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Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada
By J. A. MacDonell (1983)


"I beg to state that the County of Glengarry has on every occasion been distinguished for good conduct, and will on any emergency turn out more fighting men in proportion to its population than any other in Her Majesty s dominions". Extract from a letter from Lieutenant-Colonel Carmichael, Particular Service, to Lieutenant-General Sir James Macdonell, K.C.B., K.C.H., commanding Brigade of Guards and second in command of Her Majesty s Forces in Canada, dated December, 1840.

Chapter 1
Glengarry in Scotland. Result of the disarming, proscribing and other acts introduced into the Scottish law. Formation of Highland Regiments and Emigration. A large number leave Glengarry in Scotland in 1773 at the instigation of Sir William Johnson and settle in the Mohawk Valley in the Province of New York. Death of Sit William in 1774. His services, influence and character.

Chapter 2
Breaking out of the Revolutionary War.—The "Committee of Safety" at Albany Warned against Sir John Johnson, and notified that the Scotchmen were arming.-the Whigs "daily scandalized, provoked and threatened" by the Loyal Catholic Highlanders.—Correspondence between Sir John and Governor Tryon, and the latter and Lord George of Maine. — General Schuyler, of the Revolutionary Army, invades Tryon County.—Negotiations between him and Sir John and Mr. Macdonell (Collachie).—Sir John and the Highlanders escape to Canada.—-Lady Johnson taken prisoner.—Her letter to General Washington.

Chapter 3
Formation of the King's Royal Regiment of New York under Sir John Johnson.—It is placed on the Establishment.— A Second Battalion Authorized.—List of Glengarry Gentlemen to whom Commissions were Granted in that and other Loyalist Corps. — Arrest of Wives and Families of the Highland Loyalists.—Retribution.—The Valley of the Mohawk Rendered a scene of "Widespread, Heart Sickening and Universal Desolation."—Battle of Oriskany.—Dr. Moses Younglove's Alleged "Brutalities." -- Highlanders Rescue their Families.— Capture of Exeter amd Fort Wintermoot by Butler's Rangers.— Americans Abandon Fort Wyoming.— Highlanders make Another Incursion into the Scoharie Settlement.

Chapter 4
Sullivan's Expedition against the. Senacas and Cayugas-— Intended Capture of Niagara frustrated. — Sir John Johnson and his Regiment return to Tryon County.— Brant destroys Canajoharie.— Still another Invasion into the Schoharie Country—Investment of Fort Middleberg—Americans fire on a Flag of Truce.—Immense Destruction of Grain and other Property.— Caughnawaga and Stone Arabia laid in ashes. — Defeat of Americans at Fort Keyser.—Haldimans approbation of Sir John Johnson's zeal. — Negotiations for return of Prisoners.—Sufferings of Loyalist families.—Fight at Schele's Settlement, near Fort Dayton. — A brave disciple of Martin Luther. — Americans victorious in two engagements near Johnstown.—Deathi of Walter Butler. — Awful Massacre by American miscreants of the Moravian tribe of non-combatant Indians.—Conclusion of the War.

Chapter 5
Settlement of the Disbanded Soldiers in Glengarry and Adjacent Counties of Stormont and Dundas—List of Officers of the First and Second Battalions of the King's Royal Regiment of New York.—Colonel Stewart's Account of the Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment (Old Eighty-Fourth).—List of Officers.

Chapter 6
United Empire Loyalists.—List of Scottish names appearing in Lord Dorchester's list. — A "Distinguished Individual's" opinion of the Highlanders of that Generation.—Mr. Croil's description of the situation and condition of the Loyalist Settlers in the United Counties.

Chapter 7
Loyalists in the Upper Country of Canada Desire a Change in the Tenure of Land and Separation from the Province of Quebec.—Address to Lord Dorchester from Leading Settlers in Glengarry and Vicinity.— His Reply.— He Recommends Acquiescence in Request of Loyalists.—Formation of Districts of Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nassau and Hesse by Proclamation, 24th July, 1785.—Province of Upper Canada Established and Constitutional Government Assigned to its People, 26th December, 1791.—-Divided into Counties.—First Commission of the Peace, Eastern District.—Extracts from records of first Court of the District.

