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Annals of Dunfermline
A.D. 1101 - 1201 - Part 3

  1133.-PETER, the Prior of Dunfermline, died about this period, and was probably interred a Dunfermline.  (See An. Dunf. dates 1108-1120.) 

  RICHARD MONGAL, elected Prior in the place of Peter, the deceased Prior.  (Collier’s Hist. Dict.; An. Dunf. date 1150.)

  1136.--INVERESK CHURCH, bequeathed by David I. to the Abbey, the gift not to take effect until after the death of Nicholas the priest.  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 17, cart. No. 30.  This priest is not heard of after 1136.

  ROYAL GIFT—CRAIGMILLAR.—Kind David I., about this period, gave to the Abbey of Dunfermline, in free and perpetual gift, a carrucate of arable land and some houses at Craigmillar.  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 11.)

  1139.—INVERKEITHING CHURCH BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY.—This church, dedicated to St. Peter, was this year bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey by Waldeve, the son of Gospatric (a Northumberland baron).  In the Registrum de Dunfermlyn, there is, at p. 94, cart. 165, a deed conveying the gift under the following brief title:--“Waldenus filius Gospatricij de ecca de Inuirkethii.e., Waldeve, the son of Gospatric, in regard to the Church of Inverkeithing.  The charter informs us that Waldeve gave the Church of Inverkeithing to Dunfermline Abbey “for the love of God and Saint Margaret, that the Lord Jesus Christ, by the intercession of that Holy Queen, and by the prayers there offered up, may have compassion on our souls.”  Fourteen witnesses attest this charter.  This gift was confirmed to the Abbey by a Bull from Pope Lucius III. in 1184 (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 156), Archibald being Abbot of Dunfermline.

  1140.—COUSLAND CHURCH (in East Lothian).—The patronage of it is granted to the Abbey.

  1142.—BONDMEN, OR CUMBERLACHI.—David I., about this period, bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey his serviRagewin, Gillepatric, and Ulchell“for ever to the Church of the Holy Trinity, as my own men.”  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 13, No, 19; Dal. Mon. Antiq. P. 41.)

  1144.—ROYAL GIFT OF GOLD TO THE ABBEY.—About this period David I. bequeaths, by charter-right, to the Abbey the tenth of all his gold obtained in Fife and Fothriff.  (Title of Charter, or Writ, “De Decima Auri.”) Translation of the short Charter:--“David, King of Scots, to all honest men, Greeting,--Be it known to you that I have conceded, as a free gift, to the Church of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, the tenth part of the whole of my gold obtained in Fife and Fothrif.—T. Chancellor, HUGH DE MOREVILL; JOHN, Episcopus.—Given at Elbothel.”  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p.16, cart. 28.)

  1146.—THE CHURCH OF ECCLES.—About this period “an Assembly was held in the Castrum Puellarum(Edinburgh Castle), “where a compact was made regarding the Church of Eccles, between the Bishop of St. Sndrews and the Abbot of Dunfermline, ‘coram rege David et Henrico filio ejus et baronibus eorum.’”  (Acts of the Parliament of Scotland, vol. i. p. 56, Ap.)

  1148.—RICHARD MONGAL, Prior of Dunfermline, died about the end of this year at San Iago de Compostella, in Spain, where he had gone on a pilgrimage.  This prior was the author of a small work, titled “The Lives of St. Bernard and Abelard,” and is therefore the first Dunfermline author whose name is on record.  Fordun speaks of him in high commendation, and styles him “Richard Mongal, Prior Claustralis de Dunfermelyn.”  (Collier’s Hist. Dict.: Chalmers’ Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 501.)

  1149.—“ROGER,” a monk of the Abbey, elected Prior in the place of Richard Mongal, deceased.  David in his great Confirmation Charter alludes to “Roger, the presbyter:” probably the same Roger.

  1150.—ROMISH CONSECRATION OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—In the Chronicle of Holyrood, under this date, there is the following incidental entry, viz.:--

  “MCL dedicate est Ecclesia de Dunfermelyn”—i.e., The Church of Dunfermline was dedicated in 1150.  (Vide Chronicon Coenobii Sanctae Crucis Edinburgensis.”)

