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The History of Brechin to 1864
List of the Bishops of the See of Brechin

The Episcopal See of Brechin was founded and endowed by Ring David I. about 1150.— Vide, “An Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops by the Right Reverend Robert Keith" edition 1824, edited by Dr Russel of Leith, page 156. See also “History of the Bishops of Brechin", contained in a manuscript history of the Scottish bishops, in the Panmure charter-room, page 103. See likewise “The History of the Church of Scotland," by Archbishop John Spotswood, edition 1655, page 108, who states the bishoprick of “Brichen" to have been founded about 1140. See farther, “Registrum Episcopatus Brechinensis,” in two quarto volumes, printed in 1856, being a second contribution by the late Patrick Chalmers, Esq., of Aldbar, to the Bannatyne Club, and in which, besides a full copy of the register, a number of charters connected with the church of Brechin, are printed from the charter-room of Brechin, from the cartulary of Arbroath, and from various private cartularies, Mr Chalmers’s work is quoted as R E. B.; and see also the preface by Cosmo Innes, Esq., to Mr Chalmers's cartulary, quoted as “Innes Preface.” And finally, see in confirmation^ “Vetera Monumenta Hibemorum et Scot-orum Historiam Illustrantia, Quae ex Vaticani, Neapolis ac Flor-entiae Tabularijs Depromsit et Ordine Chronologico Disposuit, Augustinus Theiner, Presbyter Congregationis Oratorij Collegij Theologorum Archigymnasij Romani, Academicae Pontificae Ar-chseologiae, &c., &c.—Romae Typis Vaticanis 1864.”—Quoted as Theiner.

1. T. is the initial letter of the name of the first bishop, 1155. Keith, page 156. We have considerable doubts if there is not some mistake of dates, and whether Keith's Bishop T. of 1155 is not Turpin of 1178; the more especially as Gregory {vide No. 6) mentions all his other predecessors except this T. However, on the dicta of Keith, and authorities referred to by him, we have placed T. as first bishop of Brechin.

2. Sampson, 1157.—“Though he be not found designed bishop of this see in King David's time, yet he is bishop here in the time of King Malcolm IV.; and by a modest enough computation he mijjht have been the first bishop preferred to the see, even by good King David himself. He, Sampson, Episcopus Brechinensis, is a witness to the charters of King Malcolm IV. to the priory of St Andrews before the year 1158." Panmure manuscript, page 103. The register of St Andrews makes Bishop Samsone witness to various deeds by King Malcolm and others, after 1159, see pages 128, et seq. His name is written Sansane in a charter in the archives of King's College, Aberdeen. Keith, page 560.

3. Turpin, 1178.—“When he was invested in the bishoprick, he gave to the monks of St Thomas, of Arbroath, the churches of Old Montrose and Carcaryn, pro salute animae suae.” Panmure MS., page 103. Keith, page 157. Mr Chalmers, in his R. E B.f voL ii., prints, on page 255, a charter by this bishop to these monks of the “ecclesiam de veteri Munros;’' on page 256, a charter of the “ecclesiam de Cateryn and on page 258, a grant ot five churches, “ Deo et ecclesie sancti Thome Martiris de Aber-brothoc et Monachis ibidem.” Turpin is mentioned in various charters granted by his successors. There is a confirmation granted by Turpin to the Abbey of Arbroath, signed before “ Hiis tertibus Hugone Episcopo Sancti Andree: Bricio Priore Kele-deorum de Brechin” &c., R. E. B., voL ii., page 269; and a charter granted by him to the abbey of Arbroath of a piece of land in Stracathro, signed before “ Bricio Priore de Brechin, Gillefali Kelde, Bricio Capellano, Mathalan Kelde, Makbeth Maywen.*' R. E. B., page 270.

4. Radulphus, 1202.—“He confirmed to the abbey of Coupar the grants of his predecessor, Turpin, in which deed, William de Bosco, who was chancellor both to King William and his son, Alexander II., is a witness. He died anno 1218.” Keith, page 158. Panmure MS., page 104. “Randulfo electo de Brechin,” along with Matthew, Bishop of Aberdeen, who died in 1199, is witness to an agreement between the canons and culdees of St Andrews. See R. E. B. in confirmation, grant by this bishop to the Abbey of Arbroath of the church of Old Montrose, Vol. ii., page 255; and on page 257 a grant by the bishop to the same abbey of the church of “ Dunnechtyn,” while other charters by the same bishop are enumerated, pages 258 to 270. Bishop Kandulph is also alluded to iu charters granted by his successors.

5. Hugo, 1218.—He is said to have been contemporary with Robert, elect of Ross, regarding whose own incumbency there are considerable doubts. Hugo is also said to have been cotemporary with Adam, Bishop of Caithness, who died 1222. Keith, page J58, 206. The Panmure MS. takes no notice either of this Hugo or of Robert Mar, whom the chronicles of Aberbrothick, according to Keith, state to have been bishop of Brechin in 1219. Hugo, according to Keith’s version of the chronicles of Melrose, “obijt Episcopus Brechinen, anno 1218, cui successit Gregorius arch-deaconns ejusdem episcopatus,” and Gregory notices Hugo amongst his predecessors. Hence, we infer that Hugo was only a short time incumbent, and that Robert had never actually been consecrated bishop. In the R. E. B. Bishop Hugh is mentioned, voL ii. pages 256, 259, 261, 270, and 271, in various grants by him to the abbey of Arbroath, the last deed, as well as some others, being witnessed by “Mallebryd Priore Keledeorum nostrorum ” Bishop Hugh is also mentioned in charters by his successors.

6. Gregory, 1219.—"How long he sate, or when he died, I have not been able to discover.” Panmure MS., page 104. “ He makes mention of Turpin, Radulphus, and Hugo, his.predecessors.” Keith, page 158. “He was bishop sometime after the thirty-second year of King Alexander II,” or 1246 ; Nisbet's Heraldry, appendix, page 247. He, Turpin, Ralph, and Hugh, his predecessors, are all mentioned in an ordinance by his successor, Albin, R. E. B. ii. 264. He is farther alluded to, pages 256, 260, 270, and 271, and the Pope's mandate for his election is given, page 387, R E. B. ii. This mandate is given by Theiner, page 8.

Gilbert, 1247.—“ From the authority of the Chronicles of Melrose, died in the 1249.” Panmure MS., page 104. Keith, page 159.

Robert, 1249.—Archdeacon of Brechin,.succeeded Gilbert, " but died soon after/* Panmure MS., page 104.

The Melrose Chronicle is the only authority for these two bishops, and from what is stated after, under the head of Albin, it is pretty plain that the Melrose Chronicle is in error. We therefore omit both Gilbert and Robert from our list.

