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James Legge, Missionary and Scholar
Chapter IX. Ch'ea Kin Kwang, the First Chinese Martyr

TO the end of his life Dr Legge held in loving remembrance the old Chinaman, Ch'ea Kin Kwang (Golden Light Chariot). Who can say, knowing the story of Ch'ea, that Chinamen are incapable of enthusiasm and heroism?

In the year 1856 Ch'ea, an elderly man, was keeper of the Confucian temple at Pok-lo, a town of about 15,000 inhabitants situated in the interior of Canton province, and about a hundred miles from Hong Kong. He had never heard of Christianity nor seen a missionary. One day, a colporteur of the Bible Society passed through Pok-lo, and meeting with Ch'ea, gave him a New Testament in Chinese. He read it and his whole soul was stirred. He determined to go where he could ask and learn more about this wonderful book. He heard that a missionary was living at Hong Kong, and to Hong Kong he came and presented himself to Dr Legge.

Soon afterwards he asked to be baptised as a Christian. At first Dr Legge hesitated; knowing that Ch'ea meant to return into the interior, he felt he must know him longer before baptising him and letting him return to his own people as a representative of Christianity. Ch'ea grew more eager. One evening, when the people were dispersing after a prayer-meeting, Ch'ea waited at the door for the missionary. It was raining, and he stood in the rain and said "You don't believe in me, and are afraid to baptise me, but I am a true man, and God, whose rain is now falling on me, knows it See,' and here he took off his cap and let the rain fall on his bare head, 'see, God is baptising me.'

His earnestness was such that after some time Dr Legge baptised him and he went back to Pok-lo. Later he returned to Hong Kong bringing a townsman of his own and his wife, whom he had instructed, and persuaded to embrace Christianity.

In 1858 a friend in Ho-nan wrote, 'Hearing of the zeal and good work of Ch'ea, the most earnest member of our Church, old Chow, had it borne in upon his mind to visit the solitary labourer. Chow brought back a very satisfactory account of what he saw, reporting also that he and Ch'ea had much delight in reading and prayer together. So far the work is as genuine as it is unique.'

In 1859 some German missionaries visited Pok-lo and were mobbed by a party of the baser sort. Ch'ea rushed into the mob, crying out, 'These men are servants of the Most High God and have come here to show you the way of salvation.' These missionaries reported many things of Ch'ea's earnestness and sincerity—how, for instance, he went about the streets carrying a board on his back on which were written in large characters short and striking verses from the New Testament.

In 1860 he reappeared in Hong Kong, bringing with him twenty-five converts, all of whom asked to be baptised. Others also received instruction and were brought to a decision, for Dr Legge writes in 1860, "Last Sabbath seven men and two women all avowed themselves the disciples of Christ. They are all additional fruits of the labours of our brother Ch'ea in Pok-lo and the surrounding country. They embarked in a passage-boat, and after three days and two nights arrived in Hong Kong. The degrees of their knowledge were various, but Ch'ea had evidently spent much labour on them all. They relied, they said, on the help of the Holy Spirit to enable them to live according to the Gospel. We spent much time with them every day, expounding the Scriptures to them, and on Saturday last, as they all still pressed for baptism, we felt we could not forbid water that they should not be baptised. They will be returning to their homes in the course of the week. A colporteur in the employment of the Bible Society will go with them, and spend about a month in their neighbourhood. Ere long Tsun-sheen will pay Ch'ea a visit. He reports that many others in that part of the country have put away their idols. Thus far, all is full of encouragement.'

Also in 1860 a friend wrote to Dr Legge, 'rejoice with you in the result of the worthy Ch'ea's indefatigable labours among the villagers in the district of Pok-lo where numbers have been induced with much apparent sincerity and affection to profess their faith in Christ. The movement is remarkable from the fact of its having been brought about by the unaided efforts of a solitary native labourer, no European missionary having previously visited the district or held any personal intercourse with the people.' Dr Legge himself writes, 'Ch'ea has spent a large portion of his time in travelling, and making known the things which he believes, entirely without fee or reward. Among his converts is the master of religious ceremonies in Pok-lo, who, having heard the truths of the Gospel from him, has turned eagerly from his idols to serve the living and true God. I was much pleased with the simplicity of this man's faith, and the extent of his knowledge of Scripture truth was highly creditable to the competency of his teacher.'

