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Scotland and the Scots
The Scot Abroad

THE clannishness of Scotsmen has become proverbial all over the world, and is more frequently alluded to by "foreigners" with a sneer than with any degree of encomium. Other nationalities, except in one respect, are quite as clannish as the Scots, and it is therefore difficult to understand why this quality in our countrymen should be ridiculed and talked about as though it were something which other people should not imitate. The clannishness of the Scot has nothing in its make up. which is not found commendable in family life. Besides, it is an expensive characteristic at times. It costs money. It makes the canny Scot put his hand in his pouch now and again, an act which his enemies or traducers do not give him much credit for, and in thus backing up his nationality with his bawbees, the Scot's clannishness is different from that of anyone else. In the United States, for instance, as far as my observation has gone, the Scot spends in charity among his ain folk ten times as much as the Englishman, twenty times as much as the wanderer from ''Vaterland," and fifty times as much as any other nationality which might be named. Of course, the Scotsman is hard and careful in money matters. When he gets a dollar he looks at both sides of it, and he holds a penny in his hand very closely until the moment comes that he has to spend it. But when a tale of distress is poured into his ear, when the widow and orphan appeal to his aid, when his judgement is sure that by undoing the tight band around his purse-strings he can alleviate misery or help the poor to rise in the world, no man is more willing or more generous. This is equally a characteristic of the Scot at home. In the grand old city of Edinburgh may be found charitable and educational institutions of which any nation might be proud, homes for the sick, the blind, the infirm, the aged, the orphan, or the widow, established and endowed by kindly Scots, and maintained without national or municipal aid. The practical nature of the people is illustrated by the educational facilities which Scottish benefactors have placed within the reach of the poor, and, long before school boards came into existence, thousands of Edinburgh children were thoroughly educated in such institutions as Heriot's, Stewarts or Watson's hospitals, and the free Heriot schools.

But in dealing with clannishness and its results we come mainly in contact with the Scot Abroad. So far as I can learn, the common talk of the national clannishness originated several centuries ago on the continent of Europe. A large number of Scots fought in Sweden and Germany— soldiers of fortune like Dugald Dalgetty—but still men with warm hearts and kindly sentiments who ever maintained a regard for their motherland amidst all the smiles or frowns which the fortunes of the wars brought them. The long friendship which existed between Scotland and France, made the latter country quite a favorite with the warlike Caledonians, especially in those rare intervals when peace reigned on the north side of the Tweed. The Scots Guards in France by its loyalty to the cause it adopted, its proved reliability for all sorts of service which the exigencies of the State demanded, as well as by its valor, rose to be a power in the land to which it gave its services, and its record as it has come down to us is not equaled in its tales of perilous adventures, reckless bravery, determined resistance and deeds of gallantry by that of any other body of men in either ancient or modern times.

The Scots Guards appear to have been first organized by King Charles VII. They were the most trusted of all the royal troops and the royal person was virtually placed in their care. An old record tells us that "two of them assisted at mass, vespers, and ordinary meals, on high holidays at the ceremony of the royal touch, and the erection of the knights of the king's order at the reception of extraordinary ambassadors, and public entries of cities there must be six of their number next to the king's person, three on each side of his majesty and the body of the king must be carried by these only, wheresoever ceremony requires, and his effigy must be attended by them. They have the keeping of the key of the king's lodging at night, the keeping of the choir of the church, the keeping the boats when the king passes the river, the honor of bearing the white silk fringe in their arms which is the coronal color in France, the keys of all the cities where the king makes his entry given to their captain in waiting or out of waiting." In 1547 Henry II. granted letters of naturalization to the Scots Guards, and Henry IV. not only confirmed this privilege but extended it to all Scots then residing in France, or who might afterwards take up their residence there. Thus the Guards not only received benefits for themselves but their fame caused a share, at least, of their privileges to become the common property of their countrymen. Sir Walter Scott, in his novel of ''Quentin Durward," gives us a capital idea of the consequence in which these Guards were held and of the life they led at court and in the field. Here is a description of the equipment of one of the troopers, the maternal uncle of the hero of the story. "He wore his national bonnet, crested with a tuft of feathers, and with a Virgin Mary of massive silver for a brooch. The archer's gorget, arm pieces and gauntlets were of the finest steel, curiously inlaid with silver, and his hauberk or shirt of mail was as clear and bright as the frostwork of a winter morning upon fern or briar. He wore a loose surcoat or cassock of rich blue velvet, open at the sides like those of a herald, with a large white St. Andrew's cross of embroidered silver bisecting it both before and behind—his knees and legs were protected by hose of mail and shoes of steel. A broad strong poniard (called the Mercy of God), hung by his right side, the baldric for his two-handed sword, richly embroidered, hung upon his left shoulder, but for convenience he at present carried in his hand that unwieldy weapon which the rules of his service forbade him to lay aside." This important looking personage was a gentleman by birth and station, a fact which neither he nor any of his comrades were ever likely to forget. Here is Sir Walter Scott's graphic description of the splendors of the Guards; "The French monarchs made it their policy to conciliate the affections of this select band of foreigners by allowing them honorary privileges and ample pay, which last most of them disposed of with military profusion in supporting their supposed rank. Each of them ranked as a gentleman in place and honor, and their near approach to the king's person gave them dignity in their own eyes as well as importance in those of the nation of France. They were sumptuously armed, equipped and mounted ; and each was entitled to allowance for a squire, a valet, a page and two yeomen. * * * With these followers and a corresponding equipage, all of the Scottish Guards was a person of quality and importance, and vacancies being generally filled up by those who had been trained in the service as pages or valets. The cadets of the best Scottish families were often sent to serve under some friend or relation in those capacities until a chance of preferment should occur."

In 1419 the Earl of Buchan landed at Rochelle with a force variously computed at 7,000 to 10,000 Scottish troops. Though the Scots were looked upon at first with suspicion as "sacs a yin et inangeurs du mouton," their valor at the battle of Bauge, in 1421, won the first success for Charles VII. The following particulars regarding the exploits of the Scots Guards at Bornge are gleaned from the Rev. W. Forbes Leith's history. Under the command of the Earls of Buchan and Wigtown, they fought valiantly; and it was to them in great part that Charles owed his victory. The two armies were separated by a rapid river, crossed by a narrow bridge. On the 23d of March the Scottish general had sent a detachment, commanded by Sir John Stewart, of Darneley, and the Sire de Fontaines, to reconnoitre. This troop, coming upon the English unawares, fell back in time to warn Buchan of the approach of the Duke of Clarence. Happily he had a short time to make ready for an advance, whilst Sir Robert Stewart, of Ranston, and Sir Hugh Kennedy kept the bridge with a small advanced corps, over which the Duke of Clarence with his best officers tried to force a passage, having left the great bulk of the army to follow as best they could.

The effects of this rnaneuvre were, by a strange coincidence, the same as at the battle of Stirling, where Wallace defeated Surrey and Cressingham. The Duke of Clarence, conspicuous by the golden crown surmounting his helmet, and by his gorgeous armor, was first attacked vigorously by John Kirkrnichael, who broke his lance on him; then wounded in the face by William Swinton; at last brought to the ground and killed by a blow of a mace by the Earl of Buchan. The bravest of his knights and men-at-arms fell with him. The Earl of Somerset was taken prisoner by Lawrence Vernor, a Scot; and his brother by Sir John Stewart of Darneley; the Earl of Huntington by John Sibbald, a Scotch knight; and the Sire de Fewalt by Henry Cunningham.

The rest, furious at the disaster, rushed to the bridge to take revenge; but they were killed or taken prisoners, as they arrived, by the Scots. According to Monstrelet, two or three thousand English lay dead on the spot. As might have been expected, the Scots were, at first, regarded with dislike and contempt by the French people. Owing to their habits of enforced abstemiousness at one time, and the excesses in which they indulged at others, they were denounced to Charles as sacs a yin et manguers de mouton. Charles paid but little heed to these murmurs; but after the battle of Bauge he summoned the accusers before him and said:

"What think ye now of these Scotch mutton-eaters and vindhags?" "The malcontents," says the quaint chronicle, as if they had been struck with a hammer on the head, knew not what to reply." At Verneuil, in 1424, the English gained a bloody victory, but the Scots fought to the last with stubborn determination. The French were exhausted and terrified; the royal cause seemed almost hopeless. Charles VII. had few whom he could trust, and the personal loyalty of the Scottish mercenaries was the strongest support on which he could lean. The traditional account that the Scots Guards was established after the battle of Verneuil is confirmed by Mr. Forbes Leith's researches into the Registres de la Chambres des Comics. On July 8th, 1425, the first mention is found of a body of men-at-arms and archers ordained to guard the person of the king, under the command of Christin Chambre, Esquire, of Scotland. When Joan of Arc began her heroic struggle, the Scots warmly devoted themselves to her service. One Scottish soldier, Walter Bowe, returned to his native land after Joan's death, and became a monk at Inch Colme, where he continued Fordin's Chronicle and commemorated the deeds of Joan, "whom I saw and knew, and in whose company I was present to her life's end." In all the work of the recovery of France the Scots took a prominent part, till the throne of Charles VII. was secure. But when peace was re-established soldiers were a hindrance to the national security. Bands of freebooters ravaged the country, and the work of restoring internal order was as difficult as that of securing peace. A happy chance gave Charles VII. the opportunity of sending 30,000 soldiers to help Frederick III. to prosecute the quarrel of the house of Austria against the Swiss. In this expedition they suffered greatly from the vengeance of the peasantry, which they awakened by their ravages. When the remnant returned to France Charles VII. was ready to strike a blow against military licerise. Many were dismissed from service, and the rest were formed into fifteen contpagizics d'ordonnance, which were the beginning of the French standing army. Two of these companies were formed from the Scots—"Les Gendarmes Ecossais" and "La Conipagnie Ecossaise de Ia Garde due Corps du Roi."

