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CHAPTER XVIII - Domestic Wines


All wines are reducible to four general divisions, of dry and strong; sweet; light and flavoured; and brisk. When a dry wine is desired, the liquor is suffered to remain in the vat for three, four, or more days, according to circumstances; and a cask is provided for it sufficiently large to prevent the yeast from escaping at the bung-hole. To make a sweet wine, the fermentation must be discouraged by speedily removing it from the vat to the cask, which is carefully filled as the fluid subsides, and by frequent racking or sulfuring, or by both. To produce a light-flavoured wine, similar to Burgundy, the fluid is allowed to remain from six to twenty hours in the vat; and, for wines to resemble Champagne, it is necessary the juice should remain in the vat but a few hours. Where small quantities are operated upon, the fermentation may be begun in the cask, the mask or mash being previously strained; for in no case should solid matter be introduced into the cask. The wine is strongest when the fermentation has been partially carried on in close vessels; and the flavour is also better preserved. To have a wine resembling Champagne, a partially close mode of fermentation is adopted. For rich and strong sweet wines, the whole fermentation may be carried on openly; but, in all cases, it seems a useful practice to cover the vat with boards and blankets. The fermentation is much sooner completed in a large than in a small vessel. The sweeter and thicker juices require to be treated on a larger scale than the thinner ones. It is easy to make lemon wine in a cask of two gallons; but it is very difficult task to operate on so small a quantity of thick and sweet raisin wine. The most favourable temperature for fermentation is about 54 degrees of Fahrenheit. When it languishes from cold, a portion of the fluid may be heated to a high degree of temperature, and mixed with the mass. The sweetest wines are most durable, and are improved by keeping; the thinnest and briskest ought to be drunk comparatively new. Boiling the fruit tends to make the wine sweet; and white sugar should always be used in preference to brown. The introduction of brandy neither prevents wine from turning sour, nor does it add to its durability, while it increases the expense, and diminishes its salubrity; but, for those who cannot overcome their prejudice in favour of established practices, it may be observed, that brandy will be least injurious when added before the fermentation is completed, in the proportion of a quart to every ten gallons.

The necessity of making the vats and casks clean requires to be particularly inculcated on the makers of domestic wines. The taste communicated by new casks is not usually thought unpleasant; where it is so, first rinsing with hot salt and water, and afterwards with more hot water, will remove it. Old and musty casks should be unheaded and scraped, then cleaned as before directed; and lastly, rinsed with a portion of the fermenting liquor made boiling hot. In removing the wine from the vat to the casks, it is requisite that the vat should be tapped at such a distance from the bottom, as to allow the wine to flow clear off the sediment which may have collected at the lower part of the vessel, by which means the scum may be easily prevented from running into the receiver. If the wine is not disengaged from the solid matters, straining will be further necessary. The skins are sometimes fermented with the juice in the vat, but they must in no case be introduced into the cask. To clarify the wine completely, prepared fining may be used in the proportion of a wine-glassful to every five gallons of liquor; also isinglass or whites of eggs; half an ounce of isinglass, or nine eggs, is sufficient for fifty gallons of wine; whichever of these is employed, it is first diluted in a portion of the wine, and then strongly agitated with the whole. In about ten days, when the wine has become clear, it is again drawn off. Instead of the common method of sulphuring, the sulphate of potash is to be preferred, which may be used in the proportion of a drachm to a pipe of liquor, or the oxymuriate of potash, which is more easily procured. Dry, cold weather ought to be selected for racking.

Various kinds of wine, not to be distinguished from those of foreign growth, can in this country be made from grapes, and at a moderate expense: their being ripe is not a necessary circumstance; they may be used in any state, however immature, the quantity of sugar being proportionally increased. Where the vine is largely cultivated, the thinnings may be used, as various kinds of grapes, and of different degrees of ripeness, may be mixed together. In situations where the vine may not produce even unripe fruit, the tendrils and leaves may be used, as they possess properties similar to the green fruit; the leaves of the claret vine produce wine of a delicate red colour.

Yeast should never be employed in making wine from native fruits. The deficiency of tartar in them, which in the grape promotes fermentation, may be supplied by the addition of cream of tartar, or, what is still better, crude tartar. Should the fermentation be slow, or appear as if it would not occur at all, no impatience need be felt on the subject: it will not finally be less effectual, because it has been more tedious. Attention to the temperature will commonly be sufficient. The cask may also be frequently stirred, or the filling up of the cask omitted, so that the scum, or head, may be compelled to remain in the liquor.