Chapter 8
Services of Sir John Johnson.-200,000 Acres Abandoned by Him in the United States—Lord Dorchester Recommends Him as First Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada-Policy of Home Government Opposed to the appointment of Residents to the Government—Despatch of the Colonial Secretary.— First Reference to Glengarry Settlement. — Colonel John Macdonell (Aberchalder) and His Brother Hugh Macdonell Elected Members in First Parliament of Upper Canada—He. is Elected its Speaker—List of Members—Some Facts Relating to them—Acts Passed at First Session.

Chapter 9
The First Regiment Raised in Upper Canada.—The Second Battalion R. C. V. Regiment of Foot.—Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonell, M.P. for Glengarry, Placed in Command.— Headquarters at Fort George - Volunteer their Services to any Quarter of the Globe - Thanks of Duke of Kent.—Reduction of Regiment during Peace of Amiens.—Return of Officers.—List of Officers First or Lower Canadian Battalion—Colonel Macdonell's Memorial.— State of the Militia.— Lieutenants of Counties.—Colonel Macdonell Recommends Formation of a Corps of Highland Fencibles in Glengarry - Colonel Brock Approves of Proposal and Transmits Recommendation to War Office—Death of Colonel Macdonell.

Chapter 10
Career of Hugh Macdonell (Aberchalder), M.P. for First Riding of Glengarry in First Parliament of Upper Canada.—Testimony of Colonel Mathews, Military Secretary to Lord Dorchester, as to Services of Himself and his Family.—First Adjutant-General of Militia Upper Canada.—Appointed Consul-General at Algiers.—Duke of Kent's Tribute to his Memory.— His Family.—His Brother, Colonel Chichester Macdonell, Another U. E. Loyalist Officer.—Alexander Macdonell (Collachie), M.P. for Glengarry and Speaker House of Assembly, 1804.—His Services in Revolutionary War and War of 1812.

Chapter 11
The Reverend John Bethune, First Presbyterian Minister —Chaplain First Battalion Eighty-Fourth Regiment.— Minister of St. Gabriel Presbyterian Church, Montreal.—Removes to Glengarry.—His Death in 1815.— His Sons.—Bishop Stachan's School at Cornwall.— The Reverend Roderick Macdonell (Leek), First Catholic Priest.—Letter from Lord Sydney, Secretary of State, to Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton, Introducing Him.—Knoydart Emigration to Glengarry, 1786.—-Other Early Settlers in the County.

Chapter 12
Raising of the Glengarry Fencible or British Highland Regiment in Scotland.—-Incidents Previous Thereto.—Mr. Alexander (Afterwards Bishop) Macdonell Accompanies a number of the Highlanders to Glasgow, where they are Employed by the Manufacturers.—Closing of the Manufactories on Proclamation or War Between Britain and France.—Proposal to Raise a Regiment to be Under Command of the Young Chief of Glengarry.— First Catholic Corps since the Reformation.—Stationed in Guernsey.—Offer to Garrison St. Marcou.—Services in Ireland in Suppression of Rebellion of '98.—Disbanded with other Fencibles in 1802.—Services of the Chaplain on behalf of the Men.—He Procures a Grant of 200 Acres for each man in Glengarry in Canada.—Lord Hobart's Letter to Lieut.-Gov. U. C.

Chapter 13
Emigration from Kintail and Glenelg, Ross-shire,.—Six-divisions of the County.—Local Nomenclature.—Kenyon, Lochiel, Breadalbane, Dunvegan, Eigg, Strathglass, Cist, Little Knoydart, Laggan, Fassifern, &c., &c.—Members of Parliament to Union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1840—Enumeration of the Clans.

Chapter 14
Outbreak of the War of 1812.—Expressions of the American Press and Public Men.—Situation of Affairs in-Upper Canada.—Colonel Denison's Account of General Brock's Difficulties.—Treason of Willcocks, Mallory, Marcle and other Renegades.—Extra Session of Parliament Summoned.—Martial Law Proclaimed.—Expulsion of Willcocks and Marcle.

