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Notable Dates in History

13 July 40
Birth of Julius Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain.  He defeated the Caledonians, under Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius.  The site of the battle has never been acceptably identified.
24 January 76 Birth of Hadrian, Roman Emperor (117-138), at Italica, Spain. He ordered the construction of the wall which bears his name in order ' to keep out the barbarians ' after Roman withdrawal from Scotland. The line of the wall from the Tyne to the Solway lies south of what is now Scotland's border but a few outposts beyond it were retained, including one at Birrens near Ecclefechan. The construction of Hadrian's Wall in 122 was supervised by Aulus Platorious Nepos, Govenor of Roman Britain.
23 August 93 Death of Julius Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain, outside Rome. In 84 he defeated the Caledonians, under Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
8 August 117 Hadrian became Emperor of Rome. The wall which bears his name was constructed, on Hadrian's order, in 122 after Roman withdrawal from Scotland.
10 July 138 Death of Hadrian, Roman Emperor (117-138) in Baiae, Italy. He ordered the construction of the Wall which bears his name, from the Tyne to the Solway, in order 'to keep out the barbarians' after Roman withdrawal from Scotland.
11 April 146 Birth of Roman Emperor Lucius Septimuis Severus (193-211). During his reign the Antonine Wall was briefly re-manned by Roman legionnaires as Severus attempted to ethnically cleanse the Caledonians.
7 March 161 Death of Roman Emperor Antonius Pius (138-161) at Lorium. During his reign the  Antonine Wall was constructed between the Firth of Forth and the mouth of the Clyde – some 37 miles. Constructed in the early 140s the wall was abandoned around 157/158.
4 February 211 Death of Roman Emperor Lucius Septimuis Severus (193-211) at York. During his reign the Antonine Wall was briefly re-manned by Roman Legionairres and his campaign in Scotland in 209 and 210 aimed to ethnically cleanse the Caledonians.
25 October 287 Death of St Crispin, patron saint of shoemakers, whose incorporations celebrated him by processions and pageants in various burghs.
6 December  342 Death of St Nicholas, patron saint of Aberdeen.
17 March 389 The birth of Saint Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, near (it is said) Dumbarton.
7 December 521 Birth in Garton, Ireland, of St Columba whose missionary work in Scotland was conducted from his base on Iona from 563. Missionaries from his island monastery travelled as far afield as Italy, Switzerland and Germany.
10 March 560 St Kessog, Irish missionary in the Lennox and south of Perthshire was killed. His name was once used as a battle-cry in Scotland.
12 May 563 St Columba landed in Iona from Ireland to commence his missionary work in Scotland.
22 March 578 Death of St Finian ( in Welsh Gwynnen ) of Molville in Ulster, evangelist in South-West Scotland with dedications at Kilwinning and Kirkgunzeon.
11 August 590 Death of early Celtic missionary St Blane, who was active in Bute, Lennox and in the Dunblane area.
9 June 597 Death of St Columba in Iona.
13 January 603 Death of St Kentigern (or Mungo), patron saint of Glasgow.
6 March 608 Death of St Balfred, hermit of the Bass Rock.
17 April 616 St Donan, missionary in northern and western Scotland, killed by sea pirates in Eigg.
1 March 625 Death of St Ernan or Ernoc, patron saint of Kilmarnock.
31 August 651
Death of Aidan, a monk of Iona and first bishop of the holy isle of Lindisfarne.
20 January 664 Death of St Fechan, Irish saint, who is commemorated at St Vigeans, Arbroath and Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire.
23 February 664 Death of St Boisel, Prior of Melrose, Confessor.
30 August 670 Death of St Fiacre, probably a Scottish saint, who laboured and died in France. He is the patron saint of gardeners and has a church dedication at St Fitticks', Nigg, Aberdeen.
8 January 678
Death of St Nathalan.
                       'Nathalan is believed to have been born in the northern parts of the Scots, in ancient times, at Tullich, in the diocese of Aberdeen, a man of great sanctity and devotion, who after he had come to man's estate, and had been imbued with the liberal arts, devoted himself and his wholly to divine contemplation.' - Aberdeen Breviary
25 August  683 Death of St Ebba, Abbess of Coldingham and of St Abbs.
20 May 685 Battle of Dunnichen, Angus, resulted in a significant victory for Brude MacBile, King of the Picts, over Ecgfirth, King of Northumbria.
20 March  687 Death of St Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne, who took holy orders after a vision in the Lammermuir Hill
23 September 704 Death of St Adamnan, Abbot of Iona; author of a 'Life' of Columba and a work on the holy places.
28 October 713 Death of St Dorbbene Fota, Abbot of Iona.
1 September 714
Death of St Giles (Aegidius), a Greek saint who evangelised in France, patron saint of Edinburgh and Elgin.
19 January 825 Iona raided for second time by Norsemen.
13 February 858 Death of Kenneth MacAlpin, historically recognised as first "King of Scots", at Forteviot.
29 July 1030 St Olaf, King of Norway, was killed in battle. Several churches in Shetland and Orkney were dedicated to him.
25 November 1034 Death of Malcolm II ( c954-1034 ) victor of the Battle of Carham in 1018 which secured Scotland's southern border.
14 August 1040
MacBeth slew King Duncan I in battle at Bothnagowan, near Elgin, and succeeded him as King of Scots.  During his reign of 17 years he proved to be a very capable king.

