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History of the County of Bruce, Ontario, Canada
Town of Kincardine

[The reader will please consult a footnote at the opening of Chapter XXXII. as to the origin of the name "Kincardine." Kincardine at first was known as Penetangore, which name was bestowed at the time of its survey into a town plot, being derived from the river of that name that there finds its way into the lake. The settlement which was early formed there came to be known by the name of the township, and Kincardine being a word that fitted more easily an English tongue than did the long Indian word of Penetangore, it gradually grew into common use and was chosen to designate the post-office when it was established in 1851. Both names were in current use until the settlement was incorporated as a village in 1S58. An interchangeable use of the two names was common and will also be found in this History. Penetangore was retained as the name of the port by the Customs Department until, by Order-in-Council, 8th October, 1875, " Kincardine, late Penetangore," was constituted a Port of Entry and a Warehousing Port.]

In proceeding to the narrative of Kincardine's history, it is with the great advantage of a description of the place as it appeared fresh from nature's hand, which gives the reader an opportunity of comparing the town as it is at the present time with its pristine aspect, and, if pensively inclined, to contemplate what has been wrought during a half century to make or mar. The description of Kincardine above referred to is A. P. Brough's report to the Commissioner of Crown Lands of the survey of the town plot, which was made in 1849, and which, with some slight omissions, is here given at length:

"The town of Penetangore embraces a tract of land 110 chains in length, with an average width of 93 chains, and contains about 1,023 acres divided into building and park lots. It is situated on Lake Huron at the western terminus of the Durham Road, on a river of the same name, which here empties itself into Lake Huron. The name Penetangore is a corruption of the Indian name Na-Benem-tan-gaugh, signifying 'the river with the sand on one side.'  [In the Geological Report of work done in this part of the province in 1848, the Penetangore River is referred to as the "Big Pine River," and further says: ''The epithet 'Big,' however, is probably intended to qualify the wood rather than the water; the surface is thickly grown over with pine of large size." The mouth of the river at that time was situated about 100 yards south of where the railway station is now. On one side was the clay bluff and on the other a sand dune, hence the Indian name.] The lake at Penetangore is bordered by a sandy beach about three chains in width and which is skirted by a bank from 4 to 10 feet in height, on the top of which a narrow strip of table land three to four chains in width occurs, and along which Saugeen and Goderich Streets run; there then occurs a higher bank of from 60 to 80 feet elevation over the lake, and which appears to have formed the original and permanent boundary to the waters of Lake Huron. Having ascended this bank, the country presents a level surface, constituting a table land of a dry, sandy loam soil and admirably adapted for building on. It is almost entirely free from swamp, and the whole included space may be considered as entirely available for the purposes for which it was intended; both from its elevated situation, the dryness of its soil and the purity of the water, it may be regarded as an exceedingly healthy situation for a town and free from ague and other diseases that new towns in this climate are often subject to.

"The river Penetangore is exceedingly serpentine in its course and runs through a broad valley composed of rich flats, dry for the most part, and which lie at a depth of 50 to 60 feet below the natural surface of the adjoining table land. There are numerous springs of pure water issuing from the high banks over the valley, and the whole tract is intersected at several points by small streams. The river is composed of two main branches which unite at Victoria Street; they are of nearly similar capacities, about 70 feet in width with an average depth above the point of junction of 3 feet. During very dry summer weather the water in these channels becomes very low, but at all other seasons of the year they contain an abundant supply of water. From the present sawmill at 'Huron Terrace' down to the reserve for basin there is an average depth of 8 feet and a width of 64 feet; from there to the mouth it is shallow and may be considered useless for any purposes of navigation. The mouth itself is very narrow and generally contains only one foot of water, and when strong westerly winds blow, the shifting of the sands causes it to fill up and the water seeks some other outlet into the lake. To meet this defect I have proposed to make a new cut at the large bend in the river at the end of Saugeen Street, where there is 8 to 10 feet of water. The river at this point approaches within 4½ chains of the lake, the expense of the cut would be trifling, and by carrying out two paralled piers into the lake to about 18 feet of water, I conceive that all impediments from the shifting of the sands would be avoided and a safe, easy access to the town accomplished.

"On the inside I have made a reserve for a small basin of 5½ acres in extent, should the importance of the place justify the outlay for the construction of it. The ground is composed of low flats, and is situated at the foot of Russell Street on Huron Terrace, and as the river in its natural state is very narrow, such a basin is absolutely necessary to accommodate any considerable amount of trade; and as the country in the rear of Penetangore is a noble tract for agricultural purposes, it may be expected that at no distant day Penetangore will become an important shipping port for agricultural produce.

"The timber within the town reserve consists of beech, maple, elm and hemlock chiefly, and a few oak are met with on the north side of the town, but there is no pine of any consequence with the exception of a narrow belt of small red pine on the margin of the beach, that must prove of much advantage to the first settlers, but is of no importance as an article of trade.

"There are three mill-sites laid off within the town reserve, the lowest on the river being the present sawmill lately erected by Mr. Withers. It is a substantial, well-framed building, and was in full operation during the last summer and fall; and Mr. Withers informed me that it was his intention to build a grist mill during the current season, so as to have it in operation by the summer of 1851. Mr. Withers proposes to have 7½ feet of head water to supply his mills, and by allowing him to raise his dam so as to obtain that head there 'will be no impediment caused by back water to the efficient working of the other mills, situated the one on lot No. 4 on Park Street, and the other on park lot "No. 2 on Wellington Avenue; the former mill site had an elevation of 13¼ feet above the bed of the flume at the sawmill owned by Mr. Withers, and the mill site on lot No. 2 Wellington Avenue, has an elevation of 11½ feet above the same point.

"I have reserved park lot No. 9 on the east side of Park Street, five acres in extent, as a public burial ground for the use of the town. I had no directions in my instructions to do so, but the matter was so pleasing to the settlers and is in itself of so much importance, that I should hope the Department will give the sanction to it.

"I have made no reserve for churches or school-houses, as I consider that any of the building lots would suffice for that purpose, and parties wishing to erect churches, by applying to the Department will have no difficulty, I conceive, in procuring suitable sites, either gratis or at a moderate purchase

"The river Penetangore is so winding in its course that most of the streets have to cross it, and in selecting the positions of the several streets I was guided by the principle of making them cross the river at the most favorable points for erecting bridges, hence the width of the blocks extending from street to street are not of uniform dimensions, by reason of which the size of the building lots on some of the streets are half an acre, while in others, as Victoria and Princess Streets, they are only quarter acres, but half-acre building-lots are the prevailing size, and in the case of broken lots some are much larger.

"There are two market-places laid off at opposite extremities of the town, containing three and a half acres each; they are located upon dry, level ground, and are surrounded with handsome building lots of half-acre size. The Durham market is supposed to accommodate all the settlers of the township who occupy the north side of the Durham Road, while Elgin market is intended for the south concession, Kincardine Avenue, on which it is situated, being a continuation of the south concession line. I may observe in general of the park lots, that they vary in size from 5 to 21 acres, are composed of a good sandy loam soil, and are well adapted for cultivation, and would be suited to growing of fruit and vegetables. On the north side of Durham Street I laid off a range of one and two-acre building lots, my reason for doing so being to embrace the whole of lake lot No. 11, through the centre of which Durham Street runs. By this means there are none of the lake lots interfered with; those occupied by the town are entire lots and no portions of the adjoining lots are encroached on.

"For further information I would beg to refer to you the field notes and plan, where all details are fully set forth.

"All of which is respectfully submitted.

