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The Scots and their Descendants in Illinois
By Thomas C. MacMillan, M.A., LL.D.

The pages of American history contain the names of men of Scottish birth and blood, whose notable achievements have reflected credit upon the land and race of their forebears; and, we may venture to add, have shed luster upon the cherished country of their adoption. In almost every decade of America’s development, subsequent to Great Britain’s entrance upon the scene of action, are to be found records of the enterprises here of Scotland’s Sons.

Full and cheerful recognition is accorded the varied and valuable contributions of other European peoples to the up-building of the several Commonwealths, which, nearly a century and a half ago, united to form our Nation. What is here asked for is a fair consideration of the claims of Scotsmen for the services rendered by their fellow countrymen and their descendants in this undertaking; and a just recognition of their share in the preparation for, and the creation and construction of the United States.

The Scot in America has ever been so occupied in making general and local history that he has not given much, if any, time or attention to the writing of his own history. It has come to pass that historical data concerning the Scot, in the earlier years of his advent to these shores, were not collected, and preserved, by those most interested, to such an extent as we would have desired. However, we may catch glimpses of him here and there; occasional mention; incidental reference; until, in recent times, his personality is more clearly revealed and his influence traced.

When the earlier Scots emigrated to the American Colonies, they but responded to the racial instinct of expansion, and accepted the opportunity to establish themselves as free-holders. With them religious and civil liberty had ever been a master passion. As "political prisoners" many were transported hitherward by Charles I, by Cromwell, by Charles II, and by James II. As pioneers, they became independent. As patriots, with such a heritage, they grew into leadership. As State-builders, they had some considerable share in the establishment of the new Republic. We may guess, that those who were able, were also ready, to aid their less fortunate fellow-countrymen; and did so; for, in 1657, the Scot’s Charitable Society, of Boston, was established, and continued to do a service of untold help and hope to the expatriated ship-loads of Scotia’s sons who were practically slaves, sent here to work for the already settled colonists.

From Bunker Hill to Port Royal, and from Manhattan to the Alleghenies, when the Revolutionary War began, there was scarcely a thriving community in all that region which did not have settlers of the Scottish race. To enumerate them would be but to repeat the name of every important district. They readily adapted themselves to pioneer conditions. Their native parish administration, with its larger shire (county) system, made it an easy matter for them to understand, to adopt, and to put into successful operation, the New England town-meeting, and the Virginia county organization.

It has well been pointed out by Scottish writers, that the early emigrants from the home-land traversed the Atlantic in two main streams. One came direct from Scotland. The other was by way of the extreme northeast Province of Ireland, called Ulster. At this point, Scotland and Ireland are separated from each other by channels which are only from twelve to twenty miles or so in width. Intercourse between the two countries has always been easy and frequent. It is not either our province or our purpose to enter into the details of how Ulster came to be peopled by Scotsmen. It is merely necessary to state that the Scots who crossed over to Ulster took with them their own language, literature, laws, religion, customs, and occupations, and maintained them there.

The Hon. Whitelaw Reid (quoted by Rev. D. MacDougall, in his admirable work, "Scots and Scots’ Descendants in America") remarks:

"If these Scottish and Presbyterian colonists (who went from Scotland to Ulster) must be called Irish because they had been one or two generations in the North of Ireland, then the Pilgrim Fathers, who had been one generation or more in Holland, must by the same reasoning be called Dutch, or at the very least ‘English-Dutch.’"

This much is said to explain the substantial unity of the Scotch, and those whom Americans popularly designate as the "Scotch-Irish," but who more appropriately may be called "Ulster-Scots." It will require slight reflection, therefore, to suggest the oneness of these peoples, and to indicate the impossibility of separating them nationally and historically. The battles waged by these strains of Covenanters—that is, those religious and civil reformers, who believed in, and subscribed to, what was Scotland’s Declaration of Independence, known as the "Solemn League and Covenant"—before, during and after those years called "the killing time," because of its martyrdoms and persecutions, had prepared them for the contests in America in which they ranged themselves in the ranks of the Colonial Patriots against what were familiar to them as royal aggressions. The blood of thousands of Scotland’s devoted sons and daughters has dyed the heather of her glens and bens, as witness that they determined to continue the struggle until the dawn of the day sung in heroic verse by Robert Burns, their nation’s bard:

"When man to man, the world o’er,
Will brithers be, for a’ that."

As our story has to do largely with the results of the American Revolution, we may be pardoned for what may seem to be a digression. The well-informed student of our national history does not need to be reminded that four of Washington’s major-generals, at the time of discharge, were Scottish: Henry Knox (Mass.); William Alexander (N. J.); Alexander MacDougall (N. Y.; and Arthur St. Clair (Pa.). (MacDougall’s "Scots and Scots’ Descendants").

It is also to be noted that this race, besides its signers of the Declaration of Independence, and other patriots, gave Washington thirty-five other generals; "three out of four members of his cabinet; and three out of five Judges of the first Supreme Court;" (Herbert N. Casson in "Life and Work of Cyrus Hall McCormick," p. 20); while of the British Colonial Governors, who served before, and, under Providence, prepared the way for the Revolution, more than forty were of Scottish birth and blood.

The history of Illinois, during the period of early French occupation, would be incomplete were there no reference to, and no understanding of, the relation to it of John Law, author of the so-called "Mississippi Scheme," and its successor, the "South Sea Bubble;" who however, never visited this country.

Law was a native of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, where he was born in 1671. If heredity is to be trusted, he came naturally by his faculty of financiering, as his father was engaged in what now would be termed "the banking business." He was given an excellent education. His abilities are said to have been good. After a varied career in London, Holland, and elsewhere, and after having made a special study of banking, he devised a plan for the establishing of a governmental financial institution, which, however, he failed to induce either Scotland or France to adopt. Meanwhile, he had amassed a large fortune. Then followed his introduction into some of the most powerful court circles of France.

For years close social and political relations had been sustained between France and Scotland. The royal house of the Stuarts had long been the beneficiaries of the Bourbon dynasty. The object of this policy, on the part of France, was to meet and curtail the increasing power of England. William of Orange, warrior and statesman though he was, never seemed to foster the northern part of his kingdom; Scotland could not easily forgive him for the dreadful "Massacre of Glencoe ;" nor forget his persistent and successful opposition to the Scottish enterprise of colonizing the Isthmus of Darien, as Panama then was designated—an undertaking conceived and promoted by William Paterson, the son of a Dumfriesshire farmer, who had founded the great bank of England, and whose vision of Panama and its commercial possibilities was more than two centuries in advance of his day and generation.

In 1712, Antoine Crozat, a favorite of Louis XIV, obtained a monopoly of the commerce and trade, with the control, of the "Illinois Country." In 1717 this grant was surrendered. The spectacular and extravagant reign of Louis the Grand had brought financial confusion, if not practical bankruptcy, to France. It was then (1717) that John Law’s project was launched. Law believed in the "omnipotence of government." His plan was to combine foreign and domestic finance into one all-powerful monopoly to be controlled by the Nation.

The "Company of the West" was created by Law, with himself as its governing head. To it was given the exclusive control of the trade and commerce of this region, as France then claimed dominion over Canada and the Mississippi Valley. This grant carried with it the powers of administration, and the French Government was to receive large returns from the monopoly. The "Company of the West" had the entire trade in tobacco, and in the mines, which the region was supposed to contain; and, later was awarded a monopoly of commerce with the East Indies, China, and that indefinite something denominated "the South Sea ;" hence the organization under this grant of "the East India Company."

These conditions and circumstances are cited, so that we may have an understanding of several results which affected the growth and development of the "Illinois Country."

The important effects of these were: 1. The detaching of the Mississippi Valley territory from its relation to and its dependence upon, the French authorities in Canada; and its transfer to New Orleans, which center was established in 1718. 2. The creation, in the Mississippi Valley, by the French, of nine military and civil districts, each with its own Commandant and Judge, under the supervision of the Council at New Orleans. Thus the "Illinois Country" became next in influence and importance to the New Orleans district.

This change of jurisdiction at once, and for years afterward, contributed materially to the up-building of the "Illinois Country." It had been too remote from the center of Canadian control; while, because of river communication, it was in direct and easy connection with the Crescent City. It led to the founding of Fort Chartres and to the strengthening of the other posts in this region. It had a direct relation to the, transfer, by the conquest of General Clark, of Illinois, to the United States. It also came, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, to have a not inconsiderable indirect influence in furthering the negotiations which culminated in the "Louisiana Purchase" from France by the United States, in President Jefferson’s administration; a policy of peaceful territorial expansion of which, like Alaska, we have had several examples.

The period of British rule in the "Illinois Country" extended from 1765 to 1778. During that time there were few events of historical importance with which our study has to do.

The continuous opposition of the British General Gage, to the settlement and development of the North-West Territory had decidedly deterrent effects. This policy was the reverse of that of the last royal Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore (James Murray), a Scot, who heartily encouraged the colonization of this region. Under the latter’s system, pioneers from Virginia, from the Carolinas, and from Georgia made their way to Kentucky and to Tennessee, and later removed to Illinois. The records of the epoch show that these settlers largely were of Scottish birth and descent. Among the best known of the leaders then of the border of Kentucky and Tennessee were Daniel Boone, Simon Kenton, and George Rogers Clark, all of Scottish ancestry.

Regarding the Scottish settlements in the Colonies, at the begin-fling of the Revolutionary War, MacDougall in his "Scots and Scots’ Descendants in America" (Vol. 1, p. 28) says:

"There were nearly twenty communities of Scots and Ulster-Scots in New England, including Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut; from thirty to forty in New York; fifty to sixty in New Jersey; more than one hundred and thirty in Pennsylvania and Delaware; more than a hundred in Virginia, Maryland, and East Tennessee; fifty in North Carolina; about seventy in South Carolina and Georgia; in all, about five hundred settlements (exclusive of English Presbyterian congregations in New York and New Jersey) scattered throughout all the American Colonies."

These were the sources from which flowed the streams of settlers to the Northwest.