The services done by Scotsmen to France naturally caused many honors to be conferred upon them. In 1422 John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, was made Constable of the kingdom, and a year later, Archibald, Earl of Douglas, was created Duke of Turenne. Both these heroes were killed, fighting for their adopted flag at the battle of Verneuil. In 1424 a large number of Scotch soldiers arrived in France under the charge of a warrior named David Patullo, of whose exploits we know nothing, but they must have been extraordinary, for in that year Sir John Stewart of Darnley, another Constable of France, was invested with the lordship of Aubigney, and created a Marshal of France. During the defense of New Orleans the bishop of the See of Orleans was a Scot named John Kirkmichael, who appears to have been as brave a soldier as he was a good priest. While the siege lasted the bishop and the Scottish residents greatly distinguished themselves by their valor. When Joan of Arc made her way to the beleagured city she was accompanied by Sir Patrick Ogilvy and a large number of Scottish soldiers, and when the siege was ended the French heroine and the Scottish bishop headed the procession that went from church to church and returned thanks to the Almighty for their deliverance. When King Charles was crowned at Rheims, bishop Kirkmichael was one of the consecrating clergy. Bernard Stewart, of Aubigne, probably enjoyed more honors than any other Scot in France. He was twice sent to Scotland as a special ambassador from France, and fought in 1485 on the winning side at the battle of Bosworth Field in England. His career in campaigns in Italy and Spain won him the greatest reputation as a soldier. He was known as the "Chevalier sans reproche." and Dunbar, the Scottish poet, styled him "the Flower of Chivalry." Among other dignities he held those of Viceroy of Naples, Constable of Sicily and Jerusalem, and Duke of Terra Nova. His second embassy to Scotland was in 1508 to the court of James IV. who received him with much distinction. But his health was then broken, and shortly after being received at court he retired to Corstorphiue, near Edinburgh, where he died. By his will he directed that his heart should be sent to St. Ninian's shrine in Galloway, and his body buried in the church of the Blackfriars at Edinburgh. These directions appear to have been faithfully carried out. In 1548 Henry I. conferred the Duchy of Chaterherault on the Earl of Arran, and that title is still held by the Scotch ducal family of Hamilton.

In "Memories of the Ancient Alliance between the French and Scots," printed at Edinburgh in 1751, I find the following:- "With regard to offices, the Scots have exercised some of the most considerable in France. Mr. Servien, a famous advocate under Henry III., in his pleading before the parliament of Paris relates that Mr. Turnbull, a Scotsman, was a judge in the same parliament, and afterwards first president of the Parliament of Rouen, Adam Blackwood was a judge on the bench of Poitiers, and others in courts of justice. The Scots have also possessed in France some of the first dignitaries of the church. Andrew Foreman was Archbishop of Bruges, David Bethune, Bishop of Mirepois, David Panter (or perhaps Panton) and after him James Bethune, Bishop of Glasgow, were successively abbots of L'Absie, besides a great number of priors, canons, curates and other beneficed persons in France. And it is remarkable that, in the year 1586, the cure of St. Come at Paris having been conferred by the University upon John Hamilton, haying been disputed him by a French ecclesiastic who protested against Hamilton as being a Scotsman, Hamilton's cause was pleaded in the parliament of Paris by Mr. Servien, who proved that the Scots enjoyed the right of denizens, and in consequence by decree of the court the provisional possession of the cure was adjudged to Hamilton." William Barclay, a native of Scotland, was professor of law at Pont a' Mousson in Lorraie, where he died in 1605. His son John, a poet and satirist, accompanied him on a visit to Britain in 1603, and soon attracted the attention of James VI., to whom he dedicated a volume of satirical romance in which the Jesuits were severely handled. His principal work "Argenis," apolitical allegory, was translated into English three tunes, as well as into several other languages. Barclay died at Rome in 1621.

An Act of Louis XIV.'s Council of State, signed at Fontainebleau in 1646 specially exempted the Scots from the taxes then imposed upon foreigners, as that exemption had been neglected in the statutes governing these taxes. In the preamble to this act the story of the Scottish friendship with France and the privileges extended to natives of Scotland are thus stated: "Whereas it bath been represented to the King, in his Council, the Queen Regent his mother present, that in the year 789, Charlemagne reigning in France, and Achius in Scotland, the alliance and confederacy having been made between the two kingdoms, offensive and defensive, of crown and crown, king and king, people and people, as is set forth by the Charter called the Golden Bull, it should have until this present continued without any interruption, and been ratified by all the kings, successors of the said Charlemagne, with advantages and prerogatives so peculiar, that not only are the Scots in capacity of acquiring and possessing estates, movable and immovable and benefices in France, and the French in Scotland, without taking out any letters of naturalization; but also it should have been granted to the said Scots to pay only the fourth part of the duties upon all goods which they transport to the said country of Scotland a privilege which they have ever enjoyed, and do enjoy at this day; that even whatever rupture there may have been between the crowns of France and England since the Union of the kingdom of England with that of Scotland, the French have nevertheless been still treated by the Scots as friends and confederates."

In M. Francisque Michel's magnificent work on the "Scots in France," we find that in the 16th and 17th centuries; noble French families were as proud of being able to trace their descent from a member of the Scots Guards as an English baron is to boast of his family having landed in England with the Conqueror. Maximilian de Bethune, the Duke of Sully, imagined himself to descend from the Beatons of Fifeshire and the great Colbert from the Cuthberts of Inverness. The same veneration for Scottish ancestry is shown in France even in our own times. The Empress Eugenie. wife of Napoleon Ill., was proud of her descent from the family of Kirkpatrick, and Marshal Canrobert, one of the most honored soldiers of the second Empire commenced his genealogical tree in Scotland. Some years ago, M. Leon Scott, an employe in the publishing house of M. Didot, Paris, claimed to be the lineal descendant of Michael Scot of Balwearie, Fifeshire, whose fame as a scholar and magician extended over the whole of Europe from the 12th century. Whether Al. Leon Scott's claim to long descent was proven or not, he could have the satisfaction of knowing that his "case" was no weaker than that of Lord Eldon, who claimed to be the direct descendant of the wizard and exerted all his legal argument, logic, and perseverance to verify it. The descendants of the royal family of Stewart made their way all over the continent and can be traced among many of the reigning families of Europe. The royalist princes of France have all Stewart blood in their veins, and the heir-at-line of the old house, as well as of the English house of Tudor, is Maria Teresa, wife of Prince Louis of Bavaria, neice of the last of the Dukes of Modena in Italy.

In Russia, Scottish seekers after fortune have also made their way to success and come out well ahead in competition with the natives of that great, if somewhat barbarous, country. Early in the 17th century a Scotsman, named George Lermont, left his native land and settled at Belaya. in Poland. Thence he passed into Russia and entered the service of Michael Feodorovick, the first of the Romanoff czars, by whom he is mentioned in a paper dated March 9th, 1621. His descendants Russified their name by the affix "of," making the name Lermantof, and the most famous among them was Michael Andreevich Lermantof, who ranks as one of the foremost poets of Russia. The Scottish origin of the family is acknowledged with pride by its members, and the poet, in one of his pieces, says:

In another poem, entitled ''The Wish," he longs to have the wings of the bird, that he might fly "to the west, where shine the fields of my ancestors," and where, ''in the deserted tower, among the misty hills, rests their forgotten dust,"

And the chords of the harp of Scotland would I touch,
And its sounds would fly along the vaults
By me alone awakened. by me alone listened to,
No sooner resounding than dying away."

But such fancies are vain, for

Between me and the hills of my fatherland
Spreads the waves of seas;
The last scion of a race of hardy warriors
Withers away amid alien snows."

Probably the best representative of the Scottish soldiers of fortune who made Russia the scene of their operations was General Patrick Gordon. This brave soldier and capable general was born at Easter Auchlenchries, in 1635. His father was a cadet of the house of Haddo, and was blessed with the possession of a small and heavily mortgaged estate. When 16 years of age he was sent to Dantzig, and entered the Jesuit college at Braunsberg, but the quiet life of that seminary did not suit his roving disposition. In 1655 he entered the Swedish service and embarked under its flag in its war against Poland. Taken prisoner by the Poles he entered their service and fought as gallantly against the Swedes as he formerly did for them. The Swedes re-captured him, and without much ado he again drew his sword in their service. A real soldier of fortune truly, and even more unconcerned as to his allegiance than Sir Dugald Dalgetty. He rose, however, to the rank of captain-lieutenant, and as such he offered his services in 1661 to the Czar of Russia, and the offer was at once accepted. His rise in the Russian army was rapid, and in 1665 he was made a colonel. Then having learned of his accession to the grim and poverty-stricken estate of Auchlenchries, a fit of home-sickness came over him, and he desired to retire from the service and settle down at home as a laird. But this the Czar would not permit, although in the following year he sent him on a political mission to England. In 1670 he fought in the Ukraine against the Cossacks, and seven years later he was fighting the Turks. For his services in this last campaign he was made a major-general, and in 1683 a lieutenant-generalcy was conferred upon him. He was sincerely beloved by Peter the Great, and received many marks of that monarch's affection but none more than were warranted by his devotion and services to the greatest of all the czars, whose life, indeed, he at one time saved. Gordon's latter years were spent in opulence at Moscow, and he died in that city on eve of St. Andrews Day, 1699. Speaking of his last moments, one of his biographers says, ''The czar, who had visited him five times in his illness, and had been twice with him during the night, stood weeping by his bed as he drew his last breath; and the eyes of him who had left Scotland a poor unfriended wanderer, were closed by the hands of an emperor."

