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Annals of Dunfermline
A.D. 1501 - 1601 - Part 2

1555.—THE ABBEY “BUIK WITH THE BLAK COVERING, Callit Novum Rentale, begynnand in 1555 and endand 1583.—This is the first of five new rental-books of the Abbey (noticed under proper dates).  The first one is a Register of the Abbey lands, possessions, &c., of Dunfermline.  This Register is in the possession of the Marquis of Tweeddale, the Heritable Bailie of the Regality of Dunfermline, and is titled, “The buik with the blak covering, callit Novum Rentale, begynnand in 1555 and endand 1583.”  It contains a register of all the lands belonging to the Regality of Dunfermline, from 5th November, 1555, to 11th September, 1585.  With some exceptions it is entire and still in good condition.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 76.)  The following title is inscribed on its first leaf:--

  “Novum rentale seu Registrum terrarium ad Regalitatem de Dunfermling spectantium anno milesimo quingentesimo quinquagesimo quinto per dominum Johannem. . . . . Monachum professum ejusdem de mandato Reverendi viri Georgii Durie, commendatarii dicti monasterii.—J. HENRISONE, Chartarum custos et Notarius Publicus.”  (Printed Regist. de Dunf. pp. 465, 482.)

  1556.—BURGH RECORDS OF DUNFERMLINE.—The second oldest volume (a small one) of the Burgh Records begins with date 29th January, 1556, and ends with 15th November, 1575.  This volume is a folio, stitched in an old parchment covering (see also Annals Dunf. date 1473), and from which several extracts have been taken for 1556-1575.

  1557.—THE ABBEY REGISTER OF CHARTERS, TAKCS, AND TEINDS, relating to Dunfermline.—In the General Register House, Edinburgh, there is a Register of the Charters, Tacks, and Teinds, belonging to Dunfermline Abbey, from 1557 to 1585.  (See Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. 486-492.)

  The LANDS OF PRIMROSE AND KNOCKS were purchased this year by the “Laird of Pitfirrane;” and Knockhouse in 1561.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 294; Regist. Dunf. &c.)

  THE (ABBEY) REGISTER, with the “Quhyt Parchment Covering,” 1557-1585, being vol. ii. of New Rentals of Abbey Possessions, &c.  (Vide Annals 1557-1585; Print. Regist. Dunf. pp. . . .

  CHARTER, relating to the West Mill of Kirkcaldy.—This is the last Charter in the Register of Dunfermline.  It is in the Scottish language of the day.  This being the last Charter of Durie’s and the last in the Register, we insert it:--

  “George, Commendator of Dunfermline, set in feu farm till George Boswell, helein his spouse and thair airis maile, quhilkis failzand to maister Andro bosuell and margarita bosuell his spouse, the west mylne of Kirkdaldy wytht ye mill landis and multoures of ye samyn, Quha is oblissit to pay to the said abbot zeirlye thairfor fourty bollis mele seuin pundes and twelf shillings monei, Twelf caponis to giddir wutht hariage careage and dew twice and tua  zeires mele at ye intre of ylk air.  And be ye said abbot one nawayis sall grant nor giff licence to onie inhabitants of ye said broucht of Kirkcaldy nor of ye lordship throf to bigg ony millis on the watter or wind milinis or hors mylnis witht-in ye boundes of ye said toun and lordschip, Twa yhat nane of ye multouris nor pfettis of ye west milne be abstract nor drawin thairfra throw occasioune throf.—At Dunfermling the xvij day of apriile the zeir of God ane thowsand fine hunderit fyfte seuin zeires befor witnesses, &c., &c.  Alane Couttes, Chamerlane, Maister William Murray, . . . William Durye.”  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 400, No. 578; Dal. Mon. Antiq. pp. 9, 10.)

  1558.—ST. JOHN’S CHAPEL LANDS LET IN TACK.—St. John’s Chapel Lands, &c., east of Garvock, near Dunfermline, were this year let in tack, by Schir John Grant, the Chaplin, to David Hutcheson and his spouse.  (M.S. Regist. Charters, Regist. House, Edin.)

  JOHN DURIE, condemned to be Immured for Heresy.—John Durie, one of the “conventual brethren” of Dunfermline, was brought to trail for “heresy” by the Abbot, was found guilty, and condemned to be immured, i.e. built up between two walls till he died.  By friends, who interceded with the Earl of Arran, he was set at liberty.  (Spottiswood’s Hist. Church Scot. p. 457.)