  There is no other entry bearing this out in any other of the old Abbey chronicles, chronicles, chartularies, or memoranda  of Scotland, which, to say the least of it, is rather singular.

    It is a well known authenticated fact, that this church was founded, partly built, and dedicated to the Holy and undivided Trinity.”  By Malcolm III. and Margaret his consort, the Queen, circa A.D. 1074.  David I., in his two Confirmation charters, refers to these dedications, which see under dates 1127 and 1130.  In early writings the words, “dedication” and ”consecration,” were often used as interchangeable or  equivalent terms; and had the scribe of Holyrood known that the Church at Dunfermline had, by Malcolm III., been dedicated to the Holy Trinity, he would undoubtedly have used the word “consecration” instead of “dedication.”

  It would appear that it was not until about the year 1150 that the Romish worshippers in the Abbey superseded the original service; and thus after becoming masters of the situation, the Abbot and monks would, by an imposing ceremony, according to the rites of Romish worshippers, consecrate the fabric of the Church, and also consecrate the dedication.  The oblong stone, placed under the arch of the north-west Norman door of the Church (within the porch) by the late Rev. Dr. Chalmers, should have had “consecrata” instead of “dedicata,” thus—

(Vide Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. ii. pp. 162-166; vide Appendix E.)

  1151.—ABBEY SEAL.—The following engraving represents the obverse side of what had hitherto been taken for the oldest Abbey Seal, taken from a much defaced impression, in brown wax, attached to a deed, by the Abbot (R) of Dunfermline, in the

archives of Durham Cathedral.  There is evidence to show that this Abbot, R, was Abbot Robert de Berewick, who was in office from 1198 till 1202, and therefore the age of this seal has been assigned to this period; but the fact of its being found attached to a  deed of this period does not infer that it had no previous existence.  After the Abbey became thoroughly Romanized, circa 1150, a seal would be a necessary instrument for giving legality to deeds, writs, and other documents.  We are inclined therefore to place the origin of this seal under date 1151, as the most likely year it was made and granted.  On this, the most ancient seal of the Abbey, there is a representation of a Baptismal Font, enclosed within a Norman-arched canopy, with side columns, and round the circumference is the legend, “SIGILLVM SANCTE TRINITATIS”—i.e., “Seal of the Holy Trinity.”

  1152.—ROYAL GIFT TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—Ada, Countess of Northumberland (wife of Earl Henry, son of David I.) gave about this period, “a full toft, in Haddington-schyre, to the Lord, the blessed Mary, and the Church of Dunfermline, for ever, freely and quietly, for the safety of my Lord, Earl Henry, for the safety of my own soul and all my predecessors, deceased, and to all the faithful servants of God.”   (Print. Regist. Dunf. No. 152, p. 88.)

  1153.—DAVID I. INTERRED AT DUNFERMLINE.—David I., the King, the sixth and youngest son of Malcolm III. and Margaret his consort, died in the Castle of Carlisle, on 27th May, in the 30th year of his reign, and about the 76th year of his age, and “was buried at Dunfermline honourably, on the day of St. Mark the Evangelist, near his father (Malcolm), before the Great Altar”—(Fordun, v. 40)—“in the pavement of the middle choir.”  (Fordun, viii. 7.)  David was “found dead in a posture of devotion.”  (Hailes’s An. Scot. vol. i. p. 93.)    The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts refers to the occurrence as follows:--

  “David filius Malcolmi xxix. annis et tribus mensibus regnavit, et mortuus in Karleil et Sepultus in Dunfermlin”—i.e., “David, the son of Malcolm, reigned twenty-nine years and three months, and he died at Carlisle, and was buried at Dunfermline.”

  “David, soun freir regna xxix. aunz et iij. moys, et morust a Cardoil, et gist a Dunfermelin”—i.e., David, his brother (viz., Alexander I.)  reigned twenty-nine years and three months, and died at Carlisle, and lies at Dunfermlyn.  (Vide Skene’s Chronicles of Scots and Picts.)