7. Albin, 1247.—He u is one of the judges in a solemn arbitration betwixt the convent of Arbroath and Sir Peter de Maulia, Lord of Panmure, and Christiana de Valonijs, Lady Panmure, his wife, about the lands of Brakis and Bothmernock, lying in the lordship of Panmure, anno 1254. The bishop died in the 1269.” Panmure MS., page 104. “ He would appear to have been bishop here within the rein of King Alexander III., (1249-85,) since he is witness to William of Brechin, bis foundation of the *Maison de Dieu" in Brechin for the souls of William and Alexander, kings of Scotland.” Keith, page 159. This charter is printed by Mr Chalmers in his R. E. B., voL i. page 4. Spotswood says, page 108, “ Urwardus, or Edwardus, lived about the year 1260, a monk at first at Couper in Angus, a man very zealous in his calling; for it is testified of him, that he went on foot through the whole kingdom with one Eustathius, abbot of Aberbrothock, preaching the gospel wheresoever he came. Albinus, after him, was bishop some few years.” On the margin, however, Spotswood remarks, “Since the writing of this catalogue I have found four bishops succeeding Edwardus, one after another, Turpinus, Rodolphus, Hugo, and Gregorius, but how long they sate bishops I cannot say.” Spotswood gives no authority for his Urwardus, nor can we find his name in any document whatever connected with the see of Brechin at this period. Mr Chalmers prints, R. E. B., vol. ii. page 262, an agreement between Bishop Albin and his chapter and the abbot and monks of Arbroath, and an ordinance by Bishop Albinus, following thereupon, both dated, " Millesimo ducentesimo quadragesimo octavo, mense Septembris, decimo Kalendarum Octo-bris.” In the latter of these documents the bishop enumerates his predecessors, Turpin, Ralph, Hugh, and Gregory; so it admits of grave doubts whether Gilbert or Robert were ever in the see of Brechin. This doubt is strengthened by a bull of Pope Innocent IV., (R. E. B., ii. 388,) dated at Lyons in the fourth year of the Pope's consecration, 1247, directing inquiry into the life and learning of Albinus, preceptor of the church of Brechin, who had been elected bishop by the canons of that see, but who was bom of unmarried parents, and directing Albinus, notwithstanding, to be installed bishop if found worthy. Theiner, page 48, gives the dispensation for Albinus’s illegitimacy.

8. William de Kilconcath, 1269.—“ Whom the Chronicle of Melross calls Lator Fratrum Predicatorum de Perth. Bishop Spotswood says he was Dean of Brechin, but from what authority I know not. He says also this prelate died going to Rome in the year 1275.” Panmure MS., page 105. Spotswood, page 108. Kilconcath was alive in 1276, and is cited as testifying the authenticity of a bull of Innocent III., in Lyon’s “ History of St Andrew’s,” voL ii. page 277. Likely, Kilconcath is the William whom Thiener, page 106, makes bishop here in 1275. Thiener, page 109f gives, M Computus decimre crucis in regno Scotise collecte,” and page 112, “ CoUectio decime in Episcopatu Breky-nensi pro primo anno/' “ Summa 48, lib. 13, soL 10 den. ob.” This is in 1275.

9. Edward, 1276.—Spotswood is inclined to place this bishop after Sampson, but Keith introduces him after William de Kilconcath, “ merely,” he says, “ that I may not omit him altogether/' page 160. The Panmure MS. omits Edward, and Robert to be just noticed, and thus leaves a hiatus of 15 years. We, therefore, think Keith’s hypothesis the correct one, and adopt Edward as the ninth bishop of Brechin, and place him in 1276, for the reason given by Mr Lyon, as above.

Robert, 1284.—"Robert, formerly archdeacon of this see, was bishop thereof in the year 1284.” Keith, page 160. We can find no trace of such a bishop.

10. William, 1286-1290.—“Was one of the Scotch clergy who addressed King Edward of England, that the prince, his son, might marry Margaret, the young Queen of Scotland, whereby the two crowns might be unite into one monarchy.” Panmure MS., page 105. Keith, page 160. Mr Innes, in his preface to Mr Chalmers’s “Registrum,” says, page 8, “William, Bishop of Brechin, granted an indulgence at Durham, on 16th August 1286, and William was bishop in 1290 ; *Rites of Durham" page 135." In 1286, the States of Scotland sent the Bishop of Brechin, the Abbot of Jedburgh, and Geoffrey de Mowbray, as ambassadors to Edward, requesting his advice and mediation towards composing the troubles of the kingdom which had arisen during the minority of Margaret, the maiden of Norway, the granddaughter of Alexander III. Thiener, page 149, makes William bishop here in 1289.

11. Nicholas, 1295.—No trace of him is to be found amongst the Records of Brechin; but Theiner, page 160, gives a bull by Pope Boniface, confirming Nicholas as bishop in the see of Breehin, dated, “vii. KaL Februarij Pontificatus nostri anno sec undo," 1296. This Pope Boniface proclaimed that “God had set him over kings and kingdoms,” imprisoned his predecessor Celestine V., and laid France and Denmark under interdict.

12. John de Kinninmttnd, 1298-1304.—“Of an ancient family of that name and designation in the shire of Fife was bishop here 22d October 1304. He is bishop before the year 1309, and in the year 1309 he is one of the bishops who, solemnly under their seals, recognise King Robert Bruce’s title to the crown of Scotland. In the year 1311, he appends his seal, together with Nicholas, Bishop of Dunblane, to a solemn agreement betwixt the Abbots of Cambuskenneth and Coupar. He is bishop here in the year 1313, also the same person is bishop anno 1321, likewise in the 7th and 16th years of Robert I., and anno 1323, and he is witness to King Robert’s confirmation of the monastery of Aber-brothock.” Keith, page 160. Panmure MS., page 105. He is a party to an agreement with the monastery of Arbroath in 1304. R. E. B., vol. ii; page 266. The name is sometimes written KinninmuniA. He obtained from King Robert, in 1310, a charter relieving the Church property of all secular services, R. E. B., ii. 4. Thiener, page 164, gives a confirmation by Pope Boniface VIII. of the election of Bishop John in 1298.

13. Adam, 1328.—“Adam is bishop here anno 1329. Adam was bishop here anno 1338. He is witness to King David’s confirmation of the monastery of Arbroath, anno reg. 13, item anno reg. 15, i.e., anno doinini 1342 and 4. Adam, Bishop of Brechin, is witness, together with ‘ David de Barclay, Malcolmo de Ramsay, Vice-comite de Angus, Joanne de Straton, Waltero de Allardes.’ Now, this David Barclay seems to have been the last laird of Brechin, who was murthered in the year 1348. Bishop Adam was employed in several embassies into England, towards the facilitating of King David’s redemption, who had been taken prisoner at the unfortunate battle of Durham, anno 1346. Edward seems to have treated this bishop with more favour than he showed to the other ambassadors, as a proof of which we may mention that he bore his expenses when in England. Rot. Scot., 20: Mar. 16., Ed. III. The same prelate appears to have been an agent in the dark negotiations of the degenerate David II. with Edward III. See particularly, Rot Scotiae, 26th Jul. 34, ed. iil” Keith, page 161. David de Barclay, alluded to by Keith, must have been the first Barclay of Brechin, as he left a son who was alive in 1364 ; " He died in, or about the year 1350." Panmure MS., page 106. There is some confusion regarding this bishop, which is by no means cleared up by the charter, dated in 1360, referred to by Dr Russell, (page 561,) said to have been granted by David II. to Bishop Leuchars; but Mr Innes, in his preface to the R. E B., (page viii,) says, “ By a clerical error in our register a precept of David II., in the 31st year of his reign, (1359,) is made to be directed to Adam, instead of Patrick, Bishop of Brechin, Chancellor, and on that authority Spottiswoode has erroneously stated that Adam was Chancellor of Scotland/’ Mr Chalmers prints a charter granted by this bishop in 1348. R. E. B. i., 10. There is, R. E. B., ii. 389, a bull by Pope John, dated 31st October 1328, apparently confirming Bishop Adam in the see, but in reality claiming the right to nominate the bishop, and the same Pope by subsequent documents claims the same right in regard to the canons. Theiner, page 242, shows Bishop Adam to have been appointed in 1328 by this Pope John XXII. without an election of the chapter.