In 1758 Scottish Highland soldiers appeared in the Ohio Country, under command of Major Grant. In 1765, when France relinquished control of the territory, after the French and Indian War, Captain Stirling, with troops of the 42d Highianders, the famous "Black Watch," proceeded from Fort Pitt, down the Ohio river, and up the Mississippi, to Fort Chartres, and took possession of that stronghold in the name of the British Crown. Captain Stirling’s successors included Captain Sinclair, or St. Clair, as it is also written, both having names that suggest their ancestry, as their troops indicate their nationality.

From Kirkland’s and Moses’ "History of Chicago," (Vol. 1, p. 27-28) we learn the story of Colonel Arent Schuyler de Peyster, who, for several years before the Revolutionary War, commanded the British forces at Mackinac, and therefore the district of which Chicago was a part.

Colonel De Peyster was a New Yorker of ancient Dutch stock. His wife was a Scotch lady. When the peace between the United States and Great Britain was signed, in 1783, the colonel retired, and settled in Dumfries, Scotland. There in 1813, he first published a volume entitled "Miscellanies." This was edited by Gen. J. Watts de Peyster, of Yonkers, and republished in 1888.

The colonel in Dumfries commanded a regiment of militia, of which the poet Robert Burns was a member. In his "Miscellanies" are some verses—for he wrote rhyme—entitled "Speech to the Western Indians." This "poem" mentions Clark, and also Chicago, which is spelled "Eschikagou," that in a foot note, he describes as "a river and fort at the head of Lake Michigan."

It may be considered significant—and Scotch—that the warlike colonel, who was childless, bequeathed his property to his wife’s people, who, General De Peyster remarks, were "MacMurdos or whatever was the name of her nephews." Perhaps this is another illustration of the influence in Illinois, and elsewhere, of the thrifty Scot!

The acquisition by the Colonies, in 1778-9, of what came to be designated as "The Northwest Territory," out of which were organized Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, is a well known story. It has furnished abundant material for historian and romancer alike.

Gen. George Rogers Clark was the central figure in the conquest of the country northwest of the Ohio River, as has been well said by Hon. W. H. English of Indiana, in his exhaustive history of that great enterprise. He (Clark) was born in Atbemarle County, Virginia, November 29, 1752. Mr. English states that the traditions of Clark’s ancestry are "meager, vague, and unsatisfactory;" but he adds—without giving authorities therefor—that his paternal ancestor came from England. The same author records that this pioneer "met and fell in love with a Scotch girl who became his wile," and that she was described as "a red-haired beauty." It is a matter of history that John and Jonathan Clark, descendants of the "red-haired Scotch lady," and the forebears of Gen. George Rogers Clark, lived for some time in the parish of Drysdale, in King and Queen County, Virginia; and also that the light hair of their handsome ancestress was noticeable in the family of her descendants for several generations.

Now let us read what MacDougal says (in his "Scots and Scots’ Descendants in America," Vol. 1, p. 54) concerning Gen. Clark’s descent: "John Clark, great-grandfather of General George Rogers Clark (1752-1818), came to Virginia in 1630 from the southwestern part of Scotland." This is certainly distinct and unequivocal.

A word with reference to the name "Drysdale" may here not be out of place. It is still a not uncommon one in southwestern Scotland, from which, MacDougall says, General Clark’s ancestors came to America. It seems scarcely necessary to direct the attention of the student of history to the origin of county, town and settlement names, as this is elsewhere noted. The name "Drysdale" is as distinctively Scottish of the Lowland, or southern, districts, as are MacDonald, MacLeod, MacPherson, and Cameron of the Highland; and, when we recall what MacDougall says (supra) regarding the "more than a hundred (Scottish communities) in Virginia, Maryland, and East Tennessee," we are not surprised to find a "Drysdale" within the bounds of these Colonies.

"George Rogers Clark," says Kirkland and Moses (in their "History of Chicago," vol. 1, p. 24), "was a typical pioneer, frontiersman, Indian fighter and American soldier. He embodied the best qualities of Daniel Boone, John Todd, Simon Kenton, William Wells, and the other hardly pioneers who made possible the New West. In brilliancy of achievement, and permanency of results, he is head and shoulders above them all. It is not too much to say that to Clark we owe it, that, at the Peace of Paris, the whole upper Mississippi Valley fell to us instead of England," meaning, of course, Great Britain, for Americans have a habit of speaking of the Island Empire as if it were composed only of the Southern part; quite as though we were to call the United States after the Empire State; while Scots affirm it was not "Great Britain" until the union of England with Scotland.

It is to be observed that the John Todd referred to was Col. John Todd of the Kentucky family to whom Mrs. Abraham Lincoln was related—certainly a Scottish name.

General Clark’s family were people of substance and standing in Virginia. His younger brother, William, was the Captain Clark of the "Lewis and Clark Expedition," sent out by President Jefferson, in 1805, to explore, to the Pacific Coast, the recently acquired territory of "Lousiana," and who made the memorable journey from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River and return.

At the age of nineteen, General Clark was on the border among the adventurous spirits of his native Colony. He made several trips back and forth to Virginia in the interest of the settlers of Kentucky. By his twenty-fourth year he was a recognized leader. He had served in a campaign against the Indians, under Major Angus McDonald—observe this name—which, quaintly remarks one of his biographers, "developed him in military and political sagacity." He was one of two delegates sent from Kentucky to the Virginia Legislature, to seek aid for the settlers against the Indians, in which he was successful. Then came the conception of the plan to make conquest of the North-West.

Judge John Moses (in "Illinois: Historical and Statistical," vol 1, pp. 145 et seq.), relates how the prominent men of Virginia, during the second year of the Revolutionary War, had their attention directed to the "Illinois Country," then British territory.

Before entering upon his enterprise General Clark deemed it necessary to learn directly the conditions at Kaskaskia, and the adjacent settlements in Illinois, and their attitude toward the Americans, were a descent upon them to be made by Colonial troops. Judge Moses adds:

"To confirm his views he (General Clark) sent, in 1777, to Kaskaskia, two trusty spies, one of whom was James Moore, afterwards a distinguished settler." His vision revealed to him that the way to meet and master the threatened overrunning of Kentucky by the British, and their Indian allies, was not merely to prepare for a defense of the American settlements, but also to assume the offensive.

Mr. N. Matson (in his "Pioneers of Illinois") tells this story of the other spy. He relates that "John Duff, a Virginian of French descent," visited Illinois in 1777, and upon his return east reported to General Clark what he had seen and heard; how the French inhabitants of the "Illinois Country," who comprised by far the largest part of the population here, were dissatisfied with the British, and were ready to change their allegiance to the Americans. Thereupon General Clark and John Duff laid the situation before the Governor, Patrick Henry, of Virginia, who authorized General Clark to recruit troops for an expedition to conquer the territory, although the ostensible object was to protect the frontier; and Governor Henry furnished the means and equipment to prosecute the enterprise.

Where and how Mr. Matson learned that John Duff was of "French descent" does not appear. Let it be borne in mind that General Clark and John Duff must have been intimate, else he (Clark) never would have entrusted so important a mission to Moore and Duff. The name "Duff" is not at all "French," but decidedly Scottish. The Duffs and the MacDuffs of Virginia were directly descended from Scottish f amilies. Then, too, we recall the Scottish settlement of "Drysdale," as well as General Clark’s Scottish descended associate, Simon Kenton, and many other members of this expeditionary force who were, as their names show clearly, Caledonian by ancestry, if not by birth. Later Duff and Kenton both were given lands in "Clark’s Grant" in Indiana, for their services during his campaigns. Mr. English speaks of Kenton as standing "with Daniel Boone in the front rank of Western pioneers."

Patrick Henry (1736-99), the Governor of his native Virginia, who made possible the expedition of General Clark to the Northwest, was the son of a Scottish father and mother. His father was John Henry, and his grandmother was a kinswoman of Principal Robertson, the Scottish historian, and of the mother of Lord Brougham, the British (Scottish-born) statesman.

L. E. Jones, in "Decisive Dates in Illinois History" (p. 96), writes that Governor Henry "was a relative of George Rogers Clark," which confirms the statement regarding the latter’s Scottish extraction.

The years immediately following the passage by the United States Congress of that remarkable and historic instrument, known as the "Ordinance of 1787," by which the North-West Territory was created, were troublous ones, both for officials and for people. Political construction, or reconstruction, is always attended by difficulties and dangers, even under the most favorable circumstances.

It was no small task to organize, and no light labor to institute, the administrative agencies provided by the Congress in the act of organization. Its initial operation would have tested the wisdom, patience, and skill of the ablest statesman of the time.

The territory affected was vast. The settlements were small, and were scattered from the Ohio River to the Great Lakes, and from the Alleghanies to the Mississippi. Within these bounds roamed powerful tribes of hostile Indians, led by able and warlike chiefs, whom it took Gen. William Henry Harrison long to subdue, and then only after several hard-fought battles. The seat of government—Marietta, Ohio— was remote from Kaskaskia, and the adjacent communities in Illinois; and was not accessible save by circuitous river routes, or by hazardous journeys overland.

Many of the members of General Clark’s command, after the conquest, had remained in or had returned to the North-West Territory, and had "taken up" land here. The rivers afforded favorite settlement centers and sites.

The first Governor of the North-West Territory was Major-General Arthur St. Clair. "His career reads like a tale of fiction, so varied, so romantic, and, ultimately, so tragic" was it. When the Revolutionary War closed, he was one of the four Major-Generals under Washington who were of Scottish birth.

General St. Clair was a native of Thurso, Scotland, where he was born in 1734. Educated for the medical profession in the University of Edinburgh, he forsook the healing art to enter the British army. Coming to the Colonies, he served successively under General Amherst in the Louisburg campaign, and with General Wolfe at Quebec. In 1764 he settled and married in Pennsylvania. When the Colonies began their struggles, he promptly cast in his lot with them, and became a patriot leader. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War he was awarded a Colonelcy. In 1776 he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General.

In 1778 he was made a Major-General, which he retained until he became the head of the army.

