PREPARATORY REMARKS UPON DOMESTIC WINES.
are reducible to four general divisions, of dry and strong; sweet; light
and flavoured; and brisk. When a dry wine is desired, the liquor is
suffered to remain in the vat for three, four, or more days, according to
circumstances; and a cask is provided for it sufficiently large to prevent
the yeast from escaping at the bung-hole. To make a sweet wine, the
fermentation must be discouraged by speedily removing it from the vat to
the cask, which is carefully filled as the fluid subsides, and by frequent
racking or sulfuring, or by both. To produce a light-flavoured wine,
similar to Burgundy, the fluid is allowed to remain from six to twenty
hours in the vat; and, for wines to resemble Champagne, it is necessary
the juice should remain in the vat but a few hours. Where small quantities
are operated upon, the fermentation may be begun in the cask, the mask or
mash being previously strained; for in no case should solid matter be
introduced into the cask. The wine is strongest when the fermentation has
been partially carried on in close vessels; and the flavour is also better
preserved. To have a wine resembling Champagne, a partially close mode of
fermentation is adopted. For rich and strong sweet wines, the whole
fermentation may be carried on openly; but, in all cases, it seems a
useful practice to cover the vat with boards and blankets. The
fermentation is much sooner completed in a large than in a small vessel.
The sweeter and thicker juices require to be treated on a larger scale
than the thinner ones. It is easy to make lemon wine in a cask of two
gallons; but it is very difficult task to operate on so small a quantity
of thick and sweet raisin wine. The most favourable temperature for
fermentation is about 54 degrees of Fahrenheit. When it languishes from
cold, a portion of the fluid may be heated to a high degree of
temperature, and mixed with the mass. The sweetest wines are most durable,
and are improved by keeping; the thinnest and briskest ought to be drunk
comparatively new. Boiling the fruit tends to make the wine sweet; and
white sugar should always be used in preference to brown. The introduction
of brandy neither prevents wine from turning sour, nor does it add to its
durability, while it increases the expense, and diminishes its salubrity;
but, for those who cannot overcome their prejudice in favour of
established practices, it may be observed, that brandy will be least
injurious when added before the fermentation is completed, in the
proportion of a quart to every ten gallons.
necessity of making the vats and casks clean requires to be particularly
inculcated on the makers of domestic wines. The taste communicated by new
casks is not usually thought unpleasant; where it is so, first rinsing
with hot salt and water, and afterwards with more hot water, will remove
it. Old and musty casks should be unheaded and scraped, then cleaned as
before directed; and lastly, rinsed with a portion of the fermenting
liquor made boiling hot. In removing the wine from the vat to the casks,
it is requisite that the vat should be tapped at such a distance from the
bottom, as to allow the wine to flow clear off the sediment which may have
collected at the lower part of the vessel, by which means the scum may be
easily prevented from running into the receiver. If the wine is not
disengaged from the solid matters, straining will be further necessary.
The skins are sometimes fermented with the juice in the vat, but they must
in no case be introduced into the cask. To clarify the wine completely,
prepared fining may be used in the proportion of a wine-glassful to every
five gallons of liquor; also isinglass or whites of eggs; half an ounce of
isinglass, or nine eggs, is sufficient for fifty gallons of wine;
whichever of these is employed, it is first diluted in a portion of the
wine, and then strongly agitated with the whole. In about ten days, when
the wine has become clear, it is again drawn off. Instead of the common
method of sulphuring, the sulphate of potash is to be preferred, which may
be used in the proportion of a drachm to a pipe of liquor, or the
oxymuriate of potash, which is more easily procured. Dry, cold weather
ought to be selected for racking.
kinds of wine, not to be distinguished from those of foreign growth, can
in this country be made from grapes, and at a moderate expense: their
being ripe is not a necessary circumstance; they may be used in any state,
however immature, the quantity of sugar being proportionally increased.
Where the vine is largely cultivated, the thinnings may be used, as
various kinds of grapes, and of different degrees of ripeness, may be
mixed together. In situations where the vine may not produce even unripe
fruit, the tendrils and leaves may be used, as they possess properties
similar to the green fruit; the leaves of the claret vine produce wine of
a delicate red colour.
should never be employed in making wine from native fruits. The deficiency
of tartar in them, which in the grape promotes fermentation, may be
supplied by the addition of cream of tartar, or, what is still better,
crude tartar. Should the fermentation be slow, or appear as if it would
not occur at all, no impatience need be felt on the subject: it will not
finally be less effectual, because it has been more tedious. Attention to
the temperature will commonly be sufficient. The cask may also be
frequently stirred, or the filling up of the cask omitted, so that the
scum, or head, may be compelled to remain in the liquor.
