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The History of Glasgow
Chapter XLI - Population—Old Green—Feuing of Common Lands—Waulk Mill on Water of Kelvin—Linningshaugh—Skinners Green —Society of Fishers—Assize of Herring—Subdean's Mill —Fortified House in High Street—Lands of Gorbals, Cadder and Monkland

HISTORIANS of Glasgow have usually acquiesced in the estimate that at the time of the Reformation the population of the city was about 4,500. Perhaps there was not any very reliable basis for this calculation at the time it was made, but in the absence of definite information the substitution of other figures need not be attempted. Towards the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century, when the population may be assumed to have been from 2,000 to 3,500, the built portions of the city were being slightly increased, as shown by the few deeds of alienation which have been preserved, but here our knowledge is on a very limited scale because we have no protocol book specially relating to city properties of an earlier date than 1530. [Cuthbert Simson's book, 1499-1513, relating to properties and transactions throughout the diocese, contains several protocols connected with the city, but it cannot be classed with the later protocols of the town clerks who had a monopoly in recording title deeds of burgh property.] Extensions for building purposes are noticed in Ratounraw to the westward, about the middle of the High Street, and along Gallowgate not far from the cross. In Trongate, buildings had probably got no farther west than midway between the cross and the line of Stockwell Street, while to the north of Trongate was the open Long Croft, and to the south was Rutland Croft, tilled by individual proprietors, the pathway leading to the bridge separating the tilled lands from part of the common green belonging to the citizens. Mutland Croft, with its crops difficult to protect from the ravages of geese, swine and other animals, was kept almost wholly free from the erection of buildings till the latter half of the sixteenth century, but the green was appropriated for that purpose at an earlier date. In April, 1503, five plots of the Green, each containing two roods of ground, were sold by the magistrates and council to five separate purchasers who undertook to pay to the common purse yearly feuduties of from 10s. to 16s. 8d. each. The north boundary of this feued area was the king's highway from Barresyet to the bridge, some of the lots had the Molendinar Burn for their south boundary, and one of them had on its west side a vennel, five ells wide, extending from the highway to the burn. [Dioc. Reg. Prot. Nos. 44. 49-53.]

After the disposal of the bulk of the ground lying between Bridgegate and the river Clyde the area latterly known as the Old Green of Glasgow and styled by a sixteenth century notary "palestra de Glasgw lusoria"—Glasgow's playground —was restricted to that section of the original ground which extended from Stockwell Street to St. Enoch's Burn, a little to the east of what is now Jamaica Street. When in course of time this space in its turn was so encroached upon as to be no longer available as a place of recreation, lands to the eastward were acquired for the formation of the New Green. The first of these acquisitions consisted of about twelve acres of land called Linningshaugh, the early history of which, if known, would clear up some doubtful questions. Traced in the bishops' rental books from the year 1526, Linningshaugh was for a long time possessed by rentallers in separate portions. The lands are supposed to have embraced the site of the waulk or fulling mill which gave to Saltmarket Street its earlier name of Walkergait. The water power of the old waulk mill, and perhaps also of an early grain mill, may have been supplied by the combined flow of the Molendinar and Camlachie burns, which joined each other at Linningshaugh. Camlachie Burn seems to have been embanked a little to the east of that point, giving to the adjoining lands the names of Milldamhead and Crooks of Milldam. These lands at one time belonged to the community, and there, till near the end of the sixteenth century, it was customary for the burgesses to assemble yearly and hold their Whitsunday court, at which the common good was set to tacksmen, the treasurer, clerk, master of work and minstrels, were chosen, and arrangements were made for the annual perambulation of the marches.