"I have.the honor to be, sir,
"Your very obedient servant,
"Allen Park Brough, P.L.S.
"Toronto, May, 1850."

In Chapter III. is to be found the narrative of the settlement made at Kincardine in 1848. It is there recorded because this was the pioneer settlement of the county. The reader is asked to overlook any repetition of facts there mentioned, it being unavoidable in order to present a connected recital of events in the history of the town.

The undisputed distinction of being the first settlers at Kincardine belongs to Allan Cameron and William Withers. Shortly after the opening of navigation in the spring of 1848 [The exact date is said to have been March 5th, 1848.] these two men and their effects were landed at the mouth of the Penetangore River from the schooner owned and sailed by Captain A. Murray MacGregor. Close to the spot where they landed they built a log house, in which Mr. Cameron kept hotel, and at a later date John Keyworth kept store.

Some few settlers whose names are mentioned in Chapter III. joined them that summer. For the first year or so the settlement was confined to the flats in the neighborhood of the harbor and beach. It was there that the first two stores were opened. Withers' sawmill was where Mr. Macpherson's orchard is. Patrick Downie's hotel occupied the site where stands the brick building of the Rightmeyer Salt Works, and Francis Walker's hotel stood where the storehouse of the same works is at present.

The reader will bear in mind that the appearance of the town has changed most markedly in the vicinity of the harbor. The present basin has been excavated from a flat tract of land, originally well wooded. The course of the river has also been changed. Instead of flowing, straight out into the lake, as at present, it took a sharp bend to the south at a point near the inward end of the south pier, and pursuing a southerly course parallel to the beach for about three hundred yards, and entered the lake opposite the present railway engine house, the river along this distance being separated from the lake by a sand dune some twenty feet high, which sustained a stunted growth of evergreens. This sand dune, which barred a shorter outlet from the river, was cut through at the instance of Francis Walker. The exact year when this was done the author has been unable to fix. In 1856, the year he arrived at Kincardine, he had no difficulty in stepping across the small stream which flowed through the cutting which had been made. This he could not do when he reached the original mouth of the river, the flow of water there being too deep. That fall and winter contractors were at work driving piles for the two piers; between these the spring freshet of 1857 poured its waters, enlarging the channel, which since then has been the outlet of the river into the lake.

To engage in lumbering seems to have been Mr. Withers' [Wm. Withers was a native of Portsmouth, England, and had resided in the county of Oxford prior to coming to Bruce. During the later years of his residence at Kincardine he filled the position of Inland Revenue Officer. In 1881 he moved to the State of Oregon, residing at Astoria where he died in 1883, aged 81.] object in coming into the bush, so he proceeded to erect a dam and sawmill, which was in operation the following year. The spot where it Was built is fully referred to in the chapter on "The Pioneers," and further particulars are given elsewhere in this chapter.

In 1849 two stores were opened at Kincardine. The names of these two enterprising merchants were John Riach (pronounced Ray by the settlers) and William Rastall. Which took precedence as to the time of commencing business is hardly worth discussing, though each has partisans to sustain their claim to this honor. John Riach had in earlier life been a commercial traveller for a Glasgow firm on the Continent. Coming to Canada, he tried his hand at farming, somewhere near Goderich. Not succeeding thereat, he purchased a small stock of goods and came to Penetangore, with the intention of developing a trade there, and "grow up with the place." Building a small board shanty, near where the railway station is now, he there kept store for some time. His wife was the, eldest daughter of Thomas Harris, a prominent man in the early settlement of Kincardine Township, who built for the accommodation of his son-in-law's business the frame building on the west side of the market square, still standing, and known for years as the British American Hotel. [After Riach went out of business this stand was occupied by James Legear; on his leaving it (about 1854, '55) the building for forty years was used as an hotel, the first tenant being Thomas Kennard, who was succeeded by George Smith.] William Rastall, prior to his settlement at Kincardine, had carried on a trade with the Indians at Saugeen, as related in Chapter III. During the first twenty years of the history of Bruce no one filled a more prominent position, or was more generally esteemed, than William Rastall, and it is with pleasure that particulars of his life, obtained largely from his son Herbert and his brother Richard, are given in the accompanying footnote. [William Rastall was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, December 16th, 1827. When he was but six years of age his father, Dr. Samuel Rastall, emigrated to Canada and settled at Goderich. At the age of fourteen he went to Saugeen, under an engagement with Hugh Johnston, at that time engaged in trading with the Indians. Later on, when he was only about seventeen years of age, William Rastall engaged in the same business on his own account at Saugeen ; subsequently, in 1849 he commenced a general mercantile business at Penetangore, his first shop being a "lean-to " at the side of Allan Cameron's tavern. Later on he removed to a log house he had built on the south side of the Market Square, where the planing mill now stands. This gave place to a block of frame buildings which he was occupying when he sold out his stock and mercantile interests to Joseph Cooke in 1856. After that, for a number of years, he conducted a conveyancing and insurance business. In 1880 he removed to Orangeville, where, in company with his son-in-law, J. H. Brownell, he published the Orangeville Advertiser, which they conducted for several years, when Mr. Rastall removed to Detroit, where he died, October 18th, 1890. Mr. Rastall married, in 1850, Miss Mary I. Cameron, eldest daughter of Allan Cameron. She survives her husband and resides with her son Herbert in Detroit. Mr. Rastall was the first reeve of the "United Townships within the County of Bruce.'' In 1854 he was reeve of the united townships of Kincardine, Bruce and Kinloss. When, in 1858, Kincardine village became a municipality, he was the first reeve of it, but resigned during the year. He was reeve of the village for the years 1859, '60, '61, '66, '67, '68 and '69. In politics he was a Reformer and in 1867, at the first general election held after Confederation he ran for the Dominion House of Commons, but was defeated by' his opponent, Francis Hurdon.]

The inflow of settlers into Bruce in the early fifties was steady and continuous. Very many of these looked to Kincardine as the base . from which supplies were to be obtained. The natural result of supply and demand seeking to adjust themselves resulted in storekeepers being more plentiful at Kincardine in those days than they are to-day, over half a century later. The first to follow Messrs. Riach and Rastall in storekeeping was David MacKendrick, who in 1851 opened a small store situated near where the river entered the lake at that time. Shortly afterward he built a large log house on the west side of Queen Street, north of the Market Square. This was followed by the erection of a frame building, which is still standing, in which he conducted his business until he finally sold out and retired from business. David MacKendrick was appointed postmaster at the time the office at Kincardine was opened in 1851. Public life he sought not, and it must, in a measure, have been somewhat against his will that he filled the position of reeve for the township of Kincardine in the years 1856-57. Old settlers have a kindly remembrance of David McKen-drick. They knew that he scorned anything that had the least appearance of being dishonorable, and so forgave an unfortunate excitability of temper which gave rise to incidents that used to be recounted with a kindly smile at the time, to record which might create, in the mind of those who knew him not, a wrong impression of a character which was sound at the core.

Penetangore, as originally surveyed, had as its northerly limit the range of lots lying on the north side of Durham Street. All of that part of the town now known as Williamsburg has been added by a subdivision of lots 12 to 15 of the Lake Range in the township of Kincardine. The name Williamsburg was given by William Sutton, who had these farm lots surveyed into town lots. [This survey was made by John Denison, P.L.S., in June, 1855 and June, 1856. The Crown patent for lots 12 and 13, Lake Range, was issued ' to William Sutton ; for lot 14 to his nephew, Richard Sutton, and for lot 15 to John Monilaus. One George Moffat squatted on the lots afterwards held by William Sutton, and in 1849 he offered to sell his claim for $8 to Robert Rowan, who declined the offer. William Sutton probably purchased from George Moffat his squatter's claim.]