  TRIAL OF WALTER MILL, the Martyr.—The Abbot of Dunfermline was one of the judges who tried the decrepit old man, Walter Mill, for “heresy.”  He was condemned to be burnt at the stake, the Abbot heartily acquiescing.  John Knox, alluding to this, says, “That blessed martyr of Christ, Walter Mill, a man of decrepit age, was put to death most cruelly the 28th April, 1558.”  The Papists, seeing they could not make him recant, made many fair promises to him, and offered him a monk’s portion “for all ye dayes of his life in ye Abbey of Dunfermling.”  But to no effect.  He adhered to the Protestant faith to the end.  (Histories of Scotland; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 299.)

  DAVID FERGUSON (afterwards Minister of Dunfermline), accused of “Wrongous Using and Wresting of the Scripture.”  M’Crie, in his Life of John Knox, vol. i. p. 446, says, “On the 7th of July, 1558, the Rothsay Herald was sent from Edinburgh with letters summoning ‘George Luvell, David Ferguson, and certain utheris persons within the burgh of Dundee,’ to appear before the Justice and his deputies on 28th July of this year, to answer the charge of “wrongous using and wresting of the Scriptures.”  No result.

  1559.—PITCORTHIE (EASTER), “Given in Few-tack to Kathrine Sibbald and John Durie, her son.”  (M.S. Regist. Tacks, &c., Regist. House, Edinr.)

  THE REFORMATION.—The religious feeling in Scotland had, for more than twenty years, been particularly hostile to the Romish faith, and consequently to the Romish mode of conducting worship.  The brethren of the Abbeys, and other religious houses, had outlived their usefulness.  They, at least the great majority of them, did not believe this; hence they stood still, and so had to be “dragged along with the intelligence of the age.”  They would not “set their houses in order.”  Had the ecclesiastics done so, and reformed abuses and their manners, “the pulling down of the Cathedrals and Abbeys might have been avoided.”  Besides the quarrel with the Romish doctrine and form of worship, the greater part of the ecclesiastics, high and low,were ”loose in their morals, and led licentious live;” and at last it was found necessary to “pull down the nests” to compel “the rooks to fly away.”  The following lines, by a celebrated poet of the time, convey an accurate idea of the state of public feeling at this period.  In referring to the Pope, &c., he says—

“His cardinallis hes cause to moarne,
His bishops are borne a backe;
His abbot gat an uncuth turne,
When shavellinges went to sacke.

With burges wives they led their lives,
And fare betten than wee.
Hay trix, trim goe trix, under the greene wod tree.

“His Carmilllites and Jacobinis,
His Dominikes had grate adoe,
His Cordeilier and Augustines,
Sanct Francis’s order to;
The sillie friers, mony yeiris
With babbling bleirit our ee.
Hay trix, trim goe trix, under the greene wod tree.

“Had not yoursefs begun the weiris,
Your stipillis had been stanand yet;
It wes the flattering of your friers,
That ever gart Sanct Francis flit;
In wickednesse
It gart us grow malicious,
Contrair your messe.”
(Dalyell’s Poems of the 16th Century.)

Besides “the religious question,” the civil power had for long superseded the ecclesiastical privileges of electing Abbots, &c., as hath been shown under previous dates; and, no doubt, Court favourites, who had an eye to the Abbey possessions, would lend a most hearty, willing hand to help on the Reformation work.  This work began at Perth with physical force on 24th May, 1559.  Shortly after this, “the kirk-destroyers” went “about with sticks and spades, and wi’ John Knox inta their heads dinging the Abbey doon,” armed with general warrants for accomplishing their work.  The writer has seen copies of two of these warrants, viz., for the “dinging doon” of Glasgow and Dunblane Cathedrals.  They are precisely similar, with the exception of the names of the Cathedrals.  It is likely that the originals would be in print, and a blank space left for naming the cathedral, kirk, or other religious house.  No doubt the warrant for the destruction of Dunfermline Abbey ran in the same tenor, viz.:--

  “Traist friendis, after maist harty commendacioun, we pray you faill not to pass incontinent to the Kyrk of. . . . . . and tak doun the haill images thereof, and bring furth to the Kirk-zayrd, and burn thaym oppinly.  And siclyk cast doun the alteris, and purge the Kyrk of all kind of monuments of idolatrye.  And this ze faill not to do, as ze will do us singulare empleseur; and so committis you to the protection of God.—Fro Edinburgh, . . . . . . . 1560.

“Faill not, bot ze tak guid heyd that neither the dasks,
windocks, no durris be ony ways hurt or broken,
eyther glass in wark or iron wark.
“Ar. Argyle.
James Stewart.

“The work” of destroying Dunfermline Abbey commenced on 28th March, 1560, on the 4th day of the then New-year’s-day.  (See An. Dunf. of date March 28th. 1560.)

  1560.—THE QUEEN REGENT IN DUNFERMLINE.—“Upon the 3rd day of March, 1560, the Queen passed from Edinburgh to Dunfermline, and from thence to Dysart and Dury.”  (Lindsay’s Hist. Scot. p. 213.)

