1306,
Lochmaben was held by its garrison for England. Although the records are
missing, it may be the former friend and comrade of Bruce - the fellow slayer of
the Red Comyn, SIR ROGER DE KIRKPATRICK, had gone over to the English party at
this time, when Annandale was conquered. He is likely to have been Castellan of
Lochmaben for Bruce before its falll - at all events in October 13113 he was
King Edward II's Castellan there, and with him in his garrison was his
neighbour, the Esquire ALAN DE DONEWITHY awith his valet and steed.
We actually know exadtly Alan's rate
of pay as an Esquire in garrison. It was 1/ - a day.
This looks very pitiful, the old
traditional pay of an English private of the ranks; but in reality it was quite
adequate, as the Shilling of A.D. 1313 was worth more than the Pound of today.
Alan's valet or page was not unlikely another Dunwithie cadet, although his name
does not appear.
The pay sheet of Lochmaben's
Castellan is worth notice as a curiously interesting gleam of the light of other
From the Scottish Roll.
GARRISON OF LOCHMABEN CASTLE.
October 24, 1313
Pay of Men-at-Arms of the Garrison
for 12 days.
CAVALRY: L. s. d per day.
1. Sir Rober Kirkpatrick with his
knight and his
5. four Esquires as Castellan. 4.16.
0 8 shillings.
2. Sir William Herriz (Herries) and
his Esquire 1.16. 0 3 shillings.
2. Sir Thomas de Torthorald and his
Esquire. 1.16. 0 3 "
1. Alan de Donewithy his vallet and
barbed horse 12. 0 1 "
1. Walter de Bosco (Wood) vallet and
horse 12. 0 1 "
1. Matthew de Eye, hobeler 6. 0 6
____ ______ ______________
13 Cavaliers, and 2 valets, Total
15. L 9.18.O 16.. 6.
NOTE: The Cavalry thus numbered 13
mounted men (with 2 vallets or pages), made up of the Castellan and 3 other
knights (the unnamed personal Knight of the Castellan would doubtless be a
kinsman) 8 Esquires and one mounted man at arms, who appears by his name the
only Englishman among the Cavaliers.
DONEWITHY appears to have hald a
much more prominent position in the Garrison (with his valet and barbed horse)
than any of the other Esquires: he was doubtless a young protegee of Sir Roger
Kirkpatrick and destined by him for Knighthood.
INFANTRY. THE FOOT OF THE GARRISON.
Pay for 14 Days.
66 ARCHERS Jordan de Kendale
Constable L. s. d. per day.
With barbed horse, and 65 Archers.
8. 12. 8 12. 4 ½
(The Archers were apparently paid 2d
per day, leaving the Constable 1/6 ½ for himself).
20 CROSSBOWS Robert de Larkedaunce
Corporal and 19 Socii 4. 15. 8 6..10.
(Larkedaunce was Corporal of the 20
Crossbowmen in the Peel, or Citadel Tower. If their rate of pay was 4d a day the
Corporal Larkedaunce only had 6d.)
6 Henry de Carlyle (Attiliator) and
Socii (6 Crossbowmen in the Castle)
Had the same rate of pay and drew 1.
10. 4. (2/2 per day)
2 Sir Robert the Chaplain drew 7. O
or 6d a day.
Gilbert the Watchman 3. 6 or 3d a
Total of Foot 15. 9. 2 (L1.2.1 ½ per
Total for Garrison. 25. 7. 2
(L1.18.7 ½ per day.)
THE GARRISON OF LOCHMABEL CASTLE IN
This consisted of 109 men, made up
as follows. Cavalry, Castellan, 3 Knights, 8 Esquires,
1 Hobeler and 2 valets. Total 15.
Foot. Constable, 65 Archers,
Corporal, Attiliator and 24 Crossbows. Total 92.
Chaplain and Watchman. 2
Total Garrison 109
We know that Bruce recovered
Lochmaben soon after the date of this pay sheet.
He took Dumfries in February 1314
and Lochmaben soon afterwards in the early springtime.
Thus Kirkpatrick and ALAN DE
DONEWITHY would become prisoners of war to the King of Scots; so we cannot tell
whether ALAN OF DUNWITHY shared the glory of Bannockburn or ramained at
Lochmaben in Bruce's garrison; either as a prisoner, or as a liegeman forgiven
by King Robert, in his old position as an Esquire-at-Arms at a salary of
1/- a day.
It would not be difficult, seeing so
many other Annandale men, lairds and clansmen alike, had shared his defection,
for an Esquire of tried valour like ALAN to win forgiveness from the generous
King Robert. We know the lands of Dunwithy were not confiscated but inherited by
his descendants, so it is even possible that he condoned his offenses by
actually doing good service on his "barbed steed" on that June day in the same
year of 1314, called proudly by patriot Scotsmen the Day of Bannockburn.
THE NAMELESS LAIRDS.
Although between ALAN DE DONEWITHY
of A.D. 1313 and GEORGE DE DUNWETHY OF A.D. 1448 there is a gap in our record as
yet unbridged, of at least 2 possibly of 3 names, yet it is quite certain GEORGE
was ALAN'S direct lineal representative. Miss Johnstone, the historian of her
own family and of Annandale, must have seen many unprinted Annandale deeds and
charters in her genealogical researches in which Dunwithy's would inevitably be
found among the witnesses. She states authoritatively and confidently that the
ancestor of all the later Lairds of DUNWIDDIE (so she usually spells the name),
was among the witnesses of the Charter of A.D. 1191 who were at William de
Bruce's Court at Lochmaben when he mustered his followers for the First Crusade.