Another old Aberdeenshire family, the Barclays of Tolly from the same stock out of which sprang the Barclays of Ury—had its representatives in the Russian service. The founder of the Russian family seemed to have prospered, and unlike Patrick Gordon relinquished all interest in his native land. One of his descendants, Michael Barclay de Tolly, after a brilliant military career, became commander-in-chief of the Russian armies in France at the time that the allied powers of Europe were closing in upon the great Napoleon, and in recognition of his services was created a prince and appointed field marshal. He died in 1818. Shortly before his death, the old family estate of Tolly came into the market and he was urged to purchase it. But he declined as he thought that the family had been so long expatriated from Scotland as to retain no interest in it.

Peter the Great, in his task of creating a navy, was greatly aided by Scotsmen. The services of Paul Jones to Russia are still remembered, and among physicians and professional men generally, natives of Scotland have carried off many of the leading honors. The stories of the Scottish soldiers of fortune, cadets of noble houses, who left their native country and the poverty to which their birth doomed them at home, and won honor for their names and their native laud on the continent of Europe, are full of chivalry, romance, bravery, devotedness and sometimes pathos. These men were not all Dugald Dalgettys, as we are so apt to regard them, since Sir Walter Scott, by his genius, made that chevalier a representative of the race. Notwithstanding all his faults, however, the Knight of Drumthwacket was not altogether an unlovable personage. He was a man of undoubted courage, although he had a full share of the logical cautiousness of his country people; he was vulgar in his manner, but he was honest as steel to whatever flag he agreed to serve under; he was talkative and prosy, but when the proper time came he was full of resource and action; he possessed no statecraft, but he was more than a match for the Earl of Argyll, who imagined he had enough of that quality to endow the whole of Scotland; and his word was as good as his oath, whether given to the Marquis of Montrose or to old MacEagh of the Mist. Notwithstanding his shortcomings, there remains enough about Sir Dugald to make us think about him as a representative soldier of fortune without believing that thereby the honor of the race was imperiled. Few, very few, of these adventurous Scots ever returned to their native land again after buckling on their swords and leaving it in search of fame and fortune. War was a game that was constantly being played in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the excitements and dangers of these times stifled effectually the craving of home-sickness which so often comes over the Scot Abroad. The battlefields of Low Germany proved the last resting places of many of them, and to those few who survived the dangers of the field, and perhaps found themselves in possession of the fortune for which they started, the changes which met them when they returned to Scotland too often made it no longer a desirable resting place, with memories of what had been and what might have been, constantly before them. This is to me the saddest phase in the lot of the Scot Abroad. I have known men, and women too, toil hard year after year in this country and gradually acquire a competency. Then, when it was won, the long suppressed yearning for home would break out with extraordinary force, and the idea expressed in Allan Cunningham's touching song would constantly he with them:

"Haute, haute, haute. haute fain wad I be,
O haute, haute, hame to my ain countrie.

* * * * * * *

When the flower is i' the bud and the leaf upon the tree,
The lark shall sing me hame in myain countrie."

The wanderer at length goes home to find it home no longer. Friends and relatives have died or wandered away to other parts of the earth, old landmarks have disappeared or changed, and the place that knew the wanderer now knows him no more. To walk along well-remembered streets, to stand on the very stones one played over when a boy, to see this little reminder of youthful plays or that oft dreamed of nook, and not to see a "kenned face" or get a smile from an acquaintance of auld lang syne is about as bitter an experience as can come to any human being. I remember an old farmer in Michigan, who visited Dumfries after an absence of forty-six years, telling me of his experiences with a sad heart on his return here. The first day after his arrival he remained in his hotel, tired and worn out from the effects of his journey, but with a feeling of self-satisfaction that he was once more, at hame. Next day he wandered about the town, and in the leading streets, the changes were so great that hame began to seem as far away from him as it was in America. In the by-ways, the lanes, and wynds, time had made fewer alterations, but still enough had occurred to show that the laws of mutability governed even Dumfries. Then he spent several days enquiring after old schoolmates and playfellows, but never gained an answer which gave him the satisfaction he desired. "he's dead," "The whole family went to Australia," ''They were last heard of in Canada doing well " He went to London and never came back," were some of the answers he received, but the most general was "Never heard o' them." The place that afforded him the most information was auld St. Michael's kirkyard, for on many of the tombstones of that hallowed God's-acre he read the names and recalled to his memory a large number of the lights of his own day. But that day was over now, the dream of hame so carefully nursed for nearly half a century was dissipated forever, and the old man turned his face from his native city sad at heart, broken in spirit, a wanderer without a home. The late Dinah Muloch Craik expressed this sensation very beautifully in her little poem entitled, "Coming Home."

The lift is high and blue,
And the new moon glints through
The bonnie corn-stooks o' Strathairly,
My ship's in Largo Bay,
And I ken it weel the way
Up the steep, steep brae o' Strathairly.

When I sailed ower the sea,
A laddie bold and free,
The corn sprang green on Strathairly.
When I come back again,
'Tis an auld man walks his lane,
Slow and sad through the fields o' Strathairly.

* * * * *
O, the lands' fine, fine!
I could buy it a' for mine;
My gowds yellow as the stooks o' Strathairly
But I fain yon lad wad be,
That sailed ower the salt sea,
As the dawn rose gray on Strathairly."

It is needless, almost, to say that the Scots who became soldiers of fortune were all possessed of high courage and most of them were men of as pure chivalry and as noble aspirations as any knight who ever followed Bruce at Bannockburn or accompanied the Douglas when he started on his way to the Holy Land with the heart of his hero in charge. In a volume by John Mackay, of Herriesdale, entitled "An old Scots' Brigade," and published at Edinburgh in 1885, is given a history of Mackay's Regiment and the Scots Brigade which was organized in 1626 and served under Gustavus Adolphus, the famous king of Sweden, during part of the Thirty Years' war. This volume is full of stories of daring deeds and of acts of heroism which should inspire a feeling of pride in every Scottish reader, and it shows that a true chivalrous spirit animated all these gallant soldiers of fortune from the titled chief himself down to the humblest private who trailed a pike. The following account of the defense of Boitzenburg in 1627 by a handful of the men of this command may be regarded simply as an example of a long list of equally brilliant achievements. "On the third day after the departure of Sir Donald Mackay with the main portion of the regiment, the approach of the enemy was announced. But Major Dunbar afterwards killed at the defence of Bredenburgh had not been idle. He was well versed in the theory as well as in the sterner practice of war and had every qualification for a commander. He left nothing undone that would enable him to defend his post like a man of honor. He undermined the bridge, repaired the weak places in the walls, and erected a strong sconce on the Luneberg side of the town. This sconce the enemy resolved to storm. Once across the Elbe, the rich and fertile plains of Holstein could be easily overrun and would be entirely at their mercy. The small garrison of Highlanders numbered only about 800 men while the attacking force was at least 10,000 strong. The first night a gallant and successful sortie was made under the personal leadership of Major Dunbar, and after inflicting a severe punishment on the advanced posts of the lmperialists, the little band returned to the town with scarcely any loss. The enemy were determined to be avenged for this, and on the following day attacked the sconce at all points, but after a long and desperate struggle were beaten off with a loss of over 800 men. But fresh troops were pressed forward, and again the attack was renewed with increased fury; the front rank rushed on, and with hatchets attempted to force a passage through the palisades; then the artillery opened fire, and every now and then a heavy cannonshot would boom overhead or crash among the roofs of the houses, or with a dull heavy thud, sink into the turf breastwork of the sconce. The defenders replied with their brass culverins, and every shot must have made a frightful lane through the dense column of attack. A close and deadly fire, too, was poured by the Highland musketeers upon the Imperialists and though the latter replied with equal rapidity yet could not with equal effect, for the Highlanders were protected breast high by the earthen parapets, while the assailants were wholly exposed. The whole fort was soon enveloped in smoke, the enemy could not be seen, but the crash of their axes was heard among the falling palisades and the cries of the wounded told of the fearful carnage. The Imperialists were baffled and again fell back. But a third and even more desperate attempt was made to carry the sconce. * * * The storming parties came on in great force and made a most vigorous assault, but the firing of the Highland musketeers once more told with deadly effect. The thunder of the enemy's artillery was incessant, yet the shot did more damage to the houses of the deserted town than to the earthworks of the sconce. Again the culverins were brought into play, and, under Dunbar's directions, did dreadful execution on the Imperialists, but in spite of this they continued to press on, and the gaps made in their ranks by the well-drected fire of the Highlanders were constantly and steadily filled up. The loss, however, was not all on the side of the enemy, many of the defenders were killed and a large number wounded. But after a time the firing of the Highlanders slackened and then suddenly ceased. Their supply of ammunition was exhausted The Imperialists, surprised at the unexpected silence on the part of the (le- fenders, instinctively guessed the cause and redoubling their efforts, made a rush at the walls. The Highlanders, for a moment, were at their wit's end, but the energy of despair prompted them. They tore the sand from the ramparts, and threw it in the eyes of their assailants as they attempted to scale the walls, and then furiously attacking them with the butt ends of their muskets, drove them from the sconce. But it was a dreadful struggle. At last the trumpets of the enemy sounded the retreat, the storming party fell back, the fire of the artillery ceased and Boitzenburg was saved."