  Winton rhymes the event thus—

“The nynd Kalend, that day of June
The guid Kyng Daiiys dayes ware dwne,
Intil Karlele, quhare he made
A Styth castell, and thare he hade
Oft and mekyl hys dwelling
All the tyme that he wes Kyng,
Hys Body dede til Dwnfermlyn:
Thare in halowyed Sepulture
It wes enteryed with honowere.”
(Wynton’s Orygynale Cronykil, vol. i. p. 306.)

  (Vide Aldred apud For. V. 59; Hailes’s An. Scot. vol. i. p. 93; Aber. Mart; Ach.: Lardner’s Cab. Cycl. Chron. p. 337; also App. An. Dunf.)

  John, the Prior of Hexham, relates that, when those who had the charge of conveying the King’s body from Carlisle to Dunfermline to the place of sepulture, on arriving on the shores of the Firth of Forth, at Queensferry, “they found the sea in so boisterous and agitated a state, that they were afraid to venture upon it; but no sooner had they place the royal corpse in the boat, than the storm abated, so that they reached the opposite shore without difficulty;” and that, after the King’s body was safely landed on the north shore, “the tempest began again with redoubled fury.”  (Decem. Scriptores Col. 282; Morton’s Monastic Annals of Teviot, p. 81.)

  ST. DAVID.—It appears not to be known when King David was canonized.  If it did not take place shortly before his death, it may be supposed that such a pious King ad David was, would not be kept long out of “the catalogue of the saints,” and we have therefore inserted the occurrence in this place.  Dr. Lardner, in his Cabinet Cyclopaedia article, “Alphabetical Calendar of Saints’ Days,” p. 134, gives it thus:

David, King (Saint Day), Dec. 29,”

which has been extracted from MS. Vespasion A. ix.

ROYAL GIDTS BY MALCOLM IV. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—Malcolm IV., on the day of the interment of his grandfather, David I., bequeathed to the Abbey the lands of Ledmacduuegil, near Dunfermline; and also 23 acres of arable ground.  (Confirmation Charter of Malcolm IV.”  Regist. de Dunf. p. 21.)

  CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF MALCOLM IV.—CARTA, No.35: “Confirmacio Malcolmi Regis.”—This is the first of Malcolm IV.’s charters to the Abbey of Dunfermline.  He granted fifteen charters to the Abbey.  This one is a Confirmation Charter, granted shortly after he had ascended the throne.  It occupies three-and-a-half quarto pages of “Registrum de Dunfermlyn,” and, like the other Confirmation Charters, confirms the gifts of his predecessors, &c., as also those bequeathed by himself.  (Print Regist. De Dunf. pp. 19-22.)

  1154.—GAUFRID, first Abbot of Dunfermline, died in October, 1154, in the 30th year of his abbotship, and about the 70th year of his age.  His name in charters is variously spelt, as Galfridus, Galfrid, Gosfrid, and Geoffrey, Gaufred appears the most common spelling.  He was a very learned man for the age, and “a man of singular piety.”  Although the fact is not on record, he would most probably be interred within the precincts of Dunfermline Abbey.  (Chron. D. Crucis, p. 32; Fordun-a-Goodall, vol. i. p. 443; Dart’s History of Canterbury.)

  GAUFRID II. elected and consecrated the second Abbot.  He was nephew of Gaufrid I., and appears to have been elected and consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline in November, 1154.

  SUNDRY DONATIONS TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—About this period a great many of the nobles of Scotland, and also others who were possessed of land, tofts, houses, &c., “conveyed much of their inheritances in free gifts for ever to the Abbot and conventual brethren serving God in the Abbey Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunfermline.”  (Vide Register of Dunfermline, and old Charters.)

  1155.—HEADS OF CRESPEIS BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY.—Charter No. 37 of the Register of Dunfermline, entitled “De capitibus piscium quos vocant Crespeis, is a curious one.  The following is a free translation of it:--

Relative to the Heads of Fishes called Crespeis.