This was our ADAM DE DUNWIDIE, whose successors all ADAMS and ALANS we have
traced to the final victory of King Robert at Bannockburn. From that date there
was no longer any question of divided or wavering allegiance for DUNWIDIES
between England and Scotland. When Bruce of Annandale became Bruce of Scotland
their immediate vassals in Annandale became direct vassals of the Crown. Thus,
favoured by fortune, the absence from all records of the next two or three
NAMELESS LAIRDS OF DUNWIDIE is probably a case of "happy are those who have no
history". But happiness in the happy valley of Annandale was never too quiet, it
was too near the English Border; we may be sure DUNWIDIES were often in the rush
of the foray and probably often among the followers of the Douglas in the long
feud with Percy. Miss Johnstone's book on Annandale gives a good idea of the
life of the local Lairds.
Note: From 1409 to 1440 the DOUGLAS
was Overlord of Annandale and DINWIDDIE his vassal. It is by no means improbable
that the DINWIDDIEE of A.D. 1388 may have fought with the DOUGLAS against Percy
at Chevy Chase. The ballad of Ottorbourne in the ~ez_ldquo~Border Minstrelsy~ez_rdquo~ has
recorded that ~ez_ldquo~The Jardines would not with him ride, And they rue to this day~ez_rdquo~.
Clearly Douglas called all Annandale and this looks as if Jardines were
exceptional in not riding.
Of that Ilk (1498) slain by Jardines
A.d. 1498. In an action heard before
the Lords of the Privy Council, Scotland, the Crown sued the following Annandale
gentlemen as defendants (all near neighbours).
Adam of Johnstone of that Ilk.
Thomas Dunwedy. (Dunwedy)
Gavin of Johnstone. (Johnstoun)
John of Johnstoun. (Johnstoun)
Gavin Johnstoun of Elsieshilds. (Johnstoun).
The charge against Dunwedy and the
four Johnstones was of "aiding the Laird of Johnstoun in his feud with the
Carlyles". This fierce feud had arisen from the forfeiture of the exiled
Douglas. The great estates of the last of the Black Douglases had been
confiscated and during his exile in England they had been divided by royal
grants among the king's favourites. Many of the Douglas lands were in Annandale
and some of these had been given to the Laird Carlyle by royal Charters.
Although the king had his "Seneschal
of Annandale" still, there was no real ingly authority htere to overawe the wild
and turbuland Lairds and Chiefs, who grasped at whatever they could seize and
held it by the strong hand in despite of royal parchments and in defiance of
kingly seneschals and ineffectual threatenings of outlawry. So it was, that the
Laird of Johnstoun had taken forcible possession of certain of the forfeited
lands of the Douglas in Annandale to which
the Carlyle chieftain made claim as
given him by charter from King James. In this mosstrooping adventure THOMAS OF
DUNWEDY had ridden at Johnstoun's right hand among his nearest kinsmen, loyal in
friendship, if disobedient to his king and forgetful of royal favours to his own
Thomas of Dunwedy can hardly fail to
have shared the victory of Lochmaben only four miles from his homestead on 22
July, 1484, where Douglas the exile was finally defeated and captured.
"THE GREAT FEUD' IN ANNANDALE.
Fortunately JOHNSTOUN was staunch to
his friend DUNWEDY and strong enough to take all responsibility, and so when the
same case comes before the Lord's of the Council again in 1500, John of
Johnstoun the younger answers for all five defendants, and showed that his
grandfather the Laird Adam of Johnstoun (who heads the list of the defendants)
was pledge and security for them all.
As we hear no more about it
officially, Thomas Dunwedy doubtless escaped all consequences so far as the
King's Justice was concerned; but there seems little doubt that his murder two
years later was a consequence of his neighbour, Laird Jardine of Applegarth,
taking side with the Carlyles in this feud against the Johnstoun. This clearly
led to a bitter private feud within the feud, of DUNNWEDY against JARDINE, which
dates, like many other Annandale feuds, from this period and had a like origin,
in the royal grants of the forfeited Douglas lands and the wild scramble of the
Annandale chieftains to grab and grip tightly all they could hold by the sword.
All Annandale was now a-fire and the
feuds flamed fiercer and fiercer when Lord Maxwell (who, although cousin to the
Johnstoun Laird, was bitterly hated and envied by him) was appointed Seneschal
of Annandale; for Maxwell as a royal official naturally took the side of the
Carlyles. This gave the final name to the "Great Feud", as men called it, to
distinguish it from the smaller feuds of laird against laird which burnt on like
fiercer sparks within the great fire.
It was now the Johnstone and Maxwell
Feud and all Annandale took sides with either the Laird or the Lord-Seneschal.
As Jardine of Applegarth whose lairdship bordered DUNWIDIE to southwards was one
of Maxwell and Carlyle's chief partisans, Thomas of Dunwedy found himself wedged
between his staunchest friend the Johnstone to northwards and his bitterest foe
the Jardine to southwards. The lands of Dunwedy thus became the buffer-state
through which the Jardines made raids towards the domain of the Johnstouns.