GOOSEBERRY WINE TO RESEMBLE CHAMPAGNE.
must be selected when about full grown, but before it has shown the least
tendency to ripen; those gooseberries which have the least flavour when
ripe are to be preferred, and perhaps the green bath are the best; the
smallest should be separated by a sieve, the unsound or bruised fruit
rejected, and the remains of the blossoms and fruit-stalks rubbed off, or
otherwise removed. For a cask of ten gallons, forty pounds of such fruit
are to be put into a tub that has been carefully cleaned, and that will
hold fifteen or twenty gallons; it is to be bruised in successive
proportions, by a pressure sufficient to burst the berries without
breaking the seeds, or materially compressing the skins. Four gallons of
water are then to be poured into the vessel, and the contents are to be
carefully stirred, and squeezed in the hand, until the whole of the juice
and pulp are separated from the seeds and skins; the materials are then to
remain at rest from six to twenty-four hours, when they are to be strained
through a coarse bag by as much force as can conveniently be applied to
them; one gallon of fresh water may afterwards be passed through the mash.
pounds of loaf sugar are now to be dissolved in the juice thus procured,
and water added, to make the whole eleven gallons in quantity; this,
together with three ounces of tartar in its crude state, being put into a
tub, a blanket is thrown over it, which is again covered with a board, and
the vessel placed in a temperature varying from 55° to 60° of Fahrenheit;
here it may remain for twenty-four hours, or two days, as the fermentation
may be more or less rapid; from this tub it is to be drawn off into the
cask in which it is to ferment; and, as the fermentation proceeds, the
superfluous portion of juice made for the purpose, must be poured in, so
as to keep the liquor still near the bung-hole for ten or twelve days, or
until the fermentation becomes a little languid, as may be known by the
diminution of the hissing noise; the bung is to be driven in, and a hole
bored by its side, into which a wooden peg is to be fitted; it may be
loosened every two or three days, for the space of eight or ten days, to
give the air vent, so as to prevent the cask from bursting. When there
appears no longer any danger, the spike may be permanently tightened.
thus made may remain over the winter in a cool cellar. If the operator is
not inclined to bestow any farther labour or expence upon it, it may be
examined in some clear cold day towards the end of February or beginning
of March, when, if fine, as it will sometimes be, it may be bottled
without farther precaution. To ensure its fineness, however, it is a
better practice to rack it, towards the end of December, into a fresh
cask, so as to clear it from its first lees; or should it then prove too
sweet, instead of racking it, the fermentation may be renewed by stirring
up the lees, or by rolling the cask. At whatever time it is racked, it
should be fined in the usual way with isinglass. Sometimes it is found
expedient to rack it a second time, and to repeat the fining; and, in any
case, bottle it during the month of March.
If it is
wished to have a very sweet wine, as well as a brisk wine, the quantity of
sugar may be increased to forty pounds; and to ensure briskness, without
excessive sweetness, the proportion of fruit may be fifty pounds when the
sugar is thirty. If there should appear any danger of the sweetness
vanishing altogether from wine thus formed, the fermentation may be
checked by racking and fining, when it will be speedily fit for use.
FROM UNRIPE CURRANTS.
fruit is perhaps better calculated for brisk wines than the gooseberry;
greater care must be taken in separating the stalks, but otherwise the
mash is more easily managed. By working the juice and solid matter
together in the vat along with the sugar, the wine will prove stronger,
and less sweet, but is will acquire more flavour. When the skins are not
to be fermented with liquid, it may be introduced at once into the cask,
without being previously fermented in the vat, and in all cases strained
before it is put into the cask. The same proportions are allowed for this
wine as for gooseberry wine, and the same rules may be followed.
WINE FROM RIPE CURRANTS.
is gathered when quite ripe, and the stalks being carefully picked out, it
is bruised in the hands, and then strained through a canvass bag; to a
ten-gallon cask, forty pounds of fruit, thirty of sugar, and a quarter of
a pound of tartar are allowed; the material having remained some hours in
the tub in which it was mixed, it is removed to the cask, the bung-hole
covered with a tile, and the cask is stirred every other day, for ten
days, and filled up every day as the fluid wastes. The fermentation may
continue from three to six weeks; when it has subsided, the wine is racked
into a cask in which matches, dipped in sulphur, have been burned, or in
which a little of the suphate of potash, or of oxymuriate of potash, has
been put. I should be again racked and fined in March, when the wine is
completed, and may be bottled, or allowed to remain in the cask.
made by the same rule, excluding carefully from it all the husks.
variety of proportions are allowed in this as in the others already
mentioned. The fruit being picked, it is brought to the boiling point in
as much water as to avoid any risk of burning; it may then be strained and
put into the cask, or the liquid and skins may, with the other
ingredients, be first fermented in the vat or tub, by which the wine will
acquire a higher colour and flavour.