From this time the missionaries in Hong Kong frequently heard from Ch'ea, and in the following spring, that of 1861, Dr Legge and another missionary, Dr Chalmers, of Canton, decided to voyage up the east river and visit Pok-lo, to see with their own eyes the work of Ch'ea. It took them nearly four weeks and Dr Legge kept a detailed journal of their progress. The people came to them out of the fields and different places where they stopped and were very friendly, eagerly receiving books. At Shek-lun three police-runners came on board from some military mandarin to ask about their movements. They were very respectful, and when shown their passports, at once recognised the seal of the Governor-General. No objections were made to the plans of the missionaries.

That same day a government vessel overtook them, the commander of which announced that he was sent to escort them as far as Lye-ts'in, about half way to Pok-lo. He spoke very civilly and received a couple of tracts thankfully. From a hill near, the travellers had a glorious view of a most fertile region, watered as only the districts of China are. On the north was the huge bulk of Lo-fow, showing his blue scalps grandly from the misty drapery which floated round his sides. Ridge and mountain rose in close succession to the east, while the prospect to the south was bounded by the hills of Tun-kwoon. One object came home to their hearts more closely and powerfully, however, than all the grandeur of lofty mountain, flowing stream and emerald plain. Fluttering over its nest was a lark; the tremulous motion of the wings as it hovered, loth to leave its home on earth, and yet borne upward by the heavenward instinct of its nature, was what they had not seen for many a year. Dr Legge wrote of it 'I was a boy again, quivering with expectation, as when I watched the bird and found my first "laverock's" nest on my father's "leys."'

At one place the villagers streamed down to the riverside where they were halting. Among them was one man who had been in Pulo-Penang, cultivating cloves and nutmegs, who addressed them in Malay. His delight when Dr Legge answered him in the same was inexpressible. The elders of the village were urgent that they should go and have supper with them. When they parted it was with good wishes on both sides. In fact, as they proceeded along, it was pleasant to be met by the people of the farms with wondering stares and smiles.

Arrived at Pok-lo they landed at the foot of the city wall, and moved on to find the house of their friend Ch'ea, the evangelist. A young man soon made his appearance from the district Magistrate, and by him they sent their passports and cards to his Honour. Now followed a little instance of official laziness. The passports were soon brought back with the mandarin's card and a message that they need not trouble themselves to call upon him. Dr Legge felt that it was very desirable, on account of Ch'ea and the other Christians, that they should have an interview with the 'great man'. So he answered the messengers that it lay entirely with the sub-prefect himself whether he would see them or not, but that gentlemen travelling on the West and North rivers had been everywhere cordially welcomed by the authorities. 'Do not be offended, sir,' said one, 'the sub-prefect is about to send you some presents. Dr Legge answered him by quoting from Mencius, to the effect that his refusal to see them more than nullified the compliment implied in sending presents.

Hereupon the messengers went off, and after a time, brought back an intimation that his Honour was anxious to receive them at the Nga-moon. It turned out that the former message had been concocted by underlings of the office who wished to escape any bother or effort that the thing might occasion to themselves. Upon this the missionaries accepted a goose and sent a present of books in return. This done, they dressed, and marched in state and all gravity through the admiring crowds, to the official residence. His Honour had been employing his time in much the same way as themselves and came out in full dress with his crystal button. They had a friendly conversation over their cups of tea. Ch'ea was with them and interpreted, though his Honour evidently understood them well enough. For the good Ch'ea it was a great occasion, and having run the gauntlet of scorn as a humble confessor in the place, it was a matter of astonishment and exultation among the people for him to be placed in his present position.

Pok-lo was a poor-looking place, the only exceptions being the temples and ancestral halls. It cannot be said of the Chinese that they dwell in ceiled houses while their gods are in mean habitations. Dr Legge had a long conversation with the schoolmaster resident at the temple of Confucius. He seemed open enough to conviction, but happening, through mistaking a doorway, to go into his bedroom, Dr Legge saw there the opium pipe and lamp, and felt that there was not much hope of him.

The morning after their arrival at Pok-lo, four young men from the Nga-moon came on board and wished for some conversation 'on the teaching of Jesus.' When they left the missionaries went on shore and spent a toilsome couple of hours, but the people heard them gladly.