Laird Thomas I was evidently the
fellow-leader with Johnstone in the Great Cattle Raid on ESKDALE in 1498, and
his imprisonment at Dumbartin (If he obeyed the summons of the Lords of Council
(Christmas 1500) shows they were looked on as the Ringleader - the great
Twin-Brethren of the JOHNSTONE party in the Great Feud. He was clearly one of
the greatest and most powerful of the DINWIDDIE Chieftains.
THE JOHNSTONE RAID ON ESKDALE A.D.
1498. in the Great Feud.
(State Papers 21 Nov. 1498.)
Plaintiff. Action of Bertilmar
Glendinwin against Defendants:
Adam of Murry (Cockpool)
Adam of Johnstone of that Ilk William Smyth
THOMAS OF DUNWEDY Alexander Graham
Gavin of Johnstone of Elschescheles Thomas Clerk
Thomas Halyday Simon of Johnstone.
ROBERT DUNWEDY John of Johnstone.
Who with their accomplices, to the
number of 60 persons, came upon forethought felony "in manner of murther under
silence of night, to the said Bertilmar's place of GLENDINWIN and there strak up
the duris of the samyn place and spulyeit and tuk away with theme 4 horses, 144
oxen, beddin, napery, silver spunis, pottis, panns and insight gudis to the
availe of 100 marks".
The case was adjourned by the Lords
from time to time, till at length in A.D. 1500 the Lords charge "certain persons
underwritten to pass and enter ther persons in ward in the Castellis
underwritten within a certain time, that is to say the LARD OF DUNWEDY The Lards
of Holmains and Cokpule to Dumbarton within 8 days (1 Dec. 1500)
The Lard was of course Thomas I, who
had with Cockpool and Holmains and ROBERT DUNWEDY the son of the Laird (as we
know from other record) led this great Cattle-raid on Glendonwyne and Eskdale
which seems to have set the Great Feud fully ablaze. Like the Irish "Tain Bo" it
led to reprisals. Sir Adam Murray of Cockpool has a cross-suit in the same State
papers against BARTILMAR (Bartholomew Glendonwyne) who with other GLENDONWINS
had attacked Murray at Duncrief, also by midnight, "strak up his duris, and did
all was in them to have him slain. They burnt his goods and stabbed his herds
and stole his silver spoons and did their best to get a little of their own back
The Feud of Dinwedy and Jardine
Of the terms on which the earlier
Lairds of Dunwedy lived with their southern neighbours the Jardines we know
nothing. It may be that like the traditional love of Dunwedy for Johnstones from
the very first days when they built their homesteads side by side in Annandale,
a similar yet unlike tradition of hatred for the men of the Applegarden was also
traced back to dim antiquity. Of this there is no evidence and it is likelier
that hitherto Johnstone and Jardine rode on many a raid Englandwards with a
Dunwedy in saddle beside them, and were good comrades in revel when the men of
Bruce mustered in Lochmaben for peace or war.
But by A.D. 1500, whether a new
flame or an old bonfire rekindled by the spark of the Great Feud now beginning,
there was no feud among the many feuds of Annandale burning more fiercely and no
keener hatred of family for family than the FEUD OF DUNWEDY AND JARDINE.
Its consequences were more evil to
the Lairds of Dunwedy than to their clansmen, for within ten years two Lairds,
two Thomas Dunwedys died, both by daggers of the Jardines: the first murdered in
his own homestead, beside his ~ez_ldquo~ain fireside~ez_rdquo~; the second dirked in the streets
of Edinburgh, where doubtless he was obeying some royal summons to explain his
part in the Great Feud before the king. But even in the very shadow of Holyrood,
the King~ez_rsquo~s Peace failed to protect him from ambush in darkness or open attack in
daylight and the Jardines~ez_rsquo~ implaccable hate.
The first THOMAS DUNWEDY was
murdered in A.D.1502, only four years after his first known activity as a
Johnstone partisan, and was succeeded by his son, another Thomas.
This is the official record in the
Index of the LIBRIS RESPONSIONEM~ez_rdquo~ the Record of the Royal Domain of Scotland.
A.D. 1502. ~ez_ldquo~SEISIN THOME DUNVEDY.
With the lands of Dunwedy Laird
Thomas II thus inherited the feud~ez_rsquo~s fatal tradition of vengeance.
The Murder of the Laird Thomas:
Laird Thomas II of Dunwedy would
naturally be driven to a keener partisanship of the Johnstone, as the King~ez_rsquo~s
Justice in Annandale was to imperfect to avenge for him his father~ez_rsquo~s murder. For
two years he had to wait for the Law which his thirst for vengeance could not
hurry, and then to his bitter disappointment the murderers esscaped all penalty.
We have the Record of their Trial before the Justices in Ayre at Dumfries, dated
5 August, 1504, when a Royal Pardon was produced, granted to
John Jardine in Sibbald-beside, and
Robert Brig living with Alexander Jardine, for art and part of the cruel
slaughter of THOMAS DUNWEDY of that ilk, at his place of Dunwedy.
Sibbald be-side was in the N.E.
corner of Applegarth, adjoining Dinwiddie Green, a mile or more south of old
(BRIG was the personal retainer of
the Laird Alexander Jardine of Applegarth).