STRAWBERRIES AND RASPBERRIES.
either of these fruits agreeable wine may be obtained, by following the
rules given for making currant wine; but is will be found a cheaper and a
better method, to add a little sirup or juice of the fruit of any
flavourless currant wine. When the fermentation begins to decline, currant
wine may also be flavoured with odoriferous flowers, such as cowslip,
elder, or mignionette. The quantity of these, or of the flowers, is put
into the cask when the first fermentation is over, and as soon as the wine
has acquired the desired flavour, it is racked and fined. The flavouring
articles, such as orris-root, cloves, ginger, sweet and bitter almonds,
are put into a muslin bag, and hung in the cask for a few days, during the
stage of insensible fermentation, that is, after the first fermentation
has ceased, care being taken to taste the liquor frequently, so that the
flavouring matter may be withdrawn as soon as it has produced the desired
made to produce excellent wine, allowing to a ten-gallon cask forty pounds
of fruit, forty pound of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tartar. When
elderberry wine is desired for a warm cordial, it is made in the following
manner: - Twenty-five pounds of fruit are to be boiled for an hour, in
eleven gallons of water, and along with it, tied in a piece of linen, one
ounce of allspice, and two of ginger; forty pounds of sugar being put into
a tub, the boiling liquor is strained over it, pressing the fruit quite
dry; a quarter of a pound of crude tartar, or cream of tartar, is then
added to the liquid. When is has stood two days in the tub, it may be
removed to the cask, treated, as for sweet wine, in the usual manner, and
bottled in March following. When to be drunk, a portion of it is heated
with some sugar, two or three cloves, and a little nutmeg.
FROM MIXED FRUIT.
varieties of currant may be used in the largest proportion, and being
nicely picked from the stalks, they are allowed just to boil in as much
water as to prevent their burning; of raspberries, strawberries, and
cherries – black-heart are the best – equal quantities may be allowed;
they are masked with a little water; gooseberries may be used to
advantage, but must be prepared separately by more powerful bruising, in
an equal quantity of water, and straining through a canvass bag, the other
fruits being also strained; to each gallon of juice thus obtained, four
pounds of loaf sugar and half an ounce of crude tartar are allowed; when
the material has stood some hours in the tub in which it was mixed, it is
removed to the cask, and managed as currant wine.
FROM UNRIPE GRAPES.
proportions and treatment are exactly the same as those laid down for the
gooseberry, only that the husks may always be fermented in the vat with
the fluid, and also the stems when young; with the exception of the seeds,
there is no objection to bruising the solid matters.
FROM VINE LEAVES.
leaves are best when young; at farthest they should not be full grown, and
must be plucked with their stems; the tendrils are equally useful; they
may be taken from vines from which no fruit is expected, or from the
summer prunings; when tainted with soot, they must be carefully washed.
Forty or fifty pounds of such leaves being put into a tub, seven or eight
gallons of boiling water are to be poured on them, in which they are to
infuse for twenty-four hours; the liquor being poured off, the leaves must
be pressed in a press of considerable power; and being then washed with an
additional gallon of water, they are again to be pressed. Thirty pounds of
sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tartar, are now to be added to the
mixed liquor, and the quantity being made up to seven gallons, the process
recommended in the case of gooseberries is to be followed; or that for
ripe currants, if a sweet wine is desired.
gallon of water, eight pounds of good raisins, and half an ounce of
tartar, are allowed; the raisins being picked, they are to be put,
together with the tartar, into a tub, which should be covered; the mash
must be stirred every day till the sweetness has gone off, and the fruit
has fallen a little, which may be in a month or six weeks; it is then to
be strained, the raisins pressed to dryness, and the liquid put into the
cask; no filling up is necessary, and the bung-hole is only to be so
covered as to keep out the dust. When the wine has given over hissing, it
is to be bunged down till the spring, when it is to be carefully fined and
racked into a sulphured cask, and bottled, after being once more carefully
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RAISIN WINE.
ten-gallon cask, fifty pounds of Malaga, and twenty-five of Smyrna
raisins, ten pounds of loaf sugar, and a quarter of a pound of crude
tartar, are allowed. The raisins being separated from each other, and the
strong stalks picked out, they are to be put, together with the other
ingredients, into a vat, and thirteen gallons of cold spring water are to
be poured over them; the whole is then to be well stirred, and the vat
covered; it must be stirred twice a-day during the first fortnight, and
afterwards once a-day. When the fermentation has become very strong, and
the liquor acquires a vinous smell and taste, which may be in three or
four weeks, it is to be prepared for the cask in the following manner: - A
sieve or a drainer, such as is used for sowens in Scotland, is to be put
over a tub; in this the raisins are to be squeezed very hard with the
hand; all the liquor is then to be run through a hair-sieve, and put into
the cask, and the remainder into bottles, from which the cask must be
filled up twice a-day for a week; then once a-day, and less frequently as
the fermentation begins to decline; when it is completed, the cask is to
be bunged up, and allowed to stand for four months. Excellent vinegar may
be made from the refuse.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RAISIN WINE.