  RELICS OF St. MARGARET.—A highly ornamented Coffer, containing the head, hair, &c., of the sainted Queen, which had for upwards of 300 years stood on her Shrine in the Choir, was removed to Edinburgh Castle, “to be out of the way of the anticipated visit” of the “Reformers” to Dunfermline.

  The following note regarding this is taken from a Life of St. Margaret, published in 1660:--“The Coffer, or Chest, which contained the Sacred Relics of St. Margaret in Dunfermline Abbey, was of  silver, enriched with precious stones, and was placed in the noblest part of the Church.  When the hereticks had stoln into the Kingdome, and trampled under foot all Divine and human lawes, seized the sacred moveables of the Abbey, somethingn of greater veneration and value were saved from their sacreligious hands by being transplanted to Edinburgh Castle.  Some holy men, fearing that the Castle might be assaulted, transplanted the Coffre wherein was the heade and haire of St. Margaret and some other moveable of great value, into the Castle of the Barony of Dury”  [at Craigluscar, three miles north-west of Dunfermline].  “This Lord (or Laird of Dury) was a reverend father and priest, and “monck of Dunfermling,’ who, after his Monastery was pillaged, and the religious forced to fly away, dwelt in this Castle.  After this venerable father had very religiously for some years kept this holy pledge, it was, in 1597, delivered into the hands of the fathers of the Society of Jesus, then missionaries in Scotland, who seeing it was in danger of being lost, or prophaned, transported it to Antwerp;” from thence it was taken to Douay, where it remained until the troubles of the French Revolution, when the relics appear to have been destroyed with the other holy relics in the Scotch College of Douay.

  Father Hay, referring to this matter, says—“St. Margaret’s relics were, in 1597, delivered into the hands of the Jesuit missionaries in Scotland, who, seeing they were in danger of being plst, or prophaned, transported it to Antwerp, where John Malderus, Bishop of the city,  after diligent examin upon oath, gave an authentic attestation, under the Seal of his office, the 5 of Septembre 1620; and permitted them to be exposed to the veneration of the people.  The same relics were acknowledged by Paul Boudet, Bishop of Arras, the 4th of Septembre, 1627, in testimony whereof he offered 40 days’ indulgence to all who would pray before the relics.  Lastly, on the 4th of March, 1645, Innocent X. gave plenary indulgence to all the faithful who would pray before them, having confessed and communicat in the Chapell of the Scots Colledge of Douay, for the ordinary ends prœscribed by the Church on the 10 of June, the festival of this Princess. . . . . Her relics are kept in the Scots Colledge of Doway in a Bust of Silver.  Her skull is enclosed in the head of the Bust, whereupon there is a Crown of Silver gilt, enriched with severall Pearl and Precious Stones.  In the Pedestall, which is of Ebony, indented with Silver, her hair is kept and exposed to the view of every one through a Glass of Crystall.  The Bust is reputed the third Statue in Doway for its valour [value?].  There are likewise severall Stones, Red and Green, on her Breast, Shoulders, and elsewhere.  I cannot tell if they be upright, their bigness makes me fancy that they may be counterfitted.”  (Hay’s Scotia Sacra MS.)  For other particulars, vide Hist. of Dunfermline, &c., and under date in Annals of Dunfermline.

  FRENCH FUGITIVE WARRIORS ARRIVE IN DUNFERMLINE.—Lindsay , in his “Chronicles,” notices that “on 24th January, 1560, a number of Frenchmen came hurrying to Dunfermline from the East Coast, where English ships had appeared, and whose Admiral landed at Aberdour.  Such was their fear, that they left their roasts at the fire and ran to Dunfermline on the same night, without meat or drink.  But the Laird of Grange slew many of them before they reached Dunfermline.  Two days after (26th Jan.), the Frenchmen remained a whole night in Fotherick moor without the least refreshment,” &c.  (Lindsay’s Chron. vol.ii. pp. 550, 551; Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 267.)

  FLIGHT OF THE ABBOT OF DUNFERMLINE.—“Upoun the xxix. day of Januar, 1560, the Abbot of Dunfermling and the erle of Eglintoun past to France furth of Dunbar.”  (“Diurnal of Occurrents,” Pref. Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 17.)  “The line of Abbots of Dunfermline here ceases to exist.”  A Commendator appointed in his stead.

  THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY at Dunfermlin was raised to the dignity of an Abbey by David I. in A.D. 1124.  Between this date and that of 1560 there are generally recorded 36 Abbots of Dunfermline.  The writer has doubts of the existence of two of the Abbots of the name of John, who are said to have been in office between the years 1353 and 1410.  Should this be found correct, then there were only 34 Abbots of Dunfermline between the years 1124 and 1560 (or a period of 436 years), giving about 13 years as the average duration of an Abbotship.