The simple record tells all we know
of a romantic tragedy that must have been made the theme of many a lost minstrel
ballad in Annandale. Pity it is we cannot recover them and learn all the details
of how Laird THOMAS died, at his place of Dunwedy- On his own threshold. Was he
murdered stealthily by night, in his bed, or in his hall, alone or amid his
retainers: or was he lured out by a moonlight attack to be ambushed by Jardine
and Brig: or did the Jardines come openly in the daylight and besiege him? The
latter suggestion is improbable, for if Thomas Dunwedy had died in fair fight or
open skirmish, even in his own threshold or on his own green lawns of Dunwedy,
it is very unlikely the King~ez_rsquo~s Justices would ever have been troubled to avenge
him. It was clearly a case of unfair and ~ez_ldquo~cruel slaughter~ez_rdquo~: but Lord Maxwell was
powerful enough to protect the murderers, who had got rid of a man who seems to
have been probably not only a most active partisan but also a near kinsman of
Johnstone. The murderers clearly owed that Royal Pardon they flourished in the
face of the baffled Justices to the influence of the King~ez_rsquo~s Seneschal, who
doubtless persuaded King James that THOMAS DUNWEDY had been little better than a
lawless rebel among rebels. So by that Royal Pardon Laird Thomas II was left
still more vengeful against the Jardine murderers: and a keener foe of Maxwell.
Laird Thomas III and His Family
The only other record yet found of
the third Thomas Dunwedy, seems to indicate that he was a loyal vassal of the
Regent Albany, and it is by no means unlikely Dunwiddie was with him at the
Court of Francis I of France, during the years 1519 and 1526, during which time
the Estate of Dunwiddie was taken into the king's hands: whether confiscated by
the enemies of the Regent, who seized on every chance to plunder Albany's
partisans during his absence; or, more probably, temporarily distrained by the
Seneschal, through Dunwiddie's non-payment of his 80 pounds a year, his firm of
feudal rent to the King, who appears to be at this time again claiming the
direct Suzerainty of Annandale.
With the King still a child, and "no
central authority equal to the firm government of Scotland", - the Douglas and
the Hamilton (Angus and Arran) Albany's viceregents were at feud in his absence,
and it is significant that Dinwoodie's lands were seized by the Seneschal in
1519, the year in which Angus seized the capital and shut the gates of Edinburgh
on Arran, who was of the Albany party. Whether at home or living as a soldier of
fortune in France, Thomas Dunwiddie may well have refused to pay his firm to any
one, till he was sure Albany would never return as Lord of Annandale. It may
well be Dunwiddie, like many another Scotch freelance, was with Francis I at
Pavia in 1525, if he spent his 7 years as a Landless Laird in Albany's retinue.
Remembering his "good and thankful service" to King James IV before Flodden,
Thomas Dunwiddie may owe the restoration of his seisin (for which he again paid
a 40 pound fee) to the accession of young James V to real power in A.D. 1526,
and to the good offices of some friend at Court (possibly the Queen Mother) who
reminded the boy-King of father's faithful servant now in the eclipse of
fortune. Anyhow in 1526 Laird Thomas III appears to have recovered Dunwiddie and
settled down at home. He was already married and we know he had 2 sons: 1.
Alexander. 2. John.
Both names indicate the Albany
influence, the latter especially is the Regent's namesake, while the Regent also
had an elder brother named Alexander. At the same time both are new names in the
Admitting that absolute proof is
lacking at present, this exact following the Albany fashion of naming his
children, fully clenches the circumstantial evidence for the lifelong service of
Laird Thomas III to the Royal Stuarts: at Flodden, in the greatest of all Warden
Raids, at Arthuret and many another Border "scrimmage" (and possibly at Pavia
too) he was ever behind the Royal (or Albany) Banner, and probably shared every
adventure, whether in the field or among the royal courtiers of Scotland and
France, of King James IV and of Duke John of Albany.
His death was after 1526; probably
many years after, but certainly before 1542: and as there was always Border
warfare not only with the English but also agains't the Lords of the Isles,
Laird Thomas would be often in the saddle and behind the Stuart banner serving
James V in the "good and thankful" wasy of his first youth. It is even possible
he died in battle or "scrimmage", as he can hardily have been more than 34 when
we last hear of him as restored to his lands and we may be sure if he survived a
few more "scrimmages" and Warden's raids, he must have won the golden spurs: but
as no complete Roll of Scottish Knights has ever been compiled, we only know him
as like his ancestors a valiant Esquire of Annandale.
This is his last known record, from
the "Libros Responsionem" "At Edinburgh. 18 May A.D. 1526.
Senescalus Vallis Annandie
respondabit pro 560 (pounds), de finnis quadriginta marcataram terrarum, antiqui
extentus de Donnwedy cum suis pendiculis et annexis ac pertinentur jacentium
infra Senescallliam suam et Vicecomitum de Drumfres existentium in manibus Regis
per Spatium Septem annorum de hinc sequentium Sasina non recuperata: et pro 40
(pounds) de Relevic earundem regi debitis per casinam datam Thome Donwedy de
LADY JANE OF DUNWOODIE. B. Circa
1546? D. Circa 1620.
Lady of Dunwoodie. 1564.
The Lady Jane who was the last
"Dunwoodie of that Ilk" was Lady of Dunwoodie for more that half a century.
