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Home and Farm Food Preservation

Hydrometer Table for Salt, Sugar, and Lye Solutions

The following table can be used to find the equivalents of the various systems used in measuring the amounts of salt, sugar, and lye in water solutions. The table is also valuable for use in the preparation of solutions of these substances of desired strengths. For example: Suppose a 5% salt solution is desired. Six and seven-tenths (approximately 6 3/4) oz. of salt would be added to each gallon of water; this figure being found by consulting the figure in column 3 under "Ounces per Gallon," opposite 5 in column 2.

If a Baumé hydrometer is in use, the corresponding Balling degrees or per cent sugar can be found in column 4.

The table has been arranged by J. R. Zion of the University of California.

Formula for Soldering Fluid

Place granulated zinc in an open glass fruit jar or other open glass container and add approximately three times its volume of strong muriatic (hydrochloric) acid and allow to stand for about one hour. Strain off the solution from the undissolved zinc through a cloth. Add an equal volume of water to the solution. It is then ready to use. It may be used repeatedly until it becomes too weak to act satisfactorily.

Labeling Laws

Most states have enacted laws that make it compulsory to state on the label in prominent sized type the net contents of all cans, bottles, and other packages containing. foods offered for sale. The net contents are to be indicated in ounces or pounds if the food is solid: and as fluid ounces, pints, quarts, or gallons if the product is liquid. By measuring or weighing the contents of several of the containers after they have been processed, etc., a safe minimum for the net contents may be established and labels designed accordingly.

The label must also state plainly the kind of product in the container and the contents must correspond to this declaration. Adulterants, antiseptics, or artificial colors if used, must also be declared on the label.

If these points are borne in mind, no trouble with the pure food authorities will arise from the sale of good grades of home prepared food-stuffs.

Federal Standards for Vinegar U. S. D. A.

1. Vinegar, cider vinegar, apple vinegar, is the product made by the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentations of the juice of apples; is laevo rotary, and contains in one hundred cubic centimeters not less than four (4) grams of acetic acid, and not less than one and six-tenths grams of apple solids, of which not more than fifty (50) per cent are reducing sugars.

2. Wine vinegar, grape vinegar, contains in one hundred cubic centimeters not less than four (4) grams of acetic acid, and not less than one gram of grape solids."

Note: Four grams acetic acid per one hundred cubic centimeters corresponds to 40 grains on the Leo Acid Tester. Vinegar for sale should test at least 45 on the Leo Tester.

References on Home Canning

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