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Perth, the Ancient Capital of Scotland
Chapter VI


THE early history of this ancient Earldom prior to 1581, when it was conferred on the Ruthven family, as fully recorded in this chapter, is involved in obscurity. The kingdom of Scone ceased to be so called at the close of the ninth or early in the tenth century, and was thereafter known as the kingdom of Alban for the three succeeding centuries, when it became the kingdom of Scotia. Scone was the capital, as already stated, of the ancient province of Gowrie, which formed part of this Kingdom. The Earldom of Gowrie was evidently created in the eleventh century. It is recorded that Donald Bane, brother of Malcolm Canmore, and son of Duncan I., King of Scotland, was in 1060 created Earl of Gowrie. He became King of Scotland in 1093, when the Earldom of Gowrie merged in the Crown. His son, named Madoch, was Earl of Atholl in the reign of David I. (Malcolm Canmore's son). The Atholl and Gowrie Estates were evidently under one and the same owner at this period, but it is not recorded how or when Donald Bane got possession of these lands. They evidently passed out of his family when Alexander I., his nephew, gave them to the Abbey of Scone. The history of the lands from their acquisition by the Abbey until the Reformation is very obscure. In Sir David Lindsay's Heraldic MS. there is a coat-of-arms under the name of "Cambroun, Earl of Gowrie." This is the same name as Cameron. In the Register House there is a Seal of Sir Robert Cameron or Cambroun of Baledgarno, which was attached to a Homage to Edward I. in 1296, and which bears practically the same arms as those given by Sir David Lindsay.

Mention is made of the old Earldom of Gowrie as lying between the Earldom of Atholl and the province of Fife. It formed, along with the Earldom of Atholl, one of the seven ancient provinces of Scotland prior to the Scottish Conquest, but after the Scottish dynasty was seated on the Throne it was attached to the province of Fife. Bower, says Skene, makes the statement that Alexander the First received at his baptism as a donation from his father's brother, the Earl of Gowry (Donald Bane), the lands of Liff and Invergowrie, where, after he became king, he began to build a palace, but finally conferred these lands upon the Abbey of Scone. In fact, these lands are contained in the foundation Charter of Scone by King Alexander the First It is only Donald Bane who can be referred to as the Earl, and who held the Earldom of Gowrie as an appanage. There were no subsequent Earls of Gowrie, so far as can be discovered from the Public Records, until the title was conferred on the Ruthvens.

The lands which were called the lordship, barony, and regality of Scone, erected into the Earldom of Gowrie in favour of William, first Earl of Gowrie, having fallen into the King's hands through the forfeiture of Gowrie, and it being alleged that part of these were feued to various persons after 6th March, 1558, without confirmation of his Majesty's mother or his Majesty thereupon, so that the said infeftments were null by an express Act of Parliament; His Majesty ordained that these lands, with all their rights, abide with David Lord Lindsay, Earl of Crawford, his heirs and assignees, for true and faithful service to the King; no confirmation to be of any infeftment of feu farm yet unconfirmed of any lands belonging to the Abbey except at the request of the Earl of Crawford and his heirs, for composition to be paid to them.

This is another illustration of the incorrectness of the entries in the Privy Council Register at that period. This entry appears on the Register of 1582. William, Earl of Gowrie, was not executed till 1584, and was consequently alive at the date of this entry. The lands remained in the possession of the Gowrie family till 1600, when they were forfeited at the time of the Gowrie Conspiracy.

In 1606 an Act of Parliament was passed erecting the Abbey and lands into the Barony of Scone in favour of Sir David Murray, Lord Scone. This Act was in the following terms :—

Act of Parliament dissolving the Abbacy of Scone and patrimonie of the same spirituality and temporality thereof from the Crowne and im-powering his Majesty to erect the same in ane Temporall Lordship In favour of David Lord Scone his Mqfest's Comptroller and his heirs male whilks failzieing To Andrew Murray of Balvaird and his heirs etc.: To be holden of his Majestie for yearly payment of 1000 pounds Scots in name of blench ferme and paying the Ministers stipends. Under the signs and subscription of Sir John Sheen of Currichill Clerk Register dated 4th Februarie 1604.

At the Parliament holden at Perthe the nynt day of July the yeir of God 1606 yeiris be virtew of our Soverane Lords Speciall Commission granted to that effect under His Majesties Great Seall of the dait at Hamptown Court the fourt day of Februarie 1604: Lords and esteates of this present Parliament------Considdering the guid trew     and thankfull services monyways done to his hienes be David Lord of Scone his graces Comptroller: And for uther great responsabill profitable and causes notorullie known be the saidis esteates disponit and be the terms of this     Act: Dispones from his Hienes Crown and patrimonie theirof and from all annexationes theirto of before: And also from the Abacie of Scone and Patremonie of the same simply and for ever All and Sundreie the landis barronnis mansionnis manor places yairds etc etc. and uthers whatsumever of the temporalitie of the Abacie of Scone with pairts etc of the same: And also with all and sundrie the kirkis chaplainnis and altarages of the said abbacie with all teyndshawis utherwis teynds etc belonging to the said Abacie and Monastie of Scone as well to the spiritualitie as temporalitie theirof and monkes portionnis of the same or ever possessit be the abbottes and commendatores theirof for the    tyme whether property or patrimonie of the same baith And whilkis theirafter    pertenit to His Soveraine Lord be vertew of whatsumever actis of annexation speciall or generall be resson of forfalture or whatsumever uther maner of way: And the said esteates Declaris heison      to our said soverane lord To make gif grant and Dissprove the same to the said David Lord of Scone and to his airis maill lawfullie gotten or to be gotten of his bodie Whilkis failzieing to Andro Murray of Balvaird and his airis maill lawfully gotten or to be gotten of his bodie heretabillie: And for erection of the saym to them in ane haill and free temporall Lordship and barronnie callit and to be callit In all     tyme cuming the lordship and barronnie of Scone o be holdin of his hienes and his successors in free heretage free lordschip and barronnie for ever For the yeirlie payment to his Hienes of ane thowsand pundis usuall money of Scotland at the terme of Whitsonday: In name of blenche ferme allenarlie and theirwith the ministeres of all and sundrie the paroche kirkis of the said Abacie being provydit of reasonable yeirlie stipendis and rentis to be paid to them out of the teyndis and duties."