  COMMENDATOR OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY.—Robert Pitcairn was appointed to the office of Commendator of Dunfermline Abbey in May 1560.  Pitcairn was also received and styled Abbot, by courtesy perhaps.  But since Abbeys had ceased to exist in 1560 there could not be a legally recognized Abbot after this date.  However, we find him styled “Abbot of Dunfermline” on his monumental tomb in the Abbey.

  THE DESTRUCTION OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY BY “THE REFORMERS.”—Lindsay, in his “Chronicles of Scotland,” notices the destruction of Dunfermline Abbey briefly as follows:--“Vpon the 28 march [1560] the wholl lordis and barnis that ware on thys side of Forth, pased to Stirling, and be the way kest doun the abbey of Dunfermling.”  (Lind. Chron. Scot. vol. ii. p. 555.)  Thus fell the great Abbey of Dunfermline, after a chequered ecclesiastical service of about 434 years.  In it’s earlier years the Abbey service did good in the land.  Latterly it had, like similar institutions, become in a great measure subject to the civil power.  The conventual brethren, as previously noticed, “had become careless, lazy, vicious, and, in too many instances, abandoned characters.”  It is on record that George, Archdean of St. Andrews and Commendator of Dunfermline, “led ane vicious life.”  He heeded not the “holy law of the celibacy of the clergy,” for he had tow natural children legitimatised on 30th September, 1543.  Yet notwithstanding this, he was, about the year 1566, canonized by the Pope of the day, ad enrolled in the list of his saints!  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 199, and other works.)  Such had been the state and practice of many of “the holy men” for half a century before the Reformation.  They had little or no inclination to reform themselves.  Hence in 1559-61 “physical force” was unfortunately resorted to—viz., “pulling down their nests to cause the rooks to fly away.”  The “reformers,” in their “destructive crusades,” entered abbeys, churches, &c., and at once set to their work by destroying the high and other altars, with their accompaniments, images, painted pictures, inscribed tablets, effigies, shrines, lighted tombs, crosses, vestments, saints’ relics, hand-bells, and the baptized bells in the western towers.  The fine organs were “reduced to fragments.”  This and other deeds were often effected by loosening the roof and getting it to fall into the inside of the choirs, in order to complete the work of destruction. The work was generally brought to a close with a kind of holocaust—viz., the wooden images they had destroyed or mutilated, the paintings of the saints, high altar furniture, monks’ vestments, &c., were brought out of the churches into the churchyards, or into the cloister courts, and there set on fire, no doubt, amidst the yells of the “reformatory rabble.”  In the destruction of Dunfermline Abbey, the attention of “the reformers,” who “did their duty,” appears to have been chiefly directed to the Choir, or eastern part of the Abbey, erected in 1216-1226.  This part of the Abbey was full of altars (twenty are known); many of them were served with “donation” lights.  There were also here shrines, paintings on canvas representing saints and scriptural scenes, crosses, and tablets.  Here it was where worship had been celebrated “amid the sound of the organ processions and the ringing of bells;” and so it was made to suffer for the sins enacted within its walls. 

“When the rude reformers acted here,
Zeal led the van—destruction in the rear;
To deformation all their acts did tend;
Where they began they also made an end.”

The Nave, now known as “The Auld Kirk,” did not suffer much from “reforming zeal.”  The North-west Tower, now the site of the Steeple, appears to have been thrown down to a great extent.  This was the Bell Tower of the Abbey, and in it were hung a number of “Baptised Bells.”  This was sufficient warrant for its destruction; so it was in great part pulled down, and the holy bells destroyed.  In the destruction of the Bell Tower a great part of the western gable fell along with it.  At the same time the monastic buildings on the south side of the Abbey Church, “the nest of the monks,” were also overthrown.  Thus, on this eventful 28th of March, the beautiful old Abbey, with its pinnacles, spires, and decorated work, was rendered a mass of ruins, much of which still remains to complain of the injustice the fabric suffered from the reformers.

“These wall and spires aloud to heaven complain
Of base injustice from the hands of men—
Whose shatter’d fragments only tend to show
The dreadful havoc of th’ relentless foe.”

For full particulars of the destruction of the Abbey, see the Histories of Dunfermline, &c., and also Notices, after this date in the Annals.