14. Philip, 1350.—He was bishop on 16th March 1350, for he of that date granted a charter to Heliscus Faucunur of certain subjects in Montrose, and this deed is No. 6 of the documents in the Brechin charter-chest, and a beautifully written little deed it is. Mr Chalmers gives a fac-simile of the charter, R. E. B., ii. 6. “ Philip is in this see, 1351.” Keith, page 162. Pope Clement VI. following up the practice of Pope John just alluded to, by a bull, dated 20th February 1350, of new appointed Philip to the office of bishop, R. E. B., ii 393. Theiner notices this, page 292. Bishop Philip is witness,* 1353, to a charter by David II. to Alexander Berkley of Wester Mathers. Spalding Miscellany, Vol. v. pp. 248, 249.

15. Patrick de Leuchabs, 1354.—“ Descended of an ancient family in the shire of Fife, had been rector of Tinningham in East Lothian, (charta penes dominum de Cardross nunc comitem de Buchan,) was invested in the see of Brechin anno 1354, and some time after was made Lord High Chancellor of the kingdom. He was also much employed in treating about the redemption of King David II., and in adjusting the several payments of his ransom. He was both bishop and chancellor, anno reg. 29, i.e., anno domini 1358, Nov. 12, it. Nov. 18, also anno reg. 30. He was bishop and chancellor in the thirty-first and thirty-fourth years of David II. He was chancellor anno 1360, bishop and chancellor anno 1362. He was bishop anno 28 and 36, David II., and bishop and chancellor July 4, anno reg. 39, and bishop anno 40. In the year 1370, he resigned his office of chancellor, at least it is certain that he had made this resignation some time before the death of King David. He is bishop in the first, second, and third years of King Robert II., anno reg. 3, and he was bishop, and present in parliament 1373.,, Keith, page 162. Tytler’s Hist, of Scotland, voL ii. pp. 84,95. “Soon after Bishop Leuchars'a advancement, he was promoted to be Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, and is so designed in a confirmation to him by K. David of Walterus de Maulia, dominus de Panmure, charter of his lands of Cairncorthy, and chaplanary of Boath to the Episcopal see of Brechin, 20th Nov. 1360, which office he held for the space of sixteen years, till the 1370, he resigned the great seall, which was, by King David II., given to Dr John Carrick, chanon of Glasgow, and keeper of the privy seal, and the bishop died soon thereafter, though he had the happiness before his death to see King Robert II. peaceably settled on the throne; his death happened about the year 1375. In the 1374 he is then alive; the bishop is witness to a resignation of lands by Sir Malcolm Fleming to the Earl of Douglas/" Panmure MS., page 106. There is a declaration by Bishop Leuchars regarding the number and rights of the benefices of the church of Brechin, dated in 1372. R. E. B., i. 19. Bishop Patrick is witness to a charter by David II., in 1360, to the abbey of Dunfermline, and “ Patricio Epo Brechinen, cancellario nostro/1 is witness to a charter by David II. to the burgh of Inverness, dated at Perth, 3d March “anno regni nostri quadragesimo.” Pope Clement, who is described as “ a learned prelate, a generous prince, and amiable man,*' but who, notwithstanding seems to have been an ambitious man, by a bull, dated 17th Nov. 1352, (quoted R. E. B., ii 394, and noticed by Theiner, page 299,) adopts, with Bishop Leuchars, the very same course he had pursued with his predecessor, Bishop Philip, no doubt thereby strengthening the power of the Church of Rome. Leuchars was one of the committee of parliament, appointed in 1369, to deliberate and give judgment upon all such judicial questions and complaints as necessarily came before parliament. Tytler’s History of Scotland, vol. ii. page 155. And the Bishop was indeed an active politician during the whole reign of David II. Tytler passim.

16. Stephen, 1375.—* To Bishop Leuchars succeeded Stephen, archdean of Brechin, who sate bishop of this see anno 1384, and he discharged the office of his function till his death in 1401.” Panmure MS., page 106. At request of Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk, this bishop, on 23d February 1384, erected the church of Lethnot into a prebendary, with power to the prebend thereof to be a canon of the cathedral church of Brechin, and to have a stall in the choir, and a place in the chapter. R. E. B., i. 21, et ii. 8. In the Spalding Miscellany, voL v. page 319, there is an abstract of a charter before 1399 by Keith, Earl Marischall, to William Lyndesey, in which Stephen, Bishop of Brechin, is a witness.

17. Walter Forrester, 1401.—“Of the family of Cardin in Stirlingshire, was first a canon of the church of Aberdeen; next was made Secretary of State, and then promoted to the see of Brechin, in which he was a bishop as early as the year 1401. He was bishop here anno 1405 and 1408. He was bishop anno 1413, it. anno 8vo. ‘ Roberti Gubern.' As also 15th Januarij 1415.” Keith, page 163. On 9th Nov. 1409, this bishop obtained from Sir John Erskine of Dun a grant of certain services payable by the church of Brechin to him, for the lands of Ecclesjohn, now called Langley Park. Cartulary of Brechin, No. 24, ratified by the Duke of Albany in 1410. R E. B., i. 32. There is a presentation addressed to this bishop by the Earl of Crawford, by which the earl requests the bishop to examine his beloved cousin, Andrew de Ogilvy, clerk of the diocese of Dunkeld, as to his knowledge and morals, and thereafter to admit him to the prebendary of Lethnot, and to a stall in the cathedral church of Brechin, 6th December 1410. R E. B., i. 29. On 30th June 1413, Bishop Forrester obtained a precept from Robert, Duke of Albany, addressed to the Sheriff of Kincardineshire, for the enforcement of certain “ wards, reliefs and marriages, fines and escheats,” from that county; and this precept is enforced by subsequent similar writings down to 1417. R E. B., L 35, et seq. He assisted at a general council of the clergy held at Perth, 16th July 1420. R E, B., i 38. Dr Russell says, page 561, “ He occurs, 16th July 1420, in Reg. Eccl. Brechin, f. lxii.” “ How long he sate, or when his death happened no authority has occurred to me that makes it clear." Panmure MS., page 107. Mr Chalmers, R. E. B., ii. page 273, prints, from the Findowry charter-room, a charter by this bishop to “ Willelmo Lam ” of some property in Brechin, dated 10th May 1420, “ et consecrationis nostre anno decimo.”

G., 1424.—“Dominus G. is Bishop of Brechin in the year 1424, but what name thi3 initial letter stands for, I do not pretend to say.” Keith, page 163. There is no trace of any such bishop amongst the papers belonging to the burgh of Brechin, nor does the Panmure MS. notice him, neither does Spotswood. The Right Reverend Alexander Penrose Forbes, D.C.L., present Bishop of Brechin, who has kindly revised this list, says, “ G. is certainly. Gualterus, and means Walter Forrester." We are quite of his opinion.

18. John de Carnoth, 1429.—He “ was bishop of this see when he accompanied Princess Margaret, daughter of King James I., into France, in order to be espoused to Lewis XI., then dauphin of that kingdom, anno 1435. John is bishop here anno 1449. John, bishop of this see, was sent into England, on an embassy with divers others, anno 1450. He is also mentioned April 18, 1451” Keith, page 163. The Cartulary of Brechin, No. 40, R E. B., ii. 23, proves that John was bishop of this see on 4th September 1429. On 20th October of that year Walter, Palatine of Strathearn, with consent of .John, Bishop of Brechin, confirms to the chapter of Brechin the right of patronage of the parish of Cortachie, R. E. B.f i. 46, et ii. 24, 28. “ He is styled conservator privilegi-orum ecclesie Scoticane,” says Dr Russel, page 561. The name of John Crannoch, Bishop of Brechin, occurs in a great variety of papers, connected with the burgh, down to the 17th November 1453. Brechin Cartulary No. 27. He regulates the payment to be made by each official for the maintenance of the vestments in 1435. R. E. B., ii 40. He died August 1456, vide chronicles of King James II. Dr Russel says, “ The following is an entry under the year 1456 in the brief chronicle of the reign of King Janies II. at Auchinleck. Itm yt samyn zer and moneth (August) decessit i. Brechyne mast. Jhone Crenok, Bischop of Brechyne, yt was callit a gud actif man and all his tyme wele gouvnands.”