In the year 1507-8, Archbishop Blacader caused a new waulk mill to be erected on his lands at the Water of Kelvin, and it maybe assumed that about that time his mill at Linningshaugh would be discontinued, leaving the lands on which it had stood or had been surrounded free for the raising of crops or for pasturage. But, really, on these points much is left to conjecture, little being definitely known about the original waulk mill though the history of its successor on the Kelvin can be satisfactorily traced. The object of its erection is explicitly stated in a charter granted on 27th January, 1507-8, from which it appears that the archbishop, who was then on the eve of his departure for the Holy Land, had founded two chaplainries in Glasgow and one in the parish of Carstairs. Of the Glasgow chaplainries one was dedicated to the Virgin Mary of Consolation, at the altar of St. John the Baptist, in the nave of the cathedral, and in front of the image or statue of the Virgin. The other chaplainry was in honour of St. Kentigern at his altar founded by the bishop's brother, Sir Patrick Blacader, knight, near the tomb of the saint in the lower church. Part of the endowments of these three chaplainries consisted of a grant from the petty customs of the burgh of Glasgow, and it was for the purpose of compensating his successors for the loss of customs that the archbishop caused a waulk mill to be erected and maintained on his lands at the Water of Kelvin, for which a yearly rent of six merks was to be paid to him and his successors. [Rag. Episc. No. 486. See also Glasg. Prot. No. 3266.] From Donald Lyon, a rentaller in 1517, the mill passed in 1554, to his son, Archibald Lyon, under whose name it is frequently mentioned in the records. The site now forms part of Kelvingrove Park.

The stream below the confluence of the Molendinar and Camlachie burns divided the burgh lands from those of the barony, but in times of flood the doubled burn was apt to change its course, casting uncertainty on the true march. On one of these occasions a Linningshaugh rentaller represented that in consequence of the flooded stream taking a new course through his lands the adjoining Bridgegate proprietors had appropriated portions of his property and had for several successive seasons sown hemp and other seeds and set plants thereon; and he sought restitution of his rights. This claim was referred to the liners of the burgh and the sworn men in the Partick ward of the barony, and after joint investigation they restored the severed ground to the rentaller; and at a burgh court held in July, 1596, the city bailies ratified the decision. [Glasg. Chart. ii. pp. 567-9.]

In the years 1577-9 there was a readjustment of the lots of Linningshaugh possessed by the respective rentallers, and instead of the apportioned acres running from east to west as formerly, they were laid out from the "loyne" on the north to the river Clyde on the south. These changes which were made on the report of the sworn men of Partick Ward, "conforme to the use of the barony," were sanctioned by the court of the barony and regality, held " at the Castle and Paleis thairof."  [Glasg. Chart. ii. pp. 558-61.]

On the west side of the stream, opposite Linningshaugh, and extending a short distance along the north bank of the river Clyde, was a piece of ground long used by the Skinners of Glasgow for drying their wool and skins and latterly known as Skinners Green. In title-deed descriptions of properties in this vicinity references to lime-holes and bark-holes frequently occur, these receptacles, along with the burn, being required in the tanning of hides, the first stage in the process of leather manufacture. A seal of cause was granted to the Glasgow skinners in 1516 but there need be no doubt that, even though this may have been their first formal incorporation, members of that body had for some time practised their trade in the city; and the green was probably used by them at the time of feuing the adjoining lots in 1503.

John M'Ure states that "of old" the city was well furnished with salmon fishing on the river Clyde and that there was an incorporation of fishers above a hundred years before his time, but that these conditions no longer existed in consequence of the liming of the land and the steeping of lint in the river "which kills the salmon" [History of Glasgow (1830 edition) p. 122.] But Glasgow's salmon fishing continued long after M'Ure's day, though perhaps not to its former extent. The "incorporation" of fishers, whether a formally federated society or simply a body of men following a common trade, probably did not confine their attention to salmon fishing as it is understood that the taking and curing of herring was an industry of some importance to the early citizens. From remote times the sovereigns of Scotland exacted a tax, called an assise, on the produce of the herring fisheries, and this assise for the west seas and lochs was yearly accounted for at Glasgow. The separate contributions were collected from the owners of fishing boats by a tacksman who paid a fixed rent to the crown and appropriated the surplus as his own profit. On 29th June, 1501, King James granted to " Peter Coquhwn " a three-years' tack of the assise herring of the west sea coast and the lochs there, in consideration of his supplying four lasts of herrings to the king's household, barrelled and well salted, to be delivered, free of all charges, within Glasgow, on 8th January, yearly. A renewal tack was granted to " Petir of Culquhone," for nine years from Candlemas, 1507, the stipulation for delivery, in Glasgow, of four lasts of herring (equal to 48 barrels) being repeated. The tacksman having died, his widow, Isobell Elphinstoun, on 9th September, 1512, got a new tack for thirteen years, the rent being increased to six lasts of herring yearly. Shortly after this the widow married David Lindesay of Dunrod, and on 17th June, 1515, the assise was leased to John Flemyng of Auchinbole for his lifetime.

