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A cask which has not contained vinegar before, should have a quart of boiling hot vinegar poured into it, shaken till cold, and allowed to stand for some hours.


To five gallons of water, put eight pounds of coarse brown sugar; let it boil as long as any scum rises, which must be carefully removed; then pour it into a cask, and when it is about milk-warm, or from 60 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit, cut off the crust, and toast a quarter of a slice of bread, and cover it over with the fresh yeast; put it into the cask, leave it open for four or five days, and then paste over the bung-hole a piece of paper, and pierce it here and there with a pin. It should be kept in a warm, dry place, without being moved; and if made in March or April, it may be drawn off and bottled in September, when it may be boiled a quarter of a minutes to prevent the mother from forming in the bottles, and it will keep good for years, though it should not be kept from the contact of the air, or in vessels entirely filled.

The vinegar cask, as soon as emptied, should be again filled in the same manner.


Gather yellow gooseberries when quite ripe; crush and mash them well in a tub with a large wooden pestle; to every two gallons of gooseberries, after being mashed, put two of water; mix them well together; let it work for three weeks, stirring the mass two or three times each day; then strain the liquor through a hair-sieve, and put to every gallon one pound of brown sugar, one pound of treacle, and a table-spoonful of fresh yeast; let it work for three or four days in the same tub, which has been well washed; then run it into iron-hooped casks. Let it stand twelve months, and bottle it for use. This is a very strong vinegar.


Bruise to a mash any kind of gooseberries, when quite ripe, and mix thoroughly with a gallon of the mash three of cold boiled water; let it stand twenty-four hours, strain it through a cloth, and to each gallon of the liquor, put one pound of brown sugar; mix it well, and when quite dissolved, put it into a cask. It must stand nine or ten months before being bottled.

Currants, or any other fruit of which wine is made, may be substituted for gooseberries.


Boil six gallons of water, and add, while it is hot, four quarts of molasses; put it into a tub to cool; when milk-warm, stir in a pint of fresh yeast; put it into the cask, and set it by the fire for twenty-four hours; then put it in the sun, with a bottle in the bung-hole. Bottle it three months afterwards.


Pare ten large cucumbers; cut them into thin slices, pour over them a quart of vinegar; add a clove of garlic, and one or two shallots, a tea-spoonful of ground white pepper, and one of salt; let it stand for ten or twelve days; strain and bottle it; put a little whole pepper into the mouth of each bottle, and cork it tightly. The flavour of the cucumbers may be very well preserved, by simply steeping them in vinegar.


Cut small one ounce and a half of garlic, bruise one nutmeg and three cloves, steep them in a quart of vinegar for a week, shaking it daily; then strain and bottle it.

Shallot vinegar is made in the same manner.


Put the following ingredients into two quarts of strong vinegar: - three table-spoonfuls of Indian soy, and the same quantity of mushroom catsup, six anchovies, two heads of garlic, a quarter of an ounce of cayenne, and as much cochineal as will colour it; shake it two or three times a day for a fortnight, then filter, and bottle it for use. Two tea-spoonfuls of this vinegar improves salad sauce, fish and sauce also, and is good in most made dishes.


Fill a quart bottle with the flowers of elder, or the leaves of tarragon, when it is in flower; pour vinegar upon them, and let them infuse for a fortnight; then strain it through a flannel bag, and put it into small bottles.

By the same means, vinegar may be flavoured with the fresh-gathered leaves of any sweet herb.


On the raisins from which ten gallons of wine has been made, five gallons of nearly boiling water is poured, the dregs or lees, and stalks, are added; it is then covered up, and stirred occasionally. When the taste is completely extracted from the fruit, it is squeezed, and the vinegar strained and put into a cask, in which it should remain nine or ten months.


Half a pound of honey must be put to a pint of water, and the honey well dissolved. This mixture is then exposed to the greatest heat of the sun, without closing wholly the bung-hole of the cask, which must be merely covered with coarse linen, to prevent the admission of insects. In about six weeks, the liquor becomes acid, and changes to a very strong vinegar, and of excellent quality.



Pickles ought to be stored in a dry place, and the vessels most approved of for keeping them in, are wide-mouthed glass bottles, or strong stoneware jars, having corks or bungs, which must be fitted in with linen, and covered with bladder or leather; and for taking the pickles out and returning them to the jar, a small wooden spoon is kept. The strongest vinegar is used for pickling; that of white wine is more particularly recommended, but sugar vinegar will generally be found sufficiently strong.