The fruit must be selected when about full grown, but before it has shown the least tendency to ripen; those gooseberries which have the least flavour when ripe are to be preferred, and perhaps the green bath are the best; the smallest should be separated by a sieve, the unsound or bruised fruit rejected, and the remains of the blossoms and fruit-stalks rubbed off, or otherwise removed. For a cask of ten gallons, forty pounds of such fruit are to be put into a tub that has been carefully cleaned, and that will hold fifteen or twenty gallons; it is to be bruised in successive proportions, by a pressure sufficient to burst the berries without breaking the seeds, or materially compressing the skins. Four gallons of water are then to be poured into the vessel, and the contents are to be carefully stirred, and squeezed in the hand, until the whole of the juice and pulp are separated from the seeds and skins; the materials are then to remain at rest from six to twenty-four hours, when they are to be strained through a coarse bag by as much force as can conveniently be applied to them; one gallon of fresh water may afterwards be passed through the mash.

Thirty pounds of loaf sugar are now to be dissolved in the juice thus procured, and water added, to make the whole eleven gallons in quantity; this, together with three ounces of tartar in its crude state, being put into a tub, a blanket is thrown over it, which is again covered with a board, and the vessel placed in a temperature varying from 55° to 60° of Fahrenheit; here it may remain for twenty-four hours, or two days, as the fermentation may be more or less rapid; from this tub it is to be drawn off into the cask in which it is to ferment; and, as the fermentation proceeds, the superfluous portion of juice made for the purpose, must be poured in, so as to keep the liquor still near the bung-hole for ten or twelve days, or until the fermentation becomes a little languid, as may be known by the diminution of the hissing noise; the bung is to be driven in, and a hole bored by its side, into which a wooden peg is to be fitted; it may be loosened every two or three days, for the space of eight or ten days, to give the air vent, so as to prevent the cask from bursting. When there appears no longer any danger, the spike may be permanently tightened.

The wine thus made may remain over the winter in a cool cellar. If the operator is not inclined to bestow any farther labour or expence upon it, it may be examined in some clear cold day towards the end of February or beginning of March, when, if fine, as it will sometimes be, it may be bottled without farther precaution. To ensure its fineness, however, it is a better practice to rack it, towards the end of December, into a fresh cask, so as to clear it from its first lees; or should it then prove too sweet, instead of racking it, the fermentation may be renewed by stirring up the lees, or by rolling the cask. At whatever time it is racked, it should be fined in the usual way with isinglass. Sometimes it is found expedient to rack it a second time, and to repeat the fining; and, in any case, bottle it during the month of March.

If it is wished to have a very sweet wine, as well as a brisk wine, the quantity of sugar may be increased to forty pounds; and to ensure briskness, without excessive sweetness, the proportion of fruit may be fifty pounds when the sugar is thirty. If there should appear any danger of the sweetness vanishing altogether from wine thus formed, the fermentation may be checked by racking and fining, when it will be speedily fit for use.


This fruit is perhaps better calculated for brisk wines than the gooseberry; greater care must be taken in separating the stalks, but otherwise the mash is more easily managed. By working the juice and solid matter together in the vat along with the sugar, the wine will prove stronger, and less sweet, but is will acquire more flavour. When the skins are not to be fermented with liquid, it may be introduced at once into the cask, without being previously fermented in the vat, and in all cases strained before it is put into the cask. The same proportions are allowed for this wine as for gooseberry wine, and the same rules may be followed.


The fruit is gathered when quite ripe, and the stalks being carefully picked out, it is bruised in the hands, and then strained through a canvass bag; to a ten-gallon cask, forty pounds of fruit, thirty of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tartar are allowed; the material having remained some hours in the tub in which it was mixed, it is removed to the cask, the bung-hole covered with a tile, and the cask is stirred every other day, for ten days, and filled up every day as the fluid wastes. The fermentation may continue from three to six weeks; when it has subsided, the wine is racked into a cask in which matches, dipped in sulphur, have been burned, or in which a little of the suphate of potash, or of oxymuriate of potash, has been put. I should be again racked and fined in March, when the wine is completed, and may be bottled, or allowed to remain in the cask.


May be made by the same rule, excluding carefully from it all the husks.


The same variety of proportions are allowed in this as in the others already mentioned. The fruit being picked, it is brought to the boiling point in as much water as to avoid any risk of burning; it may then be strained and put into the cask, or the liquid and skins may, with the other ingredients, be first fermented in the vat or tub, by which the wine will acquire a higher colour and flavour.