[Reg. Secreti Sigilli, i. Nos. 710, 1585, 2431, 2576. Isabella Elphinstoun, lady of Dunrod, in her account as lessee of the assise of herrings of the sea and western lochs for three years from 1513 got an allowance for barrels and storage, on condition that in future six lasts of herrings were to be delivered free at Glasgow, on 8th January yearly, to the servants of the king or comptroller (Exchequer Rolls, xiv. pp. 195-6).

Parliament bestowed attention on the improvement of fishing and on 26th June, 1493, a statute was passed, lamenting "the greate innumerable riches that is tinte in faulte of schippes and busches" or fishing boats, and directing that every town and burgh, according to their substance, should fit out ships and boats for the taking of fish, the officers of royal burghs being authorised to "make all the stark idle men within their bounds to pas with said ships for thair waigis " (A.P.S. ii. p. 235 c. 20). Writing in 1498, Don Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish Ambassador, at the Court of King James, when describing the produce of the country, says: "It is impossible to describe the immense quantity of fish. The old proverb says already 'piscinata Scotia.' Great quantities of salmon, herring, and a kind of dried fish, which they call stock fish, are exported. The quantity is so great that it suffices for Italy, France, Flanders and England " (Early Travellers, p. 44). ]

A tack granted by Queen Mary to James Campbell, in 1561-2, provided for the delivery of six lasts and two barrels of herrings, at the burgh of Glasgow, between Martinmas and Candlemas, yearly.

[Fourth Report of Historical MSS. Commission, p. 481. The countess of Argyll became lessee in 1600, at a rent of fourteen lasts of herring, and subsequent tacks were mainly to the dukes of Argyll or members of that family. The rent in 1619, no longer in kind, was £1,000 Scots, at which figure it stood in subsequent tacks, including that of John duke of Argyll, for thirty-eight years from 1717, in which tack it was stated that the duke and his predecessors had been "lessees of the assyse herring for many ages " (Ibid. pp. 481-2).

An account of the factors of Alexander Campbell, bishop of Brechin, who was tacksman of the assise in 1596, shows that at that time 47o boats, belonging to the localities there named, contributed five merks each, amounting in all to L1557 6s. 8d. Scots. The town of Renfrew had nineteen boats, the laird of Newark (afterwards Port Glasgow) had twelve, the laird of Greenock seventy-eight, the parish of Inverkip seventy-nine, and Saltcoats and Kilbryde twenty-eight. (Glasg. Prot. v. pp. xii-xiv.) After settling the crown rent the tacksman would thus secure a substantial profit. Another crown exaction, "the assyse aill," accounted for by the Sheriff of Dumbarton, and yielding 12 yearly, is described by Sir William Purves in his Revenue of the Scottish Crown, 1681, p. 73, as "ane auld dewtie payed to his Majestic for the aill that is drunken and spent att the fishing of the west sea, bot then is hardly anything payed since anno 1646."]

Glasgow being thus the place for delivery of the assise herring to the crown it may be inferred that facilities would be afforded for their curing and barrelling, a process which may have been practised on a larger scale for export. In home trading it is noticed that by the "auld statutes," referred to in 1575, there were certain hours for selling herring at the bridge, but subsequently part of the Trongate was assigned as the market place. [Glasg. Rec. i. pp. 39, 366.]

Shortly after the time when the site of the waulk mill is supposed to have been changed from the Molendinar Burn to the Water of Kelvin, the former stream, on which the town's corn mill had stood for a century and a half, was utilised for the establishment of another mill for grinding grain. This was the Subdean's Mill which was erected by the subdean, Roland Blacader, on the burn, at the western extremity of the lands of Wester Craigs. At a meeting of the cathedral chapter, held on 18th May, 1513, permission was given to the subdean to form an aqueduct from the east end of the cemetery, where some of the canons' manses were placed, and to divert the water of the burn and lead it along the foot of the Craig to the site of the mill which was being erected by the subdean. On 17th June the archbishop and chapter approved of the scheme and authorised the subdean and his successors to maintain the mill, rebuilding it when necessary, and to collect the water and use it for driving the machinery in all future time. [Diocesan Reg. Prot. Nos. 635 and 641.] To the subdean's mills the grain growing on the lands of Easter and Wester Craigs was thirled; and at a later time when it was of importance that the town should have a monopoly of multure dues throughout the city the mills were acquired by the magistrates and council and were retained by them till their removal in the course of operations under the Glasgow Improvements Act of 1866.