  “Malcolm, King of the Scots, to all good men of his whole land, clerical and lay, French and English and Scotch, health,--Know ye that I have given and granted to the Abbot of Dunfermline, and to the monks serving God there, in perpetual alms, for the salvation of the soul of my predecessor, King David, the heads of the fishes which are called Crespeis (except the tongue), which may be stranded in my lordship on that part of Scotwater, situated within the bounds of their Church.  Witness—ANDREW, the bishop [of Caithness]; DUNCAN, the Earl; HUGH DE MOREVILLE; WALTER, the son of Alan; HERBERT, the Chamberlain; NICHOLAS, the Clerk; ALWYN MACARKIL, at Perth.”

  NOTE.—These Crespeis are supposed to be a species of small whales, “bottle-noses”; “Scotwater,” the name of the Firth of Forth, at this period, and the part of it alluded to, would likely embrace in extent the space of shore-water lying between Limekilns and North Queensferry.  The tongue appears to have been a tit-bit.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. ii. p. 112.)

  1158.—CONFIRMATION OF NEWTON CHURCH TO THE ABBEY.—By this charter the church of Newton appears to have been the property of Elwinus Renner and Eda, his wife.  They handed it over to Malcolm IV., to be by him gifted and confirmed to the Abbey of Dunfermline;  Newton Is near Dalkeith.  (Print. Regist. De Dunf. p. 25, carta 44; dated from Dunfermline.)

  PROTECTION CHARTER DE CONNEUTH.—Malcolm IV., in this charter, unites with Earl Duncan; Marleswain; Hugo; the son of Gillemichael; G. Mac-sloclac; Neis, the son of William; and Alun.  (Regist. de Dunf.  No. 45.)

  MALCOLM IV., in a short charter of this date, “claims the protection of the Abbey of Dunfermline, where the body of his grandfather, King David, rests in God.”  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 25; Dal. Mon. An. P. 51—printed at Edinburgh.)

  THE CHAPEL OF INVERKEITHING BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY BY MALCOLM IV.—This carter was granted by Malcolm IV. At Dunfermline, by which he conceded and confirmed to the Church of the Holy Trinity (or Abbey of Dunfermline), and to the Abbot and monks serving God there, in free and perpetual gift, the “cappella de Inuirkethin,” along with two tofts, near or adjacent to the chapel.  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 26, carta 46.)  Granted at Dunfermline.

  1157.—ABERCROMBIE CHURCH, about this period, was freely gifted Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm IV>  Abercrombie was once a parish; it was in later times united to the Parish of Torryburn.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 24.)

1159.—INVERKEITHING CHAPEL AND TWO “TOFTS” BEQUEATHED TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—Malcolm IV., by charter gave the Chapel of Inverkeithing, along with two tofts to the Abbey, to be held in free and quiet possession.  Granted at Dunfermline.  There are three bishops and four other witnesses to this charter (Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 26, carta 46, under title of “De Cappella de Inuirketh et de duobus toftis.”)  One of these tofts is in the town, the other near the chapel.

  ROYAL GIFT OF DUNKELD CHURCH TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—Malcolm IV., about this period, gave the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld (the Cathedral) to the Abbey of Dunfermline, “as a free and perpetual gift, with the lands and all other rights belonging to it, to be possessed by the Abbey after the decease of Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, which gift is given for the salvation of the souls of all his ancestors,” *c., and was afterwards frequently confirmed.  (Print. Regist. de Dunf. No. 36, p, 22.)  Andrew, the Bishop, died in the year1184.  (See An. Dunf. date 1184.)

   1160.—THE CHURCH OF “HUCHTERCALEDOUIR” BEQUEATHED AND CONFIRMED TO THE ABBEY.—The Church of Upper Calder was gifted to Dunfermline Abbey as a free and perpetual donation by Earl Duncan, and which, by this charter, Malcolm IV. Confirms.  Done at Edinburgh.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 26, carta. 47.)

  TOFT IN INVERKEITHING, granted by charter to Dunfermline Abbey about this period, by Walter, the son of Alan.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 93, No. 163.)

  1162.—THE MONKS OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY were prohibited from forsaking the Abbey, “after their professions” of adherence to the Order, without the Abbot’s leave, unless they entered into a stricter order.  (Dal. Mon. Antiq. p. 15; and Regist. Dunf.)