The Seal of the ancient Abbey was interesting. It represented the Trinity with the mystic vesica piscis, surrounded by the four Evangelists, and below, the figure of St Michael and the Dragon. On the obverse, the coronation of the King; below are the Royal Arms between the pales of Ruthven and the chevrons of the Earldom of Strathearn.

The following entries respecting the Abbey of Scone appear on the Register of the Great Seal, 1546-80:—

Patrick Bishop of Moray is styled perpetual Commendator of Scone, and is granting charters of the lands in the lordship and regality of Scone, 9th August, 1559. Confirmed by the Queen 12th July, 1563.

Charter dated at Edinburgh, 19th July, 1564. Confirmed by the Queen 2nd April, 1565.

Charter dated at Kinnaird, 21st October, 1560 Confirmed by the Queen and King, 13th February, 1565-6.

Charter dated 25th September, 1563. Confirmed by the Queen, 26th March, 1567.

Charter dated at Scone, 8th March, 1566. Confirmed by the King 22nd November, 1569.

24th November, 1569. The King confirms a charter by Patrick, Bishop of Moray and Perpetual Commendator of Scone, and by the Convent thereof, whereby they appoint William, Lord Ruthven, sheriff of Perth, and his heirs male, their bailies and heritable justiciars of the lands and possessions of the lordship and regality of Scone wherever they be within the kingdom with the fee of 100 of the readiest of the rents; dated at Scone, 6th April, 1569.

Charter of Confirmation of the King, dated 19th March 1573-4, of Charter by Patrick, Bishop of Moray (as above), dated at the Monastery of Scone, 7th February, 1565.

Charter dated at Inverness and Scone, 9th June and 19th January, 1566 (one witness being Sir Henry Abircrumby, prior of Scone), Confirmed by the King, 4th January, 1577-8.

7th May, 1580. The King appoints John Ruthven, lawful son of William, Lord Ruthven, his Treasurer, for his lifetime, Perpetual Commendator of the Monastery and Abbey of Scone, vacant by the death of Patrick, Bishop of Moray, or by his forfeiture.

This brief outline of Scone as a royal and ecclesiastical seat is but a chapter in the historical narrative of that ancient kingdom. In early times it was a place of great importance, and continued to be so for several centuries. Though Perth from its earliest days was engaged in civil wars and sieges, Scone seems to have escaped all these; and very probably secured its immunity from the troubles of the time because of its influence with people as an ecclesiastical stronghold, and because of the superstitions that prevailed in these times that the Abbey and Monastery were sacred edifices and could not be subdued by military force.


Family of Ruthven.

In the twelfth century, Allan, the son of Walter, married Cecilia, daughter of Gilbert, Earl of Strath-earn, with whom he got the lands of Cowgask. His son was Walter de Ruthven. This name he assumed from the lands of his old inheritance called Ruthven. About 1300 there is a charter by William de Ruthven, by which, with consent of his son, Walter de Ruthven, he confirmed a grant of Tibbermore and the fishings of the Cairnies made formerly by Walter, son of Allan, to the monks of Scone.

In the reign of James III., Sir William Ruthven, son of another Sir William, presumably descended from Walter, was created Lord Ruthven. His first wife was Isobel, daughter of Lord Livingstone, by whom he had a son and heir, who was killed at Flodden before his father died. Lord Ruthven had a second wife, Christian, daughter of Sir John Forbes of Pitsligo, and by her he had a son, afterwards Sir William Ruthven of Bandirran, and two daughters, one of whom married the Earl of Buchan, and the other the Earl of Errol. Lord Ruthven, by his first wife, had a second son, called William, second Lord Ruthven, who married Janet, daughter of Patrick Halyburton, Lord Dirleton, and succeeded his father as Lord Ruthven. He was Lord Privy Seal, and

died in 1556, leaving issue, Patrick, his successor, and Alexander, a second son, who was the first of the Ruthvens of Freeland, afterwards created Lord Ruthven by Charles II. William, the second Lord Ruthven, had several daughters, one of whom married David, Lord Drummond, Earl of Perth, and his eldest son was Patrick, third Lord Ruthven, one of the murderers of Riccio, who died in banishment, at Alnwick, for that crime (1566). He was married to Jean, daughter of the Earl of Angus, and left two sons and two daughters. His eldest son was William, first Earl of Gowrie. He married Dorothea Stuart, a daughter of Lord Methven, by his second wife, Janet, daughter of the Earl of Atholl. Lord Methven's first wife was Queen Margaret, widow of James IV., who died in 1541. Dorothea Stuart was the mother of Gowrie and Alexander Ruthven of the Conspiracy. According to this authority, Queen Margaret had no child to the King but James V. Thereafter she married the Earl of Angus, to whom she bore one child, who afterwards was Lady Margaret Lennox, mother of Darnley. Afterwards Queen Margaret divorced Angus and married Lord Methven. Gowrie's mother, Dorothea Stuart, could not have been the Queen's daughter, as some allege, for her Majesty died in 1541, aged 53, whereas Dorothea Stuart, first and only Countess of Gowrie, had borne children at intervals after 1580. William, fourth Lord Ruthven, was created Earl of Gowrie, by patent, dated 23rd August, 1581. He was executed at Stirling on 20th May, 1584. By Dorothea, daughter of Henry, Lord Methven, he had five sons and seven daughters. The lands and barony of Gowrie, etc, which belonged to the Monastery of Scone, were acquired by the Ruthvens by Royal Charter, dated 20th October, 1581.

James, second Earl of Gowrie, his eldest son, was restored to the estates and honours in 1586, but died in his fourteenth year in 1588, and was succeeded by his brother.

John, third Earl of Gowrie, was killed in 1600 in what was known as the Gowrie Conspiracy, and his estates were forfeited to the Crown.

Ruthven Castle was long a residence of the Ruthven family. There is a traditional story told of one of the daughters of William Lord Ruthven, first Earl of Gowrie, afterwards the wife of James Wemyss of Pittencrieff. When he visited the Castle it was by stealth, as the family thought he was of inferior rank. The place in which he was concealed was the tower opposite to that in which the young lady had her rooms. One night the young lady, before the doors of the castle were shut, had joined him in his apartment The Countess having got a hint from one of her maids of what was going on, hastened to the tower to surprise the lovers. The young lady, hearing her mother's footsteps, ran to the top of the leads and leaped to the opposite tower, the chasm being 9 feet 4 inches wide and 60 feet deep. She alighted safely on the battlement, and crept stealthily away to bed. In a few minutes her mother entered her bedroom to make an apology. Next night the young lady eloped with her lover, and they were afterwards married.