Francis Walker (familiarly spoken of as "Paddy Walker") is a name not to be overlooked in any relation of Kincardine's early days. He drove from Goderich on the ice, in the spring of 1850, passing the insignificant settlement at Kincardine town plot without noticing it, and had proceeded as far as Stoney Island when hearing the sound of Capt. Rowan's axe, as he worked at under-brushing, he looked him up, and was directed back to the settlement that he had failed to notice in passing. There Mr. Walker resided continuously until the day of his death a quarter of a century later. The need of a grist mill was a want keenly felt by the settlers who raised the first harvests of grain in the county of Bruce. William Sutton [Wm. Sutton was born in Yorkshire, 29th February, 1828, and at an early age he learnt the business of a saddler. He came to Kincardine in 1850. His enterprising, energetic character gave him a prominent position in the settlement, a prominence retained during the forty-three years of his residence in the county. He was reeve of Kincardine from 1862 to 1865, and took a notable part in the settlement of the county town question. On the separation of Huron and Bruce he received the appointment of sheriff of the latter county, which office he held until 1892. In 1873 he became interested in lumbering in British Columbia and made money, but lost heavily through agents in Australia, to whom he had shipped the produce of his mills. In 1893 he formed a new company, called " The Sutton Lumber and Trading Co.," of Euculet, B.C., which he was conducting at the time of his death, which occurred March 10th, 1896, at Victoria, B.C. In 1852 he married Sarah, daughter of John Keyworth. His widow (who died in 1905) and six children survived him.] decided to supply this need, and proceeded to construct a dam across the north branch of the Penetangore, [This dam was utilized to support the superstructure of a bridge, largely used by those who came into town by way of the Durham Road.] and to erect a mill at what still is known as "Sutton's Hollow." The mill was of logs and of modest dimensions. The required pair of mill stones were in due time landed on the beach, but before they were removed a storm sprang up. The loose sand on which the stones lay was quickly washed from beneath them by the heavy surf, or else transformed thereby into the nature of quicksand, and the stones were "drowned," to use the expressive phrase of an old settler, as he described their disappearance. This serious disaster was productive of delay, but did not diminish the efforts of Mr. Sutton, who purchased another pair of stones, and in 1852 had the first grist mill in the county in operation. Settlers who before had taken their grists to Durham or Port Albert were now able to dispense with such long journeys. Being, however, the only mill in the county, many a pioneer found he had a long and weary distance to cover before he could get his grist to "Sutton's Mill." It is related of such that while waiting for their grists to be finished they would light a hot fire on one of the large boulders near by, and when this was sufficiently heated, on it they would bake a cake, made from their newly ground flour and water crudely mixed. Unleavened and unseasoned such a cake certainly was, but to a hungry backwoodsman, tasting the initial harvest of his bush farm, it was delicious. Mr. Sutton, after running this mill for several years, built, in 1854, a much larger frame one, and in a few years later one of still greater capacity, which he continued to operate as long as he was in the milling business.

The dam built by William Withers, on what is shown in the map of the town as Mill Block No. 1, was washed away by a freshet. As he never had obtained any title from the Crown to the property, he took the frame of his mill to pieces and set it up again on his farm on the south line, where he had water-power. John Keyworth came out from England in 1851, and on August 22nd of that year applied to the Crown for this Mill Block. He also at the same time contracted for the erection of a good-sized frame mill building. On his return from England the next year, where he had gone to fetch his family, he found that the contractor had so botched his job of framing that the building could not be put together or erected. Peeling disappointed, Mr. Keyworth gave up the idea of milling, and confined himself to keeping store, continuing thereat until his death, in March, 1861.

In the winter of 1853-54 Malcolm MacPherson [Malcolm MacPherson was born in Perthshire, Scotland, June 1st, 1806, and came to Canada in 1815, when his parents immigrated to this country. The family settled where Perth is now, and Mr. MacPherson's father felled the first tree cut on its site. Mr. MacPherson learned the trade of carpenter and joiner, and in his early days built many of the houses in Perth. He also, for eight years, was surveyor for the united counties of Lanark and Renfrew. In February, 1854, he moved his family to Kincardine. He brought his family in a covered sleigh in which there was placed a small stove. At Arthur the stable in which all his effects were placed for the night was burned and he lost everything but the clothes in which he and the members of the family stood in. Arriving at Kincardine he, by strenuous efforts, succeeded in overcoming his loss. In the running of the mill he was assisted by his son John. Mr. MacPherson was married in 1832 to Elizabeth MacPherson, of Ernesttown, a daughter of a U. E. Loyalist. They had a family of eleven children. For about sixty years Mr. MacPherson was an elder of the Presbyterian Church. He was mainly instrumental in the forming of a congregation in Kincardine in connection with the Church of Scotland. In politics he was a prominent Reformer. His death occurred November 23rd, 1893.] came to Kincardine, and made arrangements to build both a grist and a sawmill and the necessary dam to obtain water-power. Mr. MacPherson was for many years the proprietor of this mill, which is still operated, but it has passed through several hands since Mr. MacPherson disposed of it. It is now run by steam power, the water in the river for years past being insufficient to supply constant power throughout the year.

William Macklem (for many years a resident of Kincardine) settled there in the winter of 1849-50, and about 1853-54 built an oatmeal mill on the north branch of the river, north of Russell Street. This, with the mills operated by William Sutton and Malcolm MacPherson, fully supplied the needs of the farmers.

The work of cutting the standing timber on the streets in the town, as well as logging and burning it, was no small undertaking to the handful of settlers. For some time progress was slow. James Henry, who arrived at Kincardine August 18th, 1851, related how he assisted to fell some large trees then standing on Queen Street opposite his property at the head of Harbor Street. Mr. Henry was the first path-master appointed for the village. Many a log heap had to be disposed of before there was a roadway in the centre of the leading streets, and it was as late as the summer of 1856 before the Market Square was logged and burnt. The author remembers how, in the same year, in the Williamsburg part of Queen Street, and also on Broadway, the presence of stumps made the wagon track a devious one. Harbor Street was not in the original survey of the town, but the necessity for a convenient approach to the harbor being early felt, the want was supplied by the opening of this street, the gift of James Henry, Martin Craig, William Rastall and Francis Walker. [Harbor Street was assumed by the village, May 8th, 1861, and $500 spent in planking the roadway over the loose sand at the western end.] The hill on Harbor Street situated east of Huron Terrace was full of springs. Before a passable road at this point could be secured it was necessary to cover these over with a quantity of brush, on which was placed logs to make a causeway.