In 1787 General St. Clair was chosen President of the United States Congress. When that body created the North-West Territory, he was appointed its first governor. In 1790 he visited Illinois, and organized this entire territory into one county, which he named after himself. This and others of his acts gave rise to adverse comment.

It is not our purpose to recount, or even to give a resume of, his official course while he was chief executive of this Territory. The historians agree that, in this capacity, his administration was open to criticism. It may be explained, in partial extenuation, that, from the first, there were serious differences between the executive and the judicial branches of the territorial government which one, by taste and training a soldier, could not easily adjust. Besides, the internal affairs were much disordered when he came, matters which his successors took a long time to settle.

A kindly estimate of General St. Clair is quoted from Judge Moses’ "History" (Vol. 1, p. 212)

"He was brave in battle and faithful to his friends. He advanced large sums from his private means to sustain the Government in the darkest hour of the Revolution, as well as to defray the current expenses of the territorial government, which were never repaid him. His fortune, once a large one for the times in which he lived, had been mainly spent in the service of his Country, and he found himself in his old age reduced from affluence to poverty, until at the age of eighty-four years" (in 1818, that in which Illinois became a State) "he closed his days in a log cabin in Pennsylvania, a striking illustration of the proverbial ‘ingratitude of republics.’"

Following a period of what consists somewhat of tradition the real history of Chicago begins with John Kinzie. It is to be observed that Mr. Kinzie came to what grew to be Chicago the same year in which Captain John Whistler arrived to undertake the building of Old Fort Dearborn. Here again our Army, as in many other instances, was a pioneer of civilization; for the Fort made this a seat of authority and commerce, to which the tribes and traders came.

John Kinzie was the only son of his father, whose name was John McKenzie, a Scotchman. Like many other members of his race, he had made his way across the Atlantic, and at the time of his son’s birth, in 1763, the family lived in Quebec. That city then was the center of Canadian commerce with the posts and settlements of the entire St. Lawrence basin. There the hardy trapper, traveler, and fur-trader outfitted, and to it and from it went their expeditions. This was the atmosphere in which John McKinzie began his life. His father died when the son was an infant. The widow, some time afterward, married William Forsyth, a Scotchman of devout Presbyterian stock. Several children were born of this union, whose names appear in early Detroit and Chicago annals.

John Kinzie dropped the "Mc" from his name, and that of Kinzie was adopted, and has remained the family name ever since. Why this discontinuance of the "Mc" came about, we may only conjecture. It may have been because of the popular prejudice to anything savoring of British origin or relationship, as the feeling of the Americans then, and for a long time thereafter, was pronounced against Great Britain. But this has never since existed among Americans regarding Scotchmen.

Mrs. John H. Kinzie, the interesting and informing author of "Wau-Bun," who was John Kinzie’s accomplished daughter-in-law, says that he was "of an enterprising and adventurous disposition," as well he might be with such a progenitor, and with such surroundings as were in Quebec and Detroit. When the Forsyths lived in Detroit, Mrs. Kinzie states, John Kinzie "entered the Indian trade, and had establishments at Sandusky and Maumee, and afterward pushed further west about the year 1800, to St. Joseph" (Michigan). But the lure was still westward, and he came to Illinois in 1808 to look the ground over with a view to settlement. In 1804 he brought here his wife and son, John H. Kinzie.

As to why he chose Chicago, instead of remaining in the St. Joseph river region, we may reasonably make inferences. It has already been intimated that his coming to Chicago was nearly that of the arrival of Captain Whistler who built Old Fort Dearborn. Captain Whistler also came from Detroit. It is not unlikely that Mr. Kinzie was aware of the work to be undertaken by Captain Whistler for the War Department. He certainly perceived the strategic position of the new military post. It was on the lake; a stream was here; the portage from Lake Michigan to the inland river and country was made at or near this point; here several affiliated tribes made their headquarters; and from here the red-men of Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin could be brought into trading relations. The Indians who hunted and fished in what are now Southwestern Michigan and Northern Indiana were within easy reach of the new fort, and with these he had already established friendly relations.

At Chicago, the military post then was everything. There were only a few log-houses outside of it. The fort afforded some society and conveniences which an isolated Indian post lacked. Mr. Kinzie may have had a dream of a future center, for it would surprise none to learn how often the pioneers were also prophets. His active mind and enterprising spirit again readily expressed themselves. Soon he had established stations for trade among the tribes on the Illinois, and on the Kankakee, and among the Menominee Indians in Wisconsin.

We may obtain a picture of the life of an Indian trader from Mrs. John H. Kinzie, who wrote:

"Each trading post had its superintendent and its complement of engages, its train of pack-horses, and its equipment of boats and canoes. From most of the stations the ‘furs and peltries’ were brought to Chicago on pack-horses, and the goods necessary for the trader were transported in return by the same method. The vessels came in the Spring and fall (seldom more than two or three annually) to bring the supplies and goods for the trade, and took the furs already collected to Mackinac, the depot of the Southwest and American Fur Companies. At other seasons they were sent to that place in boats, coasting around the lakes."

Mr. Kinzie possessed qualities which secured for him the friendship of many of the chiefs of the tribes inhabiting this region. In periods of peril, as during the year 1812, that of the "Fort Dearborn Massacre," this friendship stood him in good stead. He could speak their language. Indeed, there is a tradition that he prepared some books of an educational nature of the Winnebagoes, as well as of the Wyandots or Hurons.

After the troubles of 1812, covering an interval of three or four years, he returned to Chicago and resumed his activities. Fort Dearborn had meanwhile been rebuilt, this time on a larger scale. It was for years alternately abandoned and occupied on account of the Indian troubles, its final evacuation taking place in 1836. Mr. Kinzie died January 6, 1828. His descendants became honored and prominent citizens of Chicago. A leading street, a public school, and a land addition of Chicago bear his name; and, as has been said, historians call him "the Father of Chicago," as he was its first permanent civilian white settler.

From the days of Father Marquette, the heralds of the Cross had large part in the opening up of the North-West. Their devotion was proverbial. No tribe was too hostile to deter them from attempting its conversion. No journey was too dangerous to keep them from the prosecution of their self-sacrificing task. As explorers, they not only accompanied as spiritual advisers Joliet and La Salle, but also often themselves were far in advance of these adventurous men.

When the Territory had passed beyond the era of trapper and trader, and became the home of the permanent white settler; the Missionaries of the Gospel ministered to the people in the distant and isolated communities.

One of these splendid men was John Clark. Of him, Dr. Peter Ross (in his work on "The Scot in America," pp. 160-1), says:

"Turn to a lay preacher who did magnificent work for the Master in his day and generation, and around whose name many fragrant memories yet linger. This was John Clark, better known as "Father Clark," whose only educational training was that which he received in the school of his native parish of Petty, near Inverness (Scotland). He was born in 1738, and in early life is said to have been a sailor. In the course of one voyage he landed in America, and concluded to associate his future with it. He settled for a time in South Carolina, where he taught a backwoods log-school, and then moved to Georgia, where he joined the Methodist Church, and became a "class-leader." In 1789 he became an itinerant preacher in connection with the Methodist body. He was a man of devout spirit, outspoken in his views, and ready to denounce wrong wherever he found it, without regard to church affiliation, general policy, or self-interest." As might be expected, he was a bitter foe to slavery, and it is on record that he twice refused to accept his annual salary of $60 because the money was obtained through slave labor."

"Father Clark" made his way to Illinois. Here he taught school, and preached when opportunity arose. He quitted the Methodist Church, and joined an anti-slavery organization, known as the "Baptized Church of Christ, Friends of Humanity," and labored as a traveling evangelist. It is stated of him (Judge Moses’ "History," vol. I, p. 235), that he was the first Protestant minister to cross the Mississippi, and to preach to the Americans there in 1798. He died in St. Louis in 1833.

One of the great preachers of the Methodist Episcopal Church in modern times was the late Bishop Robert McIntyre. His career was remarkable. By birth and ancestry Scottish, he worked as a brick-mason until he reached man’s estate. When the call to preach came, he was laboring with the trowel. It involved a mighty soul struggle. Once over and settled, he threw himself into the work with a zeal that knew no obstacles. It was as if the fires of his spirit had been lighted at the divine altars. Here was a field for his imaginative spirit to soar in. He became minister, preacher, evangelist, orator. In spiritual fervor, opulence of reference, aptness and abundance of illustration, finish of expression, and force of utterance, he was a marvel in pulpit or on platform. Few if any of the preachers of the denomination—always noted for its preachers—could be classed with him. The older people who heard him were reminded of that other great Methodist Episcopal preacher, Bishop Simpson, also a Scot. Before he was chosen a bishop Dr. McIntyre was for years pastor of an influential and large church in Chicago-St. James: M. E.—which has contributed four bishops to the denomination, and. has had many other strong preachers in its pastorate.

Bishop Wm. E. McLaren, of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Chicago, was the son of a Scotch descended Presbyterian minister who was well known and highly esteemed in his denomination. The bishop was rector of a large church in Cleveland when he elected and confirmed as bishop in succession to Bishop Whitehouse, who was a scholar and administrator of eminence in his time. The career of Bishop McLaren in Illinois was marked for its uniform success, the admirable spirit which he manifested, and for the growth of the church throughout his jurisdiction.

John Laurie was a Scotchman who came to Illinois in the first third of the nineteenth century. He settled on a farm in Morgan County. He had several sons, three of whom were educated in whole or in part in Illinois College, Jacksonville, and all three became ministers. Thomas the oldest, was born in what the Scots delight to call "the Athens of the North"—the city of Edinburgh. He was scarcely ten years of age when he came with his family to the United States. Graduating from college in 1838, he resolved to devote himself to religious service in foreign lands. The field to which he was assigned was inhabited by that interesting people, the Nestorians, among whom he labored until his health compelled him to relinquish what he had hoped would be a life-work. Upon his return to the United States, and the restoration of some degree of strength, he preached, and wrote: one of his books was entitled, "Dr. Grant and the Mountain Nestorians" which passed through several editions. Inglis, the second son, held pastorates in Minnesota. James completed his literary course at Williams College, and went to Andover for his theological training, becoming a minister of prominence in his day. There were other Sons who were farmers, respected and useful citizens in their community.