The Family of Murray, Viscounts of Stormont, Earls of Mansfield.

The family of Murray of Arngask and Balvaird, from whom descended Sir David Murray, afterwards Lord Scone and first Viscount Stormont, is fully detailed in the Douglas Peerage. The family traces its origin from the Murrays of the ancient family of Tullibardine, one of the most ancient of our Scottish nobility. The Tullibardine family occupies a very prominent place in Scottish history, and some of its members contributed in no small degree to the restoration of peace in troublous times, to the enforcement of loyalty to the throne, and to enlightened and effective administration. Sir William Murray of Queen Mary's time, whose house of Tullibardine was a favourite haunt of the Queen's, held a high place in the estimation of his sovereign, while his descendant, the Earl of Tullibardine, who was Secretary for Scotland in 1656, and directed the negotiations for the transference of the University of St Andrews to Perth, was undoubtedly the ablest statesman of his time. The Barony of Tullibardine was created in 1604, when Sir William Murray was raised to the Peerage, and in 1606 it became an Earldom.

Sir Andrew Murray, brother of Sir William Murray of Tullibardine (sons of William Murray), married Margaret, daughter and sole heir of James Barclay of Arngask and Kippo, with whom he got the lands of Arngask, Balvaird, Kippo, etc She and her husband obtained a charter thereof from King James IV., 25th January, 1507. On 1st August, 1527, she founded a chaplaincy in the parish church of Arngask. They had two sons. Sir David, who succeeded; John, who got from his father Conland; and Elizabeth, who married Sir Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie.

Sir David Murray of Arngask and Balvaird, married Janet, sister of John, fifth Lord Lindsay of the Byres, and died in December, 1550 He had three sons: (1) Sir Andrew, (2) William Murray of Letterbannathy, and (3) David, parish clerk of Aber-nethy in 1548, who received a charter of Airdeth in 1563.

Sir Andrew Murray of Arngask and Balvaird and Margaret Ross, his wife, received a charter of part of Arngask in 1541. He succeeded his father in 1550, and died in 1576. His first wife was Margaret, daughter of Ninian, second Lord Ross of Hawkhead, who died without issue; his second was Lady Janet Graham, fourth daughter of William, second Earl of Montrose, by whom he had four sons: (1) Sir Andrew, (2) Sir David Murray of Gospetrie, (3) Robert, Archdeacon of Dunkeld, who died without

issue, and (4) Sir Patrick Murray of Bin and Drum-cairn, an officer in the Guards, much employed by King James in settling the affairs of the Church. He married Isobel Brown, and died in 1604 without issue, and his brother, Lord Scone, was served his heir male and of entail on 5th March, 1606.

Sir Andrew Murray of Arngask, etc, married and left a son, Sir Andrew, and two daughters. This son also married, but died without issue in 1624, when Sir David Murray of Gospetrie succeeded. . . . He accompanied the King to England in 1603, and had a great many charters from the King, including grants of the barony of Ruthven, and the abbacy of Scone, upon which, in 1605, he was created Lord Scone. He had a principal hand in carrying the Five Articles of Perth, and as a reward had conferred upon him the dignity of Viscount of Stormont (patent dated 16th August, 1621). He entailed his estates. He married Elizabeth, daughter of David Betoun of Creich in Fife, but by her, who died 21st January, 1658, he had no issue. He died on 27th August, 1631, and was buried at Scone, where there is a magnificent monument to his memory. The inscription on the monument of Lord Scone, who is interred in the family vault at Scone, will be read with much interest It is as follows: "The Right Honourable Sir David Murray of Gospetrie Kngt, soune to Sir Andrew Murray of Balvaird, his grandsir brother to ye Earl of Tullibairdine, his mother daughter to ye Earle of Montrois, his guidame of ye father daughter to ye Earle Merschall quho for his good service done to King James ye VI., quhom he faithfully served in his youthe in many honourable employments, (from a cupbearer, master of his horses, master of his house, comptroller of his rents, Captain of his Mass Garrd, one of His Majesty's honourable Privy Council) was created Lord Scone. He married dame Elisabeth Betone ane ancient barons daugter of Chreiche, died without ishue and left his estate to his nevvy of Balvaird, and to dame Annis Murray his nes quhom he married to ane brother of ye Earl of Tullibairdine from whom he first descended. He helped his other friends who enjoys ye fruits of his labours, his buildings. He was politiq; good men knew he loved the virtu, and malefactors yet he maintained justice. He foonded ys hospitall and builded ys chriche. His soole enjoys happiness, and onder ye tombe builded by himself lys his bodie expecting ye joyful ressurection." He was succeeded by

Sir Mungo Murray of Drumcairn, second Viscount Stormont He was fourth son of John, first Earl of Tullibardine. He married first, Anne, eldest daughter of Sir Andrew Murray of Arngask, who died without issue, 13th May, 1639, and was buried at Scone on 23rd May; and, secondly, Lady Anne Wemyss, second daughter of John, first Earl of Wemyss, and widow of Alexander Lindsay of Edzell, who died also without issue. She was buried in St. John's Church, Perth. He died in March, 1642, and was succeeded by the next heir of entail.

James Murray, second Earl of Annandale, third Viscount of Stormont He also died without issue, on 28th December, 1658, at London, and was buried at Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire, whereupon the succession devolved upon

David, fourth Viscount Stormont. He was descended from William Murray of Letterbannathy, whose grandson, Andrew Murray, minister of Abdie in 1618, was created Lord Balvaird on 17th November, 1641. This David was his son, and succeeded him as second Lord Balvaird in 1644. He consolidated all the lands in Perthshire, Annandale, and elsewhere, into the Viscounty of Stormont in 1666. He died 24th July, 1668, having married at Kinnaird on 9th August, 1659, Lady Elizabeth Carnegie, eldest daughter of James, second Earl of Southesk, the widow of his predecessor, James, third Viscount Stormont By her he had his successor and two daughters: (1) Catherine, who married William, second Earl of Kintore, and (2) Amelia, who died unmarried.