From either of these fruits agreeable wine may be obtained, by following the rules given for making currant wine; but is will be found a cheaper and a better method, to add a little sirup or juice of the fruit of any flavourless currant wine. When the fermentation begins to decline, currant wine may also be flavoured with odoriferous flowers, such as cowslip, elder, or mignionette. The quantity of these, or of the flowers, is put into the cask when the first fermentation is over, and as soon as the wine has acquired the desired flavour, it is racked and fined. The flavouring articles, such as orris-root, cloves, ginger, sweet and bitter almonds, are put into a muslin bag, and hung in the cask for a few days, during the stage of insensible fermentation, that is, after the first fermentation has ceased, care being taken to taste the liquor frequently, so that the flavouring matter may be withdrawn as soon as it has produced the desired effect.


Can be made to produce excellent wine, allowing to a ten-gallon cask forty pounds of fruit, forty pound of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tartar. When elderberry wine is desired for a warm cordial, it is made in the following manner: - Twenty-five pounds of fruit are to be boiled for an hour, in eleven gallons of water, and along with it, tied in a piece of linen, one ounce of allspice, and two of ginger; forty pounds of sugar being put into a tub, the boiling liquor is strained over it, pressing the fruit quite dry; a quarter of a pound of crude tartar, or cream of tartar, is then added to the liquid. When is has stood two days in the tub, it may be removed to the cask, treated, as for sweet wine, in the usual manner, and bottled in March following. When to be drunk, a portion of it is heated with some sugar, two or three cloves, and a little nutmeg.


The three varieties of currant may be used in the largest proportion, and being nicely picked from the stalks, they are allowed just to boil in as much water as to prevent their burning; of raspberries, strawberries, and cherries – black-heart are the best – equal quantities may be allowed; they are masked with a little water; gooseberries may be used to advantage, but must be prepared separately by more powerful bruising, in an equal quantity of water, and straining through a canvass bag, the other fruits being also strained; to each gallon of juice thus obtained, four pounds of loaf sugar and half an ounce of crude tartar are allowed; when the material has stood some hours in the tub in which it was mixed, it is removed to the cask, and managed as currant wine.


The proportions and treatment are exactly the same as those laid down for the gooseberry, only that the husks may always be fermented in the vat with the fluid, and also the stems when young; with the exception of the seeds, there is no objection to bruising the solid matters.


The leaves are best when young; at farthest they should not be full grown, and must be plucked with their stems; the tendrils are equally useful; they may be taken from vines from which no fruit is expected, or from the summer prunings; when tainted with soot, they must be carefully washed. Forty or fifty pounds of such leaves being put into a tub, seven or eight gallons of boiling water are to be poured on them, in which they are to infuse for twenty-four hours; the liquor being poured off, the leaves must be pressed in a press of considerable power; and being then washed with an additional gallon of water, they are again to be pressed. Thirty pounds of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tartar, are now to be added to the mixed liquor, and the quantity being made up to seven gallons, the process recommended in the case of gooseberries is to be followed; or that for ripe currants, if a sweet wine is desired.


To every gallon of water, eight pounds of good raisins, and half an ounce of tartar, are allowed; the raisins being picked, they are to be put, together with the tartar, into a tub, which should be covered; the mash must be stirred every day till the sweetness has gone off, and the fruit has fallen a little, which may be in a month or six weeks; it is then to be strained, the raisins pressed to dryness, and the liquid put into the cask; no filling up is necessary, and the bung-hole is only to be so covered as to keep out the dust. When the wine has given over hissing, it is to be bunged down till the spring, when it is to be carefully fined and racked into a sulphured cask, and bottled, after being once more carefully fined.


For a ten-gallon cask, fifty pounds of Malaga, and twenty-five of Smyrna raisins, ten pounds of loaf sugar, and a quarter of a pound of crude tartar, are allowed. The raisins being separated from each other, and the strong stalks picked out, they are to be put, together with the other ingredients, into a vat, and thirteen gallons of cold spring water are to be poured over them; the whole is then to be well stirred, and the vat covered; it must be stirred twice a-day during the first fortnight, and afterwards once a-day. When the fermentation has become very strong, and the liquor acquires a vinous smell and taste, which may be in three or four weeks, it is to be prepared for the cask in the following manner: - A sieve or a drainer, such as is used for sowens in Scotland, is to be put over a tub; in this the raisins are to be squeezed very hard with the hand; all the liquor is then to be run through a hair-sieve, and put into the cask, and the remainder into bottles, from which the cask must be filled up twice a-day for a week; then once a-day, and less frequently as the fermentation begins to decline; when it is completed, the cask is to be bunged up, and allowed to stand for four months. Excellent vinegar may be made from the refuse.