  DUNFERMLINE ABBEY POSSESSIONS, JURISDICTIONS, &C., inter A.D. 1124-1560.—At various periods during the existence of the Abbey (1124-1560) it had land and church property in a great may places throughout Scotland from which it drew revenues.  The following may be enumerated.  Near Dunfermline: Pardusin, Pitcorthie, Pitnaurcha, Lauer, Pitcauchly, Beaths, Craigluscar, Balmule, Baldridge, Pitfirrane, Pittencrieff, Roscobie, Dunduff, Masterton, Garvock, Drumtuthil, Abercromby, Torryburn, Saline, Bandrum, Braidlees, Clunes, Carnock, Caerniehill, North Queensferry, Limekills, Inverkeithing, Craigduckies, Pitconnoquhy, Primross, Dunfermline Schyre, Fotheros, Kinedder, Luscars, The Gellelds, &c.  Places at a Distance:  Ergaithel (Argyle), Kildun (near Dingwall), Dunkeld, Strathardel, Moulin, Perth, Scone, Urquhart, Pluscardin, Pettycur, Aldestelle, Berwick, Coldingham, Cramond, Haddingtion, Edmistoune, Newton, Newbottle, South Queensferry, Linlithgow, Stirling, Dunipas, Liverton, Craigmillar, Edinburgh, The Calders, Hales, Musselburgh, Inveresk, Lammermuir, Kirkcaldy, Abbotshall, Dysart, Bolgin, Gaitmilck, Nethbren, Duniad, Pitcorthartin, Balekerin, Drumbernen, Keeth, Pethenach, Balchristie,  Kinghorn, Burntisland, Fotheros, Kinglassie, Buchaven, Balwearie, Carberry, Cleish, Lochend, Elleville, Muchart, Orwell, Kinross, Stromyss, Dollar, Tillicoultrie, Clackmannan, &c.  (Vide Charters and Writs in Registrum de Dunfermelyn, and also Chal. Hist. Dunf.;  and regarding their disposal in 1560-1563, see also Print. Regist. de. Dunf. App., as also other works on Scottish history.)  Churches and Chapels belonging to or under the Patronage of the Abbey at various Periods:  Abercrombie Chapel (near Torryburn), Abercrombie Church (east of Fife), Bendachy (Perthshire), Calder Church (Edinburghshire), Carnbee (Fifeshire), Cousland Chapel (East Lothian), Cleish Chapel (Kincardineshire), Dollar Church (Clackmannanshire), Dunipace Chapel, Dunkeld Cathedral Church (Perthshire), St. Giles’ Church (Edinburgh), Glinen Chapel (Perthshire), Hailes Chapel (Edinburghshire), Inveresk Chapel (Edinburghshire), Inverkeithing (the Church of St. Peter there, the Parish Church), Rossythe Church, Keith Chapel (Haddingtionshire), Kelly Chapel (Fifeshire), Kinross Church, Orwell Chapel (Kincardineshire), Kinghorn (Fifeshire), Burntisland Chapel (Fifeshire), Kirkcaldy Chapel (Fifeshire), Kinglassie Chapel (Fifeshire), Melville Chapel (Midlothian), Moulin Chapel (Perthshire), Muckart Chapel (Perthshire), Newlands  Chapel (Perthshire), Newton Chapel (Midlothian), Newburn Chapel (Fifeshire), North Queensferry Chapel, Perth Church of St. John the Baptist, the Chapel of St. Leonard and the Chapel of the Castle (Perth), the two Churches of Stirling and Stirling Chapel of the Castle, Strathardolf Chapel (Perthshire), Wemyss Chapel (Edinburghshire), St. John’s Chapel (Garvock, near Dunfermline), St. James’ Church (North Queensferry), South Queensferry Chapel.  (Vide “Charters and Writs,” Regist. de Dunf.; also Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. pp. 219, 220.)  As far as it has been ascertained, such is a list of the churches and chapels which belonged to or were under Dunfermline Abbey patronage and protection (1124-1560)—in all (at least), 43 churches and chapels.

  DAVID FERGUSON, Minister of the Evangel, was appointed to the charge of Dunfermline Church (late the Abbey) by the newly constituted General Assembly, in July, this year.  The new Assembly appears to have been very energetic.  Ferguson was appointed to this charge within four months after the destruction of the Abbey.  (Laing’s Tracts of Ferguson, p. 8.)

  1561.—THE RENTAL OF DUNFERMLINE ABBEY, by Allan Coutts, the Chamberlain of the Abbey.—The rental of “The Haill Patrimonie of the Abacie of Dunfermling, in npennie meall an fuelis, customes, borrow meallis, fed oxin, Siluir, Lymekill maill, Kayness, fermes, teyndis Kirkis and teindis of townis Sett in assedation for money, as Gevin in and sustained be allane Cowttis, chalmerlaine thairof,” occupies 37 quarto pages of the Registrum de Dunfermelyn.