By two o'clock the boat was full of visitors, disciples of Ch'ea, three of whom came from two villages eight miles away, and reported that there were many in their neighbourhood also who believed. All day the missionaries worked, preaching and asking questions, and the answers they received showed that the Gospel had indeed taken root in the minds of men who were anxious to make others partakers of the benefits which they had themselves received.

Next morning they started for 'the Garden of Bamboos,' a village about a mile and a half from Pok-lo. The hearers of Ch'ea were waiting to receive them, and had cleared out the common ancestral hall, the largest apartment in the village, for their reception. This was filled; clustering round the wide entrance were all the other inhabitants of the village, and the strangers who had followed from Pok-lo. The people, outside, who were noisy at first, were gradually hushed to stillness. Dr Legge addressed them and especially the women among them, trying to unfold to them the glorious universality of the Gospel of Christ, in whom there is neither male nor female, and to whom the one is as welcome as the other. The Christian love of the people evangelised by Ch'ea was very refreshing. When the service was over, the missionaries were conducted to the shade of a splendid banyan tree growing by the side of a large pool behind the village. There they had placed two tables, and spread them with dishes containing a species of eau sucrie with balls of 'old man's rice' in it, to which they sat down, and enjoyed a real agape. When they left, many of the people accompanied them all the way to the boat, and as they stood on the bank, the glance of affectionate recognition which beamed on them from their eyes brought to Dr Legge's mind that line of Shakespeare

'One touch of Nature makes the whole world kin,'

and he felt that it is the golden cincture of loving faith which will bind together the disunited families of mankind.

In the afternoon they left Pok-lo to proceed higher. A salute of three guns was fired on their departure, with several discharges of crackers, as a parting token of courtesy from the sub-prefect.

Ch'ea had shown them a house situated in a favourable position which could be purchased for a comparatively small sum and fitted up as a place of worship.

They advanced up the river to Naou-poot-leng, where a farmer, well to do, had for several months sent them earnest invitations. This place lies two or three miles up an inlet, which has the name of the 'Lake of the seven women' seven sisters having once drowned themselves in it. Ch'ea had visited the farmer and his family many times, and the colporteur Laou had spent some time with them the year before. A blessing had attended their labours, and the household listened eagerly to the two missionaries. Their boat left soon after daylight the next morning, but early as it was, a young man from the house had been for an additional supply of New Testaments for which some of their neighbours were applying.

They held their way upstream, for a few miles, then anchored and walked for two hours to the villages of Kot-leng and Shek-hang-tyse. From Kot-leng the people streamed out to meet them. Far before the rest was the mother of a boy in Hong Kong who confidently expected to find him in their company. Poor creature—though Dr Legge could tell her he was well, it was a sad disappointment to her that her son was not with them.

It was pleasant to receive the hearty Christian greeting of these poor people. Cakes, and smoking platters of sweet potatoes, with the never-failing tea, and a bucket of cool clear water, were soon placed upon the table. Dr Legge preached to a crowded room, and then, having to press on, they bade them good-bye. But the people insisted on sparing them the trouble of walking, and paddled them in a boat, down a winding branch of the stream. This was to them a labour of love and to the missionaries a great pleasure, for the banks were fringed with trees and bushes and fragrant with honeysuckle. Among the reeds and slender bushes were scores of nests floating over the water's brink and curiously formed like those of the reed-wren. Nothing could have been more lovely, but now and then the sight of a snake coiled among the branches brought to mind another paradise which was marred by the entrance of the serpent The native Christians enjoyed the expedition : as Dr Legge pointed out to one of them a row of pines fringing the long ridge of a hill, the man responded with the line of an ode :—

'The good are like the pine and the cypress, The bad are like briars.'

A letter written the day before by Dr Legge says— 'Monday was a delightful day, and at the village about two miles from Pok-lo, I baptised twenty-seven individuals. Yesterday we baptised seventeen. Our progress has really some resemblance to the apostolic narrative in the Acts. We are going on to the other villages where there are applications for baptism. They lie on the way to the mountain of Low-fow. That has been the grand natural object to which our eyes have turned, rising vast and majestic over all the surrounding hills. When people can move freely about in China they will find in its natural aspects enough to make them forget the beauty of their fatherlands.'