To twenty-eight gallons of water, one hundred and twelve pounds of Malaga, and twenty-eight pounds of Smyrna raisins, are allowed; the stalks being picked out, they are to be chopped very small, and with the water, and one pound of crude tartar, put into a tub, in which they are allowed to remain for a fortnight. The raisins are then to be squeezed to dryness, and the liquor strained, put into a cask, and treated as wine from ripe currants.


For a ten-gallon cask, ninety bitter oranges are to be pared very thin, and the juice squeezed from them, which, with six gallons of water and twenty-eight pounds of sugar, is put into the cask; half the peel may be steeped in two gallons of water for twelve hours, and the water poured into the cask; they are again to be steeped in the remaining quantity of water, with which the cask is to be filled up; it must be stirred every day till the sugar is dissolved, and bunged up when the fermentation ceases. In two months it may be racked and fined, and in three months more bottled.

Those who think brandy necessary, may add a bottle at the end of the first two months.

The wine will be more generally agreeable if the peel be altogether omitted.


To every gallon of water, four pounds of sugar, and the juice of ten lemons, are allowed; the lemons are to be pared very thin, and half the peel being put into a tub, the sugar and water are boiled and poured over it; when cold, the juice is added; if the fermentation does not begin in the course of a few days, it is to be promoted by the addition of a toast of bread covered with yeast; the peel is then taken out, and the liquor put into the cask, which must be bunged up when the fermentation ceases.

In this, as in orange wine, the peel may be omitted.


Thirty pounds of sugar are to be boiled half an hour with ten gallons of water, and well skimmed; when milk-warm, five gallons of new ale, from the vat, are added to it, and it is allowed to ferment two days in a tub; it is them put into the cask, with one pound of sugar candy pounded, and four pounds of raisins of the sun chopped. When the fermentation ceases, it is racked and fined.

It may be bottled at the end of six or twelve months.


To five gallons of water, eight pounds of parsnips, and fifteen pounds of sugar, are allowed; the parsnips, being well cleaned, and cut into slices, are to be boiled in the whole or in a portion of the water; when quite soft, they are to be taken out and mashed, then returned to the water they were boiled in, and being well stirred, are put through a hair-sieve; the sugar is then to be added to the strained liquor, and the quantity made up with boiled water; when nearly cold, it is to be put into the cask with two spoonfuls of yeast, and three ounces of crude tartar, and stirred every day till the fermentation subsides, which may be in ten days or a fortnight; it is then bunged up, and may be racked and fined in three or six months, and bottled in six months more.


To every gallon of juice from the birch-tree, three pounds of sugar, one pound of raisins, half an ounce of crude tartar, and one ounce of almonds, are allowed; the juice, sugar, and raisins, are to be boiled twenty minutes, and then put into a tub, together with the tartar; and when it has fermented some days, it is to be strained, and put into the cask, and also the almonds, which must be tied in a muslin bag. The fermentation having ceased, the almonds are to be withdrawn, and the cask bunged up, to stand about five months, when it may be fined and bottled.


To eight gallons of water, twelve pounds of sugar, three pounds of bitter oranges, five pounds of lemons, and thirteen ounces of ginger, are allowed; the sugar and the ginger, bruised, are to be boiled with the water half an hour, and allowed to stand till next day; the fruit is to be pared very thin, and the strained juice, and half the peel, put into a cask with two gallons and a half of good whisky, or other spirit; when it has stood a night, the clear part of the boiled liquid is to be poured over it, the sediment being kept back; it does not ferment, and therefore it is not necessary that the cask should be full; it is immediately bunged up, and in a fortnight it must be fined, and in another fortnight it may be bottled. To improve the colour, a table-spoonful of burnt sugar may be added when the cask is filled up, first diluting it with a portion of the liquor.


Sixteen pounds of brown sugar, and the well-beaten whites of six eggs, are to be stirred into six gallons of water, and put on the fire to boil; the scum having well risen, it is to be taken clear off, and six ounces of the best white ginger, cut small, are to be added; it is then to be boiled for three quarters of an hour, and well scummed; when it has become milk-warm, it is to be put into a wooden vessel, together with a tea-cupful of fresh yeast, and also the juice of six lemons, and the same of Seville oranges, made into a sirup. When it has fermented for three days, it is to be put into the cask, with two bottles of brandy or four whisky; the fermentation being over, it is bunged up, but not very tight at first. It may be fined in eight or ten weeks, and bottled, or allowed to stand in the cask nine or ten months.