President Charles M. Stuart, of Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, the Methodist Episcopal Theological Seminary (whose career is indicated elsewhere), is one of the Scottish leaders of his denomination whose services in behalf of education and ministerial training are widely known and appreciated.

Of "well-kenned" (well-known) Scottish ministers there have been many, and of "leal-hearted" ones not a few, who have occupied the pulpits of Illinois. As preachers, they were counted theologically sound, but not by any means only "sound." To give even a limited list of them would be as difficult as to condense into a paragraph Dr. McCosh’s two volumes on "Realistic Philosophy," or to summarize the "Shorter Catechism" into a sentence. Some of them used until the last the "Doric," as the Scots’ language—for it is a distinct language—is affectionately designated by the natives of the land of the heather. But the majority adapted themselves readily to the speech of their new country, with perhaps just a gentle flavor of their own to make it attractive.

Rev. Wm. Horace Day, D. D., son of the late Rev. Dr. Warren Day, formerly of Ottawa, Illinois, is Moderator (1919) of the National Council of Congregational Churches of the United States. He is the grandson on his maternal side of a Scot; "Dr. Day is now minister of the leading Congregational Church in Bridgeport, Conn. Another man of Scots’ birth and lineage, who was Moderator of that body (1907-1910), is a resident of Cook County, Illinois, and was Moderator of the Illinois State Congregational Association in 1899-1900, and has been a State Senator. His home is in LaGrange, Illinois.

Rev. John M. Farris, some fifty odd years ago, was one of the best known and highly esteemed ministers of the Old School Presbyterian Church in all this territory. He served with success and satisfaction as financial representative of the then North-Western Presbyterian (now the McCormick) Theological Seminary. He was an Ulster-Scot, the worthy son of stalwart ancestry. His home in the later period of his life was at Anna, Union County, where he devoted himself to horticulture. His son, Rev. Wm. W. Farris, a graduate of the old Chicago University and of the North-Western Presbyterian Theological Seminary, became a useful minister, and an author, as well as a frequent contributor to the periodical press of his time.

Rev. George C. Lorimer, D. D., for a number of years, was one of the most eloquent and engaging pulpit orators of Chicago. A Scot, he was an adopted American, whose loyalty and learning made him a power for civic betterment and moral uplift throughout his extended pastorate of one of the leading and most influential Baptist Churches in the Garden City. As a lecturer he was sought from far and near. As a preacher he is remembered with Dr. O. H. Tiffany, Bishop Charles

H. Powler, Bishop Robert McIntyre, Dr. W. H. Ryder, Dr. Herrick Johnson, Dr. Robert Collyer, Prof. David Swing, Dr. Robert W. Patterson, Dr. B. M. Hatfield, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Dr. J. P. Gulliver, Dr. Brooke Herford, Bishop Chas. E. Cheney, Dr. E. P. Goodwin, Dr. Clinton Locke, Dr. F. A. Noble, and others who in their time were outstanding leaders in their several churches.

Among the settlers who came to southern Illinois during the first quarter of the nineteenth century, no group furnished more sturdy, independent, successful, religious, law-abiding citizens that did the Reformed Presbyterians. The name by which they were popularly known was "Covenanters." They were, to a man, woman, and child, Scotch and Ulster-Scotch.

The Covenanter was a product of the despotism of the House of Stuart upon a people who had an over-mastering zeal for civil and religious liberty. This conviction followed the Covenanter in his migration overseas. It made him the foe of slavery, and the apostle of freedom. When the attempt was made in Governor Coles’ administration, to have slavery formally recognized by law and established in Illinois, the Covenanters, who had made their homes in Randolph County, at once ranged themselves among the anti-slavery people, and by voice and vote did their full share in deciding, once for all, to make, and to keep, Illinois a free State.

In their public worship, these intelligent, earnest, courageous, useful, liberty-loving citizens used in their praise service the "Psalms in Meter," and the "Paraphrases," that is, Bible themes set forth in verse. In their public worship they stood while prayers were offered, and they sat while they sung. They eschewed instrumental music in their public worship and would allow no "kist of whistles" to lead their singing. They believed in a national as well as a personal conscience, in the existence and consequences of national as well as personal repentance, and in personal supplications.

Some sixty years ago, or so, there were in Cook County two Reformed Presbyterian Congregations. Though relatively small, it is remarkable how productive they were in developing denominational leadership. Indeed, this fact is to be noted in connection with the little churches throughout this State. Church leaders almost as a rule have come out of the small or rural, not the large or city churches.

Out of the church of the Covenanters in Chicago, and that—an Old School Presbyterian Church—into which it grew, came a group who were leaders in religious, benevolent, and educational fields. Its minister was an Ulster-Scot. Rev. Robert Patterson, D. D., not to be taken for Rev. Robert W. Patterson, D. D., who for many years was minister of the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago, and who was reared in Bond County, Illinois, and was educated at Illinois College, Jacksonville. Three of the young men may he named who were products of this Covenanter and Old School Church—John C. Hill became a missionary to Guatemala, after which he returned to the United States, and preached in Illinois; for some time he has been in a leading church in Ohio. John Currer and Alexander Patterson, sons of the ministers, have long since finished their work here. Mr. Currer came from a Dumfermline, Scotland, family; preached in Hebron, Illinois, in Girard, Kan., and in LeSuer, Minn., Mr. Patterson devoted himself first to evangelistic service, then became a denominational educator, and the author of several bible-text books. Miss Lillian Horton, who was a member of the later—the Old School—church, went to Korea as a missionary. It is worthy of note that in this church also, in his earlier life, was the late Thomas Templeton of Evanston, who for years was prominently connected with the Marshall Field Company, and who left provisions in his will for the disposition of about a million of dollars for denominational and charitable purposes. The late James Crighton, for a third of a century a member of the Chicago Board of Trade, another young man of this church, for more than twenty-five years was superintendent of one of the most important city missions of the Presbyterian denomination. This little church had in its membership a number of well-known and successful teachers. One member became an editor and a State Senator, and, as elsewhere intimated, Moderator of the National Congregational Council (1907-1910).

The other church was in the town of Bloom, Cook County, whose minister was Rev. Mr. Phillips. In this church was reared the late State Senator William J. Campbell, of Chicago and Riverside, who, during the administration of Governor John M. Hamilton, was President of the State Senate, and thus was Lieutenant-Governor; was prominent lawyer; and was a member of the National Committee from Illinois of his party.

The interesting group of people whom we know as Covenanters may not be passed without the recital of an incident illustrative of the manner in which they expressed their convictions. It is published in a pamphlet issued in 1918, by the "Sunday School Times Company," in which is a discourse by Rev. Paul Rader, pastor of the Moody Church, Chicago, entitled, "How Lincoln Led the Nation to Its Knees." Mr. Bader said:

"Thank God for the little group of men in Ohio who could see God’s ways well enough to meet for deliberation and prayer, and for the company in Sparta, Illinois, who adopted this pledge: ‘To labor to bring the Nation to repentance toward God, and to a faithful administration of the Government according to the principles of the Word of God."

Under the provisions of, and by request of the United States Senate, expressed in resolutions introduced by Senator James Harlan, of Iowa, President Lincoln issued a proclamation, dated March 30, 1863, setting apart April 30, 1863, "as a day of National humiliation, fasting, and prayer," and requesting "all the people to abstain on that day from their ordinary secular pursuits, and to unite at their several places of public worship and their respective homes, in keeping this day holy to the Lord and devoted to the humble discharge of the religious duties proper to that solemn occasion."

These were "the darkest days" of the Civil War. Mr. Bader adds:

"The day of prayer came April 30. In a little more than two months the sky was flooded with decisive victory. By the morning of the 5th of July, Lee was on his way in retreat to the Potomac with one-quarter of his whole army gone, and seventeen miles of wagons with the wounded. Vicksburg had fallen, and there was the victory of Gettysburg."

This is the interpretation given the gloom and the succeeding light of 1863. In his proclamation, fixing August 6 as a day of Thanksgiving, President Lincoln said: "It has pleased Almighty God to hearken to the supplications and prayers of an afflicted people, and to vouchsafe to the Army and Navy of the United States victories on land and sea so signal and effective as to furnish reasonable grounds for augmented confidence that the Union of these states will be maintained, their Constitution preserved, and their peace and prosperity permanently restored."

Rev. W. J. Smiley, of Sparta, states of Rev. Samuel Wylie that he planted the Reformed Presbyterian Church there. Mr. Wylie was an Ulster-Scot, having been born in Antrim, February 19, 1790. Concerning the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Mr. Smiley remarks: "Her influence for liberty has been felt, and her testimony against slavery, lifted up at the close of the last century, (since 1800 no slave-holder was retained in her communion), has been vindicated."

With the "Covenanters" here, sixty years ago, the "Communion Season" was the important semi-annual event. It was observed in the spring and autumn. Usually the resident minister was assisted in this sacrament by one other clergyman. The preparation was serious and thorough. The minister and elders, who comprised the "session," carefully examined all applicants for membership. Those who came for the first time were well-versed in the Bible and the "Shorter Catechism." So far as recalled, there was no "Lachlan Campbell," of "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush" fame, to be grand inquisitor of the young and timorous. The week preceding the "Lord’s Supper Sabbath"—for it was never known by the pagan name of "Sunday"—was devoted to special preparatory services. In some parishes there was a "fast day," and it was a real "fast." Each intending communicant was given a "token." which entitled its holder to a seat at the Communion-table; for a table occupied the space between the front row of pews and the pulpit. It was covered with a spotless table-cloth. The communicants moved down from their pews by the right-hand aisle, with slow and solemn step. The "precentor" led in the singing of a Psalm in meter, to some impressive tune familiar to all. At the end of the aisle two elders stood, and to them each communicant handed the "token." The officiating minister occupied a seat in the center of the table facing the congregation. When the seats were filled, the minister began the service with prayer; then a short discourse; after which the "elements" were distributed. When all were partaken of, the "precentor" resumed the singing, the communicants arose, slowly moved out of their places by the left-hand circle, while another group or company came down the right-hand aisle, and took the vacated seats. These exercises made the service a lengthened one, for it was the only worship in the church that Sabbath-day.