twenty-eight gallons of water, one hundred and twelve pounds of Malaga,
and twenty-eight pounds of Smyrna raisins, are allowed; the stalks being
picked out, they are to be chopped very small, and with the water, and one
pound of crude tartar, put into a tub, in which they are allowed to remain
for a fortnight. The raisins are then to be squeezed to dryness, and the
liquor strained, put into a cask, and treated as wine from ripe currants.
ten-gallon cask, ninety bitter oranges are to be pared very thin, and the
juice squeezed from them, which, with six gallons of water and
twenty-eight pounds of sugar, is put into the cask; half the peel may be
steeped in two gallons of water for twelve hours, and the water poured
into the cask; they are again to be steeped in the remaining quantity of
water, with which the cask is to be filled up; it must be stirred every
day till the sugar is dissolved, and bunged up when the fermentation
ceases. In two months it may be racked and fined, and in three months more
think brandy necessary, may add a bottle at the end of the first two
will be more generally agreeable if the peel be altogether omitted.
gallon of water, four pounds of sugar, and the juice of ten lemons, are
allowed; the lemons are to be pared very thin, and half the peel being put
into a tub, the sugar and water are boiled and poured over it; when cold,
the juice is added; if the fermentation does not begin in the course of a
few days, it is to be promoted by the addition of a toast of bread covered
with yeast; the peel is then taken out, and the liquor put into the cask,
which must be bunged up when the fermentation ceases.
as in orange wine, the peel may be omitted.
pounds of sugar are to be boiled half an hour with ten gallons of water,
and well skimmed; when milk-warm, five gallons of new ale, from the vat,
are added to it, and it is allowed to ferment two days in a tub; it is
them put into the cask, with one pound of sugar candy pounded, and four
pounds of raisins of the sun chopped. When the fermentation ceases, it is
racked and fined.
It may be
bottled at the end of six or twelve months.
gallons of water, eight pounds of parsnips, and fifteen pounds of sugar,
are allowed; the parsnips, being well cleaned, and cut into slices, are to
be boiled in the whole or in a portion of the water; when quite soft, they
are to be taken out and mashed, then returned to the water they were
boiled in, and being well stirred, are put through a hair-sieve; the sugar
is then to be added to the strained liquor, and the quantity made up with
boiled water; when nearly cold, it is to be put into the cask with two
spoonfuls of yeast, and three ounces of crude tartar, and stirred every
day till the fermentation subsides, which may be in ten days or a
fortnight; it is then bunged up, and may be racked and fined in three or
six months, and bottled in six months more.
gallon of juice from the birch-tree, three pounds of sugar, one pound of
raisins, half an ounce of crude tartar, and one ounce of almonds, are
allowed; the juice, sugar, and raisins, are to be boiled twenty minutes,
and then put into a tub, together with the tartar; and when it has
fermented some days, it is to be strained, and put into the cask, and also
the almonds, which must be tied in a muslin bag. The fermentation having
ceased, the almonds are to be withdrawn, and the cask bunged up, to stand
about five months, when it may be fined and bottled.
gallons of water, twelve pounds of sugar, three pounds of bitter oranges,
five pounds of lemons, and thirteen ounces of ginger, are allowed; the
sugar and the ginger, bruised, are to be boiled with the water half an
hour, and allowed to stand till next day; the fruit is to be pared very
thin, and the strained juice, and half the peel, put into a cask with two
gallons and a half of good whisky, or other spirit; when it has stood a
night, the clear part of the boiled liquid is to be poured over it, the
sediment being kept back; it does not ferment, and therefore it is not
necessary that the cask should be full; it is immediately bunged up, and
in a fortnight it must be fined, and in another fortnight it may be
bottled. To improve the colour, a table-spoonful of burnt sugar may be
added when the cask is filled up, first diluting it with a portion of the
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE GINGER WINE.
pounds of brown sugar, and the well-beaten whites of six eggs, are to be
stirred into six gallons of water, and put on the fire to boil; the scum
having well risen, it is to be taken clear off, and six ounces of the best
white ginger, cut small, are to be added; it is then to be boiled for
three quarters of an hour, and well scummed; when it has become milk-warm,
it is to be put into a wooden vessel, together with a tea-cupful of fresh
yeast, and also the juice of six lemons, and the same of Seville oranges,
made into a sirup. When it has fermented for three days, it is to be put
into the cask, with two bottles of brandy or four whisky; the fermentation
being over, it is bunged up, but not very tight at first. It may be fined
in eight or ten weeks, and bottled, or allowed to stand in the cask nine
or ten months.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE GINGER WINE.