John Elphinstoun, the first rentaller of the lands of Gorbals whose name has been definitely traced, was the son of Agnes Forsyth, who, when first heard of was the wife of one named Patrick Hamilton and presumably the widow of John Elphinstone's father. In 1506 Agnes Forsyth liferented a tenement on the east side of High Street, probably the house in which, two years previously, the chaplain, John Brakanrig, was secluded in the time of the pest, [Antea, pp. 287-8.] and then stated to belong to "Patrick Hammyltoun alias John Elphinstoun." As narrated in a document dated 19th May, 1506, Agnes Forsyth, there designated spouse of Patrick Hamilton, conveyed to John Elphinstoun, "her son and heir" a chamber situated above the kitchen of her tenement, to be possessed by him during her lifetime, on condition that he should build and give to her the liferent use of a house, near at hand, in which she could completely brew and bake bread for her own family and strangers. The other parts of the house seem to have continued in the possession of Agnes Forsyth and her husband, as on 3rd February following, in presence of a notary and witnesses, assembled in the hall of Patrick Hamilton, John Elphinstoun declared that Sir Thomas Forsyth had said of him that he was "a defamit persone perpetuall, and ane verray erratic (heretic) and a Jow " ; and in repudiation of this slander he protested for remedy of law. Perhaps this incident discloses the existence of a family feud as, to judge from the name, Sir Thomas Forsyth, apparently a priest, may have been the brother or other relative of Agnes. [Dioc. Reg. Prot. Nos. 164, 201. On 16th June, 1498, Thomas Forsyth, canon of the cathedral church of Ross and prebendary of Logy, therein, founded a chaplainry, in honour of Saints Peter and Paul, in the lower metropolitan church of Glasgow, situated between the altar of St. Nicholas on the north and that of St. Andrew on the south. The endowments consisted of two tenements and also annualrents amounting to 4 8s. yearly, payable from several properties. One of the tenements was situated in Ratounraw and lay to the west of a property belonging to the abbot and convent of Paisley, and the other tenement is described as built by the founder "on the west cunze," near the market cross in Walkergait, thus indicating the corner property south of Trongate and east of Saltmarket. (Reg. Episc. No. 480.) This chaplainry the founder on 7th April, 15o6, conferred on his cousin, Sir Thomas Forsyth, chaplain; (Dioc. Reg. Prot. 154) and he is presumably the priest who made the accusation quoted in the text.]

If, as seems likely, it was this tenement which was converted into a fortified building, called in the records, "ane batellit hous," John Elphinstoun must have obtained possession of the whole building shortly after he was granted the use of the upper chamber. On 16th June, 15o8, King James gave "Johne Elphinstoun, citizen of Glasgow, full licence and power to byg and erect his fore hous, in his land and tenement liand within the said ciete, in the Hiegate thairof, with battelling, macholing, and all uther maner of del ens and munitioun necessar for savite and proffit of his said hous and thak thairof fra invasioun of fyre, wynd, and utherwayis." [Reg. Sec. Sig. i. No. 1696. As letters of protection were granted by the King to Elphinstone on loth September, 1510 (Ibid. No. 2127), it may be supposed that he was then subject to some danger or trouble.] By battelling one readily understands battlements, but it may be explained that "machcoling," as defined by Jamieson, means the construction of openings in the floor of a projecting battlement, through which stones, darts, etc., might be hurled upon assailants. " Munitioun " implies provision for placing the guns or small artillery of the period. Security against the elements was likewise aimed at. The wooden fronts of buildings at that time made them readily liable to catch fire. Constructed of stone, as the fort doubtless was, and reared to a considerable height, not only would there be protection from fire, but when the wind was tirling more exposed roofs, the thatch on Elphinstoun's adjoining buildings would be comparatively safe. Such licenses were rare, but apparently necessary before a fortified building could be erected, as this document proceeds on the assurance that neither Elphinstoun nor his heirs should be accused or incur danger or loss on account of the establishment of his fort "nochtwithstanding ony statutis or lawis of the kingis in the contrare." Only one other similar building has been heard of in Glasgow, viz., the tower or fortalice on the west side of Stockwell Street, elsewhere referred to. [Antea, p. 74.]

