The principles of
fermentation and vinegar making will be found discussed in Chapter XIV.
If these principles are understood the following recipes will be much
more useful. The use of good material must be emphasized; good vinegar
cannot be made from partially decomposed fruits. Nevertheless, cull
fruits, if sound, fruit peelings, cores, etc., can be used to good
(92) Home Manufacture
of Vinegar from Whole Fruits.
1. Crush the fruit and
heat to boiling. Press out the juice through a jelly bag or coarse
cloth. Allow the juice to cool overnight in an agateware pot or
stoneware crock or wooden bucket or barrel. If fruits are soft and
juicy, heating is not necessary.
2. On the next day break
up a yeast cake for each 5 gals. or less of juice and mix it with the
juice. In 24 hours the juice will be fermenting. Allow the juice to
stand in the crock, or bucket, etc., until fermentation ceases. This
will require about 2 to 3 weeks. Allow to stand 1 week longer for the
yeast to settle. This will make a total of 3 to 4 weeks from the time
the fruit was pressed.
3. When fermentation is
over and the yeast has settled, pour or draw off the fermented liquid
into another container of the same kind in which fermentation has taken
place or pour it off and return it to the original containers.
4. To each gallon of the
liquid add 1 pint of good vinegar, preferably vinegar from a barrel.
This adds a starter of vinegar hacteria and the vinegar acid favors a
rapid start of vinegar fermentation.
5. Cover the jar or
bucket, etc., with a cheesecloth so that insects will be screened out
and so that air may get to the liquid freely. An abundant supply of air
is necessary for vinegar formation. If a barrel is used arrange it as
shown in Fig. 49. The barrel should be left about two-thirds to
three-fourths full. Leave the bung open and bore a hole at each end of
the barrel just above the surface of the liquid as shown in Fig. 49.
Cover the holes with fine screen or cheesecloth to keep out insects.
Leave in a warm place until vinegar forms. This will be in 2 to 12
months, depending on temperature conditions. A warm room is best.
6. The vinegar may then
be drawn off and strained or filtered and should be bottled or stored in
completely filled and closed barrels to prevent deterioration.
(93) Vinegar from
Cores, Peels, and Fruit Scraps.
1. Often fruit scraps are
wasted. These will make good vinegar.
2. To each cupful of
scraps, add 2 cups of water or enough to cover well. Boil about 10 to 15
min. and press out the juice.
3. To each 10 cups of
liquid add 1 cup of sugar and stir until dissolved. Allow to cool
overnight in a jar or other convenient container. (Do not use tin.)
4. Proceed from this
point as in Recipe 92.
(94) Vinegar from
Honey and Sirups.
1. To each cup of the
honey or sirup add 4 cups of water and half cup of any fruit juice.
2. Mix well and proceed
from this point as in Recipe 92.
1. With Fish Isinglass.
If a large amount of vinegar is to be made for sale it should be made as
clear as possible. This may be done by filtration until clear or may be
accomplished by clarification. Fish isinglass is most commonly used for
this purpose. The Russian isinglass is best.
If the vinegar is very
cloudy, weigh out 2 oz. of isinglass for each 100 gals.; if moderately
cloudy, 1 oz. and if only slightly cloudy, 1/2 to 3/4 oz. Soak each
ounce in about 1 gal. of vinegar for several days. It will swell and
become soft. Break it up thoroughly and work it into solution in the
vinegar. Pressing it through a fine screen will aid. Then add it to the
larger lot of vinegar in the proportion required as noted above. Stir
well and let settle until clear. Draw off the cleared vinegar with a
hose or through a spigot.
2. With Spanish Clay.
This is a clay of poor pottery clay grade. For each 100 gals. of vinegar
weigh out 5 to 8 lbs. of clay, depending on the cloudiness of the
vinegar. Soak in the proportion of 1 lb. of clay to 1 gal. of vinegar
until soft. Work up into a thin mud in the vinegar; it must be finely
broken up into a smooth mud or "solution." This will require a great
deal of crushing and stirring. An old butter churn may be used. Add the
clay solution to the vinegar in the amount required (5 to 8 lbs. clay
per 100 gals. of vinegar). Stir. Allow to settle several days. Draw off
clear vinegar and filter the sediment.