  THE ABBEY CHAMBERLAIN’S BOOKS appear to have been kept after a singular fashion.  Among the multitude of entered items we extract the following:--

            Money, (Scots)                                                                 £ 2513     10    9
            Wheat,       -         28 Chal.,   11  Bolls,  1  Firlot,   0   Pcks.,   0   Lippies.
            Bear,          -       102    “        15      “      1      “       3       “       0         “
            Meal,          -        15     “          0      “      0      “       0       “       0         “
            Oats           -        61     “          6      “      2      “       0       “       0         “
            Horse Corn,        29     “          1       “     1      “        2      “        2        “
            Butter         -        34 Stones.
            Lime           -        19 Chal.,    15 Bolls.
            Salt            -         11     “          8     “
            Capons      -       374.
            Poultry,      -       746.

  There are also such entries among the disbursements in money as follows:--

            Item, to the porter of the (abbey) yett of Dunfermling,
                under ye commoune Seill,                                                      £4     0     0
            Item, to the plumbar and glaissin wrycht under ye com-
              Moune Seill,                                                                            13     6     8
            Item, to the foster of ye wood under the commoune Seill,               4     0     0
            Item, to the bailzie of ye regalitie of Dumfermling                           20     0     0
            Item, to the sklaittar and his servandis,                                        13    13    4
            Item, to the procurator of ye actiounes of the place (viz.,
              Dunfermline)                                                                            20     0     0
            Item, to the babour—in victual,                                                    4      0     0
            Item, to the keepar of the tuips under the com. Seill                    1 chal. vict.
            Item, to the millar of ye abbay milne                                           1    “       “
            Item, to the Smyth of ye abbay                                                  0    “   8 bolls.
            Item, to the wryt                                                                        0    “  12   “
            Item, to the meassoune                                                             0    “  12   “
            Item, to the keeper of ye veschell                                               0    “    4   “
            Item, to the beddell                                                                   0    “    8   “
            Item, to be assigned to the convent for there ser-
              vandis,                                                                                   5    “   12  “           

(Vide Registrum de Dunfermelyn, printed copy, pp. 425, 462; “ Abbey Rentals,” &c., 1561.)  And for “Registra Infeodacionum et Alienationum” (of the Abbey), showing to whom the Abbey lands, were let or disposed of, see Appendix III. of Registrum de Dunfermelyn, pp. 465, 504.

  SOUTH QUEENSFERRY TEIND.—Although it is probable that South Queensferry held of Dunfermline Abbey from a very early period, yet it is not mentioned in the Registrum de Dunfermelyn until 1561, when it is noticed that “The penny meall of Southe Ferrye, with the anwellis, amouonted to £23 9s. 8d. Scots.”  (Regist. Dunf. p. 431.)

  QUEEN MARY IN DUNFERMLINE.—“Upon the 3rd day of March, 1561, Queen Mary came from Edinburgh to Dunfermline, and thence went to Dysart and St. Andrews.”  (Lindsay’s Chron. Scot. vol. ii. p. 561.)

  PAROCHIAL REGISTER.—The first volume of the Parish Registers of Dunfermline, embracing baptisms and marriages, commences with 16th July, 1561.

  ROSYTH CASTLE.—This huge castle stands on a promontory or peninsula on the north shore of the Firth of Forth, about two miles N.W. of North Queensferry, and four miles S.S.E. of Dunfermline.  At high water it is entirely surrounded by the tide, when it appears as if standing on a little island.  The main building somewhat resembles “a Norman Keep,” is of considerable height, and has walls of great thickness.  On the west side are the ruins of its offices, and perhaps also of its chapel, “the chapel of the Castle.”  It was probably the doorway of this chapel, or of some other contiguous building, that had the stone with the following inscription on it, viz.:--

BOT · IN · THE · CROS · 

The main door or entrance is on the north side, above which is an armorial stone, much defaced.  It has on it the date 1561, and the initials “M · R · “ (Maria Regina).  The date 1561 is probably that of it’s erection.  On the mullions of a large window on the east side of the castle are the letters “I · S · “—M · N ·,” and date “1655,” the date of repairs occasioned by the damage done to it “by Cromwell’s men” in 1651.  On the south side there is a doorway, on the edge of which there is a stone with the following quaint advice cut on it in old characters, viz,:


That is:--

In due time draw this cord, the bell to clink
Whose merry voice warns to meat and drink; 

Which shows that at this spot there was a bell-cord connected with the castle bell, to pull at the dinner hour with “joyous voice,”  Regarding the etymology of the name Rosyth, see Annals of Dunfermline, article “St. Margaret’s Hope,” under date 1069; also, several Histories of Dunfermline and topographical works.  This fine old castle has often been represented in engravings.  Grose has a fine view of it from the S.W. and Caley from the north.  (Grose’s Antiq. Scot. vol. ii. p. 284.)

  1563.—QUEEN MAY IN DUNFERMLINE.—According to Barbieri, in his Descriptive and Historical Gazette of Fife, Kincardine, and Clackmannan, p. 99, Queen Mary left Edinburgh for Dunfermline, on February

14th, “to avoid a French gentleman, M. Chatelard, grand-nephew if the famous Bayard, the Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche.”