Two days later they arrived at a village where the people were exceedingly friendly, though with the exception of perhaps a dozen, none of them had seen a foreigner before. Their delight and surprise seemed about equal. In the temple of the 'Queen of Heaven.' Dr Legge obtained an immense audience where the elderly and more respectable individuals exerted themselves successfully to secure silence, after which many streamed away to the boat to get books. One man came up and asked Dr Legge if he could supply him with pills to help him to leave off the habit of opium smoking. A stout Chinaman came along the street and the people cried out, 'Here is our heaviest man. Is there any of you that will go into the scales against him? 'Yes,' said Dr Legge 'I will weigh against him.' Not far off was a spot where stood a large pair of scales for weighing grain. The Chinaman got into one scale and Dr Legge into the other. For one moment they seemed equally balanced, then slowly the Chinaman went up. The crowd shouted and laughed and poked their fun at the man, telling him they would never think so much of him again, and speaking of Dr Legge in very complimentary terms. He was exceedingly popular, so much so, that when the boat moved off, the whole village cheered them from the bank.

After leaving this friendly spot they arrived the next day at the city of Ho-un, but here they met with an inhospitable reception, a contrast to their late happy experiences. A rabble collected, throwing stones, and they made their way to the prefecture along a narrow lane beside the city wall. The people crowded on to the wall and pelted them with fragments of brick. The prefect, a young man of thirty-two, with a blue button, received them in the principal hall and gave them tea, but the noise of the mob outside was distinctly audible. After a considerable time Dr Legge said 'We want to get back to our boat, but you hear the shouts of the people. You see our permits to travel from the governor of Canton.'

At that the prefect sent for about a dozen of his retainers and ordered them to escort the party safely to their boat. This the men promised to do and brandished their large whips in the air. Examining one of the whips, however, Dr Legge found it wonderfully light—in fact, the thongs were made either of grey paper or such flimsy leather, that they were only fit to be playthings for children. When the gates were opened Dr Legge and his companions, having consulted together, gave a shout and dashed on to the top of the wall. The people were taken by surprise, many jumped down into the lane, others scampered away.

In this way the party got to the end of the wall and turned to walk to the beach. Their soldier guards were nowhere, and they now came in for a shower of stones from a mob on the beach. Their boatmen hastened to their aid, and hurried them on board. Indignant with the people Dr Legge ran up on the top of the stern-house and shouted out 'Are these your manners? We have only come here to do you good, and these are your manners. I stand here to be a mark for you all—stone me, but let the boat alone.' Four big stones had gone crash through the Venetian blinds of the cabin. Some of the people laughed, but the shower of stones abated, and the boatmen took the opportunity of the lull to push out into the middle of the stream and row away.

On they went to Lung-Ch'un where was a large boy's school, a native school, not a missionary school; there was a good deal of excitement as they were probably the first foreigners the boys had ever seen. The schoolmaster in particular came out and motioned them away. Dr Legge said to him, 'You are a disciple of Mencius, and does he not say, Is it not delightful to have friends come from distant regions?Now, here we are, friends come to see you from a very great distance, and you are unwilling to receive us and motion to us to go away. Is that the way in which you illustrate to your pupils the teachings of your sages?' ' He has you there,' cried one of the villagers, which saying brought on friendly relations, the crowd finally accompanying the travellers back to the boat.

Returning towards Pok-lo they arrived at Kot-leng and there found a large gathering of Christians, brought to Christ through the instrumentality of Ch'ea. One man in particular said that for many years he had not worshipped idols but had been in a state of religious indifference. One day, when visiting relations, he had found a New Testament which had been given them by Ch'ea. He read it and talked with them about it. They repeated what they had heard of Christian doctrine from Ch'ea, and the result was that he and two of his friends resolved to make an open profession of the Christian faith. A large crowd collected, to whom Dr Legge preached, and when all was over they found their friends had prepared a feast for them, of which they partook, and then walked back to their boat, many accompanying them a long way.

Again they reached Pok-lo and spent two days in missionary work among villages near. Dr Legge wrote. 'There are thousands of delicate ladies who would gladly have endured the discomforts of our lodging for the spectacle of our service this afternoon.' They had indeed been amazed to find what a large district had been evangelised by Ch'ea, and they left, rejoicing greatly at the success and prospects of the work which was being done. Ch'ea remained at Pok-lo and continued his labours.