The appearance of the little village in 1856, as remembered by the author as he looked upon Kincardine for the first time, was somewhat as follows: From Princess Street to the lake was all cleared, but there was standing timber in several parts of the town where now there are numbers of dwellings; e.g., there was then a good sugar bush along South Street towards the High School, and a fine clump of giant hemlocks stood where the Water Tower now stands. The buildings were very much scattered, and stumps of trees were everywhere. Queen Street north of Williamsburg had not at that time been opened out. There existed only a footpath through the trees and clearings leading to Stoney Island. The wagon road along the beach was that used for travel not only to Stoney Island, but by those going further north. Archibald Campbell had a storehouse on the beach at the foot of Lambton Street. When the Ploughboy arrived on her regular trips, a large scow owned by Mr. Campbell was rowed out to her, that is, if the weather was fine. In the scow freight and passengers were placed and brought ashore. If there was any "sea" on the lake, the Ploughboy passed on to Stoney Island, and at the wharf there landed Kincardine passengers and freight. The bridges over the river in the year mentioned were such as the primitive engineering skill of the settlers could erect. That on Huron Terrace Street had an open log abutment on each side of the river. On these were laid heavy stringers across the stream. On Queen Street the superstructure of the bridge was supported by Macpherson's dam, and the same method was in use at Sutton's dam. Russell Street was the thoroughfare at first for the traffic from the Durham line. After Sutton's dam was erected, with the bridge as a superstructure thereon, Broadway was the most travelled. The uncertainty for several years where the centre of business was to be, resulted in the shops and taverns being spread over the town plot. There were two or three shops on the south side, one at the old mouth of the river, one on Huron Terrace Street, and another on Queen Street. On the north side shops were to be seen on Huron Terrace Street, Lambton, Durham and Queen Streets, on the Market Square, and in Sutton's Hollow. Of taverns there was Nelson Boss' on Broadway. The Union Hotel, kept by Tom Splann, and afterwards by John Barnes, stood on the site of the present Methodist Church. On the other side of the Market Square Thomas Kennard kept the British American. On the Beach, John Rowan and Francis Walker kept hotels, and on the south side William Anderson. At that time the town bell was such a one as is now in use on farms in the county. This bell was hung in front of Barnes' Hotel. The standard time was obtained by a mark on a stump placed there for the purpose by a surveyor. As this was "sun time," it of course varied, about twenty minutes too fast or too slow, during the course of the year.

During the first quarter of a century of its existence Kincardine was the chief centre of trade for a large section of territory, extending back as far as the Elora Road, and even further east if the sleighing was good. As a natural result merchants of all descriptions of goods established themselves there in numbers too great, it would almost seem, for the place. The following are the names of those who, although not the very first (these having been previously referred to), still may rightfully be classed among the early merchants of the town. The names are given in the order of priority of settlement: James Legear, David Gairdner, P. & N. McInnes, Joseph Cooke, Peter Robertson, [Peter Robertson was the son of a clergyman of the United Presbyterian Church, Scotland, and was born, August 2nd, 1811, at Kilmaurs, Ayrshire. His schooldays were spent at the Kilmarnock High School. On leaving home he was apprenticed to his uncle, a cloth draper, at Glasgow. He came to Canada in 1833 and was in the employ of James and Alex. Morris, of Brockville, until he commenced business for himself at Belleville, in 1836. The stirring times of the Rebellion of 1837 and '38 soon followed. Being suspected of being a rebel, Mr. Robertson was arrested and imprisoned in the fort at Kingston. When brought to trial the jury brought in "No Bill" against him. After this he was unintentionally mixed up in the burning of the steamer "Sir Robert Peel" by the rebels, being a passenger on the boat at the time. In 1856 he came to Kincardine and carried on a mercantile business until 1877, when he retired. His death occurred May 11th, 1885. Mr. Robertson was a man of marked intellectuality as well as of integrity, and passed away esteemed and respected by all who knew him. He married Sarah, daughter of John Ross, of Brockville, and had a family of four daughters and two sons, the only surviving ones being Mrs. Alex. Shaw and Norman Robertson, county treasurer, both of Walkerton.] F. & W. H. Hurdon, and John McLeod. These were all engaged in business at Kincardine in the fifties. Cameron & Brown-lee also were leading merchants. This firm commenced business in 1860. P. & N. McInnes, in addition to carrying on a large general store, established about 1857, works for the manufacture of pearl ash, enabling impoverished settlers to obtain by the sale of wood ashes, collected wherever a log heap had been burnt, a fresh source of income.

Possibly the first factory started in town other than saw or grist mills was one for the manufacture of furniture; this was in 1856. . The building was situated on Broadway, just west of Queen Street, This business originated with George A. Dezeng. Several years earlier than this, business enterprise was shown by George Browne, who built a brewery on Park Street, near Macklem's Mill. In 1858 or 1859 another brewery was built on Queen Street North. The proprietors were Messrs. Huether & Schoenau. Their product was lager beer, a beverage at that time almost solely confined to Germans. That nationality were not numerous in the vicinity. It, therefore, lacked sufficient patronage to be successful, so after a trial of some half dozen years the plant was moved to Neustadt. A distillery operated by Messrs. Henry & Walker was another of the early enterprises in the place. The building stood where the lighthouse is now. This, too, was closed after an existence of a few years. No doubt the large quantity of whiskey that was smuggled from the United States in those days had something to do with its abbreviated existence.

In Chapter IX. is recorded the particulars respecting the establishment of the first school in the county. This, Kincardine's first school, was opened in the summer of 1851. The building, a rented frame one, was situated on the river fiats near where it flowed into the lake. Mrs. Jane Nairn, as teacher there, presided over 66 scholars, composed of 31 boys and 35 girls. During the first half dozen years the premises occupied for school purposes were many, until at last a permanent building was secured in 1855 or 1856. The first move the school made was to a small frame building on the east side of Queen Street opposite Harbor Street. After a short stay there, it occupied a log building on the opposite side of the street. The school next found a home in a log building standing where is now the residence of Mr. John Gentles. Its stay there was short, and its next location was on Russell Street, just west of the English Church. Finally, the school moved into permanent quarters, a frame building erected purposely for a school, situated on Victoria Street, in rear of the present Central School building, which fine and commodious brick building was erected in 1872. The early teachers in the school during the period above indicated were Mrs. Jane Nairn, John Campbell, Malcolm McLennan and Thomas Scott. The public school at Kincardine has had one headmaster, whose long continuance in the office deserves to be recorded. P. C. Powell became principal in September, 1877, and for almost a quarter of a century he labored faithfully to maintain a high standard of education in all its departments. The Model School, established at the time he took the principalship, has also been a source of credit to this old servant of the public.

The first step taken to establish a County Grammar School at Kincardine was to obtain the consent and authority of the Council of the united counties of Huron and Bruce. This was obtained at the December session, 1859. At the session held in January of the following year the Council appointed the members of the Board of Trustees. As it was to be a County Grammar School, the trustees were not all residents of Kincardine. The following are the names of those appointed: M. McKendrick, Alex. Shaw, Rev. Walter Inglis and Rev. Isaac Middleton, of Kincardine; Wm. Gunn, of Inverhuron, and Rev. K. McLennan, of Paisley. The Board fixed the fee for tuition at $2 per quarter. In the month of July a union was brought about of the Grammar and Common School Boards, which union has continued down to the present. De W. H. Martyn, M.D., was appointed secretary of the United Board in 1862, an office he held almost continuously until his death, July 19th, 1903. The first to fill the position of headmaster was Albert Andrews. His duties commenced with the fall term, 1860. The following are the names of those who have, filled the same position down to the present day: J. H. Thorn, July, 1867; Duncan Morrison, 1868; Benjamin Freer, 1869, June, 1871; J. Thomson, part 1871, 1872; J. E. Burgess, 1873 to 1876; Ben Freer, 1877 to 1887; Neil Robertson, 1888-89. S. W. Perry, the present headmaster, has held that position since January, 1890, to the complete satisfaction of all interested in Kincardine High School. Further facts referring to this school are to be found in Chapter IX. The list is a long one of those who have received a part of their higher education at the Kincardine Grammar and High School, and in that list are to be found names of many who have pushed their way on to the very front rank of their various professions and callings in life.

