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In choosing Venison, the fat of that which is good is thick, clear, and bright; the clift part smooth and close. When the venison is perfectly fresh, it is hung in a cool place, and carefully wiped dry every day. When extreme tenderness is required from long keeping, but without its having a high flavour, it is well rubbed over with powdered charcoal.

The Haunch is the prime joint, and when it is required to be roasted, it is first well washed in lukewarm milk and water, and then made quite dry before it is spitted. It is then covered with a sheet of well-butter white paper, over which is laid a coarse paste of flour and water, about a quarter of an inch thick; this is again covered with buttered white paper, and tied on with packthread. A substantial fire being made, the Haunch is put down, and constantly basted with fresh beef dripping, till nearly done, when the paste is taken off, the meat well basted with butter, and lightly dredged with flour, till it froths and becomes of a fine light brown colour. It is served with its own gravy in the dish, if there be enough of it; also a sauce tureen of good brown gravy, and one of currant jelly sauce beat up, and melted with a little port wine and sugar.

A large haunch takes abut four hours to roast.

A Neck and Shoulder, when roasted, is managed in the same way as the Haunch, omitting the paste; but it is more frequently used for soups, pasties, and collops.

Hare. – When fresh, the body is stiff; and if young, the claws are smooth and sharp, the ears tender and easily torn. Hares are kept from a week to a fortnight for roasting; but for soup, they cannot have been to recently killed.

Rabbits are chosen by the same rules as Hares.

Wild Fowl, in general, is chosen by the same rules as tame Poultry. The birds should be plump and fat, and hard in the vent. If the skin comes off when rubbed hard with a finger, they are stale. Old birds improve by keeping for some time; young birds are best if dressed soon; and small birds, of all descriptions, should be immediately dressed. In warm weather, a stopper of charcoal should be put into the vent of all Game, and a string tied tightly round the neck.

To roast Pheasant and Partridges, they are picked, cleaned, and nicely singed; a slit is made in the back part of the neck, and the craw taken out, leaving on the head, the feet twisted closely to the body, the claws cut off, and the head turned under the wing. Both sorts are roasted by the directions for roasting a turkey or a fowl. A Pheasant is served with gravy in the dish; Partridges, with a gravy, fried bread crumbs, or laid upon buttered toast, and melted butter poured round them. Bread sauce is served with both. A Pheasant will require nearly an hour to roast; Partridges half an hour. Guinea and Pea-fowl are roasted in the same way as Pheasants.

To roast Black-Cock, follow the directions for roasting Pheasants and Partridges; it will require an hour, and is served with gravy in the dish, and bread sauce in a sauce tureen, or laid upon buttered toast, and melted butter poured round it.

Moorfowl are roasted in the same manner, and require three quarters of an hour. They may be served upon buttered toast, or with gravy in the dish, and bread sauce in a sauce tureen. It improves Moorfowl and Partridges to put a bit of butter into them, when trussing them for roasting; and sometimes a bit of fresh undressed beef is substituted for the butter, which is taken out before serving.

To restore tainted Game or Poultry, pick it carefully, clean and wash it, then put into each bird a little newly-made charcoal, tied in a bit of muslin. Before serving, take out the bag, which will have a most offensive smell, while the bird will be left perfectly sweet.

To roast a Wild-Duck. – It should be roasted by a quick fire, well basted with butter, and browned. It will require nearly three quarters of an hour, and when to be served, some beef gravy is poured through the Duck into the dish, and in a sauce tureen some hot port wine is served. The carver makes four cuts along the breast; it is then sprinkled with salt and a little cayenne, the juice of half a lemon is squeezed over it, and the port wine is then poured over it.

To roast Wild-Goose, the same directions are followed as for a Wild-Duck, allowing more time to roast it according to the size of the bird.

Widgeons and Teal are dressed in the same manner as the Wild-Duck, and are roasted in ten minutes, and may be served upon fried bread crumbs.

Woodcocks and Snipes are roasted without being drawn; a piece of toasted bread buttered is put under each bird, to catch the trail; they are well basted with butter, and served upon the hot toast over which they were roasted; a rich brown gravy, or melted butter, is poured round them. Woodcocks will require half an hour, Snipes and Quails fifteen or twenty minutes, to roast.

Ortolans and Green Plovers are not drawn, and are roasted and served in the same manner as Woodcocks.