  1163.—BULL FROM POPE ALEXANDER III. TO DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—It repeats the names of all the gifts given to the Abbey to date; and this, his Confirmation Charter 12, dated from “Turon, 7 June 1163,” confirms all to the Abbot and monks.  (Print. Regist de Dunf. pp.151-153.)

  1164.—PORTUS REGINAE—i.e., Queen’s Port, or Ferry—is for the first time noticed with tog nudas natione, in the Carter granted to Scone, in 1164, by Malcolm IV., when he gives the Abbot and monks of that place a free passage at all times, ad portum reginae(See Liber ecclesia de Scon; and Chalmer’s Hist. Dunf. vol. i. pp. 87, 88, &c.; An. Dunf. date 1182.)

  SCOTWATER (Firth of Forth).—During “the Roman occupation,” and for a considerable time after that had ceased, the Firth of Forth appears to have been known as “the Sea of Bodotria.”  Afterwards, and down to about the 1100, it was known as Scotwater.  This latter name appears twice in the Dunf. at pp. 22, 23, and 420.  The name, “Scotwater” had ceased to be used about A.D.1100, and it is therefore singular that Malcolm IV. In his charter, date1164—(Regist. Dunf. pp. 22, 23)—should have used it, seeing that his predecessors had never done so.

  THE DONATION OF THE CHURCH OF DUNFELD to Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm IV., in 1159, was this year (1164) confirmed by Charter of Robert, the Bishop of Dunkeld.  The following is a translation of this Confirmation Charter from printed copy in Registrum de Dunfermlyn, p. 22, by Cosmo Innes, Esq., Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh, 1842:--

  “To all the Sons of Holy Mother Church: Richard, by the Grace of God, Bishop of Dunkeld, Salutation and Episcopal Benediction,--Since it belongs to our office to increase the respect of holy religion, let all as well present as future know, that I have granted, and by this my Charter confirmed, to the Abbot of Dunfermline, and the monks there serving God, the donation of King Malcolm, and Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, as their Charters testify, the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld, and all the lands justly pertaining to it, free and quit from every exaction, as well of ecclesiastics as of seculars, saving Episcopal rights/  I also grant to them conversationem in my bishoprick, and that they may exercise the divine office, and hold the cure of souls among their dependants; and that, while conversantes in my diocese, they shall receive from me, those things which pertain to Christianity.—Witnesses: MATTHEW, archdeacon of St. Andrews; BRICIUS, prior of Inchcolm; MICHAEL, the clerk; MASTER MATTHEW and JOHN, his brother; ROBERT, cupbearer to the bishop; RADULFUS, the chaplain; THOMAS, the presbyter; MURDOCH, the clerk; ABRAHAM LITTLE.”

(Print. Regist. de Dunf. p. 419; also Chalmers’ History of Dunfermline, vol. i. p. 504.)

  BULL OF ALEXANDER III.—confirming the grant of Dunkeld to Dunfermline Abbey; translated by Cosmo Innes, Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh, 1842:--

  “Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his beloved sons Geoffrey, Abbot of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, and his brethren, salutation and apostolic benediction,--It becomes us to grant a ready consent to the just desires of suppliants; and reasonable vows are to be effectually performed;  Therefore, sons beloved in the Lord, we, heartily assenting to your just requests, confirm, by our apostolic authority, to you, and through you to your Church, the Church of the Holy Trinity of Dunkeld, as reasonably granted to your Monastery by Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, with the consent of the Church, which we have judged proper to mention by name: FORDOUN, Dunmernic, BENDACHIM, CUPERMACCULIM, INCHE, RUMM, CETHEC.  Let it be unlawful, therefore, to any to infringe this our confirmation, or oppose in any manner.  Should any one presume to attempt this, let him know that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God, and of the blessed Peter and Paul, his apostles.—Given at Sens, 27 July” [1164].

(Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. No. 236, p. 151; also Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 504.)  This is the first  Bull from a Pope in Registrum de Dunfermlyn, and is here given as a specimen of the tenor of the Bulls in the Register.