The first public religious service held at Kincardine is said to have been conducted by the Rev. Mr. Cox, a minister of the Episcopal Methodist Church, in 1849. The place of meeting was in a log house on Queen Street, nearly opposite the Queen's Hotel. In 1851 the first congregation [This was also the first congregation to be organized within the county outside of the Indian Missions.] in connection with any denomination was organized, this initial step in the religious interest of the place being taken by the Wesleyan Methodist Church. The congregation then organized commenced with a membership of forty. Its first pastor was the Rev. Thomas Crews (1851-52). His successors in the pastorate during the early days were the Rev. A. A. Smith (1853), Rev. Wm. Creighton (1854), Rev. S. E. Mandsley (1855), Rev. Andrew Edwards (1856-58), Rev. J. F. Latimer (1859-60), and Rev. D. Connolly (1861-63). As far as the author has been able to trace, services were held at first in the public school-house until, in 1856, a neat brick church was built, [Now occupied as a dwelling by R. Rinker.] the opening services of which were held on Sunday, March 1st, 1857. The author was present at that and many ensuing services. As the congregation assembled for the afternoon meeting the weather was warm, springlike and balmy, but on leaving the church when the service was concluded they encountered a blinding blizzard. The snow which fell then and subsequently did not leave until the end of April. For some time after the building was in use the seating accommodation consisted of rough two-inch planks, supported by blocks of cordwood of the necessary height. There was but one aisle, that up the centre of the church. On one side of this the women folks sat on the other the men. The gable of this building was blown in by a high wind on March 3rd, 1862. It was never rebuilt, the roof being adapted to the new form of the walls when the repairs were made. In April, 1876, the contract for the present handsome edifice was let, the tender being $13,199. The actual cost of the building when completed was considerably in excess of the contract price. In addition to this, the cost of land and fittings are to be added when considering the outlay of this congregation at this time.

The Episcopal Methodists were formed into a congregation in 1852, but did not have a settled pastor until 1854, the Rev. J. M. Collins being their first minister. At an early date services were held in a frame building, built for a lodge-room by the Good Templars. This was in a lane just north of Broadway, within a stone-throw of the site on which in 1877 was erected their large brick church. When in 1883 the union of this body with the Methodist Church of Canada took place, this building was deserted, the two amalgamated congregations worshipping together. Ultimately this building was sold for the building material it contained.

In 1850 the first Presbyterian service was held in Kincardine. The place where it was conducted was the bar-room of Pat Downie's hotel, the Rev. A. Mackid, of Goderich, officiating. This section of country, peopled as it was by a population of whom the majority were Presbyterians, was for several years under the supervision of the Home Mission Committee of the several Presbyterian bodies. In January, 1852, the Free Church Presbytery, of London, deputed Rev. John Boss to visit Kincardine, to prepare the way for A. Currie, a catechist, who labored for some months in this field. Besides the Rev. John Boss, the Rev. John Fraser also labored here as a missionary in 1852-53. In 1854 steps were taken to build a Presbyterian Church, which was of frame, and the size thirty feet by fifty feet. Hugh Matheson was the contractor. To enable the undertaking to be successfully financed, George Murray, of "the lake shore," went to Zorra to solicit subscriptions for its erection. Prior to the construction of this building, services were held in the log school building which stood on the site of John Gentles' residence. The church was built in 1855, but remained unplastered until late in the fall of 1856. While the plaster was still moist a hard frost occurred, which had the effect of taking the temper out of the mortar. On the next occasion for holding church service, the heat from the stove speedily thawed the plaster, and during service (which was the first the author attended in Kincardine) portions of the ceiling kept dropping upon the heads of the congregation, or fell with a thud on the open spaces of the floor. The minister never halted the services, but the congregation had its eyes turned heavenward on that occasion in a way which might betoken a spiritual turn of mind, if one did not know that they were watching where the next drop of plaster was to occur and seeing if they were in a safe position. About the time the church was built the congregation was organized, bearing the name of Knox Church. At the time of the induction of its first minister, Knox Church had sixty members on its roll. This induction, that of the Rev, John Stewart, took place August 3rd, 1859. Owing to his resigning, the charge became vacant in June, 1863, and for the next three years Knox Church had no settled minister. Nevertheless the congregation grew, and the church edifice had to be enlarged in 1866. In August of that year its second pastor, the Rev. John Fraser, was inducted. His pastorate lasted . until January, 1878. On July 11th of the last-mentioned year the present pastor, the Rev. J. L. Murray, D.D., was inducted. His pastorate has been a most successful and happy one, the semi-jubilee of which was celebrated in 1903, a pleasing feature of which was the presentation to him and Mrs. Murray of a cabinet of solid silver tableware. In 1875 steps were taken toward the building of the present commodious church edifice. Its present state of completeness was not reached at once. On July 10th, 1876, the first services were held therein, the congregation worshipping in the basement, and from then on until September 7th, 1879, when the building proper, having been completed, it was duly dedicated. In 1889 the tower was finished, and in 1894 the large pipe organ was installed.

Kincardine at one time had three Presbyterian churches, the "Free," known as Knox Church, as above narrated; the "United Presbyterian," and the "Church of Scotland." "West Church" was the name of the congregation in which the "U. P.'s" worshipped. This congregation was organized May 26th, 1857, with forty-five members. In 1859 a church building [This building is now occupied as a dwelling by Wm. Welsh.] was erected at the corner of Durham and Huron Terrace Streets. The Rev. Walter Inglis, at that time of Riversdale, was called to this charge, and inducted April 27th, 1859. Mr. Inglis was the pastor of this congregation for ten years. For two years after he left, hopes were entertained of continuing this as a separate charge. These hopes never materialized, and on April 25th, 1871, West Church congregation united with that of Knox Church.

St. Andrew's Church, in connection with the Church of Scotland, was the first congregation in Kincardine that had a church building erected before organization, the building having been erected somewhere about 1862. The explanation of this is, Mr. Malcolm MacPherson, its leading elder, was a most enthusiastic member of the "Auld Kirk," and his time, means and enthusiasm resulted in the building of the church. The first pastor of this congregation was the Rev. Donald F. Maclean, in 1862. His successor was the Rev. Alex. Dawson, who came in 1863. In 1867 the Rev. John Ferguson became the pastor in charge. In 1872 he was succeeded by the Rev. William Anderson. The last minister of this church was the Rev. J. B. Hamilton, who was ordained and inducted to the pastorate April 27th, 1880. After his resignation in January, 1884, the prospect of maintaining this as a separate congregation seemed small, and one by one its members united with Knox Church, so that after an existence of over twenty years the congregation of St. Andrew's ceased to be. The building was sold in 1885 to the Dominion Government, to be used as an armory for the company of volunteers at Kincardine.

Church of England services in the early days were held in private houses. The author remembers attending one held at the home of John Keyworth. On that occasion that gentleman read the morning church service, and then a sermon selected out of the works of some divine. Later, the Rev. Isaac Middleton, who was the first settled minister, held church services for some time in the Orange Hall, until the present church building was erected and opened for services, which was on July 6th, 1862.

The Baptists had a strong man to take the initiative in forming a congregation of that denomination at Kincardine, in the person of the Rev. Wm. Fraser, who settled at Kincardine in 1850. His efforts resulted in the erecting of a neat log church. The building, small in size, was cruciform in shape. For a number of years this congregation were without a pastor. In 1876, through the efforts of the Rev. Alex. Grant it was resuscitated, and a large frame church was erected on Princess Street, which subsequently was moved to its present position on Queen Street. Of the many excellent and earnest men who have ministered to this charge the author specially recalls the Rev. H. Ware, now entered into his rest, a man of rare consecration and simplicity.