To roast Larks, Wheatears, and other small birds, they are nicely picked, gutted, cleaned, and trussed; brushed over with melted butter, and rolled in grated bread, then spitted on a bird spit, which is fastened upon a larger one. They are basted with butter, and sprinkled with some bread crumbs. The will require nearly fifteen minutes to roast, and are served upon fried bread crumbs, and brown gravy in a sauce tureen.

Wild Pigeons may be roasted, or made into a pie.

Plovers’ Eggs are boiled hard, and served in a napkin, or with green moss put round each in a dish.


Truss them, keeping on their heads, but draw the legs within the body; mix well some salt and pepper with flour and a piece of butter, and put a small bit into each bird; fry them all over of a nice brown in butter. Brown some butter and flour, and add to it some good gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, mace, and two cloves pounded; boil up the sauce, put in the moorfowl, and let them stew very slowly till tender. A little before taking them off the fire, add a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup. If the birds are old, stew them for two hours; if young ones, half that time.

Cold roasted moorfowl are dressed exactly in the same way, only cut into joints, and stewed very gently nearly as long. Half an hour before serving, a small tea-cupful of port wine should be added.


Cut a hare into pieces; put it into a sauce-pan, with half a pint of port wine, the same of good gravy, and a pint of cider, two or three small onions, a quarter of a pound of butter, some salt and pepper. Let it all stew till the hare be quite tender, and the liquor a good deal reduced.


Bone a hare; make a sauce with the bones and a little beef stock, adding sweet herbs, spices, and some port wine; thicken it with browned butter and flour. Stuff the hare with forcemeat, or with equal quantities of minced mutton and suet, all seasoned; put it into the boiling sauce, and let it stew two hours. Place the hare on a dish, and strain the sauce over it.


When the hare is skinned and cleaned, lay it into cold water for three or four hours, changing the water several times; then rub it well with a little salt, and wash it thoroughly; dry it well. Make a stuffing of the raw liver minced, by no means parboiled, grated bread crumbs, twice the quantity of chopped fat bacon, and a bit of butter; season with grated nutmeg, lemon thyme, lemon-peel, pepper, and salt; an anchovy may be added; bind with a beaten egg, put it into the hare, sew it up, and truss is properly. Put into the dripping-pan warm salt and water; baste the hare well till all the blood be out of it, pour away the water, and put in a quart of milk, with which it must be constantly basted till it be nearly done; then baste and froth it with butter. Serve with gravy, and, in a sauce-tureen, currant jelly sauce.


Cut it into small pieces; heat it thoroughly in highly seasoned gravy, adding, with the stuffing, a tea-spoonful of vinegar, and a glass of port wine. The legs may be scored, seasoned with pepper and salt, rubbed with cold butter, and broiled. They may be served with the hash, or on a separate dish.


Cut off all the meat, in small pieces; make a strong gravy with the bones of the hare, a bunch of sweet herbs, and two onions; strain it, and put in the hare, with two table-spoonfuls of port wine, two or three thin bits of bacon, a little salt, mace, and a clove pounded. Cover it closely, and let it stew two hours, and if the gravy is much reduced, add a little more.


After a hare has hung a week, prepare it as for roasting, and take out all the bones of the body, leaving the head whole. Make a stuffing as before directed; lay it over the inside of the hare, roll it up, sew it, and fasten it with packthread; roll it into a cloth, and boil it in two quarts of water an hour and a half. When the liquor is reduced to a quart, add a pint of port wine, and of lemon pickle and mushroom catsup, a table-spoonful each, also a tea-spoonful of browning; thicken it with flour and butter, and stir it till reduced a little. Serve with forcemeat balls, morels, and mushrooms; make the ears lie back upon the roll, and garnish with barberries and curled parsley.


These are dressed in the same manner as mince collops of beef, only that, in place of the seasoning of the collops of beef, they have a little Jamaica pepper, salt, and some port wine.


For a gravy, boil a part of the bone and trimmings of the cold haunch in a little water; season with a few peppercorns and some salt; strain and thicken it with a bit of butter rolled in flour; add a glass of port wine, and a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup, and one of currant jelly. When hot, add the venison cut into thin slices, heat it thoroughly, and serve with sippets of toasted bread.


Wash it well, dry, and cut it into pieces; dredge them with flour, fry them in butter, and stew them in rich beef or mutton stock; when cold, take off all the fat, and simmer till thoroughly heated.


Cut the neck into chops or cutlets; season with pepper and salt, and broil them; serve them with currant jelly sauce, and with or without a rich gravy.