For a ten-gallon cask, three gallons of spirits, whisky, or rum, one gallon of the juice of Seville oranges, half a gallon of lemon juice, twenty pounds of loaf sugar, one pound and a half of best white ginger bruised, and half an ounce of isinglass, are allowed; the cask is to be filled up with cold boiled water, and in six weeks it may be bottled.


To ten gallons of water, fourteen pounds of brown sugar, a pound and a half of ginger, three gallons of whisky, the juice of three dozen lemons, and three dozen bitter oranges, and six rinds of each fruit, are allowed; the sugar and water is to be boiled, stirring it frequently, and skimming it; the ginger is to be boiled separately, in a small quantity of water, and strained; the rinds are to be steeped in the spirits all night, and the boiled liquid being cold, the whole is to be put into the cask, together with two drops of isinglass. In six weeks it may be bottled.


To one gallon of water allow three pounds of honey; boil the mixture for a quarter of an hour; skim it, and when nearly cold, pour it gently into a cask, in which crude tartar has been put in the proportion of an ounce to the gallon.

As the fermentation may be long continued, a large portion of the liquid must be reserved for filling up the cask; it is put into bottles, which are closed with muslin or coarse linen. To excite fermentation, expose the cask to the influence of the sun, or put it into the corner of a chimney in which a constant fire is kept. In about seven or eight days, the liquor emits a thick and dirty froth; the barrel must then be filled up from the bottles, and when the fermentation ceases, the cask must be bunged up, and placed in the cellar. It may be bottled in twelve months. It is sometimes flavoured with flowers, or with the juice of fruits.


For a ten-gallon cask, allow twenty pounds of honey, and fourteen gallons of water; boil and skim it; then add one ounce of cinnamon, one ounce of cardamoms, one and a half ounce of Jamaica pepper, two ounces of ginger, a quarter of an ounce of coriander seed, two large pieces of orris-root, and a few shavings of isinglass; boil these ingredients for about half an hour, and when the mixture has cooled, stir in a wine-glassful of yeast; next day pour it through a cloth into the cask, and allow it to ferment for about ten days; in a fortnight more it may be bottled, and the corks sealed. A variety of this mead may be made by adding a gallon of cranberry juice to the boiled honey and water, and substituting two ounces of cloves for the coriander and cardamom seeds.


One part of honey is dissolved in three parts of water, and boiled over a moderate fire till it is reduced to two-thirds of the quantity. It is then skimmed, and put into a barrel which must be quite full; it is allowed to subside for three or four days, and then drawn off for use.

To make it from the combs from which honey has been drained, they are to be beaten in warm water, and after the liquor has subsided, it is to be strained.

The cottagers in Scotland make an excellent beer by adding a little yeast to the strained liquor, and allowing it to ferment for a few days in a cask, and then bottling it.


A quarter of a pound of sweet, and one ounce and a half of bitter almonds, are to be blanched, and thrown into cold water, then beaten in a marble mortar, and moistened occasionally with a spoonful of milk, to prevent their oiling; three pints of milk are then to be mixed gradually with them, and after being sweetened, boiled, stirred till cold, and strained, a glass of wine or brandy is to be added.


One pound of Jordan almonds are to be finely pounded, together with a little orange-flower water; two quarts of spring water being added by degrees, it is to be sweetened with double-refined sugar, strained through a napkin, and put into quart bottles, which should be iced. It must be made the day on which it is to be used.


The proportions are three quarts of the best brandy, six pounds of Morella cherries, and a pound and a half of finely pounded white or brown sugar candy; the cherries and sugar are to be put in layers into a large-mouthed bottle or jar, which, when nearly full, is to be filled up with brandy, and closely corked.


Twelve pounds of Morella, and six pounds of common cherries, are to be baked, the juice pressed out, and the stones pounded in a marble mortar; the whole to be again mixed and sweetened with two pounds of sugar candy, six quarts of brandy being added, which, with the fruit, will make three gallons, it is to be put into a large glass bottle, and shaken frequently in the course of three months. After which, it may be strained through a jelly-bag, and bottled for use.


The stalks are to be cut short, the cherries pricked with a needle, and some sugar strewed over them. A sufficient quantity of sirup to cover them being made, they are to be scalded in it on the fire, and put away till next day, when they are again to be scalded, and put into a jar; the sirup is then to be boiled till very thick, and if the quantity is not sufficient, more sugar may be added; when boiled enough, it is to be poured into the jar, with an equal quantity of brandy.