It is essential to the excellence and beauty of pickles, that they be always completely covered with vinegar.


Gather, upon a dry day, some small cucumbers or gherkins; lay them into cold salt and water for four days, with a cabbage leaf laid over to keep them down; drain them, and put them into a perfectly clean brass pan, with vine or cabbage leaves in the bottom, and cover them with vinegar and water half and half, strewing a little pounded alum, and putting more leaves over them; let the water get scalding hot; take off the pan; when nearly cold, make it again hot, and repeat this as frequently as possible through the day. With fresh leaves, and the same liquor, put them into a basin to stand all night; the next morning, with fresh leaves under and over, and the same liquor, heat them twice, and then drain them; and if for six or eight dozen, put them into the pan with half a pint of vinegar, and water sufficient to cover them, and some salt; scald them as before, and put them off and on the fire till they are a good green; drain, and pour over them boiling water; let them lie a short time in this, and put them into wide-mouthed bottles or stone jars, have ready vinegar boiled up with bruised nutmeg half an ounce, of ginger, black peppercorns, and whole allspice, one ounce each to a quart; pour it upon the gherkins while hot; cover them till cold, and tie them down with bladders. French beans done in this way are beautiful, and answer well pickled with the gherkins, and kept together. Nasturtium buds or imitation capers may be done after this receipt.

There is no method adopted which produces so fine a green in pickles, as the use of a brass pan; but where it is objected to, they may be done by the following receipts.


Make a pickle of salt and water strong enough to bear an egg, carefully skimming it while boiling; when cold, put in gherkins or French beans, or whatever is to be pickled, and let them stand at the side of the fire for three days; pour off the brine, wipe them dry, and put them into a stone jar. In another stone jar, boil, upon a hot plate, or in a water bath, as much strong vinegar as will cover the pickles; pour it over them, and cover them with fresh-gathered vine or cabbage leaves; place a cloth or plate over the jar, and let it stand by the side of the fire.

Next day pour off the vinegar, boil it as before, and pour it over the pickles, and cover them with fresh leaves; and if they are not a good green colour, repeat the same process a third time. Then put them into wide-mouthed glass bottles, or into strong stoneware jars; boil vinegar, together with spices, in the following proportions: - Bruised nutmeg half an ounce, black peppercorns, whole allspice, and ginger, one ounce each to a quart; pour it hot over the pickles, cover them, and when cold, close the bottles or jars with a bung and tie over them bladder or leather.


Cut a long narrow piece out of the sides of large Turkey cucumbers, scoop out the seeds, and with a part of them mix some mustard seed, shred garlic, and grated horse-radish; stuff the space as full as it will admit of, and replace the piece which was cut off; bind them with a thread; put over them hot vinegar three successive days, and boil with it the last times black pepper, flour of mustard, and some salt; put them into jars, and pour over them the boiling vinegar, and when cold, cover them closely.


Cut full-grown cucumbers into slices about a quarter of an inch thick, and slice some onions thin; then lay them into a dish together, and strew salt over them; cover them with another dish, and let them remain for twenty-four hours. Put them into a colander to drain, then into a large jar, and pour over them boiled vinegar three successive days; the last time of boiling the vinegar, add white pepper and ginger, pour it over them hot, and closely cover them when cold.


Gather them for pickling when the head of a pin will pierce them easily; run a large needle through them here and there, or score them on one side with a knife; lay them into a brine of salt and water for twelve days, changing the brine twice in the that time; strain, and put them into a jar, and sprinkle a little salt over them. Boil four quarts of vinegar for a hundred walnuts, allowing to each quart one ounce of whole black pepper, and one of ginger, half an ounce each of whole black pepper, and one of ginger, half an ounce each of sliced nutmeg and whole allspice, a table-spoonful of mustard seed, and one of scraped horse-radish, one head of garlic, or a small onion; pour it boiling hot over the walnuts, and put a plate on the jar; when cold, tie it closely down. After the walnuts are used, the liquor may be boiled, strained, and bottled, to use as a pickle.