It is a far call from the old-time church buildings in existence half a century ago at Kincardine, to its commodious, modern and well-equipped churches of to-day. In looking back, memory recalls some features that may be considered interesting to record. In these churches of the early settlement the seats, as has already been noted, were but rough planks, supported by equally rough wooden blocks. The light for evening services—a truly "dim religious light"—was supplied by tallow candles, two or three only on each side wall, placed in tin sconces. These might be snuffed when required by the finger and thumb of some man sitting near-by. In time candles were replaced by old-time argand oil lamps with reflectors, lent by some of the merchants. [The author remembers how Paul D. McInnes would bring to Knox Church four lamps, as above described, from the store of P. & N. McInnes, if the service was to be conducted by a Free Church minister, while he would bring from his father's store the needed lamps if the preacher belonged to the "U. P's," for before Knox Church had a settled pastor and before either of the other Presbyterian bodies had built itself a church home, the officers of Knox Church, when they had no service of their own, generously allowed the other Presbyterian bodies to hold service in their church.] Then came coal oil lamps, the churches by this time being prosperous enough to provide their own lamps, which in time were fitted in expensive fixtures, and finally electric lighting, which now supplies all the light needed at evening services. In the days of the early settlement the singing was led by a precentor. [Wm. Millar, of Millarton, was considered the best precentor to be found in any of the churches in the settlement.] It was not long before a choir was formed to aid him in leading the singing. Then followed the organ, at first a modest reed instrument, and finally the pipe organ.

In Knox Church there has always been service in the two languages, English and Gaelic. At communion seasons—when held during the summer—the Gaelic congregation met and held their service in the open air. The author recollects one such service, held back of the present site of A. Malcolm's furniture factory. The pulpit, over which was built a shelter of rough boards, faced the east, Stretching out in front of it was the table, possibly forty or fifty feet in length, covered with a snowy white cloth, while rough planks placed alongside the table supplied the seats. The congregation sat on the green grass. The amphitheatre-like formation of the ground enabled each one in the audience to clearly see and hear the preacher. The hot summer sun was pouring down on all, and as a protection from its rays numerous umbrellas were spread open. A sight not to be met with in Bruce to-day was the number of High-' land women, whose head covering was a white mutch, and over whose shoulders was spread a white kerchief neatly crossed and pinned over the bosom. The Psalms of David were used solely in the service of praise, the words being lined by the precentor, who chanted the next line to be sung on the last note used. The tunes, nearly all in the minor key, sweet and plaintive, would draw as spectators those who understood not the language used in the singing, who came after their own shorter church services had terminated. The author would, if he could, give some idea of the forceful address spoken at the "fencing of the table." The standard so set for those who would "worthily partake" being so high that in many cases none would presume to be seated at the table on the first invitation. At the second, wherein there would be more reference to God's grace and Christ's merits, some godly elders would come forward and be seated, followed on the third invitation by the body of the communicants, numerous enough to possibly fill a second or third table. At these Gaelic services were many strangers, some even from Zorra, who, as well as others, attended a series of communion services which commenced at Ashfield, succeeded by others held at Lucknow, Ripley, Kincardine and Tiverton. Each of these communion services covered a period of five days—Thursday being held as a fast day; Friday was known as the "Question Day" (in Gaelic, "la na Ceist"); Saturday as preparation day;. then on Sunday the sacrament was dispensed; on Monday thanksgiving services were held. Of these five days the Question Day services were the most unique. After the assembly on that day had been opened by the usual services of prayer and praise, the minister conducting the same would request any who had any difficult religious question on which they required enlightenment to propound it to the meeting. On this being responded to, it might be found that the question was regarding the meaning of some obscure passage of Scripture. [Especially such as tended to show what are the marks of sincerity in religious profession. ] "The men" ("na daoine," in Gaelic), for so the leaders of religious life were called, would one after another express their opinion. When the time to close the meeting had come, the minister would "sift" ("n'criathair," in Gaelic) or summarize what had been said, so that those assembled might remember it. It is said that the peculiar features of Question Day are rapidly disappearing, as "the men"—brought up in a school now almost passed away—have dropped off one by one. Among the most prominent of the "the men" were Kenneth Campbell, of Ash-field; Malcolm McLennan, of Huron; James Gordon and Donald McPherson, of Kinloss; Hector McKay, of Culross, and George Boss, of Kincardine.

The topic of church life in Kincardine is a feature which has been dwelt upon pretty fully in this chapter, but the author cannot close it without alluding to the Literary Society which for a number of years existed in connection with Knox Church. This Society proved attractive to students attending the High School. Under the wise guidance of the Rev. Dr. Murray, A. H. Smith (now of Moosomin, Sask.) and others, the young people were led to form and cherish ideals which, striven after, developed character, and resulted in after life in prominent positions being attained by them in their chosen professions. Of these, the names only of those who entered the ministry are here given. They are as follows: Rev. Messrs. A. G. McLeod, Robert Johnston, D.D., E. J. Macpherson, Hector McKay, J. A. Stewart, John M. and Ferguson Miller, Hugh Finlay, and John Matheson, of the Presbyterian Church, and the Rev. Thomas P. Whealen and the Right Rev. I. O. Stringer, Bishop of Selkirk, of the Church of England.

The author has been favored by Mrs. Wm. Rastall, of Detroit, with the perusal of an original document relating to the history of Kincardine, being the "Census of the Village of Penetangore," taken by Wm. Withers and E. G. Fowler, in October, 1857, to see if the population was sufficient to warrant the making application for incorporation as a village. The census contains 837 names. This being more than sufficient, the village became a separate municipality on January 1st, 1858, under the name of the village of Kincardine, and dropped forever its dual name of Penetangore. The first reeve was William Rastall. In a footnote the names of the various reeves of the village and town are given until 1896, the last year reeves sat at the County Council. [Names of the various reeves of Kincardine town from 1858 to 1896, inclusive : Wm. Rastall, part 1858, '59, '60, '61, '66, '67, '68, '69; C. E. Barker, part of 1858 and 1882; Wm. Sutton, 1862, '63, '64, '65; Robert Baird, 1870, '71, '72, '73, '74, '75, '76, '77, '78, '79; T. C. Rooklidge, 1880; Alex. Gordon, 1881; E. T. Walker, 1883, 1890; A. Malcolm, 1884, '85, '86; De W. H. Martyn, 1887, '88, '89; J. H. Scott, 1891, '92, '93, '94, '95, '96.] The first town clerk was Joseph Barker. Of those since then who have filled the office of clerk of the municipality down to the present, it is questionable if any have been as near the standard of a model officer as the present town clerk, J. H. Scougall. As the population grew in numbers the time at length came when Kincardine might claim a higher municipal status. The date of this was the 1st of January, 1875, when Kincardine first entered into the ranks of the towns of the province. In a footnote the names of those who have been mayors of Kincardine are given, and also their years of office. [Names of the various mayors of Kincardine: James Brown, 1875; W. P. Brown, 1876, '77, '78; Jas. A. MacPherson, 1879, 1880 '81 '82 1891, '92, '96, '97, '98; Robert Baird, 1883, '84, '85, '86, '89, 1890; Edward Leslie, 1887, '88; Joseph Barker, 1893; John Tolmie, 1894, '95; De W. H. Martyn, 1899; Geo. E. MacKendrick, 1900, '01; W. J Henry. 1902; John Ruttell, 1903; A. Malcolm, 1904; J. C. Cook 1905; W G Temple, 1906.]