About the time when the license just referred to was granted a bailie of the city was named John Elphinstoun, but he is not quite identified with the owner of the fort, who, there seems no reason to doubt, was the earliest rentaller of Gorbals found on record. On 14th June, 1520, Beatrice Wardlaw was relieved of forfeiture consequent on her contracting a second marriage without license of the archbishop, and was "rentalit agayn" in the lands of Gorbals. In the following year she resigned her rental rights to her son, "George Elphinstoun, son of umwyle Jone Elphistoun," under reservation of her own liferent. [Dioc. Reg. pp. 78, 82.] The name Elphinstone was common in Glasgow at that time, and one can only guess that Beatrice Wardlaw was the "wife of John Elphinstoun," to whom the parson of Erskine bequeathed his best gown when he made his last will and testament on 30th June, 1507. Unluckily the wife's name is not mentioned in the protocol narrating the bequest, an omission which deprives us of specific evidence on the point. [Dioc. Reg. Prot. No. 249.] In a protocol dated 29th June, 1554, the "batellit house" is mentioned as adjoining another tenement which George Elphinstone, son and heir of another George, sold to enable him to be rentalled in the lands of Gorbals. On each change of rental right, either by transmission to an heir or to a purchaser, a substantial contribution required to be made to the archbishop, lord of the regality, and it was to meet a demand of this kind that money was now needed. In 1588 the building itself, described as a " great tenement called the battellit hows," was conveyed by "George Elphinstoun of Blytheswood" to a third George, his son and heir, but reserving the father's liferent. [Glasg. Prot. Nos. 187, 2538]

The levying of certain kinds of vicarage dues exigible from the representatives of deceased parishioners, sometimes occasioned unusual hardship. Trouble of this sort seems to be referred to when, on 9th March, 1503-4, Thomas Huchonson, bailie, protested before the archbishop and members of the chapter, that the community should not be prejudiced with regard to the custom of paying mort dues in the parish of Glasgow whatever might be done in the cause pending between the vicar and one named John Curry. On his part the vicar protested that unless the community by itself, or through the principal citizens, took up the cause they should not be heard in the proceedings, and that John Curry should be put to silence unless he showed sufficient reason to the contrary. [Dioc. Reg. Prot. Nos. 64, 65.] Exaction of mort dues was one of the grievances for which relief was claimed at the Reformation, and it is here seen that half a century before that event it was a subject of discussion among the citizens of Glasgow.

[In Sir David Lindsay's Satyre of the Three Estaitis, the "Pauper" thus expounds the evil effects consequent on the exaction of mort dues:

"My father was ane auld man, and ane hoir,
And was of age fourscore of yeiris, and moir
And Maid, my mother, was fourscore and fyftene ;
And with my labour I did thame baith sustene.
Wee had ane meir, that caryit salt and coill
And everilk yeir scho brocht us hame ane foill.
Wee had thre ky, that was baith fat and fair,
Nane tydier into the toun of Air.
My father was sa waik of blude and bane,
That he deit, quharefor my mother maid gret mane.
Then scho deit, within ane day or two,
And thare began my povertie and wo.
Our gude gray meir was baitand on the feild,
And our lands laird tuke hir for his heryeild.
The vickar tuke the best cow be the heid,
Incontinent, quhen my father was deid.
And quhen the vickar hard tel how that my mother
Was deid, fra hand, he tuke to him ane uther:
Then Meg, my wife, did murne baith even and morrow,
Till at the last scho deit for verie sorrow.
And quhen the vickar hard tell my wyfe was deid,
The thrid cow he cleikit be the heid,
Their upmest clayis, that was of raploch gray,
The vickar gait his clark bere thame away.
Quhen all was gane, I micht make na debeat,
Bot with my bairns past for till beg my meat.
Now haif I told yow the black veritie,
How I am brocht into this miserie."
(Poetical Works of Sir David Lyndsay (1806 edition) ii. pp. 5-7).

Glossary: Baitand, feeding; baith, both; blude and bane, blood and bone; coill, coal; debeat, delay; deit, died ; everilk yeir, every or each year; foill, foal; gart, caused; heryeild, fine paid to a landlord on the death of his vassal or tenant; hoir, hoary; ky, cows; mane, moan; meir, mare; murn, mourn; quharefor, wherefore; quhen, when; scho, she; tuke, took; upmest clayis, uppermost clothes claimed by the vicar of the parish on the death of a parishioner; waik, weak.]