On such days there were no "hot dinners" in the family. Indeed, all Sabbath preparations were always completed on Saturday night. "Thou shalt cut neither horn nor hair on the Sabbath-day" was faithfully observed. All bathing, changing of linen, polishing of shoes, and making ready for Sabbath meals as far as possible, were completed the evening before. Hence, on Sabbath morning, the Sabbath garb was assumed without hurry, and the worshipper did not need to rush into church on Sabbath morning "as a warrior hasting to the battle-field."

The Bible was carried to church. In the back part of it were the "Psalms in meter" and the "Paraphrases." When the minister read the "Scripture lesson," each member turned to the chapter, and carefully followed the reading. There was a running exposition of the passage. Where some difficult verse appeared, it was critically explained, and the meanings of the original Hebrew or Greek given. The sermon was rarely less than from a hour to an hour and a quarter in length. It was preached without manuscript, or even "notes." It abounded in analyses; the historical setting was given; there were from three to five main "heads" each with as many subdivisions; it was delivered with clearness and fervor; throughout it was scholarly; closing with a recapitulation, and the powerful application. It contained sufficient material to keep the congregation busy until the next "diet of preaching."

The records of the first schools in Illinois are fragmentary. The county histories, for the most part make only incidental mention of the early teachers. They are composed of accounts of the methods of forming "subscription schools," as they were called: that is, where petitions and subscription papers were circulated by persons who desired to "take up" or to "keep schools ;" with descriptions of the crude quarters in which the schools were held; and with certain picturesque features which prevailed.

That was before the establishing of free public schools. The compilers of the local annals of long ago emphasize the popular phrase that "lickin and larnin" then invariably went together. They relate interesting tales of the "loud schools," or, as they used to call them in Kentucky, the "blab schools ;" that is, where the pupils studied their lessons aloud,—a type which long preceded the "silent schools" of our day. Several of these histories contain references to schools which were "kept" by men who had served with Gen. George Rogers Clark during his conquest of Illinois.

One of the pioneer teachers was Rev. John Clark (see the section on Religion" for his sketch), a Scotchman, who, about 1805-6, labored with much usefulness in this behalf among the settlers.

The venerable author, the late Dr. Samuel Willard, in his "Brief History of Early Education in Illinois" (published by State Superintendent Henry Raab in the fifteenth biennial report, 1884, pp. XCVIIICXX), states that Randolph County, the home of many of the Scotch Covenanters, followed close upon Monroe County in establishing schools, in 1805-6 and in 1817. He adds, that, in 1821, a school was taught near Sparta, a center of these Scots. In St. Clair County, in 1811, a school was opened at Shiloh, and the Scotch settlement.

It was not however, until 1824, or six years after the admission of Illinois into the Union, that any definite action was taken by the State for the creation and maintenance of free public schools. This measure was introduced into the General Assembly by State Senator Joseph Duncan who later served three terms in the United States Congress, and was elected Governor of Illinois.

Governor Duncan was born on February 22, 1774, in Paris, Ky. His father was Major Joseph Duncan, a native of Virginia of Scotch ancestry. The home of the Duncans was Kirkcudbright, in southwestern Scotland. His daughter, the late Mrs. E. P. (Julia Duncan) Kirby, of Jacksonville, preserved among her family treasures a picture of Kirkcudbright, which the writer has often seen, and of which that lady frequently spoke with pride, as showing the nativity of her father’s ancestry.

The Duncan Act of 1824 was for the establishment and support of free common schools in Illinois. It became a law. However, it was far in advance of its time, and was subsequently repealed. It "led in 1854-55, to the passage of a bill prepared by Ninian W. Edwards, for the system of common schools which we now have, and the provisions of which are similar to those of the law adopted in 1824 of which Senator Duncan was the author" (Mrs. Kirby’s "Sketch," p. 34).

Although his measure had been nullified, Governor Duncan did not cease to advocate the advisability and necessity of popular education. In his inaugural address as Governor he devoted a large part to a "discussion of the benefits to be derived from the establishment of a system of public schools, which he strongly recommended" (Judge Moses, "History," vol. 1, p. 402).

For many years the Governor was a trustee of Illinois College, Jacksonville, founded in 1829. To its support he was always a liberal contributor; a deep interest which his daughter and her husband (Judge and Mrs. E. P. Kirby) maintained to the end.

Among the pioneer-educators of Cook County the name of Stephen Forbes holds an honored place. He was of Scottish ancestry. Assisted by his wife, who was a true help-mate, he opened a school in Chicago in June, 1830, near Michigan Avenue and Randolph Street, not quite two squares south of Old Fort Dearborn. He was engaged by Colonel Beaubien and Lieut. David Hunter, who was of Scotch descent, and who was afterwards a general in the U. S. Army. Mr. Forbes’ school had some twenty-five pupils, children of families connected with the Fort and of civilians residing near by.

Hon. William H. Wells, who sixty years ago was superintendent of Chicago’s public schools, and who was a competent authority on the subject, wrote a history of early education in Chicago. Of Mr. Forbes’ school, Mr. Wells said: "This, no doubt, deserves to be recognized as the first school in Chicago above the rank of a family school."

Scots claim a share in the honor of the services accomplished for popular and higher education by the dean of Illinois schoolmen, Dr. Newton Bateman. His ancestry is traced by his biographer, Paul Selby, both to English and Scotch sources. Educated at Illinois College, he was successively teacher, principal, county superintendent, and professor. In 1858 he was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, a position which literally he filled for fourteen years, the longest term that office was ever held by any one. Later, Dr. Bateman was President of Knox College, Galesburg (1875-1893), and then became President-Emeritus. His activities included the editorship of educational journals. He was one of three to found the National Bureau of Education. Of his seven biennial reports as State Superintendent, it may be recalled that, in whole or in part, they have been republished in five different languages in Europe, and that his volume of "Common School Decisions," issued originally by order of the Legislature, is "recognized by the courts, and is still regarded as authority on the subject" (Paul Selby, in "Illinois, Historical and Statistical"). It was during Dr. Bateman’s State Superintendency that our public school establishment as it exists, was really established and developed along the lines marked out by State Senator Duncan. Dr. Bateman’s State reports are classics. They contain a wealth of information, a source of inspiration, and a breadth of view never surpassed, if ever equalled, as official publications in the Mississippi Valley, or elsewhere, since the time of Horace Mann.

The old Chicago University was for years one of the cherished institutions of the city. In its beginnings it was called the Douglas University. In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, who was of Scotch descent, donated a tract of land, along Cottage Grove Avenue, at Thirty-third street, for an institution of learning. A provision was attached to the gift, that $100,000 be raised to erect buildings thereon. On July 4, 1857, the corner-stone of the main building was laid. This was the year of the disastrous financial panic, which seriously crippled many of its friends. Senator Douglas, in view of the conditions, extended the time in which to secure the necessary building funds, and subsequently deeded the land to the university without reserve. The institution had many vicissitudes, between the panic and the Civil War, and at last had to succumb. The idea, however, never failed, for a few years after its close was born the present University of Chicago. The alumni of the old university include not a few distinguished men.

A Presbyterian of Ulster-Scot ancestry was engaged, some three-score years ago, in extending his already large manufacturing business throughout the Middle West. He was a man whose principle was that "there was religion in his business and business in his religion." He was deeply impressed by "the rough immorality of the new settlement." These places, he conceived, needed more and better-trained ministers. It came to him as a real "call" that he should do something to help this want. He sprung from a family and race of earnest, intelligent, God-fearing people, and to see a spiritual or moral need, was to find and to provide means to meet it. This was the ideal which Cyrus Hall McCormick entertained when, in 1859, he offered $100,000—then considered a princely sum—to establish a Presbyterian Theological Seminary, in the city where he had made his money and his home. It was at first called the North-Western Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Such were Mr. McCormick’s large gifts to and interest in it, that later it was named in his honor. The life of Mr. McCormick is a history of industry, genius, vision, public spirit, devotion, and generosity—an example which his widow and children have fully maintained in their continued and large contributions to educational, religious, and philanthropic objects.

Blackburn University, at Carlinville, was named after Rev. Dr. Gideon Blackburn, a minister of the then New School Presbyterian denomination. Born in Virginia, August 27, 1772, his father was Robert Blackburn, and his mother was a member of a well-known family named Richie. Both parents were Ulster-Scots, and devout Presybterians. At the age of twenty-one he was licensed to preach. Beside becoming a minister, all his life he was deeply interested in education, especially in the higher branches. In the decade from 1830 to 1840, Illinois made great advances in the building of churches, schools, and colleges. During that period Dr. Blackburn was the financial agent of Illinois College at Jacksonville. In 1837, he conceived the idea for an institution of learning, which, in 1857, was formally incorporated, and for a time had courses of study especially adapted to young men preparing for the ministry. The curriculum later was extended so as to include preparatory and collegiate departments. It was another instance of "one sowing and another reaping," for Dr. Blackburn died in 1838; as well as an illustration of that other saying of a good man’s works following him. Not only in the institution was this true. Two of his Sons became ministers, and a third would have been had he lived. Of Dr. Blackburn, it has been said that of "all the men who ever lived and labored for the benefit of Macoupin County, he stands in the foreground ;" also, that "he was a man among men, and a man of God." His influence has been widely felt for four-fifths of a century, and will continue while Blackburn University lives and bears his name.

