(CONDENSED FROM RAMBAUD’S HISTORY OF RUSSIA AND
Ivan Vassilievitch, The Great, Grand Prince of
Moscow (1462-1505). Novgorod, Tver, Rostov and Iavoslavl annexed to
Muscovy. Permia conquered. Moscow freed from the suzerainty of the Tartar
Khan of the Great Horde, 1478. Recommencement of Russia as a free State.
Vassili Ivanovitch, Grand Prince of Moscow
(I505-1533). Smolensk taken, 1514. Tartar invasion, 1521.
Ivan Vassilievitch (Groznie), The Terrible
(1533-1584). Assumed the title of Tsar of Muscovy, 1547. Married first
Anastasia Romanovna Romanova. Conquest of the Tartar Khanates of Kazan
1552 and Astrakhan 1554. War with the Livonian Order, Poland, the Tartars
and Sweden. Poland and Lithuania united, 1569. Polotsk and Livonia lost to
Russia. Novgorod reduced and the inhabitants massacred, 1570. Treaties
with Elizabeth, Queen of England. Foreigners enter Russian Military
service. Siberia conquered, 1558-84.
Feodor (I.) Ivanovitch (1584-1598). Rise of Boris
Feodorovitch Godounoff, brother of the Tsaritsa Irina. The Peasant
attached to the glebe and made a Serf. Treaties with Elizabeth. Murder of
the Tsar’s half-brother, Dmitri. End of the Dynasty of Rurik.
Boria Feodorovitch Godounoff (1598-1605).
Elected Tsar on his brother-in-law’s death. Foreigners favoured.
Appearance of the ‘False Dmitri.’
The ‘False Dmitri.’ Claiming to be the murdered
Dmitri Ivanovitch, son of ‘The Terrible’Tsar, entered Russia with Polish
support. The Godounoff family murdered or cloistered. He was married in
Moscow to the Polish Maryna Mniszek, who was crowned with him. Murder of
the Tsar and massacre of the Poles in Moscow, 1606.
Vassili Ivanovitch Shuiski (1606). Time of the
Troubles. Elected Tsar. War with the Poles and the ‘Second False
Dmitri,’ a Cossack brigand. Abdication of the Tsar, who enters a
Vladislav, son of Sigismond, King of Poland,
recognised as Tsar. Invasion of Russia by the Poles, occupation of Moscow.
Seizure of the Baltic by Sweden. Rising of the Russians under Minine and
Pojarski, 1612. Retirement of the Poles. Election, in 1613, of Mikhael
Feodorovitch Romanoff son of the Patriarch Philarete, who was associated
with him in power.
Michael Feodorovitch Romanoff (1613-1645). First
Tsar of the Romanoff Dynasty. Polish war ended. The ‘Second False Dmitri’
killed. Ambassadors dispatched to Western Europe. Novgorod restored to
Russia by the Swedes through the mediation of England.
Aleksei Michaelovitch (1645-1676). Conquest of
Smolensk and Ukraine from the Poles. Foreign soldiers enlisted, many
Scots. Growing desire for Westernisation owing to the second marriage of
the Tsar with Nathalia Kirillovna Narishkina. Embassy of Doktouroff to
Charles I of England. The English merchants confined to Archangel on the
execution of Charles I.
Feodor (II.) Aleksievitch (1676-1682). War with the
Ivan Aleksievitch (1682-1696) and Peter (I.)
Aleksievitch (1682-1725), The Great. Two brothers made equal Tsars
under the regency of their sister, Sophia Aleksievna, which lasted until
1689, when Peter forced the Regent to take the veil, and assumed the
complete power though allowing his brother the title of Tsar. Expeditions
against Azof, 1695-1696. First journey to the West, 1697. Revolt and total
destruction of the Streltsi. War with Sweden, ending in the battle of
Poltava, 1709. Ingria taken by Russia in 1702. St. Petersburg founded,
1703, as a ‘Window into Europe.’ War with Turkey and Treaty of the Pruth,
1711. The Tsar visited Paris. Peace of Nystad, 1721, which gave Livonia,
Esthonia, Carelia and part of Finland to Russia. The Tsar declared
Autocrat. Trial and death of the Tsarevitch Aleksei Petrovitch, 1718. The
Tsar declared Emperor, 1721. Adoubtful will.
Catherine (I.) (1725-1727). Widow of Peter I. Power
of Menschikoff Peter I.’s Westernisation continued.
Peter (II.) Aleksievitch (1727-1730). Grandson of
Peter I. Fall of Menschikoff. Rise of the Dolgoroukis. Return of the Court
to Moscow. The Tsar buried there.
Anna Ivanovna (173O-1740). Niece of Peter I.
Elected under a constitution. Constitution abrogated. Fall of the
Dolgoroukis. Rise of Biron, Duke of Courland. Return of the Court to St.
Petersburg. War of the Polish succession and against the Turks, 1735-39.
Ivan Antonovitch (1740-1741). Grandnephew of Anna.
Under the regency of his mother Anna Leopoldovna. War with Sweden.
Deposed and imprisoned until his death.
Elizabeth (1741-1761). Daughter of Peter I. seized
the throne. War with Sweden. Acquisition of South Finland by Russia. War
against Frederick II. of Prussia.
Peter (III.) Feodorovitch (1761-1762). Nephew of
Elizabeth. Reversal of policy. Prussian influence. Dethroned and murdered.
Catherine (II.) (1762-1796). Princess Sophia of
Anhalt-Zerbst ascended her husband’s throne and governed well through her
favourites. Turkish war, 1767-74. The battle of Tchesme, 1770. First
partition of Poland, 1772. Conquest of the Crimea, 1783. Second Turkish
war, 1787-1792. War with Sweden, 1788-1790. Second partition of Poland.
Third partition, which gave most of Poland to Russia. Persian war.
Paul (I.) (1796-1801). Son of the last. Campaigns
of the Ionian Islands, Italy, Switzerland, Holland and Naples. Great waste
of Russian power. Alliance with Napoleon, and a great scheme against the
British in India. The Emperor murdered by a Court Camarilla.
Alexander (I.) (1801-1825). Eldest son of Paul I.
Napoleonic wars. Austerlitz, Eylau, etc. Interview at Erfurt. Wars with
England, Sweden, Austria, Turkey and Persia. Napoleon invades Russia,
1812. Retreat of ‘la Grande Armee.’ Congress of Vienna. Reforms. Serfage
lightened. Disquiet in Poland. The Tsar a religious mystic.