Keeping a more than nominal overlordship or suzerainty, although she had
renounced the actual Lairdship in favour of her husband's brother (Maxwell).
A mere babe when her father
Alexander was again outlawed in 1548, she was probably only a girl of 18 (or
younger) when we first meet with her name as the heiress of Dunwoodie.
When Alexander the Last Laird died,
between 1552 and 1564, probably at the latter date, Jane was in the guardianship
of her uncle John Dunwedy, otherwise unknown to us but presumably Alexander's
Jane's uncle John: his Bond to keep
9 Mar. 1565.
"Johnne Dunwedy fadir brother to
Jane Dunwedy apperand air and heretrix of Dunwedy, donatour to our Sovrane Lady
and havand be gift of Hir Hieness the said Jane's ward and marriage; had maid
and institute James Johnstone of Killobank, Burges of Edinburgh his cessioner
and assignay in and to the samyn ward and marriage as the letters of gift under
the Privy Seal and assignation in force of instrument made thereupon to the said
Jane beris; nevertheless he comparand in presens of the Lords of Secret Council,
band and obleist him that he suld retain and keep the said assignation of the
said gift in his owne handis and on na wayes sould transfer or dispose the same
to any otheris persones and als that he suld conserve and keep the said Jane
quha likewyse is presently in his hands, as a freewoman uncontractit or marrit,
in ony sort, for the space of one year after the date hereof under the pain of
Ane Thousand punds, money of this realm, to be paid to our Sovrane Lady if in
case he do the contrair."
John Dunwedy appears to have kept
his bond and done an Uncle's duty by finding Jane a fitting husband to protect
her in the troublous days of Marie Stuart's reign. Soon after 1565, perhaps on
Jane reaching full age, he married her to a Maxwell gentleman, of that great
Annandale family hitherto a fierce feud with Johnstones and Dunwedies. The great
feud was for the time being smouldering, and as Lord Maxwell was now Lord Warden
of the Annandale and the West Border, Uncle John Dunwedy probably felt he was
doing well in (so far a Dunwedies were concerned) staunching the old feud by a
As we shall see, Lady Jane's actual
occupation of the Dunwedy Estate must have been almost confined to her childhood
and minority, and probably her Uncle John was the last real Dunwedie who
occupied the House as Lady Jane's guardian.
Immediately after her marriage a
family arrangement was made by Dunwedies and Maxwells. Lady Jane Dunwedy
resigned the Lairdship to brother-in-law, Robert Maxwell; thus after 13 Jan.
1568 the Lairds of Dunwedie, although still styled in documents and by popular
voice Dunwedie, were of the Maxwell surname; a name hitherto detested by all
Dunwedies and only less abhorred by their clansmen than that of the
But records prove that the Lady Jane
kept the suzerainty and was Lady of Dunwedy, till the day of her death. Though
her husband had consented to his brother taking the Lairdship, and its title,
Jane was legallly the Lady as long as she lived.
It is possible if Lady Jane had left
children Dunwedie would have reverted to them: the resignation of the Lairdship
may not have at first been intended as final; but as there is not evidence that
Jane had any issue, it is not surprising that she never resumed it. She asserted
her right as suzerain to the end, and lived on through the troubled years of the
next half century; years of incesant feud and fight that kept Annandale on fire,
till the Union of Britain under a Scottish King brought peace to the Border.
The last date at which we know Jane
was alive, (her husband John Maxwell, the Tutor being also living), was 10 sept.
1617 when she was still asserting her right to Dynwedie agains't the usurpation
It is curious indeed to find this
instance of unfriendly relations between Dunwedies and Johnstones at the very
close of the well-nigh 500 years of their unbroken friendship. But her marriage
to a Maxwell had put her on the wrong side of the feud, so Johnstone had
forgotten or ignored the fact that she was a Dunwedie.
Lady Jane must have been by this
over seventy years of age, and this is the last glimpse we get of the last
heretrix of Adam de Dunwedie, the Crusader, whose lineal descendants had enjoyed
the Lairdship for over four centuries, perhaps for five hundred years. Moreover,
it is by no means unlikely that the blood of Adam and of Aleyn of Ragman Roll
also mingled in the veins of the Maxwell Lairds who succeeded to the Lairdship.
Lady Jane's husband through Annandale ancestresses can hardily fail to have had
a strain of Dunwidie blood, owing to the fashion of intermarriages among the
LAIRDS OF DUNWEDIE after A.D.. 1568
13 Jan. (1567 old style) 1568. The
King confirms ROBERT MAXWELL (brother of JOHN MAXWELL) of COWHILL, in the ~ez_ldquo~40
marcats terram antiqui~ez_rdquo~
Which constituted the old ancestral
lairdship of DUNWEDIE with its ~ez_ldquo~turribus, fortalicil, molendaril, silvis,
pescationibus, etc. in the Sheriffdom of Annandale, which JOUNA DE DUNWEDIE
resigns, with consent of her spouse JOHN MAXWELL.
These MAXWELL brothers, ROBERT of
Cowhill, (afterwards known best as ~ez_ldquo~DUNWOODIE~ez_rdquo~) and JOHN (always called after
1592 JOHN THE TUTOR of Aikenhead,) the husband of Lady Jane, were cousins of
LORD MAXWELL, Warden of the West March, and grandsons of that Baron Maxwell, who
fell at Flodden Field in 1513.