  POPE ALEXANDER III. between the years 1163 and 1165, granted two Bulls or Writs, to Dunfermline Abbey.  (Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. pp/ 151-153.)

  1165.—MALCOLM IV. INTERRED AT DUNFERMLINE.—Malcolm IV. Died at Jedburgh, December 9th, 1165, in the 24th year of his age and the 12th of his reign.  He was brought with the highest honour, by the most distinguished persons of all ranks in the kingdom, to Dunfermline, and “interred in the middle pavement of the Abbey, to the right of his grandfather, King David, before the High Altar, the royal burial place.” (Fordun viii. II; Hailes’ Annals of Scotland, vol. i. p. 109.)

  The following are extracts from old authors, who refer to the death and interment of Malcolm IV.:--

  “Maucloun le fitz Henry count del Garuyaghe de Huntingdoun et de Northumbreland qi fust le fitz Dauid le roy, regna xij. Aunz et vi. moys et xx. iours qi monest auaunt la pier a Jedworth et gist a Dunfermelin.”

 That is---

  Malcolm, the osn of Henry, Earl of Garuyaghe and Huntingdon and of Northumberland, the son of David the late King, reigned 12 years, 6 months, and 20 days; he died at Jedburgh, and lies at Dunfermline.”  (Skene’s Chron. Picts and Scots.)

  “Malcolm filius Henrici filii Dauid, regnavit eji. annis et six mensibus et xx. diebus et mortuus in Jedwed et Sepultus in Dunfermlin cum predeccessoribus regibus.”

That is---

  Malcolm, the son of Henry, the son of David, reigned 12 years and 6 months and 20 days; and died in Jedburgh, and was interred with his predecessors, the kings, at Dunfermline.

  Winton, in alluding to the occurrence, says—

Athowsand a hundyr Sixty and Fyve
Yheris of Grace, owt of his lyve
Malcolm oure Kyng past with honoure,
In Gedwood, till hys Creature
Of Decembyre the nynd day,
Efter the Conceptyown ay
Of oure Lady the Virgyne slere;
Frat hire hus body was browcht syne,
And entyr’d in Dwmfermlyn.”
(Wynton’s Orygynale Cronykil Scot. vol. i. p. 318.)

(Vide also Chron. Melrose, p. 169; Hailes’ An. Scot. maj. vol. i. p. 109; Fordun, 1.8; c. 4, 10, 11; Abrid. Scots Chron. p. 98.)

  ROYAL DONATION OF 100 SHILLINGS TO THE ABBEY.—King William (the Lion), on the day of his brother’s demise, gave to the Abbey, as a free and perpetual gift, 100 shillings out of the revenue of the burgh of Edinburgh, and 20 acres of land, and a toft of land in Dunfermline.  (Print. Regist. de Dunf.; Confirm. Charters; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. ii. p. 231.)

  WALTER FITZALAN’S GIFT TO THE ABBEY.—“Walter, the son of Alan, the King’s Steward, gave to the Abbey on the day that King Malcolm was buried there, a gift of 20 acres and a toft, for the weal of the soul of King Malcolm IV. And his ancestors; and also for the souls of his own father and mother and his ancestors, and for his own soul in free Alms, reserving a lodging for himself and his heirs.”  Confirmed by William the Lion.—(Regist de Dunf. No. 161, p. 93; Dalyell’s Monas. Ant. p. 51.)

  1166.—CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF KING WILLIAM.—Shortly after his ascension to the throne this year, King William granted a Confirmation Charter to the Abbey, confirming the gifts and privileges bestowed by his predecessors, and his own.  This charter is entitled “Confirmacio Willmi Regis”, and occupies pp. 28, 29, 30, of the printed Registrum de Dunf.

  1168.—A TOFT IN INVERKEITHING was given to Dunfermline Abbey about this period by Walter, the son of Alan, as a free and perpetual eleemosynary gift, &c.  (Print. Regis. Dunf. pp. 93, 94, No. 163.)