ten-gallon cask, three gallons of spirits, whisky, or rum, one gallon of
the juice of Seville oranges, half a gallon of lemon juice, twenty pounds
of loaf sugar, one pound and a half of best white ginger bruised, and half
an ounce of isinglass, are allowed; the cask is to be filled up with cold
boiled water, and in six weeks it may be bottled.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE GINGER WINE.
gallons of water, fourteen pounds of brown sugar, a pound and a half of
ginger, three gallons of whisky, the juice of three dozen lemons, and
three dozen bitter oranges, and six rinds of each fruit, are allowed; the
sugar and water is to be boiled, stirring it frequently, and skimming it;
the ginger is to be boiled separately, in a small quantity of water, and
strained; the rinds are to be steeped in the spirits all night, and the
boiled liquid being cold, the whole is to be put into the cask, together
with two drops of isinglass. In six weeks it may be bottled.
gallon of water allow three pounds of honey; boil the mixture for a
quarter of an hour; skim it, and when nearly cold, pour it gently into a
cask, in which crude tartar has been put in the proportion of an ounce to
fermentation may be long continued, a large portion of the liquid must be
reserved for filling up the cask; it is put into bottles, which are closed
with muslin or coarse linen. To excite fermentation, expose the cask to
the influence of the sun, or put it into the corner of a chimney in which
a constant fire is kept. In about seven or eight days, the liquor emits a
thick and dirty froth; the barrel must then be filled up from the bottles,
and when the fermentation ceases, the cask must be bunged up, and placed
in the cellar. It may be bottled in twelve months. It is sometimes
flavoured with flowers, or with the juice of fruits.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE MEAD.
ten-gallon cask, allow twenty pounds of honey, and fourteen gallons of
water; boil and skim it; then add one ounce of cinnamon, one ounce of
cardamoms, one and a half ounce of Jamaica pepper, two ounces of ginger, a
quarter of an ounce of coriander seed, two large pieces of orris-root, and
a few shavings of isinglass; boil these ingredients for about half an
hour, and when the mixture has cooled, stir in a wine-glassful of yeast;
next day pour it through a cloth into the cask, and allow it to ferment
for about ten days; in a fortnight more it may be bottled, and the corks
sealed. A variety of this mead may be made by adding a gallon of cranberry
juice to the boiled honey and water, and substituting two ounces of cloves
for the coriander and cardamom seeds.
of honey is dissolved in three parts of water, and boiled over a moderate
fire till it is reduced to two-thirds of the quantity. It is then skimmed,
and put into a barrel which must be quite full; it is allowed to subside
for three or four days, and then drawn off for use.
it from the combs from which honey has been drained, they are to be beaten
in warm water, and after the liquor has subsided, it is to be strained.
cottagers in Scotland make an excellent beer by adding a little yeast to
the strained liquor, and allowing it to ferment for a few days in a cask,
and then bottling it.
of a pound of sweet, and one ounce and a half of bitter almonds, are to be
blanched, and thrown into cold water, then beaten in a marble mortar, and
moistened occasionally with a spoonful of milk, to prevent their oiling;
three pints of milk are then to be mixed gradually with them, and after
being sweetened, boiled, stirred till cold, and strained, a glass of wine
or brandy is to be added.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE ORGEAT.
of Jordan almonds are to be finely pounded, together with a little
orange-flower water; two quarts of spring water being added by degrees, it
is to be sweetened with double-refined sugar, strained through a napkin,
and put into quart bottles, which should be iced. It must be made the day
on which it is to be used.
proportions are three quarts of the best brandy, six pounds of Morella
cherries, and a pound and a half of finely pounded white or brown sugar
candy; the cherries and sugar are to be put in layers into a large-mouthed
bottle or jar, which, when nearly full, is to be filled up with brandy,
and closely corked.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE CHERRY BRANDY.
pounds of Morella, and six pounds of common cherries, are to be baked, the
juice pressed out, and the stones pounded in a marble mortar; the whole to
be again mixed and sweetened with two pounds of sugar candy, six quarts of
brandy being added, which, with the fruit, will make three gallons, it is
to be put into a large glass bottle, and shaken frequently in the course
of three months. After which, it may be strained through a jelly-bag, and
bottled for use.
stalks are to be cut short, the cherries pricked with a needle, and some
sugar strewed over them. A sufficient quantity of sirup to cover them
being made, they are to be scalded in it on the fire, and put away till
next day, when they are again to be scalded, and put into a jar; the sirup
is then to be boiled till very thick, and if the quantity is not
sufficient, more sugar may be added; when boiled enough, it is to be
poured into the jar, with an equal quantity of brandy.