Truss the partridges as fowls are done for boiling; pound the livers with double the quantity of fat bacon and bread crumbs boiled in milk; add some chopped parsley, thyme, shallots, and mushrooms; season with pepper, salt, grated lemon-peel, and mace. Stuff the inside of the birds, tie them at both ends, and put them into a stew-pan lined with slices of bacon; add a quart of good stock, half a pint of white wine, two onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a few blades of mace; let them stew gently till tender; take them out, strain and thicken the sauce with flour and butter, make it hot, and pour it over the partridges.


Truss them as for roasting; stuff the craws with forcemeat; lard down each side of the breast; roll a lump of butter in pepper and salt, and beaten mace; put it into the inside of each bird, and sew it up; dredge them with flour, and fry them of a light brown in butter; put them into a stew-pan, with a quart of good gravy, half a tea-cupful of white wine or a table-beer, the same of mushroom catsup, a dessert-spoonful of lemon pickle, half a tea-spoonful of mushroom powder. Cover the pan closely, and let them stew half an hour; take them out, and thicken the gravy with a little flour mixed in water; boil it up, and pour it upon the partridges. Garnish the dish with forcemeat balls and hard-boiled yolks of eggs.


Truss the birds as for roasting; rub them slightly with garlic; put over each breast a piece of bacon, and into the inside a bit of butter the size of a walnut, dusted with flour, and seasoned with pepper, salt, and thyme; half roast, and then stew them with some good gravy, a bit of lean ham or bacon, one spoonful of white wine, the same of mushroom catsup and of lemon pickle, a little cayenne, one anchovy, and one shallot. Have ready boiled the hearts of some cabbages, put them into the stew-pan, and stew them altogether till the partridges be sufficiently tender. Before serving, take out the ham.


Truss them for roasting, and stuff them with the liver minced raw, grated bread, and ham, butter or suet, and chopped parsley, seasoned with a little lemon thyme, grated nutmeg, salt and pepper, and bound with an egg beaten. Sew them up, and roast them before a quick fire, and baste them with butter. Serve them with gravy, or melted butter with lemon pickle in it. Two will take an hour to roast. They may be larded with bacon.

They may also be fricasseed or fried, cut into joints, with plenty of fried parsley, and served with a sauce made of the liver and some parsley chopped, and mixed in melted butter, with a little pepper and salt; or made into a pie the same as chickens.


After being thoroughly cleaned and dried, cut the rabbits into joints; stew them with a quarter of a pound of butter, a large onion minced, some whole pepper, mace and salt, a slice or two of lean ham or pickled pork, a bunch of sweet herbs, and add water sufficient to cover them; when nearly done, take out the herbs, pepper, and ham; and thicken the gravy with the beaten yolks of four eggs. A little cream and some mushrooms may be added.


Wash and clean the rabbits well; let them lie for two or three hours in cold water, cut them into joints, wash and dry them in a cloth, dust them with flour, and fry them of a light brown with butter, and stew them in the following sauce: - Brown three ounces of butter in a stew-pan, with a table-spoonful of flour, a minced onion, some pepper and salt; add a pint of gravy and the rabbits, stew them till they are tender, and a little before serving, stir in a table-spoonful of catsup.

When it is wished to dress them with a white sauce, the rabbits are not fried, but stewed in white stock, which is seasoned with white pepper and salt, and thickened with a piece of butter mixed with flour. A few minutes before serving, a little cream is added, and a table-spoonful of lemon pickle.


Prepare them as before directed, and truss them; thicken a sufficient quantity of white stock, in which boil them with a piece of butter mixed with flour; season it with salt and pepper, and when it boils, put in the rabbits with plenty of onions cut in quarters. Let them stew till they are tender. Serve them with the onions put all over the rabbits.


Pick six or eight snipes very nicely, but do not wash them; take out the inside. Roast the birds, and cut off all the meat from the breasts, in thin slices; pound the bones, legs, and backs in a mortar, and pour them into a stew-pan, with the juice of a lemon, a little flour, and some well-seasoned gravy; boil it till it be thick, and well flavoured with the gravy, then strain it. Cut half a pound of ham into thin long slices, and heat it in a little butter, with two minced shallots; put it, with the breasts of the snipes, into the strained sauce, and let it boil. Pound the inside or trail, with a little salt, spread it over thin bits of toasted bread, and hold it over a hot salamander. Put the ragout upon this, and place the ham round it.

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