David, fifth Viscount of Stormont, succeeded his father in, 1668, and held the title for over sixty-three years, dying on 19th November, 1731. He married in 1688, Marjory, daughter of David Scott of Scots-tarvet in Fife (also descended of the Murrays, Earls of Annandale). She died in April, 1746, having had fourteen children. One of the younger sons, born at Scone, became the first Lord Mansfield and the Lord Chief Justice of England.

David, sixth Viscount of Stormont, the eldest son, succeeded his father in 1731, and died at Jeanfield, near Dalkeith, on 23rd July, 1748, aged fifty-eight He married Anne, only daughter and heiress of John Stewart of Innernytie, by whom he had four children. She died at Comlongan, 10th July, 1735.

David, seventh Viscount of Stormont, his eldest son, succeeded. He was a distinguished scholar. He was elected a Representative Peer of Scotland in 1754, and again in 1761, 1768, 1774, 1780, 1784, and 1790 He was Lord Justice General for Scotland; British Ambassador at Paris and Vienna; 1772-78 Secretary of State; 1779-82 President of the Council, and again 1794—till his death. He succeeded his Uncle William (fourth son of the fifth Viscount, who by his eminent abilities at the Bar and on the Bench raised himself to high position and obtained the dignity of Earl of Mansfield), as second Earl of Mansfield in Middlesex in 1793. He married, first, at Warsaw, on 16th August, 1759, Henrietta Frederica, daughter of Henry, Count Bunau, who died on 16th March, 1766 (her heart was buried at Scone), leaving two daughters; and secondly, the Hon. Louisa Cathcart, third daughter of Charles, ninth Lord Cathcart, and Countess of Mansfield in the County of Nottingham in her own right, by whom he had five children. He died 1st September, 1796, at Brighthelmstone, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, but his heart was sent to Scone.

William, third Earl of Mansfield, and eighth Viscount of Stormont, the eldest son of the second marriage, succeeded his father in 1796. He married at Bishopsthorpe on 16th September, 1797, Frederica, daughter of William Markham, Archbishop of York, and had issue three sons and six daughters. He was succeeded by his eldest son, William David, as fourth Earl, who held the title and estates up to 1898, when he was succeeded by his grandson, the present Earl. The latter is the eldest son of the late William David, tenth Viscount Stormont, who died in 1893, and whose death was a great calamity to the County of Perth, of which he was a Deputy Lieutenant, and its most able and much-loved Convener. (See illustration.)


Families of Erskine, Crichton, Oliphant, Hay.

The earliest entry on record states that Sir Robert Erskine of Erskine succeeded his father. He joined the High Steward of Scotland and other friends of David II. in opposition to the Baliol faction. He was Great Chamberlain of Scotland in 1350, and one of the commissioners to treat of a release of David II., 1348-54. In 1358 he was appointed Ambassador to Charles the Dauphin, Regent of France, and ratified the alliance with that Kingdom at Paris, 1359. He was twice elected Great Ambassador. He obtained charters from David II. of the lands of Kinnoull on their resignation by Isobel Fyfe, heir to Duncan, sometime Earl of Fife. This Sir Robert Erskine held a life appointment of keeper of Stirling Castle and Sheriff of Stirlingshire, conferred upon him by David II. He was one of those who assisted at the coronation of Robert II., and did homage to him at Scone, 1371; he died in 1385, and is said to have been one of the most distinguished of the ancient family of Erskine. His second son, Sir Nicholl Erskine, obtained a charter of the Barony of Kinnoull on the resignation of his father, 1366. We have no explanation why this transference occurred so long before Sir Robert's death. Sir Nicholl was ancestor of the Erskines of Kinnoull. The Erskines ceased to be owners of Kinnoull in the reign of James II., when the estate passed into the hands of the Crichtons of Sanquhar. Sir Robert Crichton married Christian, only daughter and heiress of Sir William Erskine of Kinnoull. He died in 1469. His eldest son by this marriage, Robert Crichton of Kinnoull, was in 1488 created Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, by James III., and died in 1502. He married Cecilia, second daughter of James II., by whom he had an only daughter, Margaret, married to George, Earl of Rothes. Their son was Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, who slew Cardinal Beton. Robert, second Lord Crichton, son of the first lord, obtained charters of lands in the parish of Forgandenny and in various other parishes in 1511. The following entries respecting the family appear in the Register of the Great Seal:—

Edinr., 31st Octr., 1478.

The King, James III., because in the action prosecuted and gained by Robert Crichton of Kinnoull, in the presence of the Lords of Council against Walter Ogilvy of Owres, for the sum of 300 merks, it was decreed that the sum be paid to Robert Crichton and as to the execution of the decree the King directed letters to the Sheriff of Forfar to compel Ogilvy to pay the same.

Edinr., 7th May, 1502.

The King, James IV., confirmed the charter of Walter Forster of Torwood, soldier, feudal lord of the following lands—by which with consent of his father Duncan Forster he conceded to Robert Mercer of Ballief, the assignee of Robert lord century. He held office under Malcolm IV. and William the Lion. His son Robert was the progenitor of the Hays of Yester and Tweeddale. Robert's elder brother William was an attendant on William the Lion, and witnessed many of his charters. He had the honour of being one of the hostages for King William when he was liberated in 1174, and for his distinguished services the King bestowed on him the estate of Errol in the Carse of Gowrie. He had six sons, of whom David, the eldest, succeeded him. In the thirteenth century the Hays were numerous in the Carse of Gowrie and in Perthshire. In the fourteenth century they were still more numerous, and spread into Aberdeenshire and other parts of the North. It was William, the first of the name, and his son who were progenitors of the Hays of Errol, who obtained the Earldom in 1462 from James II. From this stock sprang the Hays, Earls of Kinnoull.