Instances of individual heroism on the part of Sir Donald Mackay, Sir John Hepburn and the officers and men under their charge are frequently given in the same work, and after the battle of Leipzig the Scots Brigade was publicly thanked by Gustavus Adolphus for its brilliant services in presence of the whole army. Even the chaplains were soldiers of fortune as well as preachers. One of them, whose name is not recorded, was massacred when the castle of Bredenbnrg was taken by Tilly. Another, the Rev. William Forbes, is described in the old record very significantly as ''a preacher for soldiers, yea and a captaine in neede, to lead soldiers on a good occasion, being full of courage and discretion and good conduct beyond some captaines I have known who were not so capable as he." This good man managed to escape the perils of war and became minister of the Scots Church at the Hague, where he died. A third chaplain was the Rev. Murdoch Mackenzie, afterwards minister of Suddie, Ross-shire, and one of the Commissioners to the Assembly in 1643, 1644 and 1649. In the course of their campaign the Highlanders met with many of their countrymen, who like themselves were in search of fame and fortune on the continent. At Urbowe in Sweden, they encountered "that worthy cavalier Colonel Alexander Hamilton, being then imployed in making of cannon and fire-workes for his majesty." This gentleman, Mr. John Mackay informs us, was Sir Alexander Hamilton, of Redhouse, a celebrated artillerist, whose cannon were long famous in Germany and guns made on his principle and known as canon ci la Suedois were used in the French army till 1780. He returned to Scotland, became famous in the wars of the Covenant and was killed by an explosion at the castle of Dunglass." Sometimes these fighting Scots were brought face to face with their own countrymen fighting on the opposite side. The same writer says "It must have been trying to our countrymen to encounter brother Scots in the forces to which they were opposed, but when Passions are aroused, even the closest ties are sometimes forgotten. Munro gives an instance of this. He says 'There was a Scottish gentleman under the enemy who, coming to scale the walls, said aloud, 'Have with you, gentlemen, thinke not you are in the streets of Edinburgh bravading;' one of his own countrymen thrusting him through the body with a pike, he ended there.' He ended there is rather a quaint way of saying that the wound inflicted was mortal. But this is only one of the horrors of war.''

The Scot Abroad, however, was not always so fortunate as to win battles, found families, or even to maintain positions of honor, and a painful illustration of this is furnished by the career of Alexander Blackwell, a native of Aberdeen, where his father was a minister and principal of Marischal College. Blackwell studied medicine and graduated at Leyden. We next hear of him as being engaged in business in London as a printer. This venture was not successful, and in 1734 he became bankrupt and was thrust into prison. During his incarceration his wife supported him by her literary labors and eventually secured his discharge. In 1740 he was invited to settle in Sweden, one of his works having attracted the attention of the king of that country, and, proceeding to Stockholm, he received a pension and was otherwise comfortably provided for. His medical knowledge was of value to him in his new sphere, and having cured the king of a serious malady he was appointed one of the royal physicians, and became an influential favorite at court. In 1748, however, he was suddenly arrested on a charge of treason against the king and the government, and after being tortured was broken on the wheel. He protested his innocence to the last and was doubtless a victim to the jealousy of some of those whom he had eclipsed in the royal favor.

The most illustrious of the Scottish soldiers of fortune who won renown on the continent of Europe was Field Marshal Keith. This warrior was the second son of ninth Earl Marischal of Aberdeenshire. Along with his elder brother he took part in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, and being on the losing side, made his escape to France, when that ill-concocted rising was suppressed. The family estates were confiscated, the title was attainted, and the brothers found themselves poor as well as landless. In 1719 they returned to Scotland on one of the ships of the fleet sent by the Spanish court to restore the Stuarts, and after the defeat of the Highland Jacobites and their foreign auxiliaries were glad to escape again from their native land. The elder brother entered the Prussian service and attained a position of both honor and emolument. In 1759, while ambassador from Prussia at the court of Spain, he was pardoned by the British Government in return for some political secrets which he communicated. Soon afterwards he returned to Scotland on a vsit, and purchased a portion of the old estate of his family, but declined to receive back the attainted family titles. He died in Prussia in 1778. His brother James (Marshal) Keith, after making his escape from Scotland in 1719, entered the Spanish service, but one of his adherence to Protestantism was debarred from advancement. Then he profferred his sword to Russia and received a commission as major-general. In the Russian military service Keith acquired much distinction, but finding it not exactly to his liking he transferred his allegiance to Prussia in Frederick the Great received him gladly and conferred on him the baton of a field marshal. From that time until his death he seems never to have sheathed his sword, and his services were equally brilliant whether in the decisive victory at Rossbach, or in the midst of disaster and retreat. His last battle was that of Hochkirch, in 1758, where the Prussian army was defeated by the Austrian force, and Marshal Keith was shot through the heart while gallantly fighting his way from the field.

The Scot Abroad has been as successful as a statesman as well as in the more brilliant role of a soldier. An example of this is to be found in the career of Principal Carstaires. That great and good man was born at Cathcart, now a part of Glasgow, in 1649. He was educated for the ministry at the University of Edinburgh; and in 1673 went to Utrecht with the view of completing his theological studies. While in Holland, his attainments and character drew to him the attention of William, Prince of Orange (afterward William III.) and he became the confidant and adviser of that ruler in regard to British affairs. In 1682 William sent him to London on a secret mission, and while there he was arrested for complicity in the Rye House plot, by which Charles II. and his brother, afterwards James II., were to be murdered, and the succession to the throne brought nearer to Mary, the wife of the Prince of Orange. The plot was betrayed, Lord Russell and Algernon Sydney, two of its reputed leaders, were executed. Lord Essex, another of the confederates, committed suicide in the tower, the Duke of Monmouth fled to the Continent, and many of those of lesser degree were brought to the torture. Among the latter was Carstaires. It was known by the British court that the Scotch clergyman enjoyed the entire confidence of the Prince of Orange, and that he was in possession of state secrets of the utmost importance at that critical juncture in the history of Britain. Threats, or promises of reward, failed to make him reveal any of these, and even the application of torture did not cause him to waver in his fidelity to the Prince. The boot and the thumbscrew combined were not equal to his fortitude. In 1685 he returned to Holland and continued to watch carefully the state of opinion and the progress of events in Britain until 1688, when on his advice, William went over to England and carried out the Revolution. He crossed over from Holland in the same vessel, and conducted, at the head of the army, the religious services which marked the first day's occupancy of the soil of Britain, and during the negotiations, movements and developments which followed, he was the most trusted, as he was the most sagacious, honest, far-seeing, and fearless of the new King's councillors and friends. When the affairs of England were in a measure settled, Carstaires returned to Scotland, and it was his wise influence, exerted on the king on the one hand and the clerical party—the General Assembly—on the other that enabled Presbyterianism to find itself finally established in Scotland on a firm and enduring settlement, and made Episcopalianism forever an alien in the land. With the return of Carstaires to Scotland and his subsequent career there, this essay has nothing to do, as he no longer can be regarded as a Scot abroad, but I cannot forbear from quoting the tribute which Lord Macaulay has rendered to his memory. He says, in the History of England (vol. 3, page 37, trade edition, New York) "William had, however, one Scottish adviser who deserved and possessed more influence than any of the ostensible ministers. This was Carstaires, one of the most remarkable men of that age. He united great scholastic attainments with great aptitude for civil business, and the firm faith and ardent zeal of a martyr with the shrewdness and suppleness of a consummate politician. In courage and fidelity he resembled Burnet, but he had, what Burnet wanted, judgment, self-command and a singular power for keeping secrets. There was no post to which he might not have aspired if he had been a layman or a priest of the Church of England. But a Presbyterian clergyman could not hope to attain any high dignity, either in the north or in the south of the island. Carstaires was forced to content himself with the substance of power, and to leave the semblance to others. He was named chaplain to their majesties for Scotland, but wherever the king was, in England, in Ireland, in the Netherlands, there was this most trusty and most prudent of courtiers. He obtained from the royal bounty a modest competence, and he desired no more. But it was well known that he could be as formidable an enemy as any member of the cabinet, and he was designated at the public offices and in the antechambers of the palace by the significant nickname of the Cardinal."