On their way back to Canton Dr Legge and Dr Chalmers visited the Lo-fow mountain. Five rivers ran along its base and seemed intended to keep the foot of the intruder from its sacred ground. Having visited the Taoist monastery of 'Soaring Vacancy' they went on to that ofd 'White Stork' and thence to the monastery of the 'Yellow Dragon.' There were four Taoist and five Buddhist monasteries on the sides of the mountain, tenanted by several hundred priests. Dr Legge says,' If one expects, however, to find these monasteries the retreats of contemplative, earnest men, seeking the cultivation of their natures amid solitude, so far as my experience goes, he will be wofully disappointed. The priests we saw were vulgar and ignorant; monasticism appeared without a single redeeming quality.'

A few days later the missionaries returned to their homes, full of thankfulness and joy over the wonderful work of Ch'ea. All was full of promise and continued so for months, when suddenly the prospect was overcast. A certain Chinaman in Pok-lo, named Soo-hoy-u, who was filled with personal hatred to Ch'ea, pretended to be the proper owner of the mission house which Ch'ea had purchased and occupied. He led a body of men to make a tumult at the house, assailed it with a quantity of filth, made a violent entry, plundered it of its goods, took possession of the house and threatened to put to death Ch'ea and other Christians. The leader and his followers proceeded to publish a notice in the city swearing that Christians and foreigners should not stand together, that they would not allow the name of Jesus to be spoken, and that they intended with united strength to seize and make an end of all Christians. Moreover, they prohibited the erection of any place of worship.

Ch'ea and some others fled to Canton to ask advice and help from the missionaries. Dr Legge, on hearing the news, immediately went over to Canton to consult with Dr Chalmers. The late Sir Harry Parkes, then Mr Parkes, who had at that time a supreme sway in Canton city, discussed the whole question in a spirit of full sympathy with the two missionaries.

Dr Legge writes thus to his wife, 'I told him what was in my mind—to apply to the Governor-General to send me to Pok-lo, when I would try by a blended firmness and conciliatoriness to get over our difficulties. He thought over the proposition and said, "Can you go now?" I thought of you, and all my dear ones; I thought of the cause of Christ, I thought of Christ. My answer was, "I'll go, if you can manage it!"

Dr Legge did not tell his wife that before leaving, he took Dr Chalmers aside and said, 'It is possible that I may be beheaded at Pok-lo; if news comes that I have been murdered, go at once to the English consul and tell him that it was my wish that no English gun-boat should be sent up the river to punish the people for my death.'

Mr Parkes arranged with the Viceroy that Dr Legge should start at once, with an officer specially deputed to help in arranging the affair. Ch'ea himself was delighted and insisted on accompanying Dr Legge on the expedition. They started in October 1861, Dr Legge writing to his wife on the eve of their departure—'Oh, if I can but get our title to the house clearly established ; if I can but cheer and comfort our perplexed and terrified Chinese brethren and sisters; if I can but exert an influence that shall be for the furtherance of the gospel!'

The party started, occupying two boats, a large 'ho-fow' and a government cruiser. There were on board Dr Legge, Ch'ea, the officer who was their escort, the Hoppo or river superintendent, and the Chinese crew. During the voyage Ch'ea went from boat to boat, and by the time they got to Pok-lo, on the third day, every Chinese on board, from the Hoppo downwards, had heard from Ch'ea the message of the Gospel. One day Dr Legge went into the little cabin assigned to Ch'ea, and finding him sitting in the corner with his eyes shut, touched him on the shoulder and said to him in the words which Confucius spoke to one of his disciples whom he found sleeping in the daytime, 'Rotten wood, you cannot be carved.' Ch'ea looked up smiling and said, 'Teacher, I was not sleeping, I was praying.'

From Pok-lo Dr Legge wrote to his wife. 'We arrived a few hours ago. A mandarin was waiting a couple of miles off to tell us that the affair was settled, and the purchase deed of the house with the official stamp applied, awaiting my arrival. Since we dropped anchor a boat has been from the district magistrate with lots of presents, and a message that he had gone to Wye-chow, but would soon be back: The military mandarin has also been off and all things promise so speedy a settlement that I may be on my way back to-morrow night.'

The reception by the authorities was all that could be desired. The mandarins walked in procession with Dr Legge and Ch'ea to the house which had been bought, followed by a crowd of the people. They deplored the persecution of the Christians, gave Dr Legge publicly the keys of the house, and said there should be no more trouble. Dr Legge responded in a speech explaining the object of their coming there and buying the house, and publicly installed Ch'ea as its occupier. Very early next morning the Hoppo received startling news. A man came running into the town asserting that a large party of five thousand men was marching upon the prefectural city of Wye-chow, to take the mandarins with the Hoppo and the Englishman prisoners and to deal with them as rebels.