19. George Sherswood, 1454.—“Chancellour of Dunkeld and secretarie to King James II. This prelate was a son of Sherswood of Bettshiell, in Berwickshire; being bred a churchman, his first station in the Church was rector of Cultar, anno 1449. JMr Sherswood being a learned and mettled man, King James made him first one of his clerks, and after that his secretarie. In the 1453 he was made chancellour of Dunkeld, and in the 1454 was sent upon an embassy to England; soon after his return he was promoted to be chancellour of Scotland, in the 1455, (? 1458,) and he held the office till the death of the king in 1460. How long Bishop Sherswood lived thereafter, the records of the see being defective, I cannot be positive." Panmure MS. page 108. Noticed by Keith, page 164 “ In his time was the church of Fun-aven made one of the chapter.” Spotswood, page 108. This scarce seems correct; see Bishop Balfour, No. 24 Bishop Sherswood’s name only occurs once in the Cartulary of Brechin, on 19th April 1458, No. 128. Dr Russel says, page 562, “ George, bishop of Brechin, chancellor of Scotland, occurs 19tb April 1448, in reg. eccL Brechin, f. 99.” The learned doctor is ten years wrong here, for the charter referred to above is printed, R. K B., i. page 184i, and the date is clearly 1458. There is also an instrument taken in presence of “ Johannes de Schoriswod, pater germanus, Georgij Episcopi Brechinensis Cancellarij Scotie et Magister David de Guthrye de Kincaldrum Camerarij predict Domini Episcopi,” and dated 28th January 1459, R. E. B., i. 188. He is mentioned as “ Georgio Episcopo Brechinensis Cancellario Scotie,” in 1457, in a process regarding the earldom of Mar. Spalding Miscellany, voL v. pages 264-5. It is very evident that Keith is wrong when he introduces Robert as Bishop of Brechin in 1456, for then there was no room for Bishop Sherswood, regarding whose consecration there can be no doubt. Keith, speaking of this Bishop Robert, says, page 163, “ As he is not in any former list of the bishops of this see, I can say no more of him, but that he might have died this year, and his successor been in the see in the course of the same.” But it would appear this could not be, for Sherswood was appointed coadjutor in 1448, while Carnock was alive. Besides, there is no mention of this Bishop Robert in the Cartulary of Brechin, nor does the Panmure MS. take any notice of him. Spotswood also omits him. Robert de Crannoch, chanter of Brechin, on 9th October 1453, has an instrument in his favour, most beautifully written, No. 125 Brechin Cartulary; R E. B., ii. 94, and is witness to an obligation, granted by the chaplains of the cathedral church of Brechin to Robert Hill on 3d Nov. 1453 ; No. 126 of Brechin Cartulary, R. E. B., ii. 195. Could Sir Robert Crannoch be the person whom Keith calls Bishop Robert ? Mr Chalmers, R. E. B., ii. 273-5, prints from the Findowry Cartulary two charters by Bishop George, dated, the first in 1457, the second in 1461, " et consecrationes nostre anno septimo,” proving Bishop Sherswood to have been consecrated in 1454; and page 383, he gives an agreement with the town council of Montrose, dated 13th May 1462, signed, “Georgius Brechinen,” proving Sherswood to have been then in the see.

20. Patrick Graham, 1462.—He was son to Lord Graham, by Lady Mary Stewart, daughter to King Robert III., and hence he was nephew to King James I. Keith, page 164. Panmure MS., page 108. This remarkable lady gave birth to James Kennedy who was the last Bishop of St Andrews, and to Patrick Graham, who, in 1466, was made the first -4rcA-bishop of that diocese, Lady Mary Stewart was four times married:—First, to the Earl of Angus, by whom she had two sons, William and George Douglas, who successively became Earls of Angus. Second, to Sir James Kennedy of Dunmure, by whom she had two sons, James, the last Bishop of St Andrews; and Gilbert, afterwards created Lord Kennedy, the ancestor of the Marquis of Ailsa. Third, to Lord Graham of Dundresmore, by whom she had two sons, James Graham, the first Lord of Fintray; and Patrick Graham, the Bishop of Brechin and Archbishop of St Andrews. And fourth, to Sir William Edmiston of Culloden. There is in the Cartulary of Brechin a precept addressed to Bishop Graham by King James III., dated 2d January 1463, printed by Mr Chalmers, R E. B., ii. 100, in which his Majesty enjoins the bishop to revoke the grants of lands improperly made by his predecessors. Bishop Graham was translated to the see of St Andrews in 1466, and, as already said, was the first <4rcA-bishop of that diocese, having procured from the Pope, Sixtus the Fourth, a bull erecting the see of St Andrews into an archbishopric, and enjoining the twelve bishops of Scotland to be subject to that see in all time coming, an honoar which involved Grahajn in difficulties pecuniary and political He died in 1479, in Lochleven Castle, a prisoner. Buchanan, who is no ways favourable to the Romish clergy, gives a long account of the persecutions to which Graham was subjected by the King, jealous of his appointment by the Pope, to the office of legate for Scotland, and by the clergy who feared his integrity and strictness, and Buchanan winds up by saying, “Thus perished a man, blameless in his life, and in learning and courage inferior to none of his cotemporaries.” B. 12, § 333-335.

21. John Balfoub, 1466.—“John, Bishop of Brechin, chancellor, occurs 6th September, a. r. Jac. Ill, 21 Reg, Eccl. Brechin, f. liii., and previously John is mentioned as Bishop of Brechin, 17th February 1466-7, ibid. £ cxxii” Russel, page 562. He “ was bishop of this see, anno 1476, and assisted in the consecration of Bishop Livingstone of Dunkeld. He was bishop in the year 1470, and John was also bishop in the year 1501.” Keith, page 164. Panmure MS., page 108. Amongst the records of Brechin, there is a charter, dated 13th September 1474, by which John, Bishop of Brechin, with consent of David, Earl of Crawford, patron of the church of Finhaven, erects that parish church into a prebend of Brechin. R E. B., i. 196. There is also amongst these records a decree of the Lords of Council and Session, 30th June 1477, at the instance of John, Bishop of Brechin, against George, Earl of Rothes, for the teind-duty of the earl’s lands in the Meams. R. E. B., i. 199 et seq. et il 276. While yet only elect, Pope Paul ii., in 1465, granted Balfour a dispensation to hold in commendam, along with his bishopric, the parish church of Conveth, now Laurencekirk. R. E. B. ii. 413. About 1491, Glasgow was erected into an archbishopric, and then Dunkeld, Dunblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, and Orkney, were made subject to St Andrews; while Galloway, Argyle, and the Isles, were put under the jurisdiction of Glasgow; St Andrews still retaining the primacy. Lyon's History of St Andrews, voL i. pages 241, 242.