Chapter 15
Sir Isaac Brock— His Parentage and Former Services - Raising of the Glengarry Light Infantry by Captain George Macdonell of the King's Regiment and the Reverend Alexander (Afterwards Bishop) Macdonell— List of Officers—Officers of Flank Companies Glengarry Militia—Corps des Voyageurs Canadiens—Canadian Fencible Infantry.

Chapter 16
First Blood of the War of 1812—A British Indian Scalped by an American Officer.—Capture of Michilimacinack.— Brock Leaves York for the Scene of Action.—Letter of Colonel Macdonell, A.D.C., M P. for Glengarry, to Honourable Duncan Cameron.—Surrender of Fort Detroit by the Americans.—Articles of Capitulation.— List of Gold Medals Granted.—Armistice Between Prevost and Dearborn.—Battle of Queenston Heights.— Death of General Brock and Colonel Macdonell, A.D.C. — Their Funeral. — Movements on Queenston Heights.—The Prince Regent's Tribute.—Colonel Macdonell's Address to the. Electors of Glengarry, March 18th, 1812. — Letter Describing His Death. — Bishop Strachan's Verses.

Chapter 17
Forays Along the St. Lawrence.—Unsuccessful Attack on Ogdensburg.— St. Regis Surprised.—Americans Repulsed at Fort Erie.—"General Van Bladder" and His Proclamations.—Naval Encounters.—Battle of Stoney Creek.— The Taking of Ogdensburg.—York taken by the Americans, April 27th, 1813.

Chapter 18
General Dearborn in Turn Superseded.—Successful Attacks on Fort Schlosser and Black Rock.—Death of Colonel Bisshopp.—Attack, on Sackett's Harbour.— Prevost's Demonstration on Fort George.— The Glengarry Regiment's Timely Occupation of Burlington Heights. — York Again Taken.— Canada Menaced in Three Directions in the Autumn of 1813. — Disasters on Lake Erie.—Evacuation of Detroit.—General Proctor Defeated at Moraviantown.—Death of Tecumseth —Court-Martial on Proctor.

Chapter 19
General Wilkinson Assembles Ten Thousand American Troops at Sackett's Harbour.— Kingston Threatened. —Defenceless State of Montreal.—He Determines to Attack that Place with General Hampton.—Colonel George Macdonell Asked When His Light Battalion Would be Ready to Embark to its Defence—"As Soon as my Men Have Finished their Dinner."—His Extraordinary Descent of the St. Lawrence in Batteaux.— "Here, Sir; Not One Man Absent."—Battle of Chateauguay.—Gold Medals.—Defeat of the Americans at Chrystler's Farm.—Gold Medals for that Action.— Presentation of Colours to Lower Canadian Militia by the Prince Regent.—Hampton Declines Juncture with Wilkinson.—Attack on Montreal Abandoned.— Unfair Treatment of Colonel Macdonell.

Chapter 20
Evacuation of Fort George by the Americans, Who, Before Leaving, Destroy the Town of Newark (Niagara).—Taking of American Fort Niagara by British, December 19th, 1813, and or Lewiston, 20th, and or Black Rock and Buffalo, December, 1823—Retaliation.—Close of Second-Year of the. War.

Chapter 21
Opening of Parliament February, 1814--Campaign of that Year.—Americans Defeated at Lacolle.—Raid near Cornwall.—Oswego Taken by British May 6th.—General Brown Succeeds to Command of Northern Division U.S. Army.—Drummond's Dire Distress.—Abandonment of Upper Canada Contemplated Owing to Lack of Supplies.—Desperate Fighting on Niagara Frontier.—Fort Erie Surrendered 3rd July.—-Americans Victorious at Chippewa July 5th.—The Battle of Niagara or Lundy's Lane, the Most Sanguinary of the War, 25th July.