15 August 1057

Macbeth, King of Scots, was defeated and killed in battle at Lumphannan with Malcolm, son of King Duncan.

“ ‘That man is noucht born of wiff
Off power to reff me my lif.’
The knycht said: ‘I was nevir born,
Bot of my modyr wayme was schorn.
Now sal this tresson here tak ende,
And til thi fadyr I sal the sende.’
Thus Makbeth thai than
In to the wode of Lunfannan.” 

            Wynton Chronicle VI. Xviii.

8 March 1065 Death of St Duthac, Bishop of Tain.
24 August 1093 Malcolm Canmore, King of Scots, met William Rufus at Gloucester, England, to discuss disputed territory in Cumberland.
13 November 1093 King Malcolm III, known as "Ceanmore" was defeated and killed at the Battle of Alnwick when invading England. He became King of Scots by overthrowing MacBeth in 1057 and his second wife was Margaret of England ( St Margaret ).
16 November 1093 Death of Margaret, Queen of Malcolm III, King of Scots, who was renowned for her religious devotion. She was canonised in 1251.
11 November 1100 King Henry I of England married Matilda, daughter of Malcom Canmore, King of Scots, who was killed with his son at Alnwick in 1093.
8 January 1107 Death of Edgar, King of Scots, fourth son of Malcolm III and Margaret. He was established on the Scottish throne by an English army in 1097. He gave endowments to churches of Durham, Coldingham, Dunfermline and St Andrews.
16 April 1117 Earl Magnus, later St Magnus, was killed on the Orkney island of Egelsay; he was betrayed by his co-Earl Hakon.
23 April 1124 David I, aged about 40, became King of Scots on the death of Alexander I.
1 December 1135 Death of King Henry I of England resulted in David I, King of Scots, backing unsuccessfully, by arms, the claim of his niece, the Empress Matilda, to the English throne. She was by-passed in favour of Stephen, Count of Mortain and Boulogne.
9 June 1138 William Fitz William, son of Duncan II, led the Scots to victory over an English force at the Battle of Clitheroe.
22 August 1138 In the Battle of the Standard a Scottish army led by David I was routed by an English army near Northallerton. David I had entered England on behalf of his niece Matilda in her struggle against Stephen.
9 April 1139 Treaty of Durham was drawn up between David I, King of Scots, and King Stephen of England. David's son was to be granted Northumberland, except for the castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle.
1 November 1140 Abbey of Newbattle in Midlothian was founded for Cistercian monks by David I, King of Scots, colonised from Melrose, and patronised by successive Scottish monarchs. Newbattle became one of the wealthiest of the medieval abbeys of the Lothians.
20 March 1141 Birth of Malcolm IV, The Maiden, King of Scots, eldest of the three sons of Earl Henry (died 1151) the only son of David I. He succeeded his grandfather in 1153 at the age of 12. He died at Jedburgh in 1165 and was succeeded by his much more forceful brother William I, The Lion.
21 May 1150 The Cistercian Abbey of Kinloss was founded by David I, King of Scots. It's stones were later sold to help build the Cromwellian fort at Inverness.
24 May 1153 Death of David I, King of Scots ( 1124 - 1153 ), youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret, at Carlisle. His founding of many religious houses led to him being described as 'A sair sanct for the Crown'.
20 August 1158 St Ronald, Earl of Orkney, was killed. He was canonised in 1192.
9 December 1165 William I, known as William the Lion, became King of Scots, on the death of his 24 year old brother Malcolm IV, The Maiden, at Jedburgh after a rule of only 12 years.
11 July 1173 William the Lion, King of Scots, in the midst of an invasion of Northumberland, England, was captured by a group of Yorkshire knights who emerged in a surprise attack through the fog near Alnwick.
23 May 1174 Election of Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, who was abbot of Melrose and who obtained Glasgow's charter as a burgh and began a new cathedral after a disastrous fire.
29 July 1174 William the Lion, King of Scots, was brought before Henry II, King of England, as a common thief, his legs bound beneath his horse. He had been captured by the English at Alnwick earlier in the month.
8 December 1174 Treaty of Falaise, after William I had been captured by the English, he agreed to accept Henry II as his feudal overlord.
