research is to identify the "Origins", "Evolution" and "Adoption" of the
Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone Surname, not individuals that may have
"Relocated" or "Changed" Surnames.
read many examples of how the name "Originated" as A Fathers Son" Johns
Son, but I have never read of a specific Individual Johnson Family Surname
"Originating" as a Johns Son. You must read very carefully when the
example A Johns Son is used, it is always how the name may have
(Imagination) began. When this example is used, it always states A Son of
John", then the example is immediately reversed, A Fathers Son" Johns Son
?, two different Cultures, Languages and Customs. A common man, Serf,
lived in the same area, everyone knowing his Family for Generations, the
need to identify himself as his "Fathers Son" would be pointless. Titles
and Individual Identification "Originated" by and for Nobles, Land Owners;
Royalty; Knights; Tribe Leaders etc. with the Common Man, Serf, "Adopting"
a Name. Serfdom did not end in England until the 1600s.
important to know the Race of the Inhabitants in Britain, Ireland and
Scotland, their Languages and Customs when the Johnson / Johnston /
Johnstone Surname "Originated" and identify its "Evolution" thru Cultures,
Languages and Time
/ Johnston / Johnstone DNA Project: all J/J/Js are classified into DNA
Haplogroups, Races, predominately R1b Celts (70%) and I Vikings (20%).
Each divided into Family Groups, many Family Groups contain all 3 of the
Johnson / Johnston / Johnstone Surname spelling.
history of Britain has been marked by a series of Cultural transitions,
Influencing and Evolving our Modern English Language.
English Language, Originated by the Anglo Saxons and influenced by Celtic,
Viking (Norse) and Latin (Priest), underwent a Major and Dramatic
Transition with the Invasion of The Norman/French in 1066. It continued to
evolve from Anglo Saxon Old English 450-1100, Middle English 1100-1500,
Early Modern (Renaissance) 1500-1650 to Present Modern (Present Day). The
transitions did not occur overnight, French was spoken as late as the
1300s and Gaelic still spoken today in Scotland and Ireland. Many Cultures
and Language Transitions resulted in the "Evolvement" of Surnames over
Time and in different Countries.
(800BC ). The Strathclyde Celts (A)
occupied Dumfries, Home of the Johnstones after 1066, and remained a
Celtic Tribe until becoming part of the Kingdom of Scotland in 1018 /
Roman Occupation, (43BC-400AD), came as Conquerors and Rulers to extract
the Countries Wealth, not as Colonists, naming the Island Britannia & the
Celtic Tribes Britons / Anglo/Saxon 400-1066AD) from which Anglo-Anglis
English/England Name and Language is derived. The Anglos occupied
Southern England and the Saxons occupied the East Coast as far as
Edinburgh, called Northumbria (A)
Vikings (800-1066AD), (B) well known as Sea
Raiders but were also Colonists and Traders, established a large Colony of
Farmers and Families in the area of the Scottish Border from Wales into
The Strahclyde Celts region. / Norman Conquest, (1066AD), introduced a new
form of Government and the Norman Practice of inserting De (Of), between
the name of the Lord or Nobles Name and the Lands he Governed, he was then
known by his Land/Estate. Serfs "Adopted" the Surname of his Land (Lord)
Owner, Noble or Knight he Served or depended on for Protection. Robert De
Bruc gave a parcel of land to his Daughter Lady Marjorie in 1315, it was
then known as "Land Of Majoribanks". It was acquired by the Family of
Charles Johnstone in 1630, they "Adopted" the Surname Majoribanks /
Cultures: Surnames were not in use before the Norman Invasion in 1066.
Individuals used Identification as Members of a Chieftain and/or Tribe;
utilizing "A Fathers Son" or Traits:1) Celts utilized "Son Of"
Clan/Children of a Chieftain or Tribe 2) Vikings identified "A Fathers
Son" and Traits 3) Anglo/Saxon: after 1066 used "A Fathers Son".
Norman/French Practice of Nobles Identified with Land or Town (Tun or
Ville/Settlement) and with 1),2) and 3) "Adopted" as Surnames" after 1066
Note; 1066 is a Reference Point, Surnames did not become
established until the 1100s.
Patronymics: Celtic: The Highlanders and Irish use "Son Of" in the form of
O' and Mac, the purpose to be identified as a member of a Tribe
Chieftain's Clan (Children), after 1066 "Adopted" as a Surname, as "Son
Of". In Irish names O' is more prevalent, as in the Irish O' Neils and
Scotlands use of Mac as in MacNeils.
Norse/Viking: One of the first, and most common use of "A Fathers Son",
occurred in Scandinavia with the use of "sson" added to the Sons Fathers
1st name, such as Erik the Red (985 AD) and his Son Leif Eriksson, in use
before the Normans. This use is to be Associated with a Famous Father and
did not necessarily create a Surname, until after The Norman Invasion in
1066, as the Vikings were mostly known by Traits, such as Erik the Red and
Leif the Lucky.