Chapter 22
Capture of Prairie du Chien by the British.—Americans Repulsed at Michilimacinac.—British Capture the American Ships "Scorpion" and "Tigress."—Arrival of Large Reinforcements from Britain.—Prevost's Disastrous Expedition to Plattsburg, N.Y.—Americans Repulsed at Port Erie Sept. 17, 1814.—Americans Cross to their own shores.—McArthur's Incursion and Retreat.—Close of the War.—Treaty of Ghent Signed Dec. 24, 1814, and Ratified Feb. 17, 1815.

Chapter 23
The Rebellion of 1837-8. — William Lyon Mackenzie's subsequent Letter to Earl Grey—Extracts from Bishop Macdonell's Address. — No Rebels in Glengarry.— Statement showing where the Disaffection prevailed in Upper Canada. — Outbreak in Lower Canada in October 1837.—Four Regiments in Glengarry.—List of Officers.—Sir John Colborne notifies Colonel Macdonell that he has called on the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada for Assistance and to keep up Communication with the Upper Province.—Requests the Glengarrys Regiment to Proceed to Lower Canada.—Two Thousand Men Muster at Lancaster. — Temporary Suppression of the Rebellion.

Chapter 24
Sir John Cox borne Commissions Colonels Macdonell and Fraser to Raise Two Battalions of Glengarry "Lads" for Service in Lower Canada.—List of Officers ob "Lancaster Glengarry Highlanders."—Charlottesburg Regiment Stationed at St. Philippe, and Lancaster Regiment at Napierville.—Comments of the Montreal "Herald" on their Appearance on their Return.— General Clitherow Testifies to their Service and Efficiency.—Temporarily Relieved from Further Service.

Chapter 25
Departure of Lord Durham.—Renewal of Insurrection in Lower Canada.—Bishop Macdonell's Loyal Address.— Seizure of the "Henry Brougham" at Beauharnois.— Glengarry Regiments Called out a Third Time.—March on Beauharnois.—Its Easy Capture.—Appreciation of Sir John Colborne.—Congratulations of Lieutenant-Governor Upper Canada.—Ordered to Upper Canada to Repel Invasion of Brigands.—Battle of the Windmill.

Chapter 26
Events in Upper Canaoa..—Supineness of Sir Francis Head —A Typical Address from the Loyal Men of Lochiel —His Characteristic Reply.—Toronto in Serious Peril. —Rescued by Colonel MacNab and the "Men of Gore." Murder of Colonel Moodie.—Navy Island.— Cutting out or the "Caroline."—She is sent over the Fails of Niagara. — "General" Van Rensellaer dislodged.—Trouble on the Michigan Frontier.—A Specimen "Proclamation."— Attacks at Amherstburg.—Rendezvous at Watertown.—Further Attacks in the West.—Departure of Sir Francis Head. — Advent of Sir G. Arthur.— Execution of Lount and Mathews.

Chapter 27
Further Attacks on Border Towns in Upper Canada.— Colonel Prince's Laconic Despatch.—Glengarry Regiments and others garrison Cornwall in winter of 1838-9.— Officers on Particular Service - Colonels Turner, K.H, and Carmichael,—Their Thanks to the; Militia of District. — Letters of both to Colonel Fraser, Commanding Charlottenburg Regiment.— Arrival of Sir James Macdonell, in Command of Brigade of Guards.—His Great Military Career.—Defence of Hougoumont.—Invested with Order of the Bath by Sip John Colborn.—Addresses of Magistrates of Glengarry and Stormont on his Arrival and Departure.

Chapter 28
Bishop Macdonell—His Services to the Crown, His Countrymen and the Catholic Church.—His Death at Dumfries, Scotland.—Funeral in Edinburgh.—Obituary Notices.—Tablet at St. Rajwaels.—Gilfinnan's Poem —Removal of his Remains to Canada..

Chapter 29
The Old Northwest Company.—Partners who Subsequently Resided in Glengarry.—Mr. Duncan Cameron, the Honourable John MacGillivray, Mr. John Macdonald, Mr. Angus Macdonell, Mr. Alexander Macdonell, Laird McGillis.

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