measure of lemon juice is allowed to five of rum, and to every gallon of
the mixture, six pounds of loaf sugar, which is to be melted in water, and
the whole strained through flannel.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE SHRUB.
part of lemon juice, three of Seville orange are allowed, and to every
pint of juice, a pound and a half of very finely pounded loaf sugar; these
being well mixed, it is put into a cask, and one quart of the best rum
added to each pint of the juice; the whole to be shaken three times a-day
for a fortnight, or longer, if the cask be large. It is then allowed to
stand to fine for a month, or till it be sufficiently clear to bottle.
may be made into excellent milk punch, by pouring warm, but not boiling,
milk on them, allowing three parts of milk to one of dregs; after being
well mixed, it is allowed to stand for three days, when the clear part may
be drawn off, and the thick run through a jelly-bag.
OR ORANGE SHRUB.
of the lemons or oranges being grated off, they are to be squeezed, and
two pounds of finely-pounded loaf sugar are to be added to every pint of
the strained juice; when the sugar is quite dissolved, two pints of rum
are allowed to every pint of sirup; the whole is to be well mixed in a
cask, and allowed to stand five or six weeks, and then drawn off.
currants are to be bruised and put into a bag to drip; three quarters of a
pound of loaf sugar are to be dissolved in two quarts of juice, and a
quart of rum being added, it is to be bottled for use.
pounds of brown sugar is to be made into a sirup, with one quart of water,
and when cold, put into a jar with two gallons of best whisky, or silent
spirit, the strained juice of seven pounds of lemons and three pounds of
Seville oranges, and one pint of the best porter. To be well shaken every
day for a week, and then allowed to stand to fine for five weeks, when it
may be bottled.
quarts of brandy being put into an earthen jar that is fitted with a
cover, a pound and three quarters of fine loaf sugar, the thin parings of
six lemons, and the juice of twelve, are to be added; one quart of boiling
milk is to be poured over the mixture, which must be stirred daily for
eight days; it is then to be run through a jelly-bag, and bottled.
lemons and eight-four Seville oranges being selected, the two clearest
lemons are to be rubbed over with loaf sugar, and the rinds scraped off
into a gallon of spring water; the fruit is then to be squeezed into a
sieve placed over the vessel containing the water, the liquid sweetened
with double-refined sugar, and run through a jelly-bag. It is them to be
put into bottles, which may be cooled, by laying ice on the necks.
of fourteen lemons having been soaked in two quarts of water for two
hours, their juice, one pound and a half of sugar, and a quart of white
wine, are to be added; a quart of new milk, made boiling hot, is then to
be mixed with it, and when it has stood an hour, it is to be strained
through a jelly-bag till it runs clear.
RECEIPT FOR JUICE.
proportion of oranges should be double that of lemons; the fruit being
selected free from decay, and wiped dry, they are to be squeezed, and the
juice strained through a sieve into an earthen pan; to each pint,
according to the acidity of the fruit, a pound and a half, or a pound and
three quarters, of double-refined sugar, broken small, is to be added. It
must be stirred and skimmed daily, till the sugar is well incorporated, or
as long as the scum rises; and when it has been a month in the pan, it may
DUKE OF NORFOLK’S PUNCH.
parings of six lemons, and of six oranges, are to be steeped in a gallon
of brandy for twenty-four hours, the vessel containing it being closely
covered; three pounds of single-refined sugar are to be clarified with the
white of an egg, in a gallon of spring water, and boiled for a quarter of
an hour, skimmed, and allowed to stand till cold. The brandy is then to be
strained from the parings, and with the strained juice of eighteen oranges
and eighteen lemons, added to the boiled sirup, and put into a vessel
sufficiently large to contain the whole. It must be closely covered, and
when it has stood six weeks, it may be bottled.
of nine lemons are to be steeped, for eighteen hours, in two quarts of
brandy, then mixed with the strained juice of the lemons, one and a half
pound of sugar, five pints of water, and one grated nutmeg; one quart of
new milk, made boiling hot, being added, it is to be strained through a
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE MILK PUNCH.
quarts of brandy, the peel of thirty Seville oranges, and thirty-six
lemons, are to be infused for twelve hours; thirty quarts of water and
fifteen pounds of double-refined sugar are to be boiled, and when cold,
the strained juice of the oranges and lemons is to be added to it; it is
them to be put into a cask, together with the brandy, strained from the
peel; a quart of boiling milk being poured into the cask, it is to be
bunged up, and allowed to stand till it become fine, before being bottled.