22. William Meldbum, 1494-1500.—Keith says, “Walter Meldrum, at what time he came to be bishop, or how long he sat in this see, does not as yet appear by any proper voucher that 1 have chanced to meet with. The chronology, however, rather requires that some person should be in this see between John Balfour and the next bishop,” page 165. Dr Russel says, “ William, anno 1511, omitted by Keith,” page 561 ; and he adds, page 562, “ William, Bishop of Brechin, previously occurs, viz., 6th May, anno 1500, and 29th June 1505, in Reg. Ec. Brechin, f. xiv., and f. xlvi.” "The Panmure MS. remarks, page 108, “ William Meldrum; how long he lived bishop does not appear.” Amongst the Brechin papers there is an obligation by Gaspar Boncian, merchant in Florence, dated at Antwerp, 4th June 1488, to the chapter of the cathedral church of Brechin, by which he obliges "himself, in consideration of the sum of 200 ducats of Flanders, to proceed to the Court of Rome for the purpose of obtaining two bulls expede by the Pope, relating to the appointment of Sir William Meldrum, Vicar of Brechin, to the see of Brechin, in the event of the resignation or decease of John, now bishop thereof." R. E. B., ii. J 24. There is also a procuratory extant, dated 6th October 1490, but altered by interlineations to 21st March 1495, R. E. B., ii. 134, by William, Bishop of Brechin, empowering Sir Robert Keith, professor of theology, and others, to compear before Pope Alexander VI. at Rome, and to present to him an application in name of the bishop, in order to obtain his confirmation in the see. Subsequently there are various documents in name of Bishop William; in 1497, regarding a dispute with John Dempster of Ouchterless; in 1500, anent a controversy with the Laird of Pitarro; in 1505, in a charter of lands to the Church by the Duchess of Montrose ; in 1506, 1507, and 1508, in several deeds; and finally, in 1512, in a charter by Gilbert Strachan, of certain lands to the Church, “ for the safety (or good estate) of the souls of the right reverend Lord, Lord Stewart, late Archbishop of St Andrews, and also of Lord William, present bishop of Brechin,” &c. R. E. B., i. 218, et seq., ii 131, et seq.t item 277. There can, consequently, be no doubt that William, and not Walter, was bishop during this period. In confirmation of all this, it may be remarked that Mr Chalmers prints, from the Findowry charter-chest, two charters by William, Bishop of Brechin, one in 1500 and the other in 1510, R. E. B., ii. 277-8; from the Dun charter-chest, an assedation by the same bishop, dated in 1509, page 304 ; from the Kinnaird charter-room, a deed by Bishop William in 1512, “ et nostre consecrationis anno xxiiijV' page 298; and from the Register of the Privy Seal, page 385, a discharge granted by the same bishop, 30th May 1511; and again from the Carres-ton charter-chest in 1552, and the 31st year of his consecration. R E. B., ii 310. See also discharge to the Laird of Arbuthnot, dated 31st May 1511. R. E. B., ii. 385. In the folio volume of “ The Acts of the Lords of Council and Session in Civil Causes for 1494,” we find, page 355, under date 4th July, that the Lords decreet that "William Fresale of Durris does wrong in the detention and withholding from a reverend father in God, William, Bishop of Brechin, of the second teind of his relief of the lands of Durris, owing to the said bishop and the kirk of Brechin.” We therefore put Bishop Meldrum’s election to the see of Brechin in 1494, certain it had then occurred, if it had not taken place sooner.

23. John Hepburn, 1517.—He was descended of the family of Bothwell, and was one of the bishops who recognised the Earl of Arran’s right to the regency in 1543. He died in the month of August 1558. Keith, page 165. Panmure MS., 108. There are documents extant in the records of Brechin, in which this bishop’s name is mentioned, from the 1518 to the 1556. R. E. B. ii 173, et seq. From the Findowry charter-chest, Mr Chalmers gives a charter by this bishop, granted, with consent of his chapter on 19th August 1547, “et consecrationis nostro anno vicesimo quarto,” R E. B., ii. 234, and from the Kinnaird charter-room, he gives a deed, dated 1556, "et nostre consecrationis anno xxx° tertio,” R E. B., ii. 300. This bishop therefore had been consecrated in 1523. From the Dun charter-chest, Mr Chalmers prints a deed in favour of Bishop John, dated in 1556, R E. B., ii. 304 ; and from the Careston Cartulary, a charter, dated in 1552, R E. B. ii 316. He was one of the bishops who put his hand to the sentence against Patrick Hamilton in 1527. Spotswood, 63.

Donald Campbell, 1558.—“ Mr Donald Campbell, a sou of the family of Argyle, was destined his successor by the court here, and, no doubt, was elected by the chapter; and therefore Bishop Leslie says, that the Abbot of Coupar did succeede Bishop Hepburn of Brechin. But his election being cass'd at Rome, in regard Mr Campbell had renounced Popery and turned Protestant, he was so modest as never to use the title of bishop, but only Abbot of Coupar, and was one of the clergy who sate in the parliament 1560, where the reformation of religion received the first legall sanction, and the Pope’s authority was abolished; he died Lord* Privy Seall to Queen Mary in the end of the 1562, whereupon the bishopric of Brechin was given by Queen Mary to a person who was much more acceptable to her Majesty than the other, by reason of his zeal for the Boman Catholic religion.', Panmure MS., page 109. Keith, page 165. There is no trace of Campbell amongst the Brechin papers, nor does Mr Chalmers give any document bearing his name.

24. John Sinclair, 1563.—“Mr John Sinclair, Dean of Res-talrig, and a brother of the house of Roslyn, being a person learned in the civil and canon law, he was made one of the Lords of the Sessione, and after that president of the Sessione, and he continued in his office till his death in Apryle 1565.” Panmure MS., page 109. Keith, page 165. Buchanan reports Sinclair as one of those who advised Queen Mary to adopt extreme measures against the reformers, B. 17, § 7. Queen Mary and Darnley were married by the Bishop of Brechin at the chapel-royal, Holyrood, on Sunday, 29th July 1565. It is said Bishop Sinclair was blind of one eye. Slaines MS. He is mentioned R. E. B., ii. 328. He died 9th April 1566, “ betwixt thre and foure houris in the morning, in James Mosmanis hous in Frosteris Wynd, within Edinburgh.” Diurnal of Ocurrents, page 98.


25. Alexander Campbell, 1566.—“This gentleman was a younger brother of James Campbell of Arkinglass, who was comptroller of Scotland in the minority of King James VI. Being educated with a view to the Church before the Reformation, he was made provost of St Giles, in Edinburgh, anno 1554, upon the resignation of Robert Crichton, Bishop of Dunkeld. Seeing how matters went at the time of the Reformation, he turned with the times, and became a Protestant By the recommendation of bis chief, the Earl of Argyle, he had a grant of the bishopric, with a power which, I believe, was never given to any bishop of the Christian Church but himself, at least, so far as my reading has led me, which was, 'cum potestate disponendi beneficium infra totum diocesin.’ Mr Campbell, seeing Episcopacy near abolished after the Reformation, he made use of that power and faculty the Queen had invested him with, and accordingly alienated most part of the lands and titles of the bishopric to his patron, the Earl of Argyle, who had got him preferred to the benefice, reserving to himself and his successors scarce so much as was a moderate enough competency for a minister at Brechin. He long while discharged the office of particular pastor at Brechin, and kept the title of bishop, though he discharged no other part of Episcopal function than what belongs to an ordinary minister in the Church, save the title, till the 1572 Episcopacy was first restored. He sate in many parliaments on the spiritual side, even when few others did as a bishop, even till the time of his death, in the beginning of the 1606." Panmure MS., pages 109, 110. Keith, page 166. The grant above referred to is given at length in R. EL B., ii. 328. On page 332 of same work, there is the licence given to this bishop, 7th May 1567, to go abroad for seven years without any danger to his benefice, and he appears to have remained abroad for the time allowed him, for in 1573 his brother, Arkinglass, gives up a rental of the bishopric, the bishop “ him-selff being in Geneva at the schuilis.” R. E B., ii. 428. There are amongst the records of Brechin charters granted by this bishop in January 1566, and down to the 1605, most of which prove that Bishop Campbell fully exercised the power of alienating property with which he was endowed. See also R. E. B., ii. 285-290. James VI., after the Act of Annexation of the Bishop's Temporalities to the Crown, granted those of Brechin to Campbell, R. E. B., ii. 374, who in 1603 made good his right against his Majesty’s Collector-General, R. E. B., ii. 291. His wife was Helen Clephan, and they acquired the land of Monboy from George Wishart in 1583, R. E. B., ii. 292. Campbell is witness to a bond by the Earl of Athol and others to Captain Patrick Cranstoun and his spouse of 100 merks yearly, “for the gude and thankful service done,” “ for the libertie and relief of our soverane, the King's Ma-jesteis person,1” 31st July 1578. Spalding Miscellany, vol. v. p. 203.