In the learned and literary circles of the continent of Europe, among the thousands of Scots who thronged the universities or walked in the dim and barred recesses of the cloisters, none acquired so much fame, or is held in fresher remembrance, than James Crichton, commonly spoken of as "the Admirable Crichton," and "the Sir Philip Sydney of Scotland." The achievements recorded of this personage are really marvelous, but it is merely fair to say that, to a great extent their only authority is tradition, and that around his memory the glamour of two centuries of romance and poetry has been thrown. He left behind no writings by which we might judge of his literary attainments, and the extravagant eulogies of most of his biographers almost make one feel inclined, sometimes, to doubt his very existence, were that fact not amply confirmed. At the same time the old proverb which says that where there is smoke there is sure to be a fire, rises to our memory, and we may well believe that to have won so much personal fame of an enduring quality, James Crichton must have been possessed of many grand qualities and to have towered intellectually far above most of his contemporaries: He was born about the middle of the 16th century, and was the son of Robert Crichton, of Elliock, Perthshire, Lord Advocate of Scotland from 1561 to 1573. He was sent to the University of St. Andrews, and before he reached his twentieth year had exhausted all the educational possibilities of that seat of learning. He became thoroughly acquainted with all the then known sciences and was master of ten languages. But in addition to all these acquirements, the possession of which would have occupied an ordinary lifetime, Crichton was an adept in all manly sports and the very embodiment of an accomplished knight. He left his native land and wandered over the continent in search of learned encounters with the talented men of the universities, but failed to find one whom, in a discussion on theology, philosophy, morals or science, he could not easily overthrow. his "disputations" at such centres of thought as Paris, Venice, Padua, Mantua and Rome excited amazement, and wherever he went great crowds of students gathered to listen to the wondrous words of wisdom which fell from his lips, and to observe the ease with which he refuted the arguments of his learned opponents. Being possessed of remarkable personal beauty and having all the exterior accomplishments which used to make up a chivalrous gentleman, it may easily be understood that Crichton was a favorite with the ladies, and one of his love affairs led him to fight a duel with a gentleman who was regarded as the most famous of Mantua's warriors. Crichton in this encounter was successful, and so added to his reputation that of being a gallant knight. Such a prodigy as this could not live long, and his very excessive observance of chivalrous courtesy brought about his end. The Duke of .Mantua appointed him preceptor to his son Vincentio, a dissolute young scamp. One night, when engaged in a love adventure, Crichton was attacked in a side street by half a dozen men in masks, but he routed them so successfully that their leader threw off his disguise and begged him to desist. Crichton saw that his opponent was none other than his pupil Vincentio, and dropping on his knees, begged forgiveness and offered his sword. Vincentio took the weapon, and at once plunged it into Crichton's body, killing him on the spot.

It is possible that the talents and courage ascribed to Crichton by tradition, are a sort of tribute to the fair fame of the Scots nation in Europe, particularly in intellectual circles. That Scottish scholarship ranked high on the continent during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, there is no reason to doubt. In Tytler's "History of Scotland" we read :"Scotland produces scholars whose reputation stood high in the schools [of theology]. Richard, a prior of St. Victor's at Paris, and Adam, a canon regular of the Order of Preinonstratenses, illuminated the middle of the thirteenth century by voluminous expositions upon the Prophecies, the Apocalypse and the Trinity; by treatises on the threefold nature of contemplation; and soliloquies on the composition and essence of the soul; while during the second age of the scholastic theology, John Duns delivered lectures at Oxford to thirty thousand students. In the exact sciences, John Holybush, better known by his scholastic appellation, Joannes de Sacroboseo, acquired during the thirteenth century a high reputation from his famous treatise on the Sphere, as well as by various other mathematical and philosophical lucubrations, and although claimed by three different countries, the arguments in favor of his being a Scotsman are not inferior to those asserted by England and Ireland.

The consequent resort of [Scottish] students to France led to the foundation of the Scots College at Paris in the year 1325 by David, Bishop of Moray—an eminent seminary which was soon replenished with students from every province in Scotland. * * * The records of the University of Paris afford evidence that, even at this early period, the Scottish students had not only distinguished themselves in the various branches of learning then cultivated, but had risen to some of the highest situations in this eminent seminary."

In St. Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, is a brass memorial tablet bearing the following inscription:-"In memory of John Craig, for many years a Dominican friar in Italy; embraced the Reformed faith, and was by the Inquisition at Rome condemned to be burnt; escaping to his native country, he became assistant to John Knox at St. Giles', and minister of the King's household. He was author of the King's Confession, or National Covenant of 1581. He died in Edinburgh in his eighty-ninth year." The inscription is surmounted on the left by the figures 1512, and on the right by 1600—the dates of his birth and death—while in the centre is a representation of a dog carrying a purse in its mouth, with the words "My all." John Craig, before going to Italy, was a Dominican friar in his native Scotland, but was suspected of heresy and lodged in prison. He managed to be released, and, retaining his standing in the church, went to Italy; and at Bologna was intrusted with the education of novices. A perusal of Calvin's Institutes converted him to Protestantismn and he openly avowed his acceptance of the new doctrine. Pope Paul IV. sent him to the Inquisition at Rome, and there he was condemned to be burnt on 19th August, 1559, but on the 18th the Pope died, and being very unpopular, great riots occurred that evening in the city, in course of which the mob broke his statue in pieces and set fire to the Inquisition buildings. Craig then escaped, but was pursued by a hand of Papal soldiers who came upon him. The leader, however, turned out to be an old soldier whom Craig had once befriended, and instead of capturing he assisted him to escape. He then had many weary wanderings, trials, and narrow escapes. The incident of the dog, commemorated on the tablet, is so marvelous that in these matter-of-fact days it will scarcely be credited. Even Spottiswoede in narrating Craig's life seems to have entertained doubts of the story being believed, and says:- "I should scarce relate, so incredible it seemeth, if to many of good place he himself had not often repeated it as a singular testimony of God's care of him, and this it was. When he had traveled some days, declining the highways out of fear, he came into a forest, a wild and desert place, and being sore wearied he lay down among some bushes on the side of a little brook to refresh himself. Laying there pensive and full of thoughts (for neither knew he in what he was, nor had he any means to bear him out of the way), a dog cometh fawning, with a purse in his teeth, and lays it down before him. He, stricken with fear, riseth up, and looking about if any were coming that way, when he saw none, taketh it up, and construing the same to proceed from God's favorable providence towards him, followed his way till he came to a little village, where he met with some that were traveling to Vienna, in Austria, and changing his intended course, went in their company thither."

Leaving Europe, we find that Scotsmen have played an equally important part in Asia. In India especially their services have been of the utmost importance in upholding the supremacy of the British flag, as well as in developing the moral, intellectual and commercial progress of the land. India was, and is, a country of great chances and the Scots have taken full advantage of its opportunities. It is said that a Perth man once landed in Calcutta in search of fortune. He knew no one, but remembering that a schoolmate named McNaughton held a post under the East India Company, he hastened to the Government Building and entering its court was overcome by its extent and the evident number of its occupants. Not knowing what else to do, he stood in the centre of the square and called his old friend by his school-boy name—"Mac Mac!" and immediately a head, sometimes two or three, appeared at each window and a chorus of "What d'ye want?" startled the visitor. They were all "Macs."

In the list of Indian administrations that of the Marquis of Dalhousie, from 1848 to 1855, stands out pre-eminent for its devotion to the best interests of the country. Under his wise leadership many magnificent public works were inaugurated, a cheap rate of postage was introduced, railways and telegraphs began to bring the people nearer to each other, splendid roads were laid out through the interior, and canals were opened. The social progress of the people was as earnestly regarded by this prince of administrators as any other of the details of wise government, and many reforms were instituted. But although the arts of peace were thus industriously fostered, the more brilliant deeds of war were not wanting to complete the record. A Sikh campaign, and one in Burmah, swelled the roll of Britain's Eastern triumphs and four great kingdoms—Punjab, Pega, Nagpur and Oude, were annexed to the Indian Government. Lord Dalhousie (the Laird o' Cockpen) was born at Dalhousie Castle, near Edinburgh, in 1812, and died there in 1860, at the comparatively early age of 48 years, leaving behind him a name which must ever retain a prominent position in the history of modern India.

Among the Scottish heroes in India, one of the most prominent was Sir David Baird, "the hero of Seringapatarn." He was born at Newbyth in 1757. In 1772 he entered the army. In 1778 he was made a captain in the 73d Highlanders (then just organized), and sailed with them to India. His fighting career began in 1780, when Hyder Ali entered the Carnatie and commenced a bitter war with the British. Towards the close of the year one of the British armies was surprised in all and almost annihilated. A few escaped death but were taken prisoners, and among these was Captain Baird, whose valor in the struggle had won for him the admiration of the European soldiers who acted among the officers of the enemy. He was carried to Seringapatam and thrust into a dungeon. The late Dean Ramsay, in his inimitable "Reminiscences," tells a story in connection with this imprisonment which deserves to be retold. He says: "Mrs. Baird, of Newbyth, the mother of our distinguished countryman, the late General Sir David Baird, was always spoken of as a grand specimen of the class (of old Scotch ladies). When the news arrived from India of the gallant, but unfortunate, action of 1780 against Hyder Ali, in which her son, then Captain Baird, was engaged, it was stated that he and other officers had been taken prisoners and chained together two and two. The friends were careful in breaking such sad news to the mother of Captain Baird. When, however, she was made fully to understand the position of her son and his gallant companions, disdaining all weak and useless expressions of her own grief, and knowing well the restless and athletic habits of her son, all she said was, 'Lord pity the chiel that's chained to our Davy.'" The Dean, in a footnote to this anecdote, says ''It is but due to the memory of 'our Davy' to state that the chiel' to whom he was chained, in writing home to his friends, bore high testimony to the kindness and consideration with which he was treated by Captain Baird." The captives were released in 1784, and in 1789 Baird was able to pay 4 visit to his native land, in 1791 he returned to India, and after four years' further service found himself a colonel. In 1798 he received his commission as major-general, and next year led the storming Party in the victorious assault on Seringapatarn. His services on that occasion won him the admiration of the army and he received the thanks of the British Parliament. In 1800 he commanded the troops in an expedition to Batavia. During the remainder of his military career he added to the prestige of the British nation at the Cape of Good Hope, Copenhagen and Spain. In the latter country he served under a still more famous Scot, Sir John Moore, a Glasgow man, and when that gallant commander was killed at Corunna, Baird took command of the army. A short time afterward he retired from the service. During his active career he received the thanks of Parliament no less than four times. In connection with the famous stronghold of Seringapatam the following may be deemed of interest, as it is quite in keeping with the theme of this essay. Who the author is I know not, as it came before me in the shape of a cutting from some newspaper.