It was not long after the incorporation of the village before a town hall was built. It was a fair-sized, two-storey, frame building, which stood on the site of the present town hall. The author has not been able to fix with certainty the year in which it was built, but remembers events of 1862 in connection with the building. The present town hall was completed in December, 1872. In it are the usual accommodations asked for in a municipal building, including a fire hall.

The need of a system of waterworks was felt for years before the town possessed them. They were urged both on sanitary grounds and also for fire protection. When they were established it was by private enterprise, Messrs. Moffatt, Hodgins and Clark being the principals in the Kincardine Waterworks Company, which commenced August 1st, 1890, to supply the town with pure water from the lake. The intake pipe extends out into the lake for 150 yards. The stand-pipe, which is 110 feet in height, stands back of Knox Church. Into this water is pumped, and gravitates through the system of water mains and connections. There are about four miles of water mains in the town. For four years the town paid annually to the Waterworks Company the sum of $2,100 for fire protection, for water required in watering the streets, and for water service at the school and town hall, when (as the town had the option of purchasing the plant) it was at length decided to go in for municipal ownership. The town obtained possession of the plant in September, 1894, the purchase price being $40,000. Further additions were made to the plant, which brought its cost up to $45,000.

Another form of municipal ownership that Kincardine has embarked in is electric lighting. In the late eighties an electric light plant was established in Kincardine. This passed into the hands of George Swan and Samuel Henry, who sold it to the municipality in 1894 for $10,000. The total cost to the town for the electric plant up to the end of 1904 was $15,792. Of these two businesses operated by the municipality, it is understood the waterworks are the most profitable.

The debentures issued by the town form a long list. Some of them have been for well-advised objects, such as those referred to in the preceding paragraphs, and for bridges and local improvements. Other issues of debentures, such as that known as the "Steel Horse Collar Bonus" and the "Stove Foundry Bonus," have failed to benefit the town to the extent hoped for. Another large expenditure, which will have to be met by an issue of debentures, is a system of sewerage, which at the time of writing is being discussed, and must ultimately be constructed before the town can be as healthful as it should be.

In Chapter V. there is related the first effort made to obtain a harbor at Kincardine, which was at as early a date as 1853. That effort proving abortive, the attention of the Government was directed to the necessity which existed for a harbor of refuge at this point. Recognizing the strength of the arguments adduced, and in response thereto, an attempt was made in 1855 to build a breakwater, constructed of cribs of timber filled with stone. Underestimating the power of the storms which sweep over Lake Huron, the breakwater was too weakly constructed, and lasted only a few months, when it was washed away. The remains of it were found by Government Engineer Grey a short distance north-west of the end of the present pier. After the destruction of the breakwater, the Department of Public "Works in 1856 commenced the construction of two parallel piers at the month of the river, between which it discharged itself into the lake. These piers were one hundred feet apart. The north pier was 540 feet in length, and the south pier 190 feet. These works sufficed for some years. At the time of the passing of the County Gravel Roads By-law, Kincardine obtained a substantial grant towards the improvement of its harbor. Between the county and the village $23,000 was spent on the harbor in the years 1866 and 1867. During those years the dredging of the basin was commenced, and the north pier was extended to 757 feet, and the south pier to 495 feet. The Government also gave a grant of $4,500 to assist in this work. In 1872 there was commenced the work of dredging the harbor to its present extent of about four acres, and to a depth of 12 feet. This extensive work was not completed until 1877. Further work in the way of dredging and repairs has been done nearly every year since. At present the north pier is 1,470 feet in length, and of a uniform width of 30 feet. The south pier is 840 feet in length. The east side of the harbor basin has a water frontage of 463 feet, the south side one of 253 feet, and the west side one of 440 feet. Over $200,000 has been spent on the Kincardine harbor, but owing to the entrance being narrow and the river always bringing down sediment, which is deposited in the basin, the harbor has never been worth the large amount spent upon it. The Government had the light near the pierhead established in 1874, and in 1881 the main lighthouse shed its guiding rays over the lake for the first time. William Kay was keeper of this lighthouse for many years. At present it is in charge of Thomas McGaw, Jr. As an additional aid to navigation, a steam foghorn is located at the waterworks pumping-house, which is 1,375 feet north of the entrance to the harbor.

Possessing a harbor, Kincardine before the advent of the railway was the best grain market in the county, and every winter its numerous warehouses were filled with the produce of the farms of all the townships lying back from the lake. Long processions of farmers' sleighs ladened with grain were a familiar sight on its street at that time. Some days as much as ten thousand bushels of grain would be purchased. The chief grain buyers were Robert Baird, Robert Walker, Francis Hurdon, Ross Robertson and Arch. Campbell. In the spring, when a schooner arrived to carry away to Buffalo, Toronto or Montreal a cargo of the grain which filled the warehouses, the town witnessed a busy sight. To save demurrage every effort possible was made to speedily laden the vessels. Men were paid 25 cents an hour (and were expected to earn it) shovelling grain into two-bushel bags. As soon as filled these were piled on wagons, teamed away to scows [When the piers were extended into deep enough water the vessels lay alongside the pier and were ladened there.] to be transported to the vessel lying at anchor in deep water, quickly hoisted upon the deck, the bag strings were cut, and the golden grain poured into the vessel's hold. All work was rushed so as to get the vessels quickly away. Sometimes a squall or a gale would come before the vessel was laden, and she would have to slip her anchor and get well off shore. Sometimes this could not be done, and the vessel was driven upon the beach, to the great loss of her owners and also of the shippers of grain. After the railway was opened the above-mentioned advantage which Kincardine possessed as a grain market was neutralized, and grain was not marketed there as of yore. Merchants and others, thinking that there was not competition enough among the grain buyers, sought to establish it, so they and others in 1899 organized "The Farmers' Elevator and Shipping Company." Unfortunately, the company made no money, and in 1905 were forced into liquidation. The object sought of improving the market was, however, attained. The warehouse used by the company was purchased by W. J. Henry, who is endeavoring to maintain Kincardine's reputation as a good grain market.

Kincardine was very much interested in the various railway schemes that agitated the county at large in 1869, and it was a bitter pill to swallow, when the Wellington, Grey and Bruce Railway scheme carried, as related in Chapter VII., leaving Kincardine without any railway and with the prospect of being deprived of the trade which had been flowing into it for so many years, and see it go to build up towns elsewhere. However, before the railway was opened to Southampton the prospect brightened. Two bills passed the Legislature in 1871, authorizing the construction of separate lines of railway to Kincardine, namely, the Wellington, Grey and Bruce Railway, by a branch line from Listowel, and the London, Huron and Bruce Bail-way. The first of these received a bonus from the village of $8,000, and was completed to Kincardine in the fall of 1873. [This branch was operated by the contractors until taken over by the railway company, December, 1874.] The London, Huron and Bruce Railway never came nearer to Kincardine than Wingham, nevertheless the town gave it a bonus of $3,000. This road was opened in January, 1876.