One measure of lemon juice is allowed to five of rum, and to every gallon of the mixture, six pounds of loaf sugar, which is to be melted in water, and the whole strained through flannel.


To one part of lemon juice, three of Seville orange are allowed, and to every pint of juice, a pound and a half of very finely pounded loaf sugar; these being well mixed, it is put into a cask, and one quart of the best rum added to each pint of the juice; the whole to be shaken three times a-day for a fortnight, or longer, if the cask be large. It is then allowed to stand to fine for a month, or till it be sufficiently clear to bottle.

The dregs may be made into excellent milk punch, by pouring warm, but not boiling, milk on them, allowing three parts of milk to one of dregs; after being well mixed, it is allowed to stand for three days, when the clear part may be drawn off, and the thick run through a jelly-bag.


The rind of the lemons or oranges being grated off, they are to be squeezed, and two pounds of finely-pounded loaf sugar are to be added to every pint of the strained juice; when the sugar is quite dissolved, two pints of rum are allowed to every pint of sirup; the whole is to be well mixed in a cask, and allowed to stand five or six weeks, and then drawn off.


The currants are to be bruised and put into a bag to drip; three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar are to be dissolved in two quarts of juice, and a quart of rum being added, it is to be bottled for use.


Eight pounds of brown sugar is to be made into a sirup, with one quart of water, and when cold, put into a jar with two gallons of best whisky, or silent spirit, the strained juice of seven pounds of lemons and three pounds of Seville oranges, and one pint of the best porter. To be well shaken every day for a week, and then allowed to stand to fine for five weeks, when it may be bottled.


Three quarts of brandy being put into an earthen jar that is fitted with a cover, a pound and three quarters of fine loaf sugar, the thin parings of six lemons, and the juice of twelve, are to be added; one quart of boiling milk is to be poured over the mixture, which must be stirred daily for eight days; it is then to be run through a jelly-bag, and bottled.


Eight lemons and eight-four Seville oranges being selected, the two clearest lemons are to be rubbed over with loaf sugar, and the rinds scraped off into a gallon of spring water; the fruit is then to be squeezed into a sieve placed over the vessel containing the water, the liquid sweetened with double-refined sugar, and run through a jelly-bag. It is them to be put into bottles, which may be cooled, by laying ice on the necks.


The peel of fourteen lemons having been soaked in two quarts of water for two hours, their juice, one pound and a half of sugar, and a quart of white wine, are to be added; a quart of new milk, made boiling hot, is then to be mixed with it, and when it has stood an hour, it is to be strained through a jelly-bag till it runs clear.


The proportion of oranges should be double that of lemons; the fruit being selected free from decay, and wiped dry, they are to be squeezed, and the juice strained through a sieve into an earthen pan; to each pint, according to the acidity of the fruit, a pound and a half, or a pound and three quarters, of double-refined sugar, broken small, is to be added. It must be stirred and skimmed daily, till the sugar is well incorporated, or as long as the scum rises; and when it has been a month in the pan, it may be bottled.


The thin parings of six lemons, and of six oranges, are to be steeped in a gallon of brandy for twenty-four hours, the vessel containing it being closely covered; three pounds of single-refined sugar are to be clarified with the white of an egg, in a gallon of spring water, and boiled for a quarter of an hour, skimmed, and allowed to stand till cold. The brandy is then to be strained from the parings, and with the strained juice of eighteen oranges and eighteen lemons, added to the boiled sirup, and put into a vessel sufficiently large to contain the whole. It must be closely covered, and when it has stood six weeks, it may be bottled.


The rinds of nine lemons are to be steeped, for eighteen hours, in two quarts of brandy, then mixed with the strained juice of the lemons, one and a half pound of sugar, five pints of water, and one grated nutmeg; one quart of new milk, made boiling hot, being added, it is to be strained through a jelly-bag.


In twenty quarts of brandy, the peel of thirty Seville oranges, and thirty-six lemons, are to be infused for twelve hours; thirty quarts of water and fifteen pounds of double-refined sugar are to be boiled, and when cold, the strained juice of the oranges and lemons is to be added to it; it is them to be put into a cask, together with the brandy, strained from the peel; a quart of boiling milk being poured into the cask, it is to be bunged up, and allowed to stand till it become fine, before being bottled. It will be the better for remaining a year in the cask.