An interesting chapter in connection with the history of Perth is that of the family of Hay of KinnoulL George Hay, second son of Patrick Hay of Megginch, was born in 1572. James VI. bestowed on him the lands of the Carthusian Monastery at Perth, with a seat in Parliament, 1598. He attended the King at the Gowrie Conspiracy, and was in 1616 appointed Lord Clerk Register, and knighted. In 1620 he obtained a charter of the lands of Kinfauns. In 1622 he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland. In 1626 he obtained a charter of the lands of Aberdalgie and Dupplin, and in 1627 was created a peer as Viscount Dupplin and Lord Hay of

Kinfauns. In 1633 he was created Earl of Kinnoull. He died in 1634, and was interred in Kinnoull Church, where a statue was erected, showing the Earl in his Lord Chancellor's robes. [The funeral procession was an imposing spectacle. There were trumpeters and pursuivants ; relations to carry the arms; his coronet, spurs, gauntlet, mace, and great seal; the arms of his ancestors on both sides. His physician and chaplain in mourning; a horse in dule and two pages of honour. Finally the coffin, surmounted by a pall of black velvet, carried by twelve gentlemen, followed by deceased's son, in a long mourning robe and hood, assisted by six earls and three lords, going three abreast. In this order they went through the town, crossed the river in boats, marched to Kinnoull Church, where, after the funeral service, the body was laid in the tomb.] His only surviving son succeeded him as second Earl in 1634; and his son, William, in 1644 succeeded as third Earl. He was by the English made prisoner in Edinburgh Castle, whence he made his escape on 20th May, 1654, over the wall, by tying sheets and blankets together; he joined Montrose in the North, and was captured by the English in the Braes of Angus in the following November, after three days' hot pursuit through the snow. He married first, Mary, only daughter of Robert Brudenell, second Earl of Cardigan, by whom he had no issue; and secondly, Catherine, daughter of Charles, Viscount Cranbourne, and grand-daughter of William Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, by whom he had two sons who successively held the title.

In Zimmerman's "Autobiography of Travers" an interesting reference is made to William, third Earl:—"Leaving Westminster and the house of the artist in 1662, I took lodgings in Covent Garden, and had as a fellow-boarder a Scotch Catholic, the Earl of Kinnoull. He came every day to my little chapel to hear Mass, and sometimes joined me in reciting the divine office, and frequently went to confession and communion. Through the Earl I became acquainted with many Scotchmen; also some years later, the brother of the Earl, who had come to live in London."

Evidently Lord Kinnoull died in 1667, as his eldest son, George, in that year succeeded him as fourth Earl. The latter left no issue. His brother William, in 1687, succeeded him as fifth Earl, who resigned his titles into the hands of Queen Anne, and died in 1709 unmarried.

This terminated the direct line of the Hays, and another branch now comes into possession. Francis Hay, Writer to the Signet, acquired the lands of Balhousie, and obtained a charter of the Barony of Dupplin in 1642. He married Margaret, daughter of James Oliphant, of Bachilton. His eldest son died in 1672, and was succeeded by his second son, Thomas Hay. The latter was a man of very considerable abilities, and in 1693 was Member of Parliament for Perthshire. He was afterwards created Viscount Dupplin, and took his seat as such in 1698. In 1709, on the death of the fifth Earl, he was created sixth Earl of Kinnoull. In the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 he was suspected of being a rebel, and was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. He died in 1719, and was succeeded by his son, George, who became the seventh Earl, and married Marjory, third daughter of David, fifth Viscount Stormont, and sister of the first Earl of Mansfield. Earl George was in 1729 appointed ambassador to Constantinople, which appointment he held for eight years. He died in 1758, leaving ten children. His eldest son, Sir Thomas Hay (see illustration), who became the eighth Earl, was born in 1710. He was also an eminent member of the family, having been M.P. for Scarborough in 1736, and for Cambridge in 1741; Chairman of the Committee of Privileges in Parliament; a Lord of the Treasury in 1754; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1758; and British Ambassador to Portugal, 1759. In 1762 Earl Thomas resigned all his appointments under the Crown. It is recorded that the bridge over the Tay at Perth owes to him its existence, being built under his auspices, and at the risk of his private fortune. Though splendid offers were made to him to return to office under the Crown, nothing would induce him to do so. He had resolved to spend the remainder of his life in peace and quietness in the management and enjoyment of his estates. Under his judicious management, his estates, it is said, speedily assumed a new aspect; improvements rapidly advanced, and his tenantry prospered He is said to have been a man of warm but rational piety, and a high-principled, Christian gentleman. He died at Dupplin Castle on December 27, 1787, his death being lamented over the entire kingdom. His only son having unfortunately predeceased him, he was succeeded by his nephew, the Honourable Robert Hay Drummond, eldest son of his brother. Robert assumed the name of Drummond as heir of entail of his great-grandfather, William, Viscount of Strathallan, by whom the estates of Cromlix and Innerpeffray were settled as a provision for the second branch of the Kinnoull family. Colonel John Hay, Governor of Perth at the Rebellion of 1715, was the third son of Francis Hay, and consequently brother of Thomas, the sixth Earl. Robert Hay Drummond, ninth Earl, succeeded his father in 1796. He was a Privy Councillor in 1796, and in the same year was made Lord Lyon, King of Arms. He died in 1804, and was succeeded by his son, Thomas Robert, who became tenth Earl. The latter was born in 1785, and also held the office of Lord Lyon, King of Arms. In 1810 this Earl's brother, the Honourable Francis John Hay Drummond, of Cromlix, was drowned in the river Earn. He had paid a visit to Lord Ruthven at Freeland the preceding day, and was prevented from returning to Dupplin the same evening by the severity of the weather, but set out next morning, so as to accompany his brother to church. Crossing the river on horseback, the current, swelled by a heavy rain, carried him rapidly away, and he perished, nobody being in sight He was then twenty-five years of age. Earl Thomas was succeeded by George, the eleventh Earl, who died in 1897, and was succeeded by his son, the present Earl.

In regard to Kinnoull Hill, the favourite resort of many of the citizens of Perth, it is interesting to notice that the eastern portion belongs to the Kinfauns estate, the centre to the Earl of Kinnoull, and the western to Alexander Moncrieff of Barn-hill. The Earl of Kinnoull—Earl Robert, the ninth Earl, who died in 1804—caused a large stone table to be placed on the top of the Hill. For several years his lordship and family with a few friends made an annual visit to the top of the Hill and dined on this table. Lord Gray of Kinfauns ornamented his part of the Hill by erecting what represents a ruined tower. To the north of Woodend, in the immediate neighbourhood, stood the ancient Castle of Kinnoull. The title of the Earldom was derived from this ancient stronghold. It faced the South Inch. So late as 1773 the ruins of this old castle were to be seen. [The old church of Kinnoull, which was superseded by the present one in 1826, was dedicated to Constantine III., King of Scotland, 904-944. In the reign of David II., 1329-71, Sir Robert Erskine, proprietor of Kinnoull and Lord Chancellor. of Scotland, gave the church to the monks of Cambuskenneth. The Kinnoull family for a time were interred here. It was in this church that Queen Margaret, widow of James IV., was married to the Earl of Angus. John Drummond, Dean of Dunblane and minister of Kinnoull, performed the ceremony.]