9 August 1176 In the presence of William I, William the Lion, King of Scots, the grassy slopes to the north of the Brothock Burn in Angus were solemnly dedicated as the site of Arbroath Abbey.
30 March 1180 William the Lion, King of Scots ( 1165 - 1214 ), oversaw an Assembly at Haddington which settled a long-standing dispute between the monks of Melrose and Richard de Moreuill.
14 September 1184 King William the Lion confirmed the lands of the monks of Newbattle Abbey following an inspection by leading Scottish civic officers including the Sheriff of Haddington.
13 March 1188 Church in Scotland declared independent of the See of York, England, by Pope Clement III.
5 December 1189 Charter restored the castles of Berwick and Roxburgh to Scotland and ended Scotland's feudal subjection to England dating from Treaty of Falaise (1174).
2 February 1194 Churches of St Andrews and Durham struck a deal signed and sealed in Edinburgh confirming their respective rights in Scotland and England.
25 May 1195 Paisley Priory was granted lands at Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire, along with half a fishery at the mouth of the loch.
4 July 1195 Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, gifted a dozen churches within his diocese to Kelso Abbey, the deal being confirmed at Jedburgh.
17 July 1195 William I, King of Scots, agreed that the Prior of Coldingham should be permitted to move his tenants from the countryside to the town to boost the population.
16 February 1196 Lands at St Andrews was confirmed to the leper hospital of St Nichol by William I, King of Scots. The document was signed at Kinghorn.
10 October 1196 William I, known as The Lion, King of Scots, commanded his bailies in Moray to ensure that all dues owned by parishioners to the local bishop should be paid promptly.
5 February 1200 William I, King of Scots, confirmed a land-grant to a gentleman called John Pratt for the annual rental of a two-year-old sparrowhawk.
23 November 1200 William I, King of Scots, left Lincoln for Scotland after having paid homage to John, King of England, for lands held in England.
10 April 1201 Rutherglen was commanded by William I, King of Scots, to double its three merks annual contribution, to keep the deans and sub-deacons of Glasgow Cathedral in surplices and black copes. 
1 March 1202 William Cumin abandoned a long-running lawsuit against Glasgow Cathedral over disputed ownership of land at Cadder, Lanarkshire.
4 December 1214 Alexander II became King of Scots, aged about sixteen, on the death of his father William the Lion, at Stirling.
11 January 1216 English northern barons paid homage and gave fealty for their lands to Alexander II, King of Scots, in his campaign over the northern English territories, at Melrose Abbey.
21 November 1218 Bull of Pope Horionus III, in face of English claims, affirmed the independence of the Scottish Church.
29 May 1223 An Assembly at Selkirk saw a long-running dispute between the abbeys of Holyrood and Newbattle amicably settled.
14 February 1239 Pope Gregory XI confirmed a charter to the Abbey and monks of Lindores, Fife, allowing them to establish schools in the Dundee area.
17 June 1239
Birth of Edward I, English King (1272 - 1307), in London.  Known as The Hammer of the Scots he invaded Scotland in 1296 forcing the abdication of John Balliol, King of Scots. 
5 October 1240 Birth of Margaret, Queen of Scots, first wife of Alexander III.
4 September 1241 Birth of Alexander III at Roxburgh, last Celtic King of Scots. He succeeded the throne in 1249 on the death of his father, Alexander II. His reign became known as "The Golden Age".
4 August 1244
Treaty of Newcastle was signed between Scotland and England.  The Scots agreed to not enter into alliance with the enemies of England, and the English, for their part, promised not to attack Scotland.
1 April 1245 Death of St Gilbert, last pe-Reformation saint in Scotland to be canonised, Bishop of Caithness and builder of Dornoch Cathedral. 
8 July 1249 King Alexander II died at Kerrera whilst leading his forces in an attempt to win back the Hebrides.  He was succeeded by his son Alexander III.
13 July 1249 Alexander III, King of Scots, crowned at Scone. His reign ( 1249 - 1286 ) became known as "The Golden Age".

 Return to Timeline of Scottish History


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