Gather the nuts before the inside shell is hard, which may be known by trying them with a pin; lay them into salt and water nine days, changing the liquor every three days; then take them out, and dry them in the air on a sieve or mat; they should not touch each other, and they should be turned that every side may become black alike; then put them into a jar. When half the nuts are in, put in an onion, with about one hundred walnuts allow half a pint of mustard seed, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of black peppercorns, and six bay leaves; boil all the spice in some good common vinegar, and pour it boiling upon the nuts, observing that they are entirely covered; stop the mouth of the jar with a cloth, and when cold, cover it with bladder or leather. In about six weeks they will be fit for use, when they should be examined, and if they have absorbed the vinegar so much as to leave any of the nuts dry, more should be added, but it need not be boiled.


When green walnuts are fit for pickling, take a quart of the expressed juice, to which add one pint of vinegar; let it stand four days, then mix with it two large table-spoonfuls of salt; boil it till nearly half wasted; tie in a piece of muslin the following ingredients: - The peel of a bitter orange, a small head of garlic separated, a quarter of an ounce of each of finely-beaten mace, nutmeg, and cloves; put it into the bottom of a jar, and pour upon it the boiling liquor. Cover it closely, let it stand for a month, then strain and bottle it.


Slice a hundred full-grown walnuts without shelling them; then beat them in a mortar, put them into a jar, with half a pound of shallots sliced, two heads of garlic, one pound of salt, and two quarts of vinegar; let it stand a week, stirring two or three times each day. Strain, and put the liquor into a sauce-pan, with a pint of port wine, two ounces of anchovies, and two of black pepper, half an ounce of cloves, and the same of mace; let it boil for half an hour, skim it well, run it through a jelly-bag, and when quite cold, put it into small bottles; cork them closely, and seal them; keep them in a dry place. It will keep for years, and is used as a fish sauce. It may be made without the wine.


Cut off the stalks from the broad flat mushrooms; peel, and break them into small bits; strew salt equally over them, allowing a large table-spoonful to every quart of the pulp. Let them stand twenty-four hours; put all into a sauce-pan, and let it boil gently for three quarters of an hour; strain, and let it stand to settle. The next day pour off the clear part, and to every pint of the liquor add half the quantity of pour wine or old strong beer, a few blades of mace, twelve black peppercorns, and the same allspice, a piece of ginger bruised, and eight cloves. Simmer it for nearly twenty minutes, pour it out, and when cold, bottle it with the spices equally divided.


Having cut out the stalks, and the worm-eaten parts, of the mushrooms, break them small, and strew over them some salt; let them stand twenty-four hours. Strain off the liquor, and to a quart put the well-beaten whites of two or three eggs; boil it, and run it through a flannel bag; then boil it for about ten minutes with a little salt, three quarters of an ounce of black, and a quarter of an ounce of Jamaica pepper. When cold, bottle it with the spices, and seal the corks.


Peel the mushrooms, break them into bits, and strew salt over them; let them stand one night only, warm them on the fire, and then strain the liquor; boil it about five minutes, and skim it well. Add to each quart half an ounce of ginger, one blade of mace, six cloves, quarter of an ounce of black pepper, and half an ounce of allspice, and let the whole boil a quarter of an hour. Bottle it when quite cold.


When tomatas are very ripe, slice them, and put a layer into a jar; sprinkle salt over it, and lay in another layer; do this till the jar is full; stir them now and then for three days, and let the jar stand in a warm place; they must then remain for twelve days without being stirred, and a thick scum having gathered over them, squeeze the juice from the tomatas, and boil it with the same proportion of spice that is allowed for mushroom catsup; when cold, bottle it, and seal the corks. In three months, strain and boil it again with fresh spice. It will then keep good a twelvemonth.


Boil one hundred oysters with their liquor, till the strength be extracted from them; strain them well, and add to the liquor an equal quantity of wine, one half port and the other sherry, also a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of white pepper and of allspice, a drachm or tea-spoonful of ginger, and six anchovies; boil all together about fifteen minutes. Put into a jar twelve shallots, the peel of a lemon, and a piece of horse-radish cut small; pour upon them the boiling liquor, and when cold, bottle it, together with the spices.


Strip and fill a jar with ripe elder-berries; add as much vinegar as the jar will contain, put it into a cool oven, and let is stand all night. Run the liquor through a jelly-bag, and to every pint put two ounces of anchovies, one of shallots; of clovers, mace, nutmeg, and ginger, a drachm or tea-spoonful each; boil it till the anchovies are dissolved. When cold, strain and bottle it.