The Oliphants came to Scotland, as is recorded, in 1142 and four of them in succession held the high office of justiciary under the Crown. Two knights of the family were taken prisoners at Dunbar by Edward I. in 1296 and submitted to the English King. One of them was Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgie. He obtained a Charter of the lands of Ochtertyre and Gask from Robert Bruce in 1318. His tomb is still to be seen at Aberdalgie. This Sir William Oliphant was Governor of Stirling Castle, and with a small garrison defended it heroically for three months against Edward I. Oliphant, having been compelled to surrender, he and his companions were obliged to go in procession to the tent of Edward, stript to their shirts and drawers, their heads and feet bare, and on their knees to acknowledge their guilt and give themselves up to his mercy. Oliphant was thereafter sent to the Tower of London, where he lay a prisoner for four years. His son, Sir Walter Oliphant, married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Robert Bruce. He obtained a charter from David II. in 1364. His son, Sir John Oliphant of Aberdalgie, obtained a charter of his lands from Robert II. in 1388, and Sir John's son, Sir William, was one of the hostages for the ransom of James I. in 1442, while his grandson, Sir John Oliphant, was slain in an encounter with the Lindsays at Arbroath in 1446. Sir Laurence Oliphant, son of the last named, was created a peer of James II. in 1467 and became the first and greatest of the Lords Oliphant He founded the Greyfriars Monastery at Perth, and died in 1500. His son, John, second Lord Oliphant, married Elizabeth, daughter of Colin, first Earl of Argyll In 1516, Laurence, grandson of the first Lord Oliphant, succeeded his uncle as the third holder of the title. His eldest son, also named Laurence, became fourth Lord Oliphant, and joined the Ruthven Conspirators (Raid of Ruthven) in 1582. He was accidentally drowned as he was crossing the English Channel in 1634. Laurence, his son, became fifth Lord Oliphant in the same year, and as he died without issue, the title lapsed He sold the estates which he inherited, Gask only being saved from the wreck. Aberdalgie, after being the property of the Oliphants for three centuries, passed from them in 1620 to the Earl of Morton, who five years afterwards sold it to the Hays. John Oliphant, second son of Laurence, fourth Lord Oliphant was created Master of Oliphant. His son, Patrick, became sixth Lord Oliphant He obtained charters of Aberdalgie and Dupplin in 1617, and in 1626 sold these to George Hay, first Earl of KinnoulL His eldest son, Charles, was seventh Lord and succeeded in 1707. There is a Laurence Oliphant who, in 1650, was knighted at Perth by Charles II. Patrick, son of Charles, was the eighth Lord, and died in 1721 without issue Patrick Hay, Provost of Perth, who was knighted by James VIII. in 1715 was married to a daughter of Laurence Oliphant of Gask. This is the Provost who took the place of Provost Austen who ran away at the Rebellion. Laurence Oliphant was a lieutenant in the Perthshire regiment of horse, and fought at Sheriffmuir under Lord Mar, but escaped. "It happened," he says, "to be my turn to command the Horse Guards at Perth in December, 1715, that night when the Earl of Mar left to meet the King. At midnight all went to the Cross, where we found a great concourse of people. The subject of conversation was Lord Mar's departure and whether the King would be restored." Colonel William, ninth Lord, succeeded his kinsman, Patrick, eighth Lord. He also left no issue, and his brother was the tenth and last lord. The Oliphants have always been closely identified with the history of Perth, and are represented to-day by Captain Blair Oliphant of Gask.


Family of Gray.

The family of Gray can trace its lineage as far back as the early years of the twelfth century. Baron Gray of Chillingham, in the north of England, is recorded to have been a follower of David I., and his son Andrew obtained in 1214 the lands of Browfield, near Roxburgh. The Grays of Browfield were represented to the fifth generation by Sir Andrew Gray of Fowlis, who married Janet, only daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Mortimer of Fowlis. Sir Andrew died about 1445. He had a family of five sons and eight daughters; one of them was married to John Ross of Kinfauns. His son and successor, Sir Andrew Gray of Fowlis, was on the 28th June, 1445, made a Lord of Parliament, and was the first Lord Gray of Fowlis. He died about 1470, and was succeeded by his grandson Andrew, second Lord Gray, son of Sir Patrick Gray of Kinneff (Sir Patrick predeceased his father). A sister of Sir Patrick was married to Sir Patrick M'Lellan, whose son Patrick was beheaded by the Earl of Douglas in 1452 (see after). It was this Lord Gray who built Broughty Castle, 1496. Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of the second Lord Gray, married in 1487 John Lyon, Lord Glamis. At his death she married Alexander, Earl of Huntly, and at his death in 1504 she married George, Earl of Rothes. This was the lady who built Gowrie House, Perth. Janet, the ninth child of the second Lord Gray, married John Charteris of Cuthilgourdy, Provost of Perth, and Jean, the tenth child, married Alexander Blair of Balthayock. Then Lord Gray evidently regained the estate of Castle Huntly, as he is described of "Fowlis and Castle Huntly." Patrick, third Lord Gray, succeeded his father, and is recorded to have died at Castle Huntly in 1541. He left four daughters but no sons, and was succeeded by his nephew Patrick, fourth Lord Gray, son of Gilbert Gray of Buttergask, son of the second Lord Gray. This Gilbert Gray was married to Egidia Mercer, one of the Mercer family. He died in 1584, leaving issue, six sons and seven daughters.