Anglo/Saxon: after the Norman Invasion, added "ing" to a Fathers Name such
as: Browning; Jenkings; Pershing; Dowling; Cushing; Cummings; Fleming.
Note: Brown is a Scottish Surname, Browning is "Anglicized"
/French: De is from the Latin word meaning "of", Gilbert De Joinville
translated Gilbert of Join (John) ville (town/settlement) and "Originated"
on the Scottish / English Border after the invasion of the Normans in
1066, and was spelled many ways: Jonesville; Jeanville; with the De (of)
dropped and "Evolving" to the use of Celtic tun (farm) Johnstun; Johnstoun;
Johnston and with the T often dropped on the Scottish Border and the use
of Johnson, with the "e" added later.
De JoinVille, when inheriting the Lands of his Father, John, did not refer
to himself as Johns Son, but as Gilbert De (Of) Join (John) Ville
different spelling is due to Literacy of Speller and /or Individual and
Pronunciation due to Nationally of Individual, Johnstone/Johnston/Johnson
is pronounced by Scots as Jawnson. Frequently in Ulster the "e" was
dropped, "e" was pronounced aye, and Johnstons were known as the aye less
Johnstones. Spelling is not a factor, as many variations exist of all
Surnames, such as: Donald; Donaldson and MacDonald all reconignized by
Clan Donald as the same Surname, also Forester; Forest and Foster and
MacIntyre; MacAntuer; MacKantare. In America, as late as 1915, only 13% of
Americans had a High School Diploma, with Surnames "Originating" as early
as the 12th Century, some one other than your Ancestor determined the
Spelling on Immigration and other Documents, and in some cases your
deleted, Johnston to Johnson, often on the Scottish Border and in Ulster.
Beginning in the 1700s 1800, Immigration Records list Johnsons as Irish,
beginning in the 1800s the T remained most of the time in Irish Johnston
immigrants and almost always in Canada. In the 1800s, Scottish Immigrants
often retained the t and e, more Literate and Family Name conscious? Ts
are often Removed and Reappear on different Documents, of the same
Individual, written by different Individuals as late as the 1860s in
Britain the Majority of Johnson, Johnston & Johnstones, reside in the 2
Northern Border Counties of Lancashshire and Yorkshire, occupied by Celts
since 800BC, a large Colony of Vikings (900AD) and Saxons after 1066. It
probably "Originated" by Celts in the same manner as their near Neighbors
in Scotland as Johns Tun (Farm) "Evolving" to Johnston/Johnson and
Johnstone. The Vikings may have began as a Johansson, "Evolving" to
Johnson, "Adopted" by Saxons and many J/J/J Scotts "Relocating" across the
Border. All 3 Spellings occur in all 4 Races.
Johnston/es and Johnsons : Kasibeian Johnstons "Originated" on the
Scottish Border and also have Johnsons, most notable Dr. Lorand V.
Johnson, FSA Scott, many Immigrating to the New World / Clan Gunn of
Northern Scotland: less than 5% of Johnsons and Johnstons are of this
Heritage, a few Claim Border Heritage, the Name did not appear until after
1478 / Clan Donald states that "less than 2% of Johnsons claim their
Heritage". / Perths original name was St. Johns, named after a Monk, "Originating"as
St Johnstoun (Johns Land / Farm), " Evolving" to St Johnstone and A few
adopting the Surname and not uncommon for the T to be dropped to include
Surname Johnson, Johnston & Johnstone "Originated" on the Scottish Border
and was exported to Ulster beginning in 1606 as James 1st
brought Law & Order to the Borders and revived the Colonizing of Ulster.
For all practical purposes all of the Johnston/es and Johnsons of Dumfries
were deported / immigrated. With Death Warrants issued, they willingly
immigrated as Ulster Planters or escaped to England or Europe. The
"Planters" were exclusively Scottish, as no English were to be found of
prior settlements. The majority (85%) of all American Johnson, Johnston,
and Johnstones today are the descendants of the Ulster Planters that began
leaving Northern Ireland in 1707 - 1800, more than 250,000 Scot-Irish,
leaving for the New World of Australia, Canada and America.
Surnames have different variations to spelling, such as Johnstone,
Johnston and Johnson, between the "Origin" (1066) of Surnames and your
first Documented Ancestor, may be unaccounted time, and in that period any
of your Ancestors may have Relocated and Adopted, Assigned and Changed
Surnames several times, your Surname was determined when it was Recorded.
Family Historians can not go further than across the pond to Europe,
rarely to the 11th Century Scottish Border, the present spelling of your
Surname, and it's many variations, is your Heritage.