Eight pounds of refined sugar are to be dissolved in the strained juice of three dozen lemons, and, when quite settled, two gallons of brandy, and two gallons and a half of cold water, are to be added, and also the lemon-peel; one gallon of boiling milk being then poured over the ingredients, they are to stand closely covered for twenty-four hours; when, being skimmed, and run through a very thick jelly-bag, it may be quickly bottled, and will be fit for immediate use; but it improves by keeping.


One gallon of brandy, three hundred kernels of apricots, the juice and very thin parings of eight lemons, and half an ounce of saffron; when these ingredients have stood a fortnight, they are to be strained, and one pound of white sugar candy dissolved in half a pint of water, added to the liquor.


Five hundred peach kernels are to be steeped in one gallon of pale brandy, together with two quarts of frontignac, one pint of orange-flower water, and one pound and three quarters of double-refined sugar. It must be shaken daily for six weeks, and then put through a jelly-bag till clear.


To each orange, one quart of strong spirits, and one pound and a quarter of loaf sugar are allowed; six or eight cloves are to be stuck into each orange, which, with the spirits and sugar, is to be put into a jar. It must be closely covered, and stirred occasionally in the course of two months; it is then to be filtered through blotting paper, and bottled for use.

Lemon liqueur is made in the same way, substituting lemons for oranges. Instead of mixing the sugar with the other materials in the jar, it may be made into a sirup, and added to the strained or filtered spirits. This, though more troublesome, will be found a better method.


The rinds of three large lemons, half a pound of pounded loaf sugar, one ounce of bitter almonds, blanched and pounded, are to be mixed into a quart of the best Hollands, three table-spoonfuls of boiling milk being added. It is to be put into a bottle or jar, and shaken every day for three weeks, and then filtered through chamois leather or blotting paper, when it will be fit for use.


Peaches and nectarines, in equal quantities, are to be bruised, the stones broken, and the kernels blanched and bruised; they are then to be put into a jar in layers, one of fruit, one of kernels, and one of pounded loaf sugar, and so on until the jar is full; as much white brandy is then to be added as the jar will hold; and when it has stood for five or six months, it is to be filtered, and bottled for use.


One pound of bitter almonds, blanched, is to be steeped three months in four quarts of large-still proof whisky, or pale brandy; four pounds of loaf sugar are then to be clarified, and added to the strained or filtered spirits, together with half a pint of pure honey.

It is sometimes coloured with a little cochineal; and may also be made, allowing three parts of sweet, and one of bitter almonds.


Three ounces of peach kernels, or of bitter almonds, blanched and pounded, are to be mixed with one quart of brandy, and allowed to stand for three days; when one pound of finely-pounded and sifted sugar candy is to be added; the whole well shaken, and to stand two days, then strained through a jelly-bag.


The best capillaire is that of North America. Put one ounce of it into a small quantity of boiling water, to infuse like tea; add a pound of sugar to the infusion; clarify it with the white of an egg, and boil it to a thick sirup; strain it through a cloth, and when cold, put in a little orange-flower water, and bottle it. That which is commonly sold as capillaire in England, is simply sirup flavoured with orange-flower water.


The full blossoms of the white thorn are to be picked dry and clean from the leaves and stalks, and as much put into a large bottle as it will hold lightly without pressing it down; it is then to be filled up with French brandy, and allowed to stand two or three months, when it must be decanted off, and sweetened with clarified sugar, or with capillaire. Without the sweetening, it is an excellent seasoning for puddings and custards.


An ounce of oil of cinnamon is to be dropped on two pounds and a half of bruised loaf sugar; one gallon of the best whisky being added, and the sugar being dissolved, it is to be filtered and bottled.

A liqueur may be made with any other essential oil, such as caraway.


To one ounce of cream of tartar, two ounces of ginger, one lemon cut into slices, and two pounds of loaf sugar, two gallons of boiling water are added; when almost cold, two table-spoonfuls of yeast are stirred in. It may be bottled next day, and will be fit for drinking the day after it is bottled.


Two ounces of cream of tartar, the juice and parings of two lemons, and a few cloves, are put into a jar, and six quarts of boiling water added; it is sweetened with loaf sugar, covered, and allowed to stand till the following day, when a quart of rum is added; it is then strained, bottled, and tightly corked.


Roast four good-sized bitter oranges till they are of a pale brown colour; lay them in a tureen, and put over them half a pound of pounded loaf sugar, and three glasses of claret; place the cover on the tureen, and let stand till next day. When required for use, put the tureen into a pan of boiling water, press the oranges with a spoon, and run the juice through a sieve; then boil the remainder of the bottle of claret, taking care that it do not burn; add it to the strained juice, and serve it warm in glasses.