Monmouth College, at Monmouth, Warren County, is the product of pioneer Scotch Presbyterians. Its founders were two ministers of vision and devotion. They were Rev. J. C. Porter, pastor of Cedar Creek, and Rev. Robert Ross, pastor of South Henderson. In 1852, they conceived the plan of founding an educational institution for higher scholarship on the rich prairies of Western Illinois. In this enterprise, they had, as might be expected, the hearty indorsement and support of their denomination of stalwart United Presbyterians. In 1853, it was opened as an academy, and. two years later steps were taken to raise it to the rank of a college. In 1857, it was granted a charter. The year before Rev. David A. Wallace, D. D., LL. D., had been elected its President. Dr. Wallace had faithfully ministered to Scottish churches in New England, and was one of the clergymen who were prominent in combining several bodies which took the name of United Presbyterian. For twenty-two years he was its executive head. His successor was Rev. J. B. McMichael, D. D., who was president for nineteen years. These two able educators were respectively founder and builder. The endowment was increased under the presidency of Rev. S. R. Lyons, D. D. The present President, Rev. R. H. McMichael, D. D., is the worthy son of the former executive, and for more than sixteen years has with unvarying success conducted its affairs. The college has eighteen hundred in its alumni; many others have received their training there; forty-five per cent of its young men have entered the ministry; a fifth of the ministers of the United Presbyterian denomination are Monmouth College men; over fifty have gone into foreign missionary work; and others have entered the learned professions in forty-three of the forty-eight states, and five hundred of its youth have been with the Colors in the recent European conflict; while two hundred-fifty of its young men went into the Civil War. In the list of graduates are: Maj. R. W. McClaughry, the noted penologist; and John M. Glenn, the able secretary of the Illinois Manufacturer’s Association, Chicago.

McKendree College, at Lebanon, is one of the group of colleges begun in the early "30’s." The others were Illinois College at Jacksonville, and Shurtleff College at Upper Alton. That was an era of great intellectual activity in southwestern Illinois. Many new settlers had come and were arriving from the East. In the latter "30’s" financial clouds had begun to darken the State’s horizon. However, school, college, and church building progressed rapidly. Among the institutions founded during the decade from 1830 to 1840, was McKendree College, which at first was named McKendreean College, The Methodists, as is their custom, were energetic and thoroughly alive to the needs of the situation. Of the leader for whom McKendree College was named, Bishop E. E. Hoss thus writes in his biography of Bishop William McKendree:

"If anything at all has been preserved concerning his (Bishop McKendree’s) progenitors, it has wholly escaped my search. The family name, however, shows that they were of Scotch origin, though, as was the case with thousands of others of the same blood, they probably reached America by way of the north of Ireland. The transplanted Scotchmen are a masterful race."

The Armour Institute, of Chicago, ranks high in the educational world. As has been aptly expressed, "Mr. Armour’s idea in manual training was, that all shall be taught and done so that muscles shall not be more thoroughly trained than the moral character, and the perception of truth and beauty." The Institute has always had a close relation on the one side to the public school and on the other side to the university. Its founder was the late Philip Danforth Armour. His birthplace was Stockbridge, Madison County, N. Y., where he was born May 16, 1832. His father was descended from James Armour. That part of Scotland where the Armours have lived for generations is Argyllshire. The chief city is Campbelltown, named after the powerful and noted Duke of Argyll’s family. The channel which here separates Argyllshire from Ulster is only twelve miles wide. The intercourse between the two countries for centuries has been easy and constant, as elsewhere indicated in this paper. Mr. Armour’s Ulster-Scottish ancestor came to America during the middle of the eighteenth century, and settled in New England; and his descendents removed to New York in 1825. Mr. Armour was one of the most widely known of Chicago’s great business men. He was a patron of art. His interest in higher practical education was deep and abiding. He was one of the most generous supporters of the Scottish organization known as the Illinois Saint Andrew Society. It was entirely through his benefactions that the Institute which bears his name was founded and endowed. His plans for the large ideals of the Institute have been well carried out by his son, J. Ogden Armour.

Every one who was a student in or acquainted with the University of Illinois during the first two score years of its history will remember Prof. Thomas J. Burrell. As of Virgil’s hero, it may be said of Professor Burrell that he himself was a great part of its achievements. He was the sympathetic adviser of the undergraduate, and to the end remained the friend of the alumni. Scots and their brethren, the Ulster-Scots, claim him, for his ancestry was in part of that blood. Born in the Bay State, he came with his family to Stephenson County, Illinois, where his father was a farmer. In former times the head of the University was called the Regent. When a vacancy came in this office, the Trustee’s urged him to accept it, but he was fully satisfied to continue a member of the faculty, although he was defacto President until the election of Dr. Draper. Educated in the State Normal, at Normal, during the "60’s", he had the good fortune, soon after graduation, to receive an appointment as botanist in one of the expeditions of Maj.

J. W. Powell, the noted geologist and anthropologist, whose explorations of the Colorado River and Canon form a thrilling chapter of Western history. Upon the organization of the University of Illinois, he was elected to a professorship, and was the first librarian of that institution. He closed his long and honorable career as a man loved and esteemed by all who had the privilege of knowing him.

Prof. David Kinley is one of the leading educators of the present generation. He occupies a position of distinction in the University of Illinois. His birthplace was Dundee, Scotland, where he was born August 2, 1861. In 1872 he came to the United States; was educated at Yale; pursued post-graduate studies at Johns Hopkins; and for a time taught in several well-known institutions. He has specialized in economics, and served on a number of international industrial and financial commissions. He is the author of several standard works, and has been a frequent contributor to the leading periodicals. His services as a University Dean led to his selection (1919) as acting-President of the University of Illinois during the year’s absence on leave of Dr. James. Professor Kinley is a loyal American whose affection for the homeland has made him a much-sought after speaker at Saint Andrew Society and other Scotch anniversaries.

When Chicago was nothing more than a straggling, struggling village, something like three-quarters of a century ago, Lyons Township had become a well-known settlement among the communities of Cook County. Its nearest corner to Chicago was a dozen miles to the southwest. So important had it grown, that in 1836 there assembled within its borders delegates to the first political convention ever held in the county. This meeting took place on the Vial farm, south of the present suburb of Western Springs. The meeting-place was a log house on the farm now owned by the venerable Robert Vial, who has lived on the identical spot for eighty-five years.

Opposite the Lyonsville Congregational Church, on the Joliet road, was built in the early "40’s" the first public school-house in the Township. It was of logs. One of those who helped to "raise" it was the late Samuel Vial, an older brother of Robert, then a young man. Its first teacher was Miss Margaret McNaughton, a Scotch lass, who came to America with her parents from Aberdeen. She became the wife of Samuel Vial, who died a nonagenarian, in October, 1911. One of their sons, the late George McNaughton Vial, became the Moderator of the Illinois State Congregational Conference, and was for many years a leader in the National Councils of the denomination. Joseph Vial, the other son, has been Township Treasurer for nineteen years.

In Chicago, Scots and the sons of Scots have contributed their part to the public school establishment of the city. This has been acknowledged by the Board of Education in the naming of at least twenty-seven of its largest grammar schools after distinguished Scots and descendents of Scotsmen. The services for popular education of Daniel R. Cameron, John McLaren, Graeme Stewart, and John J. Badenoch can scarcely be properly estimated by this generation. Mr. McLaren was for many years a trustee of the Lewis Institute, one of Chicago’s educational establishments.

To these annals should be added the names of Prof. Hugh McDonald Scott and Prof. Wm. Douglas Mackenzie. Both were Scotch, and both were members of the faculty of the Chicago Congregational Theological Seminary, at Union Park; both were preachers, teachers, and authors; and both were leaders in their denomination in their city, State, and Nation. Professor Scott was killed in a street-car accident; and Professor Mackenzie went from Chicago to become President of Hartford Theological Seminary, Connecticut, which office he still holds.

Another Scot, whom his countrymen delight to honor, is President Charles M. Stuart, of the Methodist Episcopal Theological Seminary at Evanston, known as Garrett Biblical Institute. President Stuart is a native of Glasgow; educated in its noted High School; graduated in 1880 at Kalamazoo College, and later at Garrett Biblical Institute; was assistant editor of the "Northwestern Christian Advocate" from 1888 to 1896, and its editor from 1908 to 1912; was Professor of Homiletics in Garrett Biblical Institute from 1896 to 1908; and has been its President since 1912; a record of educational and editorial service deserving of a large recognition in these chronicles.

The long, successful and satisfactory labors of President Thomas McClelland, late of Knox College, Galesburg, deserve an honored place in the college annals of Illinois. He is one of the sons of the sturdy Ulster-Scots, who have planted the church and the school side by side.

In Perry County, in early day, among the teachers mentioned are Francis Thompson McMillan and Martha McMillan. In Randolph County, at the Plum Creek settlement, we find among the Presbyterians who came from South Carolina those who had the "energetic traits which have marked the race in all parts of the United States." It is related that that staunch Covenanter, Rev. Samuel Wylie, "frequently had private students," probably preparing for the ministry. Adam Wylie, a brother, taught in 1833-5 at Sparta. It is related by S. B. Hood, that "in the summer of 1822 G. T. Ewing, afterwards a Covenanting minister, taught school in Section 9, east of Eden."

In the records of the early schools in McDonough County are to be found the names of Scots who did good service in building up education throughout the "Military Tract." And this is duplicated in many other counties and districts.

The story of the early publications of Illinois is that of change in ownership, editorship, places of issue, policies, and affiliations. The small and scattered settlements of pioneer days, and the scarcity of money, were not conducive to their sustained and substantial support. The news of the separated communities found among its most efficient disseminators the traveling preachers or circuit-riders, and the itinerant peddlers. These, with their more or less novel narratives and unusual tales, were welcome visitors in the log-cabin and the wayside tavern.

In those times the habit, now practically universal, of subscribing for, and of reading, the local paper had not been acquired. Touching authorship, as at present understood, there was little if any in Illinois, unless we except the well written and useful works of Morris Birkbeck and George Flower, of the English colony of Edwards County.