It will be the better for remaining a year in the cask.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE MILK PUNCH.
pounds of refined sugar are to be dissolved in the strained juice of three
dozen lemons, and, when quite settled, two gallons of brandy, and two
gallons and a half of cold water, are to be added, and also the
lemon-peel; one gallon of boiling milk being then poured over the
ingredients, they are to stand closely covered for twenty-four hours;
when, being skimmed, and run through a very thick jelly-bag, it may be
quickly bottled, and will be fit for immediate use; but it improves by
gallon of brandy, three hundred kernels of apricots, the juice and very
thin parings of eight lemons, and half an ounce of saffron; when these
ingredients have stood a fortnight, they are to be strained, and one pound
of white sugar candy dissolved in half a pint of water, added to the
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE RATAFIA.
hundred peach kernels are to be steeped in one gallon of pale brandy,
together with two quarts of frontignac, one pint of orange-flower water,
and one pound and three quarters of double-refined sugar. It must be
shaken daily for six weeks, and then put through a jelly-bag till clear.
orange, one quart of strong spirits, and one pound and a quarter of loaf
sugar are allowed; six or eight cloves are to be stuck into each orange,
which, with the spirits and sugar, is to be put into a jar. It must be
closely covered, and stirred occasionally in the course of two months; it
is then to be filtered through blotting paper, and bottled for use.
liqueur is made in the same way, substituting lemons for oranges. Instead
of mixing the sugar with the other materials in the jar, it may be made
into a sirup, and added to the strained or filtered spirits. This, though
more troublesome, will be found a better method.
of three large lemons, half a pound of pounded loaf sugar, one ounce of
bitter almonds, blanched and pounded, are to be mixed into a quart of the
best Hollands, three table-spoonfuls of boiling milk being added. It is to
be put into a bottle or jar, and shaken every day for three weeks, and
then filtered through chamois leather or blotting paper, when it will be
fit for use.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE NOYAU.
and nectarines, in equal quantities, are to be bruised, the stones broken,
and the kernels blanched and bruised; they are then to be put into a jar
in layers, one of fruit, one of kernels, and one of pounded loaf sugar,
and so on until the jar is full; as much white brandy is then to be added
as the jar will hold; and when it has stood for five or six months, it is
to be filtered, and bottled for use.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE NOYAU.
of bitter almonds, blanched, is to be steeped three months in four quarts
of large-still proof whisky, or pale brandy; four pounds of loaf sugar are
then to be clarified, and added to the strained or filtered spirits,
together with half a pint of pure honey.
sometimes coloured with a little cochineal; and may also be made, allowing
three parts of sweet, and one of bitter almonds.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE NOYAU.
ounces of peach kernels, or of bitter almonds, blanched and pounded, are
to be mixed with one quart of brandy, and allowed to stand for three days;
when one pound of finely-pounded and sifted sugar candy is to be added;
the whole well shaken, and to stand two days, then strained through a
capillaire is that of North America. Put one ounce of it into a small
quantity of boiling water, to infuse like tea; add a pound of sugar to the
infusion; clarify it with the white of an egg, and boil it to a thick
sirup; strain it through a cloth, and when cold, put in a little
orange-flower water, and bottle it. That which is commonly sold as
capillaire in England, is simply sirup flavoured with orange-flower water.
blossoms of the white thorn are to be picked dry and clean from the leaves
and stalks, and as much put into a large bottle as it will hold lightly
without pressing it down; it is then to be filled up with French brandy,
and allowed to stand two or three months, when it must be decanted off,
and sweetened with clarified sugar, or with capillaire. Without the
sweetening, it is an excellent seasoning for puddings and custards.
of oil of cinnamon is to be dropped on two pounds and a half of bruised
loaf sugar; one gallon of the best whisky being added, and the sugar being
dissolved, it is to be filtered and bottled.
may be made with any other essential oil, such as caraway.
ounce of cream of tartar, two ounces of ginger, one lemon cut into slices,
and two pounds of loaf sugar, two gallons of boiling water are added; when
almost cold, two table-spoonfuls of yeast are stirred in. It may be
bottled next day, and will be fit for drinking the day after it is
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE IMPERIAL.
ounces of cream of tartar, the juice and parings of two lemons, and a few
cloves, are put into a jar, and six quarts of boiling water added; it is
sweetened with loaf sugar, covered, and allowed to stand till the
following day, when a quart of rum is added; it is then strained, bottled,
and tightly corked.
four good-sized bitter oranges till they are of a pale brown colour; lay
them in a tureen, and put over them half a pound of pounded loaf sugar,
and three glasses of claret; place the cover on the tureen, and let stand
till next day. When required for use, put the tureen into a pan of boiling
water, press the oranges with a spoon, and run the juice through a sieve;
then boil the remainder of the bottle of claret, taking care that it do
not burn; add it to the strained juice, and serve it warm in glasses.