This is why we find (unlike the true
Dinwoodies who were all staunch Johnstone partisans) the Laird ROBERT of
~ez_ldquo~Dinwoodie~ez_rdquo~ is always at his kinsman YOUNG MAXWELL~ez_rsquo~S right hand in all his wild
and lawless deeds, in the bitter and blood-stained feud; and why the Johnstone
is found as the foe and usurper of the LADY JANE, last daughter of his once
dearest friends and staunchest allies.
Miss Johnstone~ez_rsquo~s history of
Annandale shows that JOHNSTONE was soon (by 1573) unfriendly to JANE, and had
got his grip on some part of the Lairdship. She says ~ez_ldquo~in A.D. 1573.~ez_rdquo~
JOHN JOHNSTONE OF KELLO BANK bought
DUNWIDDIE from the Laird of Johnstone.
As this John Johnstone of Kellobank
was a friend of Jane~ez_rsquo~s uncle, JOHN DUNWEDY, and had actually nearly become her
guardian by purchase, the Johnstones had probably been suitors for Jane~ez_rsquo~s
marriage and were the more angry at losing the hand of the heiress to a hated
Maxwell. See page 47, ~ez_ldquo~The Pond of J.D.~ez_rdquo~
LAIRD OF DYNWIDDIE (1568 - 1588)
1569. ROBERT MAXWELL is still
described of COWHILL in a document of 1569 referring to his tenants of DUNWEDY.
Although in 1573 JOHNSTONE seems to
have some hold on the Lairdship, probably by usurpation and the strong hand, it
does not appear that his kinsman of Kellobank, the Edinburgh Burgess, ever got
possession of his purchase. ROBERT MAXWELL became Laird of the 40 merk-land
under Lady Jane and was a loyal partisan of his kinsman, LORD MAXWELL (now Earl
of Morton as well as Warden of the March). (1581) The Laird Robert was put to
the horn as an Outlaw in 1581 with Jardine of Applegarth, for aiding in Lord
Maxwell~ez_rsquo~s ~ez_ldquo~rebellion~ez_rdquo~. Maxwell was staunch to Queen Marie Stuart, and when his
Wardenship was taken from him in 1583 and given to his foe the
English-sympathizing JOHNSTONE, the great feud again blazed fiercely.
In 1596 ROBERT MAXWELL was surety
for his cousin LORD MAXWELL, that he would answer for his offences to the King.
By this time he had been knighted himself by King James VI, and was so described
on a list of (22 March 1586) Constables of the Border.
SIR ROBERT MAXWELL OF DINWIDDIE.
As Laird he appears also on two
other Rolls of the period, with his neighbouring friends and foes.
1587. The ROLL of the Border LAIRDS
OF THE MIDDLE MARCH.
THE LAIRDS OF JOHNSTONE, APELGRITH
HOLMENDIS (Carruthers of Holmains)
and Graitney (Gretna) a Johnstone.
LORD HERRIES (a Maxwell cousin)
THE LAIRD OF LOCHINVAR. (Gordon)
THE LAIRD OF DYNWIDDIE. (This is Sir
22May 1587.. The Roll of ~ez_ldquo~LANDIT MEN
JARDINE (of Applegarth)
WAMPHRAY (also a Jardine)
Sir Robert Maxwell died after 22nd
May 1597, and before May 30, 1588 when he is mentioned as ~ez_ldquo~the late SIR ROBERT
MAXWELL OF DYNWIDDIE.
DINWIDDIES IN JOHNSTONE
(1630--1747). Dinwiddie of
Achindinnan in Johnstone Parish. Thomas Dinwiddie resists the Cow-Toll in the
days of Sheriff Dinwiddie 1630.
A branch of the Dinwiddies had by
1630 settled in Achindinnan. We found among the Laird's clansmen, two
contemporary Thomas Dinwiddies in 1617; one living in snab and the other in
Burne, but we cannot identify either with the following sturdy yeoman. In 1630
the Earl of Annandale (the Johnstone chief who was now an Earl) had as
Hereditary Castellan of Lochmaben a right to 32 Mait Ky (Meat-Kine) to be
uplifted one from each of the 32 parishes in the Stewartry of Annandale. The
Earl's ky (cow) was to be taken from the "readiest of the ky and oxen, all the
heritours of each parish contributing their due share of the cow taken. Now the
Earl of Annandale was a Johnstone, but his hereditary foeman and neighbor Robert
of Dinwoodie (a Maxwell) was Sheriff or Steward (164) of Annandale in 1630 and
in 1630 was a great Border Bulldog, so it was doubtless by his countenance and
encouragement that the Earl's Cow-lifters were resisted by parishioners of
Corrie, Kirkpatrick, Applegarth, and other parishes, and especially by the
stalwart Thomas Dinwiddie of Achindinnan, who played the part of a local Wat
Tyler, and prevented the uplifting of his cow from Johnstone parish. The family
of this resister of an obnoxious Cattle-tribute (reminding us of the Irish
Boromean Cow-Toll) was still at Achindinnan a hundred years afterwards. There
are a Glasgow, Wills in 1743 and 1747 of John Dinwiddie of Achendinning-head.