  1171.—BALCHRISTIE.—The dispute between the monks of Dunfermline and the canons of St. Andrews, respecting their respective rights to Balchristie, was settled this year, the King (William) deciding that the lands should belong to the monks of Dunfermline, and the pension out of them, excepted by King David to be paid to the canons of St. Andrews.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 34, No. 59; and p. 5, No. 3.)

  1173.—THE SCHOOLS OF PERTH AND STIRLING, under the Superintendence of Dunfermline Abbey.—As early as this period there were Scolis in Perth and Stirling wherein youthful candidates for ecclesiastical preferment were instructed in grammar and logic, of which the abbot and monks of Dunfermline were the directors.  (Carta de Paisley, p. 284; Caledonia, vol. i. p. 767; Sir J. Stewart’s Coll. In Adv. Lib. No. 45; Tytler’s Hist. Scot. vol. ii. p. 353; Carta de Kelso, pp. 253-258; Regist. de Dunf. p. 56, 57, 63, 66, 81, 418; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 242.)

  1174.—ROYAL DONATION OF A CONDMAN AND HIS CHILDREN TO THE ABBEY OF DUNFEMLINE.—King William, by a Charter, titled “De Servis,” bequeaths for ever, as a free eleemosynary gift to the Abbey, Gillandrean Mac Suthen and his children.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 36, No. 64; Dal. Mon. Ant. pp. 40, 41.)

  1176.—GILLEBRIDUS, Sheriff of Dunfermline.—According to the “Register of the Priory of St. Andrews,” Gillebridus was vice-comes, or Sheriff of Dunfermline, as early as the year.  (Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andree, p. 216; also, Chal. Hist; Dunf. vol. i. p. 582, &c.)  Perhaps this Gillibridus acted as chief magistrate of Dunfermline at this period.  The Sheriff (or Schireeve) appears to have been succeeded by the title Alderman, and afterwards by Provost-by Provost before 1450.  See also date 1395.)

  1178.—GAUFRID II., Abbot of Dunfermline, died this year.  He was Abbot 24 years.  His name appears as a witness in several Charters in Registrum de Dunfermline, as also in Charters in other Abbeys, &c.  Probably he was interred at Dunfermline.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 180; vol. ii. p. 218.)

  ARCHIBALD, elected and consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline as successor to Gaufrid II. (the third Abbot).  His name is written in some Abbey Charters Erkenbald, Erkenbaldus, Archembaldus, and sometimes with the initial A. or E. only.  He is several times noticed in the chartulary of Kelso Abbey.  (See date 1198; also, Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 181; vol. ii. p. 313.)

  1179.—TITHES OF THE MALT OF FITKILL (Lesslie).—King William in a Charter declares that xxiii.s.iiij.d. was the sum that the monks of Dunfermline were wont to draw from his lands of Fitkill.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 35.)

  CHURCH OF MELVILLE BEQUEATHED TO THE ABBEY: A Perpetual Light before the Tombs of Kings David and Malcolm.—Gaefrid de Malcum (Melville), after (in his Charter) saluting “all good men, present and future,” gives and confirms to the Church of Christ at Dunfermline and Monastery of the same, the Church of Melville, as a perpetual and free alms “for the souls of David the King and Malcolm IV., and for his ancestors and successors;” at the same time, he stipulates that, for this charitable gift, “a perpetual light must be kept burning before the tomb of the said Kings.”  Coram Sepultura(Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 91, 92.)

  1180.—THE CHURCH OF MOULIN GIFTED TO THE ABBEY.—The Church of Moulin, in Perthshire, was bequeathed to Dunfermline Abbey by Malcolm (the second), Earl of Athole.  The Charter of Conveyance is in Print.  Regist. de Dunf. p. 85, and is titled “Malcolmus Comes Atholie; De Ecclia de Molin.”  The date is not known with accuracy, but A.D. 1180 appears to be the probable date.  The Earl and his Countess appoint Dunfermline Abbey to be the place of their sepulture.

   THE CHURCH OF STRATHARDOLF.—In an undated Charter of about this date, King William give to the Abbey of Dunfermline the Church of Strathardolf, or Strathardol, in the north-east part of Perthshire, “as a perpetual free gift, to be held in quiet and honourable possession.”  (Regist. de Dunf. p. 39; Carta 73; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 230, &c.)