The excellent sketch of Governor Joseph Duncan ("Fergus’ Historical Series," No. 29), by his daughter, the late Mrs. Julia Duncan Kirby, of Jacksonville, contains the following:

"Capt. Matthew Duncan" (Governor Duncan’s brother) was educated at Yale College, and after completing his education, and returning to his native state "(Kentucky) ," he for a time edited a paper in Russellville, Ky., called "The Mirror." On removing to Illinois, in 1814, he edited and published at Kaskaskia "The Illinois Herald," the first newspaper published in Illinois. In December, 1814, he published the first book or pamphlet that was published in the State. In June, 1815, he published the first volume of what was known as "Pope’s Digest." In 1817, Matthew Duncan sold his paper to Daniel P. Cook and Robert Blackwell. He abandoned journalism and entered the army. He resigned after four years of service, and engaged in business in Shelbyville, Illinois, where he died January 16, 1844, only a few hours after Governor Duncan, neither knowing of the illness of the other. "For the Scotch ancestry of Matthew, see the sketch of Governor Duncan given elsewhere in this paper.

Other historians state that Matthew Duncan "brought a press and a primitive printer’s outfit from the state" (Kentucky). Hooper Warren, who was the founder of the third paper established in Illinois, affirms that Duncan’s press "was for years only used for public printing." The oldest issue of "The Illinois Herald" known to be in existence is Vol. I, No. 30, and bears date December 13, 1814. It was a three-column paper. When Cook and Blackwell acquired it, they changed it to "The Intelligencer," and increased it to four columns. In 1820, it followed the State Capitol from Kaskaskia to Vandalia.

Robert Goudy (writes Hon. Ensley Moore), of Jacksonville, Illinois, in "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society," 1907, pp. 315-23), was presumably born in the neighborhood of Armagh, County Tyrone, which is in the province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, November 2, 1785. The Goudies were, and are to be found in Ayrshire, next to Wigtownshire and Argyllshire, Scotland, the nearest to that part of Ireland where the Protestant population is largest and where lived the Ulster-Scots. The Scotch poet Robert Burns had a friend, "John Goudie, the terror of the Whigs," to whom he addressed some characteristic verses. In the migrations of those who bore the name, it was variously written Goudie, Goudy, Gowdie and Gowdy. Mr. Goudy married Miss Jane Ansley, who was of Scotch descent. The Scottish spelling of the name was and is Ainslie. Like many others, it too was changed, as it were, in transportation finally to Ensley. Mr. Goudy early learned the art of printing. The family lived for a time in Indiana, and in June, 1832, came to Illinois, settling in 1833 in Jacksonville. It is believed that he, like Duncan, brought with him his printing plant. In 1834 he published "The News" in Jacksonville. The same year was issued from the Goudy press "Peck’s Gazetteer of Illinois," a book, now rare, that became an authority, and, aside from official publications, probably the first book printed and bound in Illinois. Then began the publication of "Goudy’s Farmer’s Almanac," which contained much varied and valuable information. Mr. and Mrs. Goudy had nine children, all of whom were to become noted in their respective homes and walks of life."

Hon. Calvin Goudy, M. D., was their second child. When Jacksonville became their home, he attended Illinois College, and had among his associates, War-Governor Richard Yates, and Rev. Robert W. Patterson, D. D., long the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago, whose sons, Robert W., and Raymond were prominent newspaper men, the first the editor, the other the Washington correspondent, of the "Chicago Tribune." In conjunction with a brother, probably Ensley T., in 1837, Calvin published the "Common School Advocate," the first journal of its class in the west. He studied medicine, and practiced his profession in Taylorville, Christian County. In 1850 he was elected to the Legislature, and, as indicated elsewhere, took an active part in educational advancement. He died March 8, 1877. His services in promoting education and periodical literature were many and useful. Of his distinguished brother, Hon. W. C. Goudy, mention is made in that section of this paper entitled "Bench and Bar."

The growth of the newspaper business in Illinois from 1830 to 1900 has been marvelous. During the first half of this seventy-year period it is impossible now to trace the antecedents of their founders, owners, and editors in the State at large.

As Chicago developed, there were long connected with its press numbers of Scots whose writings in their specialties made them noted. A few may be mentioned.

James Ballantyne, during the Civil War decade, was an authority on financial and commercial matters. His department on the old "Republican" was a standard.

James Chisholm, before and after the Great Fire of 1871, was a dramatic critic of local fame. His articles in the "Inter Ocean" were universally read by the theatrical world. The weekly review which he prepared and published under the whimsical pseudonym of "John Barleycorn" were inimitable, "pawky ;" delightful for their wit, with a flavor and expression that reminded one of Charles Lamb.

E. N. Lamont, writer for the same paper, was a man of rare attainments, retiring, with a fine, graceful style, an essayist whose counterpart is George P. Upton, so long one of the charming contributors to the columns of the "Tribune." Lamont’s book-reviews were unexcelled for discrimination and taste. He had no superior as a literary Scot in the Garden City.

At one time on the writing staff of the "Inter Ocean" alone there were no fewer than five Scots and descendants of Scots. Indeed in that journalistic group. Virgil’s well-known line was playfully paraphrased to the "cultivating of literature on a little oat-meal."

In the circle of the religious press of that period was Rev. E. Erskine, who edited the "North-Western Presbyterian" an influential publication of the denomination: genial, alert, capable, a preacher who was also an excellent editor.

Cyrus Hall McCormick, once owner of the "Times," before Wilbur F. Storey’s advent, founded and maintained the brilliant "Interior," whose editor, Dr. Wm. C. Gray, in his day was next to Dr. J. A. Adams, of the Congregational "Advance," the best paragrapher on the American religious press.

Dr. Charles M. Stuart, long associate editor, then editor, of Methodist Episcopal "North-Western Christian Advocate," published in Chicago, was a journalist who ranked with Erskine, Gray, and Adams.

Gen. Daniel Cameron, who always retained the "burr" of the "r’ in the heather-r-r, was a virile editorial writer, who a half century ago was a political, as well as a journalistic power in northern Illinois. His brother, A. C. Cameron, was long a prominent local publisher of newspapers.

In these latter days the Scots in Illinois and throughout the North-West take great pleasure in recalling the useful and esteemed George Sutherland, of the "Western British American ;" courteous, courageous, quiet, pure, he was beloved of all.

In a county history of 1883, appears the following: "D. F. McMillan began the publication of the ‘Randolph County Record’ at Sparta, May 28, 1844." It is said he went there from Kaskaskia in 1842, and removed to Chester in 1846. He was one of the few of the name in Illinois who were newspaper men.

The history of Illinois could not well be written were the names of Robert Fergus and his son, George Harris Fergus, omitted. In 1839, Robert Fergus issued the first directory of Chicago, and other similar works in subsequent years as late as that of 1857, including reprints of the same after the Great Fire of 1871. His son, George, was his close companion and cordial coadjutor from the early "60’s." Robert Fergus also printed the first decisions of the Illinois Supreme Court, known as "Scammon’s Reports."

Father and son published "The Fergus Historical Series" which embrace some forty volumes and pamphlets bearing on early Chicago, Illinois, and the North-West. Today "The Fergus Historical Series" comprise collectively the most authoritative history of pioneer days in Chicago and the State. The complete "Illinois: Historical and Statistical," by the late Judge John Moses, is a work in two volumes of over 1,300 pages, and was published through the sole enterprise of George Fergus.

Both Robert and George Harris Fergus, all their active and useful lives, were deeply interested in civic betterment. Although neither of them ever held public office, both—Robert from 1839 to 1860 and George from 1860 to 1911—were up-building and influential factors in city, State, and National affairs, and were always on the side of good government.

Robert Fergus was born in Glasgow, Scotland, August 4, 1815. His father was John and his mother was Margaret Patterson (Aitken) Fergus. He was educated in the schools of his native city, and at the age of fourteen years entered the University Printing Office at Villafield. In those early days he "worked at the case" on Sir Walter Scott’s "Marmion," "The Lady of the Lake," and "The Lay of the Last Minstrel." He also took part in "setting up" Sturm’s "Reflections" and Meadow’s French, Italian and Spanish dictionaries. His training in the "art preservative," and in publishing was practical and thorough, and laid the foundation for his future career in Chicago, where he arrived one month prior to his twenty-fourth birthday, and where he lived for sixty years. His wife’s maiden name was Margaret Whitehead Scott, who, too, was a native of Glasgow, and was the daughter of James Scott, a merchant weaver and a burgess and freeman of the city. Mr. Fergus founded in Chicago the printing and publishing house that bore his name, and he continued actively in that business until his decease.

George Harris Fergus, their eldest son, was born in Chicago, September 1, 1840. He was educated in the public schools of the city, and became a partner of his father, and continued the business until his death, November 24, 1911.

During the late "50’s" George became a member of the famous company known as "Ellsworth’s Zouaves." When the first call for troops was issued by President Lincoln, he was appointed First Lieutenant of Company K, 11th New York Infantry, under Colonel Ellsworth. This command was mustered into service at Washington, D. C., May 7, 1861, and was the first regiment sworn in for the Civil War. Colonel Ellsworth, in the fall of 1860, entered the office of Mr. Lincoln at Springfield to study law, and accompanied the President-elect to Washington on the way to his inauguration. Lieutenant Fergus served with his regiment in May, 1861, when it was detailed to guard President Lincoln at the White House. He was present when Colonel Ellsworth, while attempting to haul down a Confederate flag, in Alexandria, Va., was shot, May 24, 1861. Mr. Fergus was married to Mary Electa Stocking on November 24, 1867. Mrs. Fergus is an honored resident of Chicago (April, 1919).

The characteristics of father and son are revealed in all their work. Both gave their lifetime to historical research and investigation, and their publications bear witness of their almost faultless accuracy. Robert Fergus was thoroughly Scottish, and George was as thoroughly American in spirit. They had much in common. Both were intense in thought and action. Robert was a great reader of the best literature. George was an esteemed companion to many famous men. George was direct, forcible, retiring, but always responsive, and ever master of himself. Both were true to their respective traditions—Scottish and American. In their useful careers, they exemplified the ancient motto of the Clan Fergus—"Ready, Aye Ready."

In Northern Illinois, just before the Civil War, the abolitionists were unusually active. They were open in their advocacy of unconditional freedom for the Slaves, and they were daring in their efforts to aid fugitives. The "agents" and "stations" of the "Underground Railroad" had greatly increased in numbers and efficiency in all this section.