"Many years ago a landed proprietor in a mid-county of Scotland, whom we shall call Stewart of Stewartfield, was outlawed for homicide, and disappeared from the country, leaving no clue to his whereabouts. Time rolled on; and there being still no tidings of the outlaw, his estate was placed under judicial custody, for the benefit of his representatives. After the lapse of many years the property was claimed by a near relative, who became proprietor, and who, in default of direct proof of the outlaw's death, is said to have tendered, on affidavit, the following circumstantial evidence of it, as related by the late Colonel Campbell of the 74th Highlanders.

When Seringapatam was invested by the British forces in 1791, after the defeat of Tippoo Saib's army at the battle of Mallavelly, the Sultan sued for peace. Accordingly, a meeting of commissioners was arranged to take place within a garden-house in the immediate vicinity of the fortress, to draw up a treaty. The commissioners met; and while their proceedings were being engrossed, Colonel Campbell, who was one of the British commissioners, sat intently gazing at the Mohammedan commissioner who sat opposite to him at the table. At length he exclaimed half-aloud to Colonel Edington, another commissioner: 'If Stewart of Stewartfield is alive, that's the man' pointing at the same time to his Mohammedan vis-a-vis. Although the remark must have been heard by the Mohammedan commissioner he made no sign; but on the breaking up of the conference, and as Colonel Campbell was leaving the room, a voice whispered in English from behind him. Don't look round, or it may cost me my life; but meet me alone, outside the sally-gate at midnight tomorrow.' Notwithstanding the warning, Colonel Campbell was startled by the occurrence, and involuntarily looked round, and saw the same grave Mohammedan commissioner, whom he had suspected to be Stewart of Stewartfield, moving off in an opposite direction. Campbell kept the tryst at the spot name; but the other party, whoever he was, never appeared. Cautious inquiries were subsequently instituted about the individual in question; but nothing was elicited; nor was he again seen or heard of by any of the British officers to whom his features had previously been familiar. It was surmised that his communication with the British officer in his own tongue had been over- heard, and that probably he had been assassinated as a traitor—the fate he had anticipated.

"Not once, but several times have I seen a Scotchman inadvertently revealing himself under the garb of a Turk. A few years ago a venerable Mussulman was to be seen daily in the cool of the evening taking his solitary drive along the sea-beach at Madras in his palanquin carriage. Of course he was looked upon as a genuine son of the Prophet, until one day he was taken aback, as many people are, by the exorbitant demand made upon him in an European shop for some European article. His indignant feelings laughed at his disguise, and asserted their nationality in the strong Scotch expression: 'Gude save us; it's no worth a bawbee!' When on my way home, and when on board a small Turkish steamer in the Bay of Alexandria, we were having our luggage passed by two Turkish custom officers. I scannedthe features of one of them, and ventured to say to my friend Major F—, standing beside me: 'If I were a betting man, I would stake something upon that Turk being a Scotchman.' The official heard me; and with a cunning leer, he turned to his companion, and evidently for my satisfaction, addressed him in the broadest Aberdonian dialect.

"A similar story is told of a Perth man who had penetrated into some far interior of Asia—we forget where  he had to see the Pacha, or Bashaw. He was introduced to the great man in his tent. They gathered up their knees, and sat down upon their Carpets. They drank their strong coffee, and smoked their hookahs together in solemn silence; few words, at any rate, passed between them, but, we may trust, sufficient for the occasion. When the man of Perth was about to leave, the Pacha also rose, and following him outside the tent, said, in good strong Doric Scotch 'I kenned ye vera weel in Perth; ye are just sae-and-sae.' The Perth man astonished, as well he might be, until the Pacha exclaimed, as he said, 'I'm just a Perth man mysel'! He had travelled, and he had become of importance to the Goverment there. his story was not very creditable. In the expectation of the post he filled, he had become a Mohammedan. But he was an illustration of the ubiquity of his race."

Another Scot, whose career had a greater influence upon India than is generally acknowledged or understood, was Sir Alexander Burness, a native of Montrose. His father, James Burness, was a cousin of Robert Burns, "Scotia's darling poet." Burness entered the Indian service, and the rapidity with which he acquired a mastery of the Oriental languages and dialects marked him out for important service. In 1832 he was sent on political mission into Central Asia, and, disguised as all passed through Afghanistan to Persia, until he reached Bushire whence he re-embarked for India. His mission was a successful one, and he was publicly thanked by the Governor-General. In 1839 he was appointed political agent or resident at Cabul, and was murdered in 1841 on outbreak of an insurrection in that City.

These three names, including the administrative, military and civil services, must suffice as representative examples of the men which Scotland has furnished to India. To go into detail and mention the Grants, Roses, Napiers, Campbells and others, would require volumes. In fact to describe completely the services rendered to India by Scotch men would necessitate the writing of its history. And this reminds me that the best history of India was written by James Mill, the son of a shoemaker in Montrose, and the father of John Stuart Mill, the philosopher and political economist.

On the sea as on land the Scot Abroad has added to his country's laurels, although by no means to the same extent. This is not a little singular considering the coast line of the country and the large proportion of its inhabitants who daily go down to the sea in ships—or fishing boats. But somehow the sea has always had a mournful, mysterious significance for the Scot. The wild waves of the Atlantic, as they clash with terrible impetuosity on the battered and gnarled western coast, or the awful surges of the German sea as they throw themselves on the eastern shore with deathlike venom arouse an eerie feeling in the minds of the onlooker, and impress him with a dread of the power which lies behind these forces and uses them as a child uses its toys. Then, too, the water is full of treachery. A placid inland sea like the Holy Loch, may be like a mirror beneath the sun, with hardly a ripple on its glassy bosom, or a speck of foam on its fringes as they lazily lap its shores. Then almost as by magic the sky will become dark, a gruesome moaning will be heard, a sheet of lightning will flash across the lift, the thunder will rattle and re-echo among hundreds of hills, and the water be one ugly mass of struggling, seething, engrasping activity, in which no swimmer or boat can hope to live, and which ruthlessly sucks down into its greedy vortex all that was on its once placid surface. Then, as suddenly as it came, the storm will vanish, the sun will resume its monarchy in the heavens, and the water peacefully look up to it as before. And so the story of treachery and desolation might be told of firth and loch, and sea and river, from Solway Sands to Duncansbay Head.

The most prominent of the early mariners of Scotland was Sir Andrew Barton, whose last sea-fight was made the theme of a stirring ballad which is printed in Percy's "Reliques" and other collections. He belonged to a family that had long been noted for their knowledge of the sea and ships, so, when James IV., about the year 1509, made plans for the building of a navy, they were his chief advisers. Under their guidance the "Great Michael," one of the largest warships which the world had then seen was built. Its dimensions may he guessed when we find it stated that it carried 300 seamen and officers, 120 gunners, and 1,000 soldiers. One of Andrew Barton's early exploits was an attack on some Dutchships which had piratically plundered a number of Scotch merchant vessels. Barton with his squadrons captured or sunk most of the Dutch fleet and executed such summary vengeance on the piratical knaves, as forced a degree of respect for the Scottish flag on all the maritime powers of Europe. Barton's last and most disastrous fight was one which was undertaken at the close of a private campaign in search of booty. He, in company with the rest of his family, had fitted out some privates, and proceeded against the Portuguese merchantmen. But the laws which governed the regularity or irregularity of ocean warfare were not very clearly established and that which held sway was—

"The good old rule—the simple plan
That they should take who had the power,
And they should keep who can."

So canny Andrew and his men did not scruple much when a rich English merchantman sailed in their way to overhaul it, and take possession of a share, at least, of its freight. Scotland and England for the time being were at peace, and the complaints of the merchantmen at their losses were hardly deemed of sufficient importance to form a caslis belis. But the Earl of Surrey fitted out two ships, which he placed under the command of his two sons, Lord Thomas and Sir Edward Howard, and sent them in search of the redoubtable Sir Andrew. Their chase was a short one, for in the Downs they sighted Barton's ship, "The Lion," and a small pinnace. The two English war vessels fell on the Scotch ships, and although the latter were unequally matched the fight was obstinate and prolonged. Sir Andrew was mortally wounded in the contest, but even when his life blood was ebbing away on the deck he encouraged his men to keep up the fight by speaking of St. Andrew's cross. Finally a cannon ball struck him in the body and he soon after died. Then the English seamen boarded "The Lion," and taking advantage of the momentary grief and confusion of the Scots at the loss of their captain, secured possession of the ship. Sir Andrew's last words are thus plaintively recorded in the old ballad:

Fight on, my men,' Sir Andrew says,
A little I'm hurt but yet not slain
But I'll lie down and bleed awhile
And then I'll rise and fight again.

Fight on, my men,' Sir Andrew says.
'And never flinch before the foe
And stand fast by St. Andrew's cross
Until you hear my whistle blow.'

* * * *

They never heard his whistle blow
Which made their hearts wax sore adread."