29 Jan 1737 Robert son of John
Dunwoodie of Achindinnan was baptized at Johnstone Kirk.
The will proved 6 Jan 1743 shows
John died in Dec 1742 leaving his wife Mary sole Executrix. His inventory shows
he was a substantial Yeoman with horses and other stock.
THE MOSSTROOPER DINWIDDIE OF CLEUCH
BRAE. 1637-1642. (165)
Cleuch Brae is in Johnstone's
Lairdship ½ mile N. of Johnstone Kirk, but only about a mile from Dinwiddie
The Mosstrooper John of Cleuch Brae
was apparently a close kinsman of the Johnstone-Cow-resister, as we find a
Dinwiddie of Johnstone, possibly a brother or son of Thomas of Auchindinnan,
surety for him.
Mar. 14, 1637. John Dinwiddie in
Johnstone was Cautioner, for John Dinwiddie in Cleuch Brae: for sheltering a
Border Outlaw named Simon Johnstone of Moffat--This Dinwiddie became himself a
stark Mosstrooper (a profession then dying out) and again appears as John
Dinwiddie in Cleuch Brae, on a formidable list (29 Nov. 1642) of more than 100
criminals "Thieves and Resetters of Thift", most of them already declared
fugitives and outlaws, whose insolences have been reported by the Wardens of the
Border. The Privy Council issued a warrant to apprehend them all. 29 Nov. 1642.
As the Covenanters were now
preparing for war with King Charles, it may be Dinwiddie was merely a young
wild-blood of Cavalier sympathies, and so found himself "put to the horn". He
perhaps may have avenged himself by joining Montrose as a loyal and gallant
Cavalier, but we know no more of him.
THE JOHN DINWIDDIES LIVING TEMPO
JAMES I AND CHARLES I.
The John Dinwiddies of this
generation are confusing and may be tabulated for reference. We know of: (TIME
OF JAMES I)
1. John of Moss-syde, cousin of the
Lady Jean, 1606, 1612, 1617.
2. John of Burne (or Dinwiddie Brook) 1606, 1612, 1617, and 1634.
3. John of Hanginshaw in Dinwiddie 1612. (No. 3 possibly the same as No. 4 and
4. John, son of George of Whyteholme (?Broomhill) 1617.
5. John, son of Robert of Snab, 1617.
6. John, son of William of the Mill. 1617.
(TIME OF CHARLES I)
1a. John Dinwiddie in Moss-syde
(same, or son of No. 1) Will, Nov. 1656. (Wife or daughter Janet d. 1677).
2a. John Dinwiddie in Burne (same, or son of No. 2) 1634.
3a. John Dinwiddie in Broomhill (possibly same as No. 4) 1634.
4a. John Dinwiddie in Johnstone (?Achindinnan) 1637. (167)
5a. John Dinwiddie of Cleuch Brae 1637 and 1642, who may be of Snab or the Mill
DINIWIDDIE OF MOSS-SYDE AND GOVERNOR
We have found the male line of the
Laird's probably represented by JOHN DINIWIDDIE OF MOSS-SYDE.
While it seems likely the JOHN of
all the lists 1606 - 1 6 1 2 - 1617 is the same man, unless he was then a very
young man, he can hardly be identified with his later namesake.
It was doubtless his son and heir
-who made his will and JOHN DINIWIDDIE or DINWOODY (30th Nov. 1656) in
Moss-syde. Will proved 30th Nov. 1656. (Dumfries Commissariat-wills) He left the
family dwelling to his son JAMES.
His wife seems to have been a lady
who revived the name of Lady Jean. Her will was proved on Aug. 1st, 1677, as
that of JANET DINWIDDIE in MOSS-SYDE. Her will was proved by JAMES DINWIDDIE her
only lawful son.
These wills do not reveal the
ancestry of the first Laird of Germinston ROBERT, the Glasgow Merchant, who
bought that estate in 1690 and whose second son, Robert, the Governor of
Virginia, 1692-1770, was the most illustrious of his race.
This Robert, The Merchant's, birth
may be looked for about 1650 or earlier., as he was wealthy enough to buy the
Germiston lands in 1690. He died about 1712.
It seems probable we have discovered
the grandfather of the Governor of Virginia and father of Robert Laird of
Germiston in ROBERT DINWOODY of the Maynes of Lochwood. Lochwood is in the
northern part of Johnstone parish and is only 2 miles from Dinwiddie Hill the
old home of the clan. At Durnfries Commissariat is the Will of his wife proved
12-8th June, 1682, as that of Jean Thomson, spouse of ROBERT DINIWOODY, at
Maynes of Lochwood. She mentions her SIX children, JAMES, THOMAS, MATTHEW, and
ROBERT, JANET AND JEAN.
Remembering that ROBERT of Germiston
named his eldest son Matthew and his second son the future Governor, ROBERT, it
seems fairly certain we have here the Governor's true ancestry, especially as no
other Matthew Dinwiddie has yet been found in any will or other record.
In 1683 in a List of those who took
the Test before the Justices in the STEWARTRY OF ANNANDALE was one WILLIAM
DUNWOODIE in Duncowe.
In Durrifries Commissariat Wills
Proved 1682 (July 5th). Will of JOHN
DINIWIDDIE Merchant in Dunruggane. Mentions Kine sheep lambs corn & barley. His
wife Elspeth, and his sons JOHN and GEORGE and presumably his eldest son WILLIAM
DINWOODY sole and only Executor. .