small fore-quarter of veal, put it on the fire with nine pints of water;
skim it well, and let it boil till reduced to two pints; run it through a
sieve, and when cold, add to it a pint and a half of clear lemon juice,
and two pounds of loaf sugar which has been made into a sirup with a pint
and a half of water, and cleared with the white of an egg. It is served in
glass mugs, for a dessert table, or offered at any other time as a
gallons of water and ten pounds of brown sugar are to be clarified with
the whites of twelve eggs, carefully skimmed, and boiled till nearly
reduced to ten gallons; two pounds and a half of the yellow flower of
lemon balk being put into a cask, the liquor, when milk-warm, it to be
poured over it, and four or five table-spoonfuls of thick yeast added. The
cask must be filled up morning and evening with what works over it, and
bunged up when the fermentation ceases; in a month the beer may be
bottled, and in two or three months it will be fit for drinking. Half the
quantity of the flower of lemon balm will probably be found to communicate
a flavour sufficiently strong, if added when the fermentation is nearly
MEDICINAL IMPERIAL, A FAVOURITE SPRING DRINK.
of cream of tartar, one ounce of Epsom salts, twelve ounces of loaf sugar,
the juice of two lemons, and the peel of one – put the whole into a large
jug, and pour over it three pints of boiling water; cover it till cold;
skim it, and pour the clear part into a decanter; and take two large
wine-glassfuls every day.
acid, half an ounce, aërated soda, half an ounce. Have two tumblers about
one-third full of water; put thirty grains of soda into one glass, and
twenty-five grains of the acid into the other; when dissolved, mix them
together, and drink it immediately.
sorts of salts must be kept in separate bottles, and should be bought
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE SODA WATER.
of soda, forty-five grains, tartaric acid, thirty grains; put each powder
with a quarter of a pint of cold water into separate tumblers, and mix
them well; then pour the one containing the soda into that which has the
acid in it, and drink it while if effervesces. Some persons prefer the
citric to the tartaric acid, and a smaller quantity of it will suffice.
For those who are delicate, or in very cold weather, a small quantity of
brandy, or of white wine, may be added; and the water may be used in a
tepid state. As a tonic, the carbonate of soda may be taken first, and the
acid mixture instantaneously afterwards, by which means a powerful and
salutary effervescence is produced in the stomach.
gallons of water, six pounds of treacle, and three ounces of bruised
ginger, have boiled together for half an hour, two pounds of the outer
sprigs of the spruce fir are to be added, and boiled for five minutes; the
whole is then to be strained through a hair-sieve, and when milk-warm, put
into the cask, and a tea-cupful of good yeast stirred well into it. When
it has fermented a day or two, it is to be bunged up, and the following
day bottled. It will be fit for use in a week.
ginger is sometimes omitted, and instead of the spruce fir, three ounces
of the essence may be used, which is to be well whisked, together with the
treacle, and a gallon or two of warm water; then put into the cask, which
is to be filled up with water, and the yeast added.
ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE SPRUCE BEER.
proportions are ten gallons of water, three quarts of treacle, a
tea-cupful of ginger, the same of allspice, three ounces of hops, three
ounces and a half of the essence of spruce, and half a pint of good yeast.
The hops, ginger, and allspice, must be boiled together till the hops fall
to the bottom; the treacle and spruce are then to be dissolved in a
bucketful of the liquor, the whole strained into a cask, and the yeast
well stirred in; when the fermentation ceases, the cask is to be bunged
gallons of water being boiled, and allowed to cool; one pound of raisins,
two pounds of loaf sugar, the juice of three lemons, and their peel cut
thin, are added; after being stirred daily for four days, it is run
through a jelly-bag and bottled; in ten days, or a fortnight more, it will
be fit for use, and will be found excellent in warm weather. The corks
should be tied down.
ten-gallon cask, eleven gallons of water, fourteen pounds of sugar, the
juice of eighteen lemons, and one pound of ginger, are allowed; the sugar
and water are boiled with the whites of eight eggs, and well skimmed; just
before coming to the boiling point, the ginger, which must be bruised, is
then added, and boiled for twenty minutes; when cold, the clear part is
put into the cask, together with the lemon juice and two spoonfuls of
yeast; when it has fermented for three or four days, it is fined, bunged
up, and in a fortnight bottled. It may be made without the fruit.
ANOTHER GINGER BEER QUICKLY MADE.
of boiling water is poured over three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar,
one ounce and a quarter of sliced ginger, and the peel of one lemon; when
milk-warm, the juice of the lemon and a spoonful of yeast are added. It
should be made in the evening, and bottled next morning in half-pint stone
bottles, and the cork tied down with twine.