  FERGUSON, MINISTER OF DUNFERMLINE, AND RENAT BENEDICT.—Renat Benedict, a Frenchman, “Professor of God’s Word” (in France), some time before this year sent a long controversial theological epistle to John Knox.  The Dunfermline Minister answered it, which answer was this year (1563) published at Edinburgh.  Ferguson’s answer extends over 53 octavo pages.  (See Laing’s “Tracts, by David Ferguson, Minister of Dunfermline,”  Ban. Club. Edit. 1860.)  Ferguson throws Benedict’s epistle into sections and answers them.  Benedict’s “epistles” are weak in argument, and ambiguous.  Ferguson’s answers show that he had by far the best of the discussion, and that “he was mighty in the Scriptures.”  The following is an exact copy of the title-page of “Ferguson’s Answer,” now a very rare work:--

Ane Answer to

Ane Epistle, written by Renat
Benedict, the French Doctor pro-
fessor of God’s Word (as the
translator of this Epistle cal-
leth him) to John Knox and
the rest of his brethren,
ministers of the Word
of God, made by Da-
vid Fergussone,
minister of the
same word at
this present in



Out of the mouth of Babis and Sucklings hast thou
ordeaned strength, because of thine enemies, that thou
mightest still the enemie and the avenger.

Imprentit at Edin-
burgh by Robert Lekprebek.
cum Privilegio 1563.

  “REPARATION OF THE KIRK OF DUNFERMLINE.”—The following minute regarding the repairs of the Kirk of Dunfermline is an extract from the Privy Council Register of 13th September, 1563:--

               “Apud Striuiling xxiij° Septembris, Anno Domini [15] xxiij.  Sederunt: Jacobus
                       Moravie comes; Jacobus comes de Morton; Joannes Dns Erskin;
                        Secretarius, Rotulator, Clericus Registri.

  “The quihilk day, fforsamekle as anent our Souerane Ladeis letteris purchest at the instance of the ahle communitie, inhabitaris, and indwellaris of the toun, and parochin of Dunfermling, makand mentioun that quhair in tymes bigane, past memor of man, the Abbottis of the Abbay of Dunfermling were accustomat, and in use vpon their expenssis to uphald and big the wallis of the paroche Kirk of Dunfermling, and als the ruif thairof, in leid, theiking, beting, and mending of the samyne fra weit:  And als the Sacristanis beand Vicaris of the said paroche kirk, wer in use in lyke wyiss vpon thair expenssis to mak and uphald the glassin windois fo the said kirke and siclike; the said tounsschip of Dunfermling wer in vse of reparaeing of the samyn within as efferit on their expenssis, like as thai ar content to do:  And albeit now at this present the said kirk is at sic ane point, that throw decaying thairof, and nocht vphalding of the samyn, in the wallis, ruif, kippillis, and thak thairof, be the Abbot now present of the said Abbey, (It is not known who is here meant.  George Dury continued by courtesy to be called “the Abbot,” and Robert Pitcairn, the new Commendator, was also at the same time so designated.  Probably it may have been George Dury, for it will be observed, near the close of the Writ, that “the saidis Master Robert” [Pitcairn], on being called, did not appear.) and Vicar of the said Kirk, callit William Lummisden, Scaristine, vpoun their expenssis, as vse and wount wes, the wallis in sindrie parties are revin, and the bolt thairthriow partit heirhand the ane side from the vther, and the glassin windois of the samyn decayit, and nane now being thairin: Quhairthrow it is in great danger and perrell to the saidis complanaris of their lyvis to enter, remane, or bide within the said kirk, owther in tyme of prayers, teching, or preching of the word of God, or ony vther besines neidfull to be foen thairin, without hastie remeid be prouidit in all thingis necessary baith for the parties of the saidis Abbot and Sacristine, and the said indwellaris of the toun foirsaid:  Not the less the saidis Abbot and Sacristine will do nathing thairto, conforme to thair partes as vse and wont to wes, albeit thai be answerit of the teindis and fruitis thairof, as is allegit.  The saidis inhabitants and induellaris forsaidis compeired be Johne Boiswall, baillie, William Wilson, thesaurer, for thame selfis and the remanent of the communitie, inhabitaris and induallaris of the said toun:  And anent the charge givin to Maister Robert Pitcarne, commendatar of the said Abbay of Dunfermling, Alane Cowtis, and the said Williame Lumisden , Sacristane of Dunfermling, to compeer before our Souerane Lady and Lordis of hir Secreit Counsele, the said xiij day of September instant, to se ordour takin anent the complaint foirsaid as accordis.  The saidis communitie, inhabitants and indwellaris foirsaidis, compeired be John Boswal, baillie, and William Wilson, thesaurer, for theme selfis and the remanent of the saidis communitie, inhabitants and indwellaris of the said toun, the daid Alane Cowtis, Chamberlane of the said Abbay, and the said William Lumisdene, Sacristane theirof, being persons present, and the said Maister Robert, being oftyme callit and nocht compearand:  The Lordis of Secreit Counsale decernis and ordains the saidis Maister Robert, and Alane, Chamberlane, foirsaid, in his name to vphald and big the wallis of the said parroche kirk, and als the ruif thairof, in leid and vther theiking, beting and mending of the samyn, and kippill werk above the volt thairof, for saulftie of the danger for a writ:  And als the said William Lummisden, Sacristane, foirsaid, and the Mr. Robert, to beit and vphald the glassin windois thairof siclike as thai wer wont in all tymes bipast, vpon thair expenssis:  And ordains letters to be direct heirvpon gif neid beis.”