Many people will hardly know whether to regard Sir Andrew as a hero or a pirate, and therefore we gladly turn to a more modern instance to represent the valor of the maritime Scot Abroad. Adam Duncan, a native of Dundee, entered the British navy as a midshipman in 1746, and in 1761, as captain of the 74-gun ship "Valiant," served under Admiral Keppel in the expedition against Havanna. In 1789 he was made a rear-admiral, and in 1793 received the honor of being appointed a vice-admiral. Holland and France being then at war with Britain and Russia, Duncan was made commander of the united North Sea fleet of these latter countries, and his blockade of the Texel was so effective that it ruined the Dutch trade. In 1797 the Russian fleet having left him, he gained the greatest victory in his career when he defeated the Dutch fleet near Camperdown and took Admiral De Winter a prisoner. Duncan was raised to the peerage as Viscount Duncan, and received a pension of £2,000. He returned to Scotland and died there in 1804.

Few careers, whether on land or sea, have been so full of variety, disappointment, troubles, and triumphs as that of Thomas Cochrane, Earl of Dundonald. He was born in 1775 and when in his teens was enrolled in the 104th Regiment. When seventeen years of age he entered the navy and in 1800 was commander of the "Speedy," a 14-gun sloop of war. With it he took in ten months no fewer than 33 vessels, and in 1801 he captured the ''El Gamo," a Spanish frigate. In 1804 he became captain of the frigate "Pallas," and in it made several valuable prizes while cruising off the Spanish coast. He was constantly engaged in deeds which won him the admiration of the service, and probably captured more valuable prizes than any other commander in the British navy at the time. In 1808 he volunteered to conduct the defence of Fort Trinidad on the Catalonian coast, and with only 80 men he defeated 1,000 Spaniards in an attack they made on the castle. Then, after twelve days' persistent fighting against vastly superior numbers, he blew the place up and returned to his ship. In 1809 the Admiralty ordered him to try and burn the French fleet then lying at anchor blockaded in the Basque Roads, and he went on board a fire-ship containing 1,500 barrels of gunpowder and accompushed his mission with complete success. Civic honors now flowed upon him and on returning to Britain he was knighted and elected M. P. for Westminster. His civic career was not a success owing to his out-spokenness and ignorance of the ways and wiles of the world. He accused one of his superiors in the navy, Lord Gambier, of incompetency. There seems to be no doubt that his charges were perfectly true, but he could not fully substantiate them, and after a very partial trial Lord Gambier was acquitted. His lordship's influence, however, told severely against Cochrane and not only prevented his advancement in the navy but impaired his influence and social standing. In 1814 he was accused, very wrongfully, of having taken part in some fraudulent stock jobbing transactions and being found guilty after a mockery of a trial was sentenced to pay a fine of £1,000 and suffer a year's imprisonment. He was also deprived of his knighthood, dismissed from the navy and expelled from the House of Commons. His Westminster constituents at once re-elected him, and having made his escape from prison he again made his appearance in the Commons. Growing tired of civil life he went to South America where he offered his sword to the republic of Chili and was made commander of its navy. This gave him the opportunity of again fighting his old enemies—the Spaniards. The success of the young republic was mainly due to his exertions and some of his deeds done in its service were as heroic as any that have ever been recorded in the history of naval warfare. Then he went to Brazil where Dom Pedro gave him command of his fleet and made him a marquis. In 1827 and 1828 he played an active part on the side of the Greeks in their struggle for independence. His gallant career abroad had meanwhile endeared him to his countrymen at home, and as his innocence of the charges brought against him in 1814 had long been clear, the British government, probably unconsciously exemplifying the truth of the old adage that "nothing succeeds like success," restored him to his rank in the navy in 1830, and next year he succeeded to the earldom of Dundonald. In his profession he steadily rose, until in 1854 he became rear-admiral of the United Kingdom and enjoyed other honors conferred upon him by his sovereign. But his fighting days were done. The best eighteen years of his life had been lost to Britain through the force of political malice and favoritism, and his latter days were spent in scientific pursuits. He died in 1860 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, leaving behind him a name which will ever be honored in Great Britain. His life, however, was darkened by the unjust persecution of which he had been a victim and until the day of his death, he did not regard his later honors as an equivalent for the wrong which had been inflicted upon him. In 1877 his heirs presented a petition to the Queen, asking for compensation for his eighteen years' loss of pay as a naval officer, and the petition was granted, thus clearing the memory of the hero of whatever of the stigma still rested upon it, and acknowledging that a wrong had been done. But the acknowledgment was too late to be of value to him whom it concerned the most.

Scotsmen have always been fabulous as travelers or discoverers in foreign lands and there is hardly a country, outside of those in Europe, in which the prying, inquisitive eyes of our countrymen have not brought to light its history, antiquities, topography or manners and customs. And in all their travels the Scots are distinguished for the shrewd, practical manner in which they generally turn their discoveries to account. It was Robert Fortune, a Berwickshire man, for instance, who introduced the tea plant from China into the northern provinces of India as a result of his travels and observations in both countries. He started in life as a journeyman gardener and rose until the Botanical Society of London sent him to China to explore botanically the northern part of that vast empire. His works on China are among the best books yet written on the flowery kingdom, and as an authority on its botany and kindred studies he was regarded as without an equal. He died at London in 1880, honored and respected for his character and attainments by all the scientific circles in the metropolis.

To attempt to enumerate the adventures, discoveries, escapes, and heroism of Scottish travelers would require a series of volumes, and even a bare catalogue of their names would swell this essay far beyond its intended limit. I will, therefore, confine myself to one section of the world—Africa, the dark continent as it has been called—and briefly refer to a few of the men whose travels have helped, at least, to dissipate the gloom which so long hung over it and made it stand still, while the rest of the world progressed.

William Lithgow, a quaint traveler, poet and prose writer, who was born at Lanark about 1582 and died there about 1660, made a journey through the states along the northern coast of Africa. Lithgow was a most indefatigable traveler and journeyed on foot through Italy, Greece, Turkey, Palestine, Hungary and Poland. Once, at Malaga, he was arrested as a spy, and suffered terrible tortures, at least he tells us so himself. Modern critics, however, have made it rather fashionable to doubt the strictness of Lithgow's veracity, and much of his published adventures is deemed fabulous. He seems to have been a very simple-minded, garrulous man whose adventures always had some foundation, although he may unconsciously have magnified several of them, as was generally the custom among early travelers.

A later and better known traveler, was Mungo Park, who was born in 1771 at Fowlshiels, near Selkirk. Bred a physician, but evidently imbued with a desire to be an explorer, he undertook a journey of discovery in Africa under the auspices of the London African Association in 1795. He was captured by a native king and treated with the utmost barbarity. When he got a chance he escaped from captivity and after a series of extraordinary adventures reached Mandingo where he lay ill for many weeks. In 1797 he returned to Britain and published an account of his travels, and the work created a great amount of interest. Thinking he had done enough, he married and settled at Peebles as a physician. But the quiet of home-life soon palled upon him and the fact that he had been unable to discover the source of the Niger, the object of his first journey, made him long for another opportunity of achieving success. In 1805, therefore, he undertook to lead another African expedition at the expense of the government. From that journey he never returned, as with some of his companions he was either murdered by the natives while sailing up the Niger, or was drowned while navigating one of its narrow channels. Although unsuccessful in the main purpose of his journeying, Park did good service to Africa, as by his writings he invested it with a great degree of popular interest, while he threw considerable light on the meteorology and botany of the sections through which he passed.

Another explorer, a contemporary whose African travels created more excitement than Park's, was James Bruce, of Kinnaird, Stirlingshire, where he was born in 1730. He was educated for the bar, but finding the law hardly to his taste he prepared to go to India with the view of engaging in business. Circumstances so shaped themselves, however, that he found himself at Algiers in 1763 as British consul, and from that time dated his African travels, which were undertaken for the purpose of discovering the source of the Nile. He returned to Britain in 1773, and henceforth lived the life of all country gentleman, fond of society and its pleasures, and a recognized virtuoso in matters pertaining to literature, science and art. From a picture in Kay's "Edinburgh Portraits" Bruce appears to have been a man commanding presence, over six feet in height and stout in proportion. His celebrated "Travels" were not published until seventeen years after his return from Africa, and their statements were very generally ridiculed, and his facts were regarded as so many fables devised for entertaining, instead of edifying the enlightened British public. Many people, in fact, refused to believe that Bruce had ever been in Abyssinia at all, and it is said that the famous "Adventures of Baron Munchausen ''was written as a satire upon himself and his travels. More recent travelers have verified Bruce's statements even to the most minute details, but the malicious criticism which assailed him gave the laird of Kinnaird a good deal of annoyance. In connection with this the following amusing anecdote was contributed by the late James Paterson, the Ayrshire historian, to Kay's "Edinburgh Portraits:" "It is said that once, when on a visit to a relative in East Lothian, a person present observed that it was impossible that the natives of Abyssinia could eat raw meat. Bruce very quietly left the room, and shortly afterward returned from the kitchen with a raw beef-steak, peppered and salted in the Abyssinian fashion. 'You will be pleased to eat this,' he said 'or fight me.' The gentleman preferred the former alternative, and with no good grace contrived to swallow the proffered delicacy. When he had finished, Bruce calmly observed 'Now, Sir, you will never again say it is impossible.'" Mr. Paterson also states that "Bruce took with him in his travels a telescope so large that it required six men to carry it. He assigned the following reason to a friend—that, exclusive of its utility, it inspired the nations through which he passed with great awe, as they thought he had some immediate connection with heaven and they paid more attention to it than they did to himself." Bruce died in 1794 from the effects of an accident.