26. Andrew Lamb, 1606-1610.—Minister at Burntisland, succeeded in this see in 1606, and continued in it till the year 1619, when he was translated to Galloway on the death of Bishop Coupar. He was one of the three bishops who went by the orders of James I. into England, where he received Episcopal consecration on the 20th October 1010. Keith, page 167. Panmure MS., page 110. There is a charter by the*precentor, with Bishop Andrew’s consent, to the town council of Brechin in 1619. A board in the session-house, on which are recorded gifts to the church, bears, “ 1615, Andrew, Bishop of Brechin, gifted the hearse before the pulpitn —a brass chandelier for holding candles, of very handsome workmanship. Mr Chalmers prints a charter granted by Bishop Lamb in 1608. R. E. B„ ii. 293. Lamb was a member of the first parliament summoned by Regent Moray, 15th December 1567. Tytier’s History of Scotland, edition 1842, vol. vii. page 162.

27. David Lindsay, 1619.—He was son to Colonel John Lindsay, a brother of the laird of Edzel, in Angusshire. He was minister at Dundee, from whence he was translated to the see of Brechin, and consecrated at St Andrews, 23d November 1619. “ He appears by his writings remaining to have been a man of good learning. By reason of his book, called * Resolutions for Kneeling at the Sacrament,’ he became very acceptable to the court, insomuch as King Charles the First was pleased to translate him to the bishopric of Edinburgh, upon Dr Forbes’s death in 1634, where he continued till the 1638.” Panmure MS., page 111. “The fury of the mob was like to have fallen heavy on this prelate at the first reading of the liturgy in the High Church of Edinburgh, on Sunday the 23d July 1637. He was deposed and excommunicated by the Assembly in 1638, whereupon he withdrew into England, where* he died during the following troubles/1 Keith, page 61. Amongst the records of Brechin there is one deed with this bishop’s name, in 1623. R. E. B., ii 241.

28. Thomas Sydserf, 1634.—“Thomas Sydserf, afterwards better known as Bishop of Galloway and Bishop of Orkney, was Bishop of Brechin in 1635, though omitted by Keith,”—says Mr Innes in his preface to Mr Chalmers’s Work, i 13, and he quotes Bishop Forbes's Funerals, edition 1845, page 226. Bishop Sydserf is not mentioned in any of the records of Brechin, nor would his incumbency in 1635 tally with Bishop Whiteford’s consecration in September 1634, as stated in the Panmure MS. We have had it stated to us that Sydserf was bishop for a short time in 1634; and Bishop Forbes is in possession of the Episcopal seal of Thomas, Bishop of Brechin. On these authorities we rank Thomas Sydserf as a bishop of Brechin.

29. Walter Whiteford, 1634.—According to Keith, page 167, he was son of James Whiteford of that ilk, by Margaret his wife, daughter of Sir James Somerville of Camnethan, and was first a minister at Monkland, and sub-dean of Glasgow, and then rector of Moffat, retaining his sub-deanery in commendam. The Panmure MS. gives the following account of this prelate :—“ In the 1620, he was inaugurate doctor of divinity, and last of all he was promoted to this see upon the recommendation of the secretarie, Sir William Alexander of Menstrie, Earl of Stirling, and was consecrate in September 1634, and he held the see till the 1638, when he was outed and excommunicated by the General Assembly of Glasgow. Bishop Whiteford being very obnoxious to the fury of the incensed multitude, for being thought amongst the most forward of any of his brethren for the liturgy and book of canons, which at first set the kingdom in a. flame when the troubles broke out, for the security of his person he fled into England, where he died in the 1643.” Panmure MS., page 112. There are no charters extant amongst the Brechin records with this bishop’s name on them, but it has been ascertained in a court of law, that “the reverend father in God, Walter, Bishop of Brechin,” and the town council of Brechin, on 15th May 1637, framed a particular act regarding the multures of the mills of Brechin. In Wood’s peerage, vol. i. page 753, it is stated that Bishop Whitford or Whiteford married Anne, one of the daughters of Sir John Carmichael of Carmichael. After the Glasgow Assembly of 1638 he was presented by King Charles to the living of Waldegrave, in Northamptonshire. Bridge’s Northamptonshire, i. 284. On 13th April 1636, Walter, Bishop of Brechin, and others were created burgesses of Arbroath. Burgh Record in Library at Panmure House.

30. David Strachan, 1662.—“Upon the restauration of Episcopacy by King Charles II., his Majesty promoted to this see Mr David Strachan, parson of Fettercaim. This prelate was a branch of the antient family of Strachans of Thomtoun, in the county of Kincardine, where he was born, and had his education in the University of Saint Andrews, where he took his degrees. After that, betaking himself to the study of theologie, which he pursued with great diligence and industry, he was licensed to the ministry, and soon after settled at Fettercairn. Being a person of great and eminent loyalty, which he had manifested upon severall occasions during the usurpation, he was, upon the King's return, as the reward of his fidelity and merit, pointed out to be a bishop, and by the favour of the Earle of Middleton, who was Mr Strachan’s near relation, was promoted to this see and consecrate, June lstsanno 1662, where he exercised the office of his function till the 1671, when death translated him from this mortall life to a state of immortality” Panmure MS., page 112. Keith, page 167. The Presbytery records of Brechin, of 2d November 1671, bear that “ David, Bishop of Brechin, departed this lyff, the nynth of October last.” This bishop concurs with Mr John Strachan, the archdeacon, in the grant of a piece of land to the hospital of Brechin, on 11th April 1667, and this is the only time his name is found amongst the existing records of the burgh of Brechin. R. K B., ii. 250. The session records bear that the bishop, without naming him, made his first entry to, and preached in the cathedral church, on 3d August 1662. A placard in the session-house, recording grants made to the church, states, " 1665, David, Bishop of Brechin, gifted the orlodge on the steeple/' the clock in the steeple. The same board states, “ 1682, Anna Barclay, relict, David B. of Brechin (gifted to the poor) £33, 6s. 8d.” Mr Innes, quoting an '* Account of Scotch Bishops at Slaines,” says Bishop Strachan was buried in the cathedral before the pulpit

31. Robert Laurie, 1674.—He was “ son of Joseph Laurie, minister at Stirling, was first appointed to the charge of a parish; and being a celebrated preacher, and a man of moderation, he was, upon the restoration, made Dean of Edinburgh, and then advanced to the see of Brechin; but the benefice of this bishopric being small, he was allowed to retain his deanery, and continued to exercise a particular ministry at the church of the Holy Trinity in Edinburgh, till his death in the year 1677.” Keith, page 168. From the records of the town council of 17th September 1674, it appears “that*Mr John Dempster, schoolmaster, is employed by the bishop to supply his charge as minister/' because, as the margin of the council record bears, “ the bishop was called to be preacher at-,” believed to be the church of the Holy Trinity in Edinburgh, which charge he held till his death. Bishop Laurie’s name only occurs once amongst the Brechin charters, on 21st April 1674. R E. B., ii 251. There is engrossed in the council-book a curious letter, signed “ Mr Robert Laurie, Bishop of Brechin/’ addressed to the town council on 16th April 1675, regarding the misconduct of a Robert Strachan, kirk-officer.