Witnesses John Monteith, John
Charteris and John Hunter.
Other Dumfries Wills not examined
1st June, 1683, Agnes Dinwiddie,
Spouse to John Jardine in Goose Green (This shows the old feud was long
2nd Oct, 1635, THOMAS DINWIDDIE. (No
place of abode in Index) ROBERT DINWIDDIE OF JERMIESTOWN 15th May, 1691
A charter of Confirmation was
granted (in favour of ROBERT DINVIIDDIE, Merchant) of the lands of Jermistoune
"whilk pays 1 0 marks Scots yearly for whilk he is to pay four score pounds
Scots to the tounes treasurer for his entrie". Also an answer to Dinwiddie's
supplication desiring a visit between the toune and him concerning a park he is
building on his lands of Jermistoun, and "that they will allow him some of the
Toun's common lands upon payment that his dyke may be made straight, they
nominate the Provost ANDERSON, the Bailly, Doan of Guild, Deacon Convenor, and
whom other they shall take With them to visit the sight the said ground and see
whether it be requisite and convenient for the Towne to grant any of their
common to the said Robort Dinwiddie". The desire was afterwards granted and on
22nd Jan., 1694, Dinwiddie petitions "the Counsell" "desiring he may have
liberty about Galtis Bridge on the Toun's Look or any place on the East Side of
thee Toun's Common for running a few stones to perfect his dyke and enclosure
and to make good the Highway without prejudice to the Toune". This is granted.
"He (Robert) always working regularlie and keeping a good face thereon, at the
sight of the Dean of Guild and holding at ane considerable distance from the
highway lest the passengers be endangered and the way detrimented".
2nd Mar., 1695, Robert Dinwiddie
again petitions, stating he had "perfected" the park except the West side of it
betwixt the Toun's lands and him, and to make his Dyke a straight line and on
firm ground it was necessary for a piece of the Town's ground to fall within his
enclosure: he quotes an Act of Parliament allowing such things, being willing
all amicable methods be followed between him and the Toune
30th May, 1696. The Council grant
ROBERT DINWIDDIE a Tack for 19 y ears, of the Toun's Lands of Petershill possest
by John Gillis: with the Loch on the south side thereof with liberty to drain
the loch and use the stone quarries, at 400 marks annual rent.
1697 ROBERT D INWOODIE of
Jerminstoune, now of Petershill, is still building his park dyke and as he
wishes to enclose part of the said Petershill townlands to straighten the dyke,
a Committee inspects them an 20th March, and surveyors are appointed to value
them. (15th May).
He had also bought Balornoc in 1692.
1702, April 181h. LIST OF THE
PURCHASERS OF SEATS IN THE NEW KIRK, GLASGOW.
Accounts of the seats on the floor
of the New Kirk as they were valued by the Committee appointed by the Counsel
and now payed for by the persons underwritten. There are 112 seats on the floor
and 41 in the Lofts or Galleries. Six gentlemen purchase double seats; but the
only purchaser of three seats, Nos. 88, 89 and 103, was ROBERT DINWIIDDIE,
Merchant. It seems difficult to guess why he wanted three seats (perhaps his
brother Laurence occupied one) but the Laird of Jerminstoune would certainly
acquire much notoriety when the lists became public from his unique distinction
of Triple-Seat-Holder in the new Kirk.
1703. Aug. 30th. Mr. Dinwiddie sends
in a supplication to the Counsel showing he had obtained a
decree of suspension and declaratour
at his instance before the Lords of Counsell, declaring the Tack past betwix the
Toun and him of the Lands of Peterhill to be null. So the Magistrates ordain the
said lands with the Loch, as the same is now possesst by the said ROBERT
DINWIDDIE to be publical rouped (sold by auction) within the Tollbooth of the
Burgh on Sept. 14th next, in order to a Tack thereof to be granted for 11 years
to those that will bid most therefore. JAMES MILLER got the Tack on Dec. 27th at
255 marks. As DINWIDDIE had paid 400 it seems he had enclosed and bought a
considerable slice of Petershill to straighten his dyke: and so had no
particular use for the Petershill land outside his new park.
THE ACCOUNT OF THE COLLECTOR OF
TEINDS 17O2-1707 ROBERT DINWIDDIE Merchant, for his lands of Jermiestoun and his
part of Ballornock, valuation C 118.15.0 Grassum C30.13.8 teynd C 163.12.0. (TheTeynd
being at C34.9 on every CI00 valuation.and Grassum C30.1.0 per Cl00) TheEstate
was worth roughly C570 a year. (I believe the C may be a scanning error for the
Matthew, the heir of Germinstown,
was born about 1690, just about the time his father Robert bought the estate.
The Governor of Virginia was the second son, born in 1692. Matthew was of
Germistown on Aug. 31st 1710.
1717. On 14th June, the Town Council
are concerned greatly with charges: of encroachment on the Glasgow Townlands.
They also call before them Matthew Dinwiddie, Merchant, whose park, of
Jerminstown on the S.E. corner takes in a part of the town grounds where the
town's marches are yet standing, and oblige him to enclose his park within his
own bounds and leave the town ground and march stones free without, or
othrurside pay for the same ground so taken within his park.