Hugh Clapperton, the first European who penetrated into the interior of Africa from the Bight of Benin, was born at Annan, Dumfries-shire, in 1788. When seventeen years of age he was impressed into the British Navy and rose to the rank of lieutenant. His first African journey was undertaken in 1822 and had for its purpose the discovery of the source of the Niger. The expedition was unsuccessful and Clapperton returned to Britain. He started again in 1825 and was on a fair way of attaining his great object when the hardships of the journey so affected his health that he died near Sakkatu in April, 1827. Clapperton by his writings contributed much to the stock of information which the world possessed regarding the geography and climate of the interior of Africa, and of the manners and customs of many of its peoples.

To mention the services to the cause of the advancement of Africa by such men as Dr. Robert Moffat and his more famous son-in-law, Dr. David Livingstone, seems needless as the stories of their lives have almost become household narratives, so wonderful are they for the exhibits they furnish of earnest, patient, Christian endeavor, backed by singleness of purpose, heroism in action, and a sturdy determination to triumph in their work, not merely for the glory it might win for themselves, but for bringing the heathen to a knowledge of Christ and removing from the continent the evils which slavery, ignorance and idolatry had so long held sway over it. Since they labored, Africa is no longer an unknown continent. Day after day its most secret places are being penetrated. Discovery and the Bible go hand in hand, and in every part of its vast territory Scottish missionaries are to he found carrying the gospel message to all the people and bearing wherever they go a knowledge of civilization, liberty and the truest phase of life. If we look at the map of Africa to-day and compare it with the simple outline which did service only a quarter of a century ago we can understand the great advance which the continent has made during that brief epoch, and that advance has been brought about more by the efforts and courage of the Scot Abroad than by the travelers of all the other nations of the earth combined.

Hitherto I have treated only of the Scot Abroad as an individual, without noticing any of the many instances in which colonies of Scotsmen have gone to foreign lands, hoping by mutual assistance and continual intercourse to render the pangs of separation from the motherland less irksome. In another article (the Scot in America) I have mentioned some of these colonies which settled in the United States and Canada, and I will close this essay by recalling another colony, the result of which was disastrous to all concerned and which created considerable ill-feeling in Scotland against the government of the day, and still continues a dark blot upon the history of the reign of William of Orange. I refer to the famous Darien scheme of 1698. Briefly told, the story of this disastrous affair is as follows" William Paterson, a native of Tinwald, Durnfries-shire, the projector of the Bank of England, conceived the idea of founding a colony on the isthmus of Panama. On paper the scheme looked well enough, as from its situation such a colony would he a central depot for the exchange of the commerce of both hemispheres. The matter at once caught the popular fancy in Scotland and the Darien company was established by an act of the Scottish Parliament in 1695. Sir Walter Scott thus describes the furore which the scheme created: "The hopes entertained of the profits to accrue from the speculation were in the last degree sanguine; not even the Solemn League and Covenant was argued with more eager enthusiasm. Almost everyone who had or who could command any sum of ready money embarked it in the Indian and African Company; many subscribed their all, maidens threw in their portions, and widows whatever sums they could raise upon their dower to be repaid an hundred fold by the golden shower which was to descend upon the subscribers. Some sold estates to vest the money in the company's funds, and, so eager was the spirit of speculation that, when £800,000 formed the whole circulating capital of Scotland, half of that sum was vested in the Darien stock." In England £300,000 was subscribed to the scheme, and £200,000 in Holland. King William III, however, who at first favored the scheme, thinking it would divert the attention of the Scottish people from several grievances (such as the massacre of Glencoe), soon turned his influence against it, and as a direct result of this the subscription promised in Holland was almost wholly withdrawn. Then in the English Parliament a bitter animosity was shown to the scheme and the old antagonism between England and Scotland was fanned into life again, the result being that the English subscription was also withdrawn.

All this opposition, however, seems only to have acted as an incentive to the Scotch to carry out the scheme to maturity, and the eloquence of Paterson and his coadjutors inspired the people with the idea that their national honor was bound up in the project. The Scotch took the entire burden on their own shoulders and manfully pushed forward the necessary arrangements for organizing the colony. In July, 1698, five frigates, purchased from the Dutch, lay in Leith Roads, and in them 1,200 men embarked for the land of promise. They reached the Isthmus in safety. Land was at once purchased from the native princes, and the territory thus acquired was called New Caledonia. They laid out a site for a town, which was to bear the name of New Edinburgh, and located a fort which they designated New St. Andrews. Their prospects seemed excellent. The native rulers were kind and friendly, the harbor in front of their possessions was a magnificent one, and the weather was delightful.

But the day-dream was soon over. The heat of the following summer was intense, and pestilence and disease played sad havoc in the ranks of the colonists. Then their supplies failed before they could gather any harvest from the soil, and an appeal for aid to the other colonies in America, simply elicited the statement that the king had not sanctioned the colony and was ignorant of its purposes or designs. On these grounds the older settlements at Jamaica, New York and elsewhere, refused any assistance or even recognition, and the unfortunates were left to starve, so far as fraternal aid or charity were concerned. Under such circumstances the colony incited away. Most of them found rest beneath the soil of New Caledonia, and those who were able to leave wandered hither and thither in search of even the bare necessaries of life, glad to escape from the scene of their misery and failure. A few reached New York in a miserable condition and excited the sincere sympathy of the people. Meanwhile nothing of all this was known in Scotland, and another expedition was then being fitted out comprising 1,300 men. After a stormy passage, in which one of their ships was lost, this detachment arrived at the colony only to find it deserted and to experience the same ill fortune that befel their predecessors. The Spaniards, too, in the surrounding country began to threaten and molest the colonists and the latter were glad when they were joined, a few months after their arrival, by Captain Campbell, of Finab, and 300 men from his own estate, all of whom had been trained to the use of arms. The political friendship which King William had meantime manifested toward the king of Spain, had caused him to leave the colony even more severely alone than before, and it was with his passive consent, at least, that the Spaniards, who had from the beginning looked upon the settlement as an intrusion upon their rights and territory, determined to crush it out of existence. Captain Campbell and his soldiers offered a gallant resistance, but the presence of superior numbers around their stronghold and famine within, forced them to surrender to the enemy in six weeks. They had made a brave fight and the Spaniards proved as gallant conquerors. Says one writer: ''Captain Campbell stood a siege near six weeks until almost all his officers were dead; the enemy by their approaches had cut off his wells, and his balls were so far expended that he was obliged to melt the pewter dishes of the garrison into balls. The garrison then capitulated and obtained not only the common honors of war and security for the property of the company, hut, as if they had been conquerors, exacted hostages for performance of the conditions. Captain Campbell also desired to be exempted from the capitulation, saying he was sure the Spaniards could not forgive him the mischief he had so lately done them. The brave, by their courage, often escape that death which they seem to provoke. Captain Campbell made his escape in his vessel, and stopping nowhere, arrived safely in New York, and from thence to Scotland where the company presented him with a gold medal on which his valor was commemorated." Of the colonists only thirty returned to Scotland, and among these was Paterson, the projector, whose chagrin over the failure of the scheme, made him for a time a lunatic.

When the full story of the disaster was understood in Scotland, a wall of anguish spread over the country, to be followed by a sentiment of bitter resentment against the king and his advisers. At Edinburgh, says Arnot in his history of the Scottish capital, "Violent addresses were presented to the king, and the mob were so outrageous that the Commissioners and officers of State found it prudent to retire for a few days, lest they should have fallen sacrifices to popular fury."

It has become the fashion during recent years to exonerate King William from all blame in the Darien catastrophe, but truth is stronger than the arguments of special pleaders, and "Glencoe and Darien" remain as foul blots upon the story of his administration of affairs in Scotland. Lord Macaulay ridicules the scheme itself as being visionary, but no one who has read anything of the history of colonies will care to endorse that view in the management of the scheme there were certainly grave errors, and the popular imagination aroused a degree of expectation which could hardly be immediately realized, but that is all which can be urged against it. Paterson himself was an honest believer in the project and suffered for his belief. The jealousy of England and Holland was too stongly arrayed to permit William to give the colony the moral support which his Scottish subjects demanded, and so the scheme was sacrificed, to the disgust and dismay of the kingdom. In the whole matter, the king showed a heartlessness and indifference which even the charmed pen of Macaulay cannot fully explain away; and the fugitives from the colonies received more genuine kindness from the hands of the conquering Spaniards than they did from the officials in America of the English king, simply because of his studied and selfish neglect.

"The Scot Abroad" is a delightful theme, and one on which many authors have written. The subject is not yet exhausted nor will it be until the nation loses many of its grandest characteristics, and the national spirit has forever gone. Day after day, in every corner of the world, Scotsmen are weaving new links in the story; and by their prowess, energy, steadfastness and devotedness in the army, the navy, trade, commerce, art and science, as well as in the religious and moral upbuilding of each community in which their lot is cast, they are continually adding new glories to their already brilliant record. If Scotsmen owe much to the kindly reception they seem to meet with throughout the world, they fully repay the debt wherever it has been contracted. What has been written in this paper is simply a hurried gleaning from many fields, a ''swatch" of what has been done, but it is sufficient to show that the Scot Abroad deserves well of his countrymen at home, and is entitled to kindly recognition among the factors which have preserved the fame of the nationality intact, when the course of time and the progress of events should almost have made it be regarded as only a small part of Great Britain.

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