32. George Halliburton, 1678.—“ George Halliburton, minister at Coupar of Angus, was consecrated bishop of this see anno 1678, and was translated thence to the see of Aberdeen in the year 1682.” Keith, page 168. Panmure MS., page 114. Some business is delayed in the session, on 2d June 1678, “till the bishop be present/’ and he is marked as present in the session on the 30th September that year. The head court of the burgh of Brechin, of 27th September 1678, was held " Per Reverendum in Christo Patrem Georgium Episcopum Brechinensis et Balivos/’ on 29th September 1681, this bishop, with his own hand, enters an appointment in the council-book, of “David Donaldson, younger, to continue my balzie for the ensuing year/’ and on 3d October" foil owing, this prelate, as provost, takes the lead in signing the oaths to government* along with the rest of the council There are no charters extant with his name.

33. Robert Douglas, 1682.—“ A lineal branch of Douglas of Glenbervy, in the shire of the Mearns, afterwards Earls of Angus, now Dukes of Douglas, was bom anno 1626. He had his education in the King’s College of Aberdeen; was minister first at Laurencekirk, in the Mearns, then of Bothwell, Renfrew, and Hamilton, next Dean of Glasgow, from whence he was promoted to the see of Brechin anno 1682, and anno 1684, was translated to the bishopric of Dunblane.” Keith, page 168. Panmure MS., page 114. Robert, Bishop of Brechin, his son, Silvester Douglas, and others, were admitted honorary burgesses of Brechin, 1st August 1682. This bishop preached in the cathedral church only on four occasions, twice in October in 1682, and twice in October 1683, as the session records bear.

34. Alexander Cairncross, 1684.—“Though he was the very heir of the ancient family of the Caimcrosses of Cowmislie, yet was so low in his circumstances that he was under a necessity to betake himself to an employment, and was a dyer in the Canon-gate of Edinburgh, which employment he exercised for many years, and with such success, that he was enabled to acquire some part of the estate which had pertained to his ancestors. He was first parson of Dumfries, until the year 1684, at which time, by the recommendation of the Duke of Queensberry, he was promoted to the see of Brechin, and soon thereafter to that of Glasgow* which was ratified by the King’s letters-patent, 3d December 1684. Here he continued till the year 1686, when, having incurred the displeasure of the Lord Chancellor, the Earl of Perth, (and deservedly, too, if all be true which Dr James Canaries, minister at Selkirk, relates,) the King sent a letter to the privy council removing him from the archbishopric of Glasgow, of the date, January 13, 1687. A very irregular step, surely, the King should have taken a more canonical course. He lived privately until the Revolution in 1688, after which period he was taken notice of by the new powers, who finding him not altogether averse to make compliance with them, he was made Bishop of Raphoe in Ireland, the 16th May 1693, and in that see he continued till his death, anno 1701. He left a considerable estate to his nephew, by a sister, George Home of Whitfield/* Keith, page 269. He was Consecrated Bishop of Brechin in June or August 1684, and on 6th December following, he was presented to the archbishopric of Glasgow. See vol. ix. of the Abstracts of the secretary's books in the possession of the family of Mar, Nos. 39 and 40. Keith, pages 168 and 269. Panmure MS., page 114. He is present at the election of the magistrates of Brechin, on Monday, 29th September 1684, and then appoint# John Molison as bishop’s bailie; and he was present at the head court of the burgh, held 4th October same year, but his name does not afterwards occur in the records of the council. Bishop Cairn cross preached in the cathedral on 1st October 1684, daring his visit* taking his text from Acts xx. 28. How far he acted up to his text it is not for us to judge; but Mr Chalmers prints from the Findowry charter-chest a receipt, granted by John Spence, clerk of Brechin, and factor to Alexander, Archbishop of Qlasgow, formerly Bishop of Brechin, to the Laird of Findowry, for feu-duty, dated 12th December 1685. R E. B., ii. 298. Mr Innes says,—" After (he Revolution he was made Bishop of Raphoe by King 'William, and held the bishopric from 1693 to 1701, the only instance of such promotion after the abolition of Episcopacy in Scotland.” Preface to R E. B., page xiv.

35. Jahks Dbumhohd, 1684.—“ This gentleman was the-son of Mr James Drummond, minister at Foulis, in Perthshire. Being educate with a view of serving in the Church, he was first ordained to the ministiy at Achterarder, and after that was removed to the parsonage of Muthill, where he exercised his pastorall function, till the see of Brechin falling to vaick, by the translation thence of Bishop Cairncross to Glasgow, in the end of the 1684, he was preferred to this see. He was consecrate at the Abbey Church of Holyrood House the 25th December 1684. I had a very good character of Bishop Drummond from severall persons of honor and probity, who had the favor of his acquaintance, and notwithstanding the influence, it was, and might have been presumed, his chief and patron might have had with him with respect to the design of removing and taking away the laws against Popiy, yet he was firm and resolved to oppose the design in his station as much as any of his brethren, the bishops, and no man was more stedfiut in the Protestant religion than he, and both by his preaching and otherways, he gave ground to believe, he would have been as stanch as any man against the opening a door to let in Popry, in a parliamentary way, if it had come to the test This piece of justice, I thought, was due to the memory of this good man, having had this account of him from a person of honour, who had access to know the bishop’s sentiments of this matter, and was far from having any biass to the order of bishops, if it had not been a piece of justice to the bishop’s memory. After the Revolution, Bishop Drummond, being deprived with the rest of his brethren, tooke himself to a life of retirement, and lived mostly in the Countess of Errors family, where he died in the year 1695, aged sixty-six years/’ Panmures MS., pages 115,116. “ It is to be said of this prelate, that though he had been promoted by the favor of his chief, the Earl of Perth, then chancellor of the kingdom, yet he always showed himself as averse to Popery as any person in the church, and it is certain there were but very few of the bishops (if any at all) who favored an alteration in religion/’ Keith, page 169. It appears from the records of the town of Brechin, that Bishop Drummond had not reached that burgh on 19th February 1685, as the council then appointed Alexander Hires to be doctor of the grammar-school, “ provided my Lord Bishop, at his coming to the place, doe approve/’ The bishop is present in council on 25th September, and he preached in the cathedral church on 1st October 1685. On 18th April 1689, the Bishop preached in the Cathedral for the last time. No charters granted by him have been found. It is said he died at Slaines Castle, and was buried at Crnden.

After the Bevolution, the deposed bishops continued, during their respective lifetimes, to exercise spiritual jurisdiction over such clergymen as acknowledged them in their several dioceses. But as most of these bishops were old men, it was deemed prudent to add to the number of bishops, by the election of younger men, who were received into the Episcopal college without having any particular diocese assigned to them. Dr Russel, from whom we borrow the account of the post-revolution bishops, tells us that the Rev. John Falconer, formerly one of the ministers of Cairnlice in Fife, was thus consecrated a bishop at Dundee on 28th April 1709. He is described as a man of learning, as well as of business, and of great piety and prudence. “ In regard to his discharge of Episcopal offices (says Dr Russel) we find that in the year 1720, immediately after the death of Bishop Rose, (of Edinburgh,) a letter was addressed to him by a great body of the clergy in Angus and Mearns, in which they request him to assume the spiritual government and inspection of them, * promising to acknowledge him as their proper bishop, and to pay all due and canonical obedience to him as such.’ During the lifetime of

Bishop Rose, and at the request of that prelate, he had frequently officiated among them with great approbation. He, therefore, accepted this affectionate call, as he also accepted a similar one at the same time from the clergy in the presbytery of St Andrews where he had constantly resided; and accordingly, with the consent of his brethren, he acted in these two districts as local bishop as long as he lived. Bat his nsefal life was doomed not to be long-He died in 1723.” Russel, page 523. In this way then we assume into onr list

36. John Falconeb, 1709.—Described in the account of Scotch bishops at Slaines, as “a good and grave man, and very modest, tall, black, and stooping. He dyed at Englishmadie, July 6,1723, and was buried at Perth.