Sir Patrick Gray of Invergowrie, the second son of the same christian name of Patrick, Lord Gray, was married to Euphemia, daughter of Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, and died about 1607. Patrick, fifth Lord Gray, succeeded his father and died in 1608. He had a family of seven sons and five daughters, and was succeeded by his son Patrick, sixth Lord Gray, who as Master of Gray was a prominent man in Scottish history, in the reigns of Queen Mary and her son James VI. He enjoyed the title only four years, and died in 1612. His first wife was Elizabeth Lyon, daughter of Lord Glamis, and his second wife Mary Stuart, daughter of Robert, Earl of Orkney. He was succeeded by his son Andrew, seventh Lord Gray, who died in 1663. The latter had one son, who evidently predeceased him, and one daughter, Anne, Mistress of Gray, who married William, eldest son of Sir William Gray of Pittendrum. She obtained a Patent of Nobility from Charles I. bestowing the titles and estates on her issue. Her son Patrick succeeded his grandfather as eighth Lord Gray. This Lord married Barbara Murray, daughter of Lord Balvaird, and had issue —one daughter Marjory, Mistress of Gray, who married John Gray of Crichie, who by virtue of a Patent of Nobility in his favour became titular Lord Gray. So that for four years the Gray Peerage had a dual representation, two Lords living at the same time. John of Crichie, ninth Lord Gray, died in 1723, leaving issue five sons and four daughters. It was this Lord who built the House of Gray. The family left Fowlis in 1669. John, tenth Lord Gray, succeeded his father in 1726, He was married to Helen Stuart, daughter of Lord Blantyre, and enjoyed the titles and estates twelve years. John, eleventh Lord Gray, succeeded his father in 1741 and died in 1782. He was Sheriff Principal of Forfarshire and was married to Margaret Blair, heiress of Kinfauns, who died in 1740. He left five sons and seven daughters. He was also Lord Lieutenant of Perthshire, and as such waited on the Duke of Cumberland at Dundee when the Duke was on his way to Culloden. The Duke, it is said, received him haughtily, and Lord Gray immediately returned home and resolved to join Prince Charlie. His wife baulked him by a ludicrous stratagem. She recommended that he should have his feet bathed after his hard ride; she herself undertook the process. His lordship having stripped and put his feet in a bath, Lady Gray, as if by accident, poured a kettle of boiling water upon them. He was so scalded that he was unable to leave his room for several weeks, and in the meantime the career of Prince Charlie had come to a close. He was succeeded by his son Charles, twelfth Lord Gray, who died in 1786, unmarried Charles was succeeded by his brother William, the thirteenth Lord Gray, who died in 1807, also unmarried. He was served heir to his mother's property of Kinfauns, 14th June, 1790, and that property has remained in the family ever since. Francis, fourteenth Lord Gray of Gray and Kinfauns, succeeded his brother in 1807, and enjoyed the titles and estates thiry-five years. This Lord built the present mansion house of Kinfauns (Kinfauns Castle) in 1822, and vastly improved the property by the erection of new farm-steadings, and cottages of artistic design, erected on what might be called commanding sites on various parts of the estate. He was succeeded by his son the fifteenth Lord Gray, who died without issue, and whose sister Margaret was in 1820 married to John Grant of Kilgraston; his elder sister (there being no brothers) Madeline, Baroness Gray of Gray and Kinfauns, succeeded him in 1867, and died in 1869, unmarried. She was succeeded by her niece Margaret, Baroness Gray, only child of John Grant of Kilgraston. This lady married in 1840 the Honourable Henry Murray (who died 1862), son of the Earl of Mansfield. Of this marriage there was no issue. The Baroness died in 1878, and was succeeded in the titles by her cousin, George Philip Stuart, Earl of Moray, grandson by his father Francis of Jean, daughter of John, eleventh Lord Gray : and in the estates of Gray and Kinfauns by Edmund Archibald Stuart Gray, afterwards Earl of Moray. George Philip Stuart, eighteenth Lord Gray, who succeeded in 1878, died in 1895 unmarried. He was succeeded in the titles by his niece, Lady Evelyn Smith Gray, adjudged Baroness Gray by the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords. Edmund Archibald Stuart Gray was a great grandson in the female line of the eleventh Lord Gray. He became Earl of Moray in 1895 on the death of his kinsman George Philip Stuart, and his brother, Francis James Stuart Gray, succeeded to the estates of Gray and Kinfauns. This Earl of Moray died in 1901 without issue, and was succeeded by his brother Francis James Stuart Gray in the Moray estates, and another brother, Martin Gray Stuart Gray, the present proprietor, succeeded to the estates of Gray and Kinfauns. [James Stuart, second Lord Doune, was married to Elizabeth, the Regent Moray's daughter and heiress, and became, in right of his wife, Earl of Moray. His mother was Margaret, daughter of Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyll He left two sons and three daughters, and is said to have been killed by the Earl of Huntly in 1592.]

The Family of Charteris of Kinfauns.

Sir Thomas Charteris, or Thomas de Longueville, was a native of France. He was for many years a pirate under the name of the "Red Rover," because of the red flags displayed from his ships. Wallace on his way to France encountered him on the high seas, and after a gallant struggle took him prisoner. The French King at Wallace's desire pardoned him and made him a knight He returned with Wallace to Scotland, to whom he was ever after a faithful friend and materially aided him in his exploits, When Wallace was carried a prisoner into England, Sir Thomas returned to Lochmaben, where he afterwards joined Bruce, and was the first who followed Bruce into the water at the memorable siege of Perth in 1312. In return for his bravery Bruce gave him the lands of Kinfauns. In Kinfauns Castle is a two-handled sword supposed to have belonged to this Sir Thomas Charteris, the ancestor of the family of Charteris of Kinfauns, who were Lord Provosts of Perth for several generations. When the vault in the old church of Kinfauns was opened many years ago, there was found a helmet made of thick leather pointed over with broad stripes of blue and white, said to have been part of the armour in which the body of Thomas de Longueville had been deposited. After the family of Charteris the Kinfauns Estate passed into the hands of the Blairs, whose heiress was married to John, Lord Gray. A branch of this family had the lands of Balthayock. The following entries are recorded concerning this family:—

Thomas Charteris and Robert Ross, as frank tenementars of Kinfauns, are mentioned as having had a dispute about some teinds with Adam, Abbot of Scone.1

William Charteris of Cangnor, great grandson of the foresaid Thomas, refers to the sequel of the above dispute and confirms the teinds of the Abbey of Scone on 1st December, 1455. Confirmations of charters by this William Charteris, called also of Kinfauns, are given in the Register of the Great Seal.

Thomas Charteris of Kinfauns, son and heir apparent of the foresaid William, received a charter from his father on 13th July, 1470, of the lands of Haltoun and others in the lordship of Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, and of the lands of Kinfauns and Pitsindy in the lordship of Kinfauns, Perthshire.