Cut into quarters, and pick out all the seeds of six middling-sized lemons; put them into a jar, strew over them two ounces of well-beaten bay salt; cover the jar with a cloth and plate, and let it stand three days; then put to them six cloves, and a quarter of an ounce of mace, beaten fine, one ounce of garlic or shallot, two of mustard-seed bruised, and one nutmeg sliced. Make a quart of vinegar boiling hot, and pour it over the ingredients; cover the jar, and in three or four days close it with a bung, and tie leather over it. It will be fit for use in a week, and is an improvement to most sauces, and particularly to fish sauce. 


Grate off a little of the outer rind of two dozens of lemons; divide them into four rather more than half way down, leaving the bottom part whole; rub on them equally half a pound of finely-beaten bay salt, spread them upon a large dish, and put them into a cool oven. When the juice has dried up, put them into a stone jar, with an ounce of nutmeg cut into thin slices, a quarter of an ounce of cayenne, and four ounces of garlic peeled, also half a pint of white mustard-seed bruised and tied in a bit of muslin. Pour over the whole two quarts of boiling vinegar, stop the jar closely, and let it stand for three months; then strain it through a hair-sieve, pressing it well through; let it stand till the next day, pour off the clear, and put it into small bottles. Let the dregs stand covered some days, when it will become fine. It will keep good for years. When the lemons are to be used as a pickle, no straining is necessary.


Cut neatly into small pieces one large head of cauliflower, two of cabbage, six good-sized carrots, and a quart of French beans; put salt over them, and let them stand for twenty-four hours; drain them upon sieves for the same length of time, and lay them upon cloths to dry for twelve days in the sun, or near the fire; then mix with them a quart of small onions, and a quarter of a pound of garlic and allow them all to dry for two days longer. Put the whole into a large jar, with of white mustard-seed and turmeric two ounces each, one ounce of white ginger, and two table-spoonfuls of currie-powder; fill up the jar with boiling vinegar, cover it closely, and let it stand near the fire, or in a warm place, for a few days, when the pickle will be ready for use. If it be too thick, add more boiling water.


Boil twelve eggs for twelve minutes; dip them into cold water, and take off the shells; boil a quart of vinegar for a quarter of an hour, with half an ounce each of black and Jamaica pepper, and ginger, also some slices of beet-root; put in the eggs to boil for eight or ten minutes, then put them into a jar with a slice of beet-root laid on each, and cover them with the vinegar and spices. They will be fit for use in four days, and are served in the following manner: - Place two or three in a dish, and put round them one or two cut into slices, then garnish with curled parsley.


Cut off the stalks, and wash clean, in cold water, some small button mushrooms; rub them with a bit of flannel, then throw them into fresh water, and when perfectly clean, put them into a sauce-pan with fresh cold water, and let them boil eight or ten minutes; strain off the water, lay them into the folds of a cloth. Boil, in a quart of vinegar, a quarter of an ounce of white pepper, the same of allspice, and two of three blades of mace, and a tea-spoonful of salt; put the mushrooms into a jar, and when the vinegar is cold, pour it, with the spices, over them.


Clean them nicely, put them into a jar, cover them with vinegar, add a little salt, white pepper, and allspice; boil them in a water bath, or upon a hot plate, till the mushrooms are tender. Before bottling, put in a few shallots; cover them closely when cold.


Wash it perfectly clean, but do not cut off any of the fibres; put it on in plenty of boiling water with a little salt, and boil it for half an hour; if the skin will come off easily, it is done enough. Lay it upon a cloth, and with a coarse one rub off the skin. Cut it into slices, put it into a jar, and pour over it vinegar which has become cold, after having been boiled in the proportion of half an ounce of whole black pepper and a race of ginger to a quart. Cover the jar closely when cold.


Take off the outer skin of some small white onions; let them lie in salt and water for a week, changing it daily; then put them into a jar, and pour over them boiling salt and water; cover them closely, drain off the pickle when cold. Put the onions into wide-mouthed bottles, and fill them up with strong vinegar, putting in a little sliced ginger; cork the bottles closely.


Choose some of the small silver onions; put them on in cold water, and when it is scalding hot, take them out with an egg slice; peel off the skins till they look white and clear; lay them into the folds of a cloth. Boil, in a quart of vinegar, half an ounce of white pepper, a quarter of an ounce of allspice, the same of garlic, and one sliced nutmeg; put the onions into a jar, and pour over them the boiling vinegar and spices. When cold, tie leather over the jar.


Peel some small onions, and steep them in salt and water for two days, changing the water two or three times; then drain them, and, when perfectly dry, put them into small jars, and pour over them, when cold, white wine vinegar which has been boiled with some whole black pepper and a few cloves.