37. Robert Nobbib, 1724.—Innes, preface to R. E. B. page xv.

38. Mb John Ouchtbblonie, 1726.—“ After the-death of Bishop Rose of Edinburgh, the clergy of Fife, Angus and Mearns, appear to have had Episcopal offices performed amongst them by Bishop John Falconer. This excellent and learned man it is known to the reader died in 1723, between which date and the period of the concordate in 1731,1 know not how the duties of a bishop were discharged in those extensive districts. By the articles of agreement just alluded to, it was provided that the diocese of Brechin, together with the Carse of Gowrie, the Presbyteries of Dundee, Arbroath, and Mearns, should be under the inspection of Bishop Ouchterlonie. It was on the 29th November

1726, that Mr Ouchterlonie was consecrated at Edinburgh, by the Bishops Freebairn, Duncan, and Gant, the only three, it is added, who could be prevailed bn to do it The objection to him, so far as can be gathered from the several hints, which are mystically expressed, had a reference to the Erastian notions, which, at that time, disturbed the peace of the Episcopal Church, and this candidate for the mitre appears to have relied more on his interest at the Court of St Germains than on the esteem of his brethren, or the good opinion of his superiors. Bishop Ouchterlonie died in the year 1742.” Russel, pages 543, 544.

39. Mr Jambs Rait, 1742.—“ The clergy of Brechin lost no time in electing a successor to the ordinary, with whom the con-cordate had supplied them. They made choice of Mr Rait, presbyter in Dundee, a highly-respected character, who was, on the 4th of October 1742, elevated to the episcopate by the hands of Bishops Rattray, Keith, and White, and forthwith collated to the superintendency of Brechin. Of this bishop, a learned correspondent says, ‘I know nothing more than that he possessed strong good sense, had a very dignified manner when performing his episcopal offices, and that he was a celebrated preacher, preaching without notes till he became a very old man. His charges to the youth whom he confirmed he delivered without notes and without hesitation, long after he was eighty years of age/ The reader may not be displeased to peruse the following testimonials in favour of Mr Rait, addressed, as was the practice of that period to the Lord Bishop of Edinburgh. f These are to testify that Mr James Rait, son of Mr William Rait, minister of Monikie, being, by your lordship’s order, admitted to pass the preparatory trials before such ministers in Dundee and the neighbourhood, as you appointed, in order to his entering into the ministry, hath done the same to our very great satisfaction, and therefore we do, with the more confidence and earnestness, recommend him to your lordship to obtain your lordship’s licence for preaching, or to get him into the orders of a deacon, as your lordship judges fit In witness whereof these presents are written by our joint allowance, and ordered to be signed by moderator and clerk, ad hunc effectum, at Dundee, the twentieth and first day of October, 1712 years, (Signed) Robert Norie, preses; James Goldman, clerk*’ The venerable bishop died in the year 1777/’ Russel, pages 544, 545. The Society of Antiquaries possess the matrix of the seal of this bishop, inscribed— “ Sigillum Iacobi Rait Episcopi Brechinerfeis, Meliora Spero/'

40. Mr George Innes, 1778.—“ This bishop was minister of a chapel in Aberdeen, and was consecrated at Alloa, on the 13th of August 1776, by Bishop Falconer, Bishop Rose, and Bishop Petrie. He was collated at the same time to the superintendence of the district of Brechin, but did not live long to discharge the duties of it. He died on the 18th of May 1781, after which date the diocese remained some years vacant” Russel, page 545. The Society of Antiquaries are also possessed of the matrix of the seal of Bishop Innes, bearing for its legend simply, “Sigillum Georgii Episcopi Brechinensis.”

41. Dr William Abernethy Drummond, 1787.—“It has been already mentioned that this distinguished man was elevated to the episcopate on the 26th of September 1787; that he was consecrated as Bishop of Brechin, but that almost immediately afterwards he was elected to the see of Edinburgh, where he had his pastoral charge, and that he continued to preside over the clergy of that district, till the year 1805. He was descended from the family of Abernethy of Saltoun, in the shire of Banff, and it was only upon his marriage with the heiress of Haw-thomden, in the county of Mid-Lothian, that he assumed the name of Drummond. He wrote many small tracts, and was a good deal engaged in theological controversy, both with Protestants and Roman Catholics, but his intemperate manner defeated, in most cases, the benevolence of his intentions, and only irritated those whom he had wished to convince. He died on the 27th of August 1809.” Russel, page 545.

42. Mr John Strachan, 1788.—“ This most respectable clergyman was sprung from the family of Strachan of Thorntoun, in the county of Kincardine, now represented by his kinsman, the gallant Admiral Sir Richard Strachan. He was consecrated at Peterhead on the same day with Dr A. Drummond* to. whom, indeed, he was at that period appointed coadjutor, but the latter being, within a few months afterwards, elected by the clergy of Edinburgh, Bishop Strachan was preferred to the undivided charge of the diocese of Brechin. He lived to a very advanced age, having, however, survived for some time the powers of his mind as well as of his body, and died on the 28th of January 1810, universally beloved and regretted.” Russel, pages 545, 546.

43. Dr Geosqb Gleio, 1810.—“ Seldom can it fall to the lot of a communion so small and so poor as the Episcopal Church in Scotland to enjoy the credit attached to so great a name as that of Bishop Gleig. His reputation as a scholar and philosopher is so well established by his numerous works that it is as unnecessary as it would be impertinent in me to attempt an eulogium, of which he would be the first to call in question the propriety. Having long discharged with much ability the various duties of a presbyter, he was, in the autumn of 1808, elected by the clergy of Brechin, as coadjutor to their aged bishop, and consecrated at Aberdeen, on the 30th of October the same year by Bishop Skinner, Bishop Jolly, and Bishop Torry. On the death of Bishop Strachan, in 1810, he was preferred to the sole charge of the diocese ; and in 1816, upon the demise of Bishop Skinner, he was chosen by his brethren to fill the office of Primus, in virtue of which he presides in all the meetings of the Episcopal College.” Russel, page 546.

44. David Moir, A.M., 1837.—Bishop Gleig having become unable, through the infirmities of age, to exercise his episcopal duties, being in his 85th year, the Rev. David Moir, minister of St Andrew’s chapel in Brechin was elected by the clergy as his coadjutor and successor, and consecrated and collated to the superintendence of the diocese, by Bishops Walker, Skinner, and Low, at Edinburgh, on the 8th of October 1837. In August 1839, Washington College, Hartford, Connecticut* U.S., conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity on Bishop Moir, who accepted the title, and valued it “ as a token of friendly recognition and intercommunion between the Scottish Episcopal Church, and her daughter Church in America.” Bishop Gleig survived till 9th March 1840, when the whole charge of the diocese devolved on Dr Moir. These duties he discharged faithfully for seven years afterwards. Bishop Moir died on 21st August 1847, as a handsome monument erected to his memory by the congregation in St Andrew’s chapel bears. Dr Moir was much beloved in his congregation as a pious, zealous minister, and much esteemed in his diocese as a learned man and sound theologian.

45. Alexander Penrose Forbes, D.C.L., was consecrated on the Feast of St Simon and St Jude, 28th October 1847, by the Right Reverend William Skinner, Bishop of Aberdeen, Michael Russel, Bishop of Glasgow, and Charles Terrot, Bishop of Edinburgh. Quem Deus Conservat.

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