At that time rebellion was seething in a large part of Canton province. The Hoppo knew that if the news were true, both he and Dr Legge would lose their heads. Time was precious—it was already between four and five o'clock, and he hurried to Dr Legge, woke him up, and pressed him to get on board the boat at once. The missionary remonstrated; he greatly wished to have another interview with Ch'ea before leaving. The Hoppo was careful to give Dr Legge no hint of the real reason for leaving, but represented that the wind was fair and the tide so favourable that an early departure would save much time and labour. Reluctantly Dr Legge left without seeing Ch'ea again.

What happened subsequently may be soon told. A band of men under the leadership of Soo-hoy-u and a confederate who, like himself, was filled with an insensate hatred of Ch'ea and his work, entered Pok-lo in the evening. A little boy was sent to knock at the door, and when Ch'ea opened it they pulled him out and carried him off. A few days later Dr Chalmers wrote from Canton to Dr Legge 'Fresh reports are coming in every day of the progress of the rebellion in Wye-chow. The standard has been raised on the little hill on the east of Kwai-shin city. Wong Shan Yen has tried to purchase Ch'ea with a large sum of money but in vain. Yesterday four of the principal men arrived here, confirming these reports. The village of Chuk-woo has not been burnt, however, although all the inhabitants have fled. I would fain hope that at least some of the reports of that good man Ch'ea may be exaggerated. But at anyrate it is a "fiery trial" which he is now passing through. A-wai told me to-day that they have been torturing him with fire, and nothing can be done, it appears, to save him from the hands of these miscreants.'

Another letter says: 'There is much about the movement which is not easy to understand. An element of disaffection to the Chinese government enters largely into it. The flag bears the inscription "Security to the government and extermination for barbarians": but the whole proceeding is in defiance of the authorities, and the Governor-General said to Mr Parkes that he himself was the man who was in most danger from it. The leaders, I conceive, are stirring up the hatred of the people to foreigners, and their dislike to Christianity, as a cloak to their own ambitious ends. Of course they are acting in flagrant violation of the stipulations of the treaty; but what is to be done? The native government has not power to enforce the treaty.'

Ch'ea had been carried off to a neighbouring hamlet. There he was tortured and urged to abjure Christianity, and go to a temple and burn incense before some idol. He was hung up to a beam by the thumbs and big toes for a whole night, water being thrown upon him when he fainted. Dr Chalmers writes again, 'The fate of Ch'ea is now certain. He was killed at Kong Tung on October 16, in the evening.' Other letters tell that as he still refused to give up Christianity, his persecutors carried him to the banks of the river and swore that if he would not then and there deny Christ, they would put him to death. He only answered 'How can I deny Him who died for me?' Infuriated by his stedfastness they rushed on him, struck him down, cut off his head and threw his body into the river.

The persecutors were masters of the field, and for some time the missionaries could do nothing against the storm. At last its fury began to abate; the leaders were frightened, and sent to Dr Legge in Hong Kong saying that if the Christians would bring no accusation against them, the missionaries might return to the house at Pok-lo. Dr Legge replied that he would take no measures to bring them to justice, but that as they had been guilty of a great crime, if the Chinese government took measures against then the missionaries could not interfere. Later, when the general rebellion was subdued, the missionary work was resumed in the district, and was resumed with success. For it was found that many native Christians in the district of Pok-lo had remained stedfast in their religious profession.

A final beautiful reference to Ch'ea is found in a letter to Dr Legge written on December 26, at the close of the year 1861. 'I can readily imagine your astonishment and dismay on hearing of the reactionary movement resulting in the death of the faithful evangelist Ch'ea at the hands of his vindictive and misguided countrymen. This good man is truly to be numbered among the noble army of martyrs, and he is, I believe, the first Protestant Christian in China who has been called to seal his testimony with his blood; nor can we be permitted to doubt but that, as in other lands, it will prove the seed of the Church, and serve only to give additional stimulus to those efforts which Christian men are putting forth for the evangelisation of China.'

For to him came 'salvation and strength and the kingdom of our God and the power of His Christ' so that he 'loved not his life unto the death.'

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