Boil, in two quarts of vinegar, a quarter of a pound of salt, two ounces of shallots or garlic, and two of ginger, one ounce of white pepper, one of yellow mustard-seed, and a quarter of an ounce of cayenne; put into a jar that will hold four quarts, two ounces of allspice, and pour on it the hot pickle. When cold, put in any fresh-gathered vegetables or fruit, such as asparagus, cauliflower, French beans, radish pods, unripe apples, gooseberries, currants, which may be added as the opportunity offers; and, as the pickle wastes, it should be replenished with the same mixture.


Choose two middling-sized, well-coloured, and firm red cabbages; shred them very finely, first pulling off the outside leaves; mix with them nearly half a pound of salt, tie it up in a thin cloth, and let it hang for twelve hours; then put it into small jars, and pour over it cold vinegar that has been boiled with a few barberries in it; tie the jar over closely with bladder; or boil, in a quart of vinegar, three bits of ginger, half an ounce of black and Jamaica pepper, and a quarter of an ounce of cloves. When cold, pour it over the red cabbage.


Boil the bruised berries of a few bunches in salt and water; strain, and put a gill of the liquor to a quart of vinegar, with an ounce of salt, a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, a quarter of an ounce of pounded ginger, and a little sliced horse-radish; boil and strain it, then pour it hot over the barberries, the finest bunches having been previously selected and placed in jars; when cold, cover them closely with bladder. They may also be kept in a jar, with a strong brine of salt and water poured over them. When any scum is observed upon the surface, the brine must be poured off, and some fresh added. They are kept closely covered.


Place the capsicums in a jar; boil a dessert-spoonful of salt in a quart of vinegar, and pour it, while hot, upon the peppers; when cold, place a plate on the jar, and tie over it bladder or leather. They will be fit for use in a few weeks.


Cut the capsicums open the long way; take out the seeds and fill them with mustard seed, whole shallots, and a little scraped horse-radish; sew them up, and pour over them white wine vinegar, which has been boiled, and allowed to stand till cold. Put a few bits of horse-radish into the jar, and tie it over with bladder and paper.


Scrape and wash a pound of white ginger; cut it into thin slices, and put it into salt and water for one night; then lay it upon a dish, strew salt over it, and let it stand till the rest of the ingredients are ready. Cut into bits a pound of garlic, let it stand till all the rest of the ingredients are ready. Cut into bits a pound of garlic, let it lie for three days in salt; wash, drain, and dry it upon a sieve before the fire, or in the sun. Boil, for a quarter of an hour, in some salt and water, some summer cabbages; cut them into quarters, drain them, and strew on them some finely-minced fresh beef suet; let them lie for twelve hours, then pull them into small bits, and dry them under glasses in the sun, so that no dust can get to them; turn them constantly for three days, and if not quite dry, put them before the fire, they should be like parchment. Boil, in salt and water, cauliflower, celery, French beans, and sliced Horse-radish; pull the cauliflower into bits, and cut the celery into pieces an inch long; dry them in the sun, or by the fire. Finely bruise a quarter of a pound mustard-seed and an ounce of turmeric; add with it a pound of long pepper, and the same of allspice, to a quart of the strongest vinegar; boil it, and add three quarters of common vinegar; pour it, when boiling hot, upon all the dried vegetables placed in a jar. In three weeks, if the vinegar be much wasted, fill it up with more. The jar may be added to, every year; and the pickles keep good any length of time.


Boil the artichokes till the leaves can be pulled off without breaking the bottom; leave on the part called the choke, set them aside till cold, then put them into wide-mouthed bottles. Boil, in vinegar, some salt, white pepper, mace, and sliced nutmeg, and, when cold, pour it over the artichokes; tie bladder over the bottles.


Put any quantity of the outside shells or green rinds of ripe walnuts into a tub in which there is a tap-hole; sprinkle them with water, raise the tub on one side, that it may stand in a sloping direction, place another vessel under it to receive the juice as it drops from the tap-hole; this it will soon begin to do; and, when a sufficient quantity has been obtained, to one gallon of this black liquor add two large table-spoonfuls of salt, one large onion, a stick of horse-radish, a bunch of sweet herbs, two bay leaves, a quarter of an ounce of black pepper, the same of allspice and of bruised ginger. Boil it slowly for twenty minutes; strain it, and, when cold, stir it and bottle it for use, putting the spice into the bottles.

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