On the discovery, in 1868, that large deposits of salt existed at less than a thousand feet beneath the surface at Kincardine, steps were taken to bring this necessity of life into the market. It was the Kincardine Salt Prospecting and Manufacturing Company (of which James Brown was president, and James A. MacPherson secretary-treasurer), which obtained the bonus offered by the County Council for sinking an artesian well and obtaining salt. Another company was formed, in which Walkerton capital was largely represented. This was known as the Bruce Salt Company. The method at first used to evaporate the brine pumped from the wells was not an economical one, the brine being boiled in potash kettles set in rows and bricked in, each row being called a "block." The consumption of wood was enormous. As cordwood was not to be had at the low price of former days, the process was found to be too costly. Flat pans 75 to 100 feet in length and 20 to 25 feet in breadth were then tried, with better results. The two companies named not finding-much profit in the manufacture of salt, after a few years' trial, closed down their works. About this time, early in the seventies, two American capitalists became interested in the salt industry, and each commenced to erect an extensive plant at Kincardine. That built by-William Gray is said to have cost $75,000; that built by L. Rightmeyer was not quite so expensive. These firms shipped salt in bulk to Chicago. [In 1875 the product of salt at Kincardine amounted to 187,000 barrels, of which there was exported the equivalent of 90,000 barrels.] The American tarff, however, was against them, and the Canadian market too small to permit the business to be profitably conducted, so about 1876 Mr. Gray closed down his plant. Mr. Right-meyer continued the struggle for about fifteen years longer, and unfortunately lost the best part of his fortune in his efforts. After remaining idle for about ten years, the Gray Salt Block was purchased by the Ontario People's Salt Manufacturing Company, in 1885. This company has been run in connection with the Dominion Grange, and this connection has insured it a constant patronage. Its manager is John Tolmie, M.P. As some readers may be interested to know some facts connected with this establishment, they are given in a footnote. [Size of main building, 250 x 90 feet; size of addition, 110 x 70 feet. The well is 989 feet deep. The evaporating pans are "V" shaped, 12 x 100 feet and 7 feet deep, made of boiler iron and lined with sawed stone and heated with live steam pipes passing through the brine. The salt as precipitated by the brine is removed by an endless chain rake and deposited in bins. There is also an open flat evaporating pan, 100x28 feet, raked by hand.] The fishing industry was established at Kincardine late in the. fifties. By 1866 it had so developed that six boats sailed each morning from Kincardine harbor to lift and set their nets many miles out in the lake. Among those early engaged in this industry were Thomas McGaw, Alex. Gordon, Robert and Alex. Donnelly. Kenneth and Duncan McKenzie, Samuel Splan, also John, Peter and Thomas (Jr.) McGaw. They who follow the calling of a fisherman on Lake Huron experience many dangers and much hardship, and, after all, there is no very large returns for all their vicissitudes. [That a record may be preserved, the weight of some large fish, as mentioned in the local press, is here given. In July, 1875, Samuel Splan caught a salmon-trout weighing 74 lbs., and Charles Splan, in August 1883, a whitefish that weighed 19½ lbs.] Kincardine fishermen have been fortunate in meeting with so few fatalities. During nearly half a century only two have lost their lives while pursuing their calling. These were Elliott Hunter and a man named Mcintosh, their overladened boat being swamped in a gale while returning from the Fishing Islands in 1882. Thomas McGaw, above-mentioned, has earned a well-deserved reputation as a builder of fishing boats. One built by him, called The Belle, and sailed by his son Peter, carried off for three years in succession the cup offered at the Goderich regatta for the fishermen's yacht race. Having been won three times by the same boat, the trophy remains in the proud possession of Peter McGaw. Another of Mr. McGaw's boats, the Water Lily, has been very successful in carrying off prizes at various regattas.

In a former part of this chapter is mentioned the inception of some of the industries of the town. For a list of those in existence in 1866 the author turns to an old "Directory of the County of Bruce," published by J. W. Rooklidge (an old Kincardine boy, who has passed away). We there learn that in that year Kincardine had three grist mills, three sawmills, two tanneries, two woollen mills, two pearl ash factories, two foundries—certainly a fine record for so early a date. Ira J. Fisher is probably the man who has been the longest actively engaged in manufacturing in Kincardine. He came to Kincardine in 1860, and built a foundry on Victoria Street, taking off his first heat in October, 1861. Since then he has had his share of the vicissitudes of life, but .in them all has proved himself to be a good and worthy citizen. John Watson (another man of worth) founded in 1858 the present extensive furniture factory conducted by the Andrew Malcolm Company. It was but a small concern at first, employing but few hands, and which used horse-power to drive the machinery. One of his employees was Elijah Miller, who for several years also carried on a furniture factory. Messrs. Combe & Watson are another offshoot. Their large factory on the harbor flats catches the eye of all who arrive in town by either rail or water. The Hunter Bridge and Boiler Company, established in the early eighties, employs a number of hands, and helps to make the town known at outside points. Pork packing has long been one of the industries of the town. Started originally by Wm. Rastall, it has been continued by T. C. Rooklidge and Robert Madden, and flourishes to-day under the management of Henry Coleman, whose cured bacon has more than a local reputation. One of the most unsuccessful ventures that Kincardine ever entered into was that known as the Gundy Stove Foundry, which was bonused by the town to the extent of $7,000. The town has never been recouped for this generous bonus, as the foundry was run for only a few years.

The press became a power in Kincardine when on the 4th of August, 1857, the first number of The Western Canadian Commonwealth was issued. The publisher was John McLay, afterwards Registrar of Deeds for the county. At the time of his coming to Kincardine he was a young man of about 25 years of age. The press, type and all the equipments of a printing office he brought with him from Glasgow, Scotland. Mr. McLay was a spicy writer, and in consequence made for himself some bitter enemies. When he received the office of registrar the paper passed into the hands of Joseph Lang, who changed its name to that of the Bruce Review. He was burned out October 29th, 1870, when he disposed of the paper. Up till then its politics were those of the Liberal party. The purchaser was C. Cliffe. From the time he took hold of the Review it has been an upholder of the Conservative party. T. C. Bartholomew was the next owner of the paper. He about the end of the seventies sold out to Mortimer Brothers, who changed the name of the paper to The Kincardine Standard. In March, 1882, Andrew Denholm purchased the paper. After publishing the paper for about four years, Mr. Denholm sold out, and it passed once more into the hands of its former publisher, Joseph Lang, who changed the name to the Kincardine Review. Since 1891 Hugh Clark, M.P.P., has been the editor and publisher of the paper, assisted part of the time by his brother, Charles Clark. The Bruce Reporter was first issued 7th of December, 1866, by Albert Andrews, a resident of some years' standing as headmaster of the Grammar School. The ownership of the paper passed in the early seventies to Messrs. Crabbe & Brownell, then to J. H. Brownell, who sold the paper to W. M. Dack in 1879. Mr. Dack continued to publish the Reporter until the spring of 1901, when he received the appointment of Registrar of Deeds for the county. J. S. Gadd then became the publisher, and continued as such until the paper passed into the hands of its present proprietor and editor, J. J. Hunter, in 1905.

The author, in bringing this chapter to a close, regrets that he cannot write as fully as he would like to regarding some of the men who for years have been among the prominent citizens of Kincardine. There is Robert Baird, the present postmaster, who for over half a century has been a leader in the town, as reeve, mayor, warden of the county, Conservative candidate in two political campaigns, and a leading grain merchant. His predecessor in the position of postmaster, Mathew Mackendrick, unpretentious in manner, but faithful almost to a fault in the performance of his duties. Then among those not to be forgotten is Dr. S. S. Secord, who has practised his profession in the county since 1857, who deserves to be remembered with Dr. McClure, of the "Bonnie Brier Bush." Another, and possibly the oldest settler in the town, is Joseph Barker, who, with his good wife, have ever been found on the side that maketh for righteousness. Also James A. MacPherson, who was elected mayor of the town on nine occasions. A list of town worthies must include the name of Rev. J. L. Murray, D.D., for nearly thirty years pastor of Knox Church. But the list must be curtailed, for the town has not lacked in men good and true, who have aided in its development, and in making the town what it is—one of the pleasantest towns in which to live in Ontario.

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