The two parishes of Cadder and Monkland, adjoining the Barony parish of Glasgow on the north and east, formed part of the subdean's prebend, the cure being served by a perpetual vicar pensioner who employed a curate at each place. [10 Origines Parochiales, i. pp. 50-53; Old Statistical Account, vii. p. 269. In 1640 the eastern part of the lands was erected into a separate parish, now called New Monkland. Old Monkland occupies the western part of the original parish.] When the subdean, Roland Blacader, obtained collation to his benefice, his father, Sir Patrick Blacader of Tulliallan, had stipulated for payment of an annual pension in money and grain from the parish of Ladder. This fact is disclosed by a declaration which the subdean made before a notary and witnesses, on 19th June, 1504, when he avowed that the contract had been extorted from him through force and fear, and he solemnly protested that from that time it should not stand in prejudice or injury to himself, his benefice, or conscience. [Dioc. Reg. Prot. No. 88.]

Ladder was one of several vicarages which were, in 1507, annexed to the College of Glasgow, "for the advantage of the clergy and for cherishing varied and superior learning and the society of learned men therein." [Ibid. Nos. 247, 316.] A few months previous to this arrangement, Sir Archibald Calderwood, then vicar of the parishes of Ladder and Monkland, who had for his interest consented to the annexation, [Ibid. No. 248.] bequeathed an annuity of eight shillings for a collation to the dean, regents, masters and students of the college, on the day of his obit, and there was also given to the college a cup, called a mazer, and four silver spoons. [Munimenta, i. p. 43, No. 23.] Calderwood had "tua places" in Glasgow, one described as opposite the Pedagogy and the other as on the Friar wall, evidently not far from each other, though their precise positions are not clearly indicated. From the vicar's bequest, as extracted from the "Mes bwik of Ladder," and written in the vernacular, it appears that so much of the revenues of the two properties was already applied to religious and charitable purposes. St. Machan's altar got 4s., the master of the almshouse, 30d. and St. Nicholas altar and John of Akynheid, 17s. 1d., all from the property opposite the Pedagogy. By the new foundation the vicar directed to be paid, yearly, for anniversary services, 2 merks to a chaplain, 8s. to the Friars Preachers, and 8s. to the regents and students of the College. One merk was allowed for repairs of buildings. From the Friar wall property, out of which the Friars Preachers already received 12s. yearly, the vicar assigned, in annual sums, to the curate of Cadder 10s. "to pray for me daily at his mes and to commend mye saule to the parochinaris," and for other services on " Salmes day " (All Souls day-2nd November); to the curate of Monkland zos., and to the priest of Our Lady altar 20S. for similar services in Monkland kirk. The kirkmasters of Monkland were to receive and expend 2s. on "mendyng of twa brygis the quhilkis I biggit." The dean of faculty of Glasgow was to be overseer of these bequests, receiving 2s. yearly for his labours, and eight pennies were to be paid for St. Mungo's bell passing through the town on the afternoon of All Souls day and the day thereafter, calling for prayers for the departed. [Reg. Episc. No. 489; Munirrtenta, i. pp. 43-46, No. 24.]

It has been stated that Calderwood died on 30th June, 1510, but a protocol sets forth that on 16th January, 1509-10, James Blacader, scholar, appeared in the manse of the subdean and there produced letters by Pope Julius II., granting to him in commendam the vicarage of the churches of Cadder and Monk-land, to be held by him till he should attain his eighteenth year. Unless, therefore, the Pope's provision of the vicarage was prospective and meant to take effect on a vacancy, Calder-wood seems to have resigned the vicarage. Rolland Blacader, the subdean, found James duly qualified and inducted him to the benefice. [Dioc. Reg. Prof. No. 435. On being provided to the vicarage James Blacader appointed Patrick Blacader, archdeacon of Glasgow, and others, as procurators for obtaining possession. (Ibid. No. 436.) No subsequent trace of the vicarage is got till after the Reformation when it is stated that the vicarage of Cadder and Monkland was held by Mr. Michael Chisholm, who reported that the revenues were leased for £54 yearly, and that they consisted of eight bolls of meal, sixty tithe lambs, eight stone of wool, with corps presents, etc. (Chalmers' Caledonia, iii. p. 681).

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