  JOHN DURY, the eminent native Monk of Dunfermline, embraced the Protestant faith this year: was afterwards celebrated as a divine, and became successively minister of Leith, Edinburhg, and Montrose.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 307, &c.)

  A FEU-TACK of the Abbey lands of Breryhill, Pennyland, Cloudscroft, Hallbank, and croft of New Raw, given to George Lundy.  (Register of Teinds, Register House, Edinburgh.)

  MAISTER ROBERT RICHARDSON AND THE FEU-FARMS OF DUNFERMLINE.—In the month of July this year, Queen May, being then in Dumbarton, addressed the following letter from thence to Robert Pitcairn, Commendator, and the Conventual Brethren of Dunfermline, in favour of Mr. Robert Richardson:--

  “ . . . Commendator and Convent of our Abbacy of Dunfermlyn,--For asmikil as we have thoct it expedient for divers ressonabille causs and considerations, moving us agreeable to this presen ttyme, that all and sundrie the temporall lands pertaining to the said abbacy be set in feu-farms, be zou with ane consent to our weil belovit dalie servitour, Maister Robert Richartson, Prior of Sanct Marie Ile, his airs and assignais, for payment zearlie of the malis ferme and dewties usit and wont conteint in your rental, with augmentation as efferis, quhilk beand done sale be nah ort nor prejudice to your said place, nor zeat to the tenantis of the ground, be ressoun we have takin order with him on their behalffis.  Quairfor ye sall not faillzie with diligence to extract the saids infeftments off feu-ferme to be maid to the said Maister Robert Richartson, as saidis, as ze will expect our speciall thankis.  For we have givin command to the berar to declair to you our mynd in their behalffis at mair lentht quhom to ze sall giff credett as to ourself.—Subscrivit with our hand at Dumbartane, the xviii day of July, the zeir of God Jajv9 and thre scoir thre zeirs”—18th July, 1563.  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vil. i. pp. 249, 250.)

DAVID FERGUSON’S STIPEND.—David Ferguson, since his induction to his charge at Dunfermline, had had a very meager and uncertain allowance.  Referring, in one of his pamphlets (printed in 1563), to the state to which he and other ministers had been exposed, he notifies that, “the greatest number of us have lived in penury, without any stipend—some twelve months, some eight, and some half-a-year; having nothing in the meantime to sustain ourselves and our families, but that which we have borrowed of charitable persons until God send it to us to repay them.” 

  1564.—TENTH PART of the lands of Pittencrieff given in assedatio to Joannis Weymis de Pettincreif.  (Print. Regist. Dunf. p. 487.)

  THE ABBEY CHURCH, DUNFERMLINE, partially demolished in 1560, appears, from old references, to have been “patched up and repaired” this year, for the accommodation of the protestant worshippers.  (See Annals, date 1563, which shows the state the church was then in.)  From 1560 to 1564 the worship appears to have been conducted in the kirk when in a very ruinous state.

  BAPTISM RECORDS OF DUNFERMLINE and the Minister’s Son.—Among the earliest entries in this ancient Record, there is one noting that David Ferguson, minister of the Evangel, had “a man child born to him off his wife, Isobell Durham, and baptizit William.”  (Dunf. Bapt. Records, 1564.)

  1565.—PITFIRRANE CHARTER—Smithy Coal.—In the Charter Chest of Pitfirrane there is a writ of “Licence by Queen Mary, to Patrick Hakket of Pitfyran, to sell the Smydde coal, and transport the same out of the kingdom.”  (Chal. Hist. Dunf. vol. i. p. 527.)

  GEORGE DURY, Ex-Abbot of Dunfermline, appears to have died early in 1565.  (Vide MSS. Of General Hutton. Advo. Lib. Edin.)  Some authors differ in opinion as to the year of Dury’s death, as also regarding the place of his decease, and where interred.

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