  1182.—POPE LUCIUS III., between the years 1182 and 1183, granted two Bulls of Writs to Dunfermline Abbey.  (Vide Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 153-158.)

  QUEEN’S FERRY.—The old name of “Ardehinnechenam” began to be disused in 1164, and that of Passaguim S. Margaritae Reginae “Passage of the Holy Margaret the Queen) substituted.  This new name of “Queen’s Ferry” again appears in a Confirmation Bull or Charter of Lucius III. ti the Abbey, and is dated 14th Nov. M.C.LXXX.IIIJ. (1184) and occasionally it re-appears in this its Latin designation in other Charters on the Register down to a late period.  The Seal of the burgh of South Queensferry is an oval one, in the center of which is St. Margaret standing in a skiff or boat; crown on head; rod of office in her right hand; the boat has a small flag at stern; the legend between ornamental border lines round the circumference reads—INSIGNIA *PASAGI* REGINAE.  South Queensferry became a royal burgh in 1636 and perhaps this is the date of the Seal. 

  1184.—ANDREW, Bishop of Caithness, (formerly Culdean Abbot of Dunkeld)—died at Dunfermline 30th December.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 493.)

  DUNKELD (Cathedral) CHURCH—in consequence of the death of Andrew, Bishop of Caithness, this year—becomes of legal property of Dunfermline Abbey. 

    1185.—KING WILLIAM AND HIS DUNFERMLINE WORKMEN.—A Charter or Writ of King William about this date notifies:  “When I repaired my castles in Ross, the men belonging to the Abbot and Monks of Dunfermline assisted, of their own goodwill, at my request, along with other honest men of mine; but it is my command that, having done this at my instance, it shall not be construed into any precedent.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 32, No. 54.)

  1187.—POPE URBAN III. this year granted a Bull or Writ to Dunfermline Abbey, in which he decrees that any vacant churches must not be granted to any one, but must be retained for their original purposes.  (Vide Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 158, 159.)

  1190.—LIGHTING THE CHURCH OF DUNFERMLINE.—Archibald, Abbot of Dunfermline, about this period received an undated Charter from King William in his favour, granting the right to receive annually from the burgh of Haddington, “the sum of 3 merks-one half at the Feast of St, Martin, the other half at the Feast of the Pentecost-for lighting the Church of Dunfermline.”  (Print Regist. de. Dunf. p. 31; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol i. p. 181.)

  POPE CLEMENT III. this year granted four Bulls to Dunfermline Abbey.  (Vide Print. Regist. de Dunf. pp. 159-161.)

  1195.—ROGER, Prior of Dunfermline, died about this period, and was probably interred within Dunfermline Abbey.  He appears to have been Prior for the long period of 46 years.  (See An. Dunf. date 1149.)

  LAMBINUS, elected Prior of Dunfermline Abbey about this period as successor to Roger the Prior; exact date of death unknown, but between 1192 and 1198.  (Liber Cartarum Prioratus Sancti Andre, p. 353; also Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 582.)

  1196.—MALCOLM, EARL OF ATHOLE, and his wife the Countess, died between the years 1194 and 1198, and were interred in the Abbey in the place they had selected.  These dates are found by a comparison of the dates of deaths of witnesses affixed to his Charter in the Register of Dunfermline, p. 85, No. 147.

  1198.—ARCHIBALD, the 3rd Abbot of Dunfermline, died.  Not known where interred.  (Chron. Mel. P. 103; Fordun, lib. 153.)

  ROBERT DE BERWICK, elected and consecrated Abbot of Dunfermline; successor to Archibald, the last Abbot.  He is represented as being a “careless man.”  (See his deposition in 1202.)  The 4th Abbot.

1199.—KEETH CHAPEL, CRICHTION.—This year it was ordained by Charter, that the Chapel of Keeth should belong to the Chapel of Crichton for ever; and that the Church of Crichton should pay to the Abbey of Dunfermline one mark of silver annually at the Feast of the blessed Martin.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 68-69, No. 113: Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 227.)


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