Wash a small fore-quarter of veal, put it on the fire with nine pints of water; skim it well, and let it boil till reduced to two pints; run it through a sieve, and when cold, add to it a pint and a half of clear lemon juice, and two pounds of loaf sugar which has been made into a sirup with a pint and a half of water, and cleared with the white of an egg. It is served in glass mugs, for a dessert table, or offered at any other time as a refreshment.


Eleven gallons of water and ten pounds of brown sugar are to be clarified with the whites of twelve eggs, carefully skimmed, and boiled till nearly reduced to ten gallons; two pounds and a half of the yellow flower of lemon balk being put into a cask, the liquor, when milk-warm, it to be poured over it, and four or five table-spoonfuls of thick yeast added. The cask must be filled up morning and evening with what works over it, and bunged up when the fermentation ceases; in a month the beer may be bottled, and in two or three months it will be fit for drinking. Half the quantity of the flower of lemon balm will probably be found to communicate a flavour sufficiently strong, if added when the fermentation is nearly over.


One ounce of cream of tartar, one ounce of Epsom salts, twelve ounces of loaf sugar, the juice of two lemons, and the peel of one – put the whole into a large jug, and pour over it three pints of boiling water; cover it till cold; skim it, and pour the clear part into a decanter; and take two large wine-glassfuls every day.


Tartaric acid, half an ounce, aërated soda, half an ounce. Have two tumblers about one-third full of water; put thirty grains of soda into one glass, and twenty-five grains of the acid into the other; when dissolved, mix them together, and drink it immediately.

The two sorts of salts must be kept in separate bottles, and should be bought ready powdered.


Carbonate of soda, forty-five grains, tartaric acid, thirty grains; put each powder with a quarter of a pint of cold water into separate tumblers, and mix them well; then pour the one containing the soda into that which has the acid in it, and drink it while if effervesces. Some persons prefer the citric to the tartaric acid, and a smaller quantity of it will suffice. For those who are delicate, or in very cold weather, a small quantity of brandy, or of white wine, may be added; and the water may be used in a tepid state. As a tonic, the carbonate of soda may be taken first, and the acid mixture instantaneously afterwards, by which means a powerful and salutary effervescence is produced in the stomach.


When ten gallons of water, six pounds of treacle, and three ounces of bruised ginger, have boiled together for half an hour, two pounds of the outer sprigs of the spruce fir are to be added, and boiled for five minutes; the whole is then to be strained through a hair-sieve, and when milk-warm, put into the cask, and a tea-cupful of good yeast stirred well into it. When it has fermented a day or two, it is to be bunged up, and the following day bottled. It will be fit for use in a week.

The ginger is sometimes omitted, and instead of the spruce fir, three ounces of the essence may be used, which is to be well whisked, together with the treacle, and a gallon or two of warm water; then put into the cask, which is to be filled up with water, and the yeast added.


The proportions are ten gallons of water, three quarts of treacle, a tea-cupful of ginger, the same of allspice, three ounces of hops, three ounces and a half of the essence of spruce, and half a pint of good yeast. The hops, ginger, and allspice, must be boiled together till the hops fall to the bottom; the treacle and spruce are then to be dissolved in a bucketful of the liquor, the whole strained into a cask, and the yeast well stirred in; when the fermentation ceases, the cask is to be bunged up.


Two gallons of water being boiled, and allowed to cool; one pound of raisins, two pounds of loaf sugar, the juice of three lemons, and their peel cut thin, are added; after being stirred daily for four days, it is run through a jelly-bag and bottled; in ten days, or a fortnight more, it will be fit for use, and will be found excellent in warm weather. The corks should be tied down.


For a ten-gallon cask, eleven gallons of water, fourteen pounds of sugar, the juice of eighteen lemons, and one pound of ginger, are allowed; the sugar and water are boiled with the whites of eight eggs, and well skimmed; just before coming to the boiling point, the ginger, which must be bruised, is then added, and boiled for twenty minutes; when cold, the clear part is put into the cask, together with the lemon juice and two spoonfuls of yeast; when it has fermented for three or four days, it is fined, bunged up, and in a fortnight bottled. It may be made without the fruit.


A gallon of boiling water is poured over three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar, one ounce and a quarter of sliced ginger, and the peel of one lemon; when milk-warm, the juice of the lemon and a spoonful of yeast are added. It should be made in the evening, and bottled next morning in half-pint stone bottles, and the cork tied down with twine.

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