John Charteris of Kinfauns occurs frequently as a witness to charters between 1524 and 1531; and also as son and heir apparent of Thomas Charters of Kin-uns, at Aberdeen on 17th September, 1506. To m and his wife, Euphame Lindsay, the king on 17th March, 1524-5, granted the lands of Golktoun and others.

Thomas Charteris of Kinfauns, probably son of the foregoing John, is frequently mentioned as granting charters of lands in the barony of Kinfauns between 1540 and 1546; and there are several apprisings led against him.

John Charteris of Kinfauns (probably son of the foregoing) and Janet Chisholm, his wife, had a charter of the lands of Corscaplie and others from William, Bishop of Dunblane, on 23rd May, 1567. They adopted as their son Harry Lindsay, brother german of David, Earl of Crawford, who assumed the surname of Charteris, and thus acquired the lands and Barony of Kinfauns. He was afterwards Earl Craw-ford, having succeeded his brother, David. He is said to have married "Beatrix Charteris, Heiress of Kinfauns." But he is distinctly styled "filius adoptivus," by John Charteris and Janet Chisholm, in a charter by them, dated 19th November, 1587, in which, as their adopted son, he concurs with them.


There is a curious relic in Kinfauns Castle. It is an iron flag or vane, 2 feet long and 1 foot broad, turning on an iron staff 8 feet high, and of date 1688. It used to surmount the castle, and was the symbol of the power of admiralty which the Lords of Kinfauns had over the Tay. With this power they were invested to conserve the fishings in the river, and to punish poachers. The tradition is that all vessels sailing up and down the river acknowledged the power of the Kinfauns lairds by saluting the castle or by lowering their colours as they passed it Between 1465 and 1500 Andrew Charteris was Provost of Perth fourteen times. Whether he was a Kinfauns Charteris is not clear. Between 1480 and 1500 Gilbert Charteris was eight times elected bailie of Perth. Between 1486 and 1493 Patrick Charteris was five times elected bailie; from 1521 to 1527 Patrick Charteris was five times provost John Charteris was a bailie in 1501 and 1502, provost in 1507, 1509, 1528, 1543.

See! see them returning companions in danger;
The walls of Kinfauns echo welcome again!
Alas! he returns to be sold to the stranger,
A dungeon his kingdom, his empire a chain!
This sword, of his friendship the pledge, be the token
That Scotsmen are firm, and their country is free—
Till the spirit of Gray and of Charteris be broken
Memorial of Wallace, we gather round thee!
Old Ballad, Kinfauns Library.


The Family of Eviot of Balhousie.

This is one of the most ancient families in connection with the history of Perth. Their origin cannot be accurately traced. Before 1214 Richard Eviot witnessed a charter from Walter Ruthven, of Ruthven, to the monks of Scone. In the reign of David II. there was a Richard Eviot, proprietor of Cassendally, in Fife. In 1422 a charter was granted by Murdoch, Duke of Albany, to John Eviot, son and heir of William Eviot, of the lands of Balhousie resigned to the said William. Richard, eldest son of John Eviot, was proprietor of Balhousie from 1448 to 1480 It is recorded:—

Edinr., 10th Decr., 1479. King James III. confirmed the charter of Robert Mercer of Balhousie, by which for a certain sum paid, he had sold and alienated to Richard Eviot, his heirs, &c, the lands of Balhousie in the county of Perth, held by him from the King in trust Witnesses:

William Ruthven of Ruthven,
Andrew Charteris of Cuthilgurdy,
Rob. Donning, Sheriff of Perth,
John Rattray of Moredun.

John Eviot succeeded to the estate in 1484, and got a confirmation of his father's charter in the following terms:

Edinr., 1st Feb., 1490. King James IV. confirmed the charter of Richard Eviot of Balhousie, by which—from filial affection— he conceded to his son John Eviot and his heirs, the lands of the barony of Balhousie and the mills of the same, held by the said Richard Eviot from the King. Witnesses:

William Ruthven of Ruthven—soldier,
Silvester Rattray of Rattray,
John Rattray—son and heir,
Andrew Charteris of Cuthilgurdy,
John Ross of Auchtergaven,
Rob. Mercer of Balleif,
John Rattray of Hyth hill,
Peter de Ballusy,
D. John de Krynmont—Chaplain and notary public.

Stirling, 24th April, 1510. King James IV. conceded to William Lord Ruthven for life and to his son William Ruthven soldier and his heirs, the superiority of the lands of the Feu in the barony of Balhousie which John Eviot of Balhousie resigned—and which the King for good service joined to the barony of Ruthven.

Edinr., 26th July, 1513. King James IV.—because he had directed letters to the provost and bailies of Perth, to distrain Robert Mercer of Balleif for 200 merks due by him to John Eviot of Balhousie—and in defect of movable property, lands, &c, belonging to Robert Mercer within the said burgh, valued at 240 merks and sold to John Eviot—therefore conceded to Eviot and his heirs the land and tenement occupied by Robert Mercer in the Northgate valued at 140 merks—land and tenement under the cross in the said street; with annual dues of 5 merks from land of Gilbert Holmys, valued at 100 merks.

The King desired Robert Mercer and his heirs to have the reversal as soon as the debt is paid.

In 1523 John Eviot was succeeded by William Eviot, and William was succeeded by Patrick (or William) Eviot in 1539, followed by Colin Eviot, who became proprietor in 1567. Balhousie, which had been for many generations in the Eviot family, passed away from them absolutely when this Colin Eviot sold the property, somewhere about 1600 or 1609, to John Mathew. John Mathew thereafter sold it to Andrew Grant, and Grant sold it to Francis Hay, proprietor of KinnoulL The Eviot family evidently at one time were proprietors of Muirton, for in 1448 John Eviot sold the half of Muirton to his eldest son, Richard, but seems to have retained the other half. So late as 1625, Patrick Eviot was proprietor of this property. The Eviots took great interest in local affairs, and all the fenerations seem to have been prominent local men. In 1464 Richard Eviot and William Ruthven made an agreement with the town in connection with the maintenance of Lowswark, and in the. reign of James VI. they were largely interested in the teinds of St John's Church, being proprietors, or Superiors, of a large portion of these. The race evidently became extinct, for all traces of them have long since passed away.

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