La Salle County had become important as a district where the "lines" from the South converged, to be continued from there to Chicago. In Ottawa, particularly, there was an aggressive anti-slavery society. In 1838-9 there had been organized in that place three churches, the Congregational, Baptist, and Methodist, whose members were ardent in the anti-slavery cause.

No braver or bolder man in all this region was there than John Hossack. He was a stalwart Scotchman, who was born in Caledonia in 1806. Love of liberty has always been a notable trait of his country men.

From an interesting paper, by Rev. John H. Ryan, of Kankakee, entitled "A Chapter from the History of the Underground Railroad in Illinois," published in the "Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society," (April, 1915, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 23-30), the following, largely, has been gathered:

John Hossack had settled in Ottawa about 1849. It is related of him that the first fugitive slave whom he helped to freedom was sent to him by the fearless and fertile Rev. Ichabod Codding, a Congregational minister and anti-slavery lecturer, who had traveled much. At that time, John Hossack was evidently a man of recognized force.

The incident, in connection with which his name has come down to our time, involved a fugutive slave named Jim Gray, or "Nigger Jim," as slavery’s supporters called him. "Jim" had escaped from his master, one Richard Philips, and had made his way from Missouri to Union County, Illinois. There he was captured and put in prison. A Mr. Root interested himself in the fugitive, and sued out a writ of habeas corpus in the State $upreme Court. The case was taken before Judge J. D. Caton, who sat at Ottawa, then one of the grand divisions of this jurisdiction.

John Hossack had been notified that the slave and his captors were to arrive in Ottawa at a certain time. He was at the station to meet them. The party who had "Jim" in charge consisted of Phillips, his son, a constable, and three kidnappers, Jones, Curtley, and McKinney."

The "kidnapping" of negroes had long been practiced in the southern counties of the State. Two or three men were usually associated together for this business. One would establish himself at St. Louis, or at one of the other border towns, and work up a reputation as a seller of slaves. The others would move about the Illinois counties on the lookout for negroes—Slaves or free. The "kidnappers" never stopped to inquire whether a colored person was free or not. The question simply was, could he be carried off in safety? The slave-hunters seized their victims secretly, or enticed them to accompany them under false pretences, placed them in a wagon, and drove as rapidly as possible to the borders of the State" (Prof. N. Dwight Harris’ "History of Negro Servitude in Illinois," PP. 54-5). Then they were sold down South."

When John Hossack met the Phillips party, "Jim," says Rev. Mr. Ryan, "had a trace-chain fastened to his legs, his arms pinioned and a rope around his neck, and down between his legs—the end held by a white man, the negro walking in front." This was too much for John Hossack. He demanded of Jim’s guard to know of what crime the negro had been guilty that he should be thus treated. The answer given was so unsatisfactory that Hossack exclaimed: "No man can be taken through the streets of Ottawa thus humiliated—not while John Hossack lives !" This fearless, public protest led to some abatement of "Jim’s" treatment.

This exhibition of slavery’s inhumanity caused intense excitement in the community. In deference to public sentiment, the Phillips party took their prisoner to a hotel instead of putting him in jail that night. In the evening church bells rang, meetings were held, plans were made for the hearing before Judge Caton the next day, and attorneys were retained to defend the fugitive.

On the hearing, and after evidence was submitted and the arguments were presented, Judge Caton discharged "Jim" from custody.

Now came the crisis. There had been some understanding that this would be done. When, therefore, the United States Marshal was removing his prisoner, the crowd gathered around captors and captive. Those most instrumental in separating "Jim" and the Marshal were John Hossack and Dr. Stout and Dr. Hopkins, and some dozen or fifteen others. A carriage was in waiting close by. Mr. Campbell (his name certainly sounds Scotch) had charge of the team. The rescuers quickly put "Jim" in the carriage, and away they went. The fugitive was conveyed to a place of safety a few miles from the present city of Streator, where he remained concealed until he was taken by friends to Chicago. There he was received by Phio Carpenter, and later sent to Canada and freedom.

John Hossack, with Dr. Joseph and James Stout, and ten or fifteen others were indicted by a United States grand jury for their participation in the rescue from the Marshal of a prisoner. They were tried in Chicago in the United States District Court, and convicted. John Hossack was defended by Messrs. Isaac N. Arnold, Burton C. Cook, and E. C. Lamed, all able and distinguished lawyers, and all personal friends of Mr. Lincoln.

In his own defense, when asked what he had to say why sentence should not be pronounced, Hossack made an address of which Rev. Mr. Ryan says: "It will become memorable as later generations appreciate the heroism of our National crisis." Hossack was sentenced to serve ten days in jail, and to pay a fine and costs amounting to $591.

It was a dearly won victory for the pro-slavery people. "Jim" had escaped, literally Scot-free, Hossack’s courageous course, his manly bearing during the trial, and his stirring speech in court, were as fuel to a conflagration that spread through, and lighted up, all of the northern part of the State. His prison became a Mecca to which crowds flocked. The newspapers reported every incident in connection with it in detail.

Many who had hitherto been indifferent on the subject of slavery were now won over to the side of the oppressed black man. His friends were greatly encouraged by the change in public sentiment. Indeed, probably no single act, in 1859-60, in northern Illinois had more influence in advancing the cause of the anti-slavery people; nor did more to create a local atmosphere for the National Convention which met in Chicago and nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency.

At that time Hon. John Wentworth was Mayor of the city. He also owned and managed a newspaper published in Chicago. In its columns the following was one of his clarion utterances regarding the penalty visited on the sturdy Scot, John Hossack, for his acts in behalf of Jim Gray:

"Scotchmen, patriot’s and citizens, visit John Hossack! Remember our friends of freedom as bound with him !" Then he added: "Let their fines and costs be paid !"

And the public response was general and generous. The slave-hunter’s trade in Illinois was dead. John Hossack and his brave associates had killed it.

In 1848 there died in Chicago a Scot, whose varied adventures read like a romantic tale of Robert Louis Stevenson or Mayne Reid. His name occurs frequently in "Astoria," that interesting book of Washington Irving, himself the son of a native of the Orkney Islands. If the reader would learn of the hazards and harvests of the fur-trade of the North-West of a century ago, let him peruse the delightful pages of Irving’s "Astoria."

Robert Stuart was born at Callander, Scotland, which is familiar to every American tourist who has taken the charming trip through the district made famous by Sir Walter Scott in "The Lady of the Lake." The story of the life of Stuart (related by Dr. Peter Ross, in his "The Scot in America," pp. 59-63), is that Robert was a grandson of Alexander Stuart, who, as "Allan Breck" would say, had "a King’s name." Alexander was the bitter enemy of that notorious cateran, Rob Roy.

Robert came to America when about twenty-one years old. As a fur-trader in Canada he had seen life; on the coast of Labrador he had been a fisherman; with the voyageurs he had made various expeditions into the interior. The first John Jacob Astor found in him a trusted partner and fearless pioneer in his almost empire-visioned enterprises in the Far North-West.

In 1819, Stuart quitted Oregon, struck the trail for the East, and found his way to Mackinac Island. The summer visitor to this well-known place in "The Straits" will remember the old "Astor House." Still to be seen there are some of the hewn-log structures of a century ago, in which the furs brought in by hunters and traders were sorted and stored, preparatory to shipping them to the sea-board. There, too, may be inspected the interesting records of Ramsay Crooke, the Scotch factor, who was in charge of the post. Stuart continued his work on the Island as a fur-trader. His knowledge of, and influence with, the Indians led to his appointment by the Government as Commissioner to the tribes of the region. In 1834 he removed to Detroit, and was chosen Treasurer of the State of Michigan. The tribes with whom he had been associated sincerely respected and trusted him, as he was a man whom by long experience they had come to know as their friend; whose promises to them had never been broken; a reputation by no means universal of those to whom the Government has entrusted its Indian administration.

His son David, a leading lawyer, and a Congressman from Michigan, came to Chicago, as attorney for the Illinois Central Railroad; volunteered in 1861; became Colonel of the Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantry; commanded a brigade in General Sherman’s army; was wounded at Shiloh, and served brilliantly at Corinth and elsewhere. He was a gallant and talented officer, and exhibited in his life and services the loyalty of his father to the United States.

Of the one hundred and two counties in Illinois at least twenty-five bear the names of men of either Scottish birth or blood. As may be inferred, these names are of those distinguished in the military and civil service of the United States, during and since the Revolutionary War. They began with St. Clair, the first county organized, and extend to next to the last, Douglas County, created in 1857.

In upwards of sixty counties, from Alexander, on the extreme south, to Jo Daviess and Lake, on the north line, there are more than a hundred cities, towns, villages, and communities which have distinctively Scottish names.

Of the original of the names of Elgin and Dundee, in Kane County, there need be no question. In Scotland, however, the "g" in Elgin is given the "hard sound" and in the United States it is given the "soft sound."

In regard to the naming of Dundee, a local historian relates the following:

"Early in 1837, all were convinced, from what was going on at the crossing of the Fox River, that a town would soon grow up at that point. The people began to discuss a name for it. A meeting was called to consider the question. Nearly every one had some favorite that would recall some locality back at the old home. Finally a young Scotchman named Alexander Gardiner rose, and in his rich Scotch dialect proposed the name ‘Dundee’ after his native town. The name was unanimously adopted."

Wheatland Township, Will County, had, in 1843-4, several additions to its settlers, who, with their descendants, have exercised a determining influence in its development. Among them were William and John McMicken, who came direct from Scotland. It is recorded that in 1844 Stephen Fridley founded the "Scotch settlement" there. In the same year Robert Clow arrived, also Mungo Patterson. In 1847 the Scotch Church was organized, and its house of worship, a mile north of Tamarack post office, was erected a few years later. Robert Clow lived until 1880, when at the age of 83 he passed on; a useful widely known and respected citizen, whose descendants have been identified with the best interests of the community, and have contributed their full share to its up-building.

An interesting custom was transplanted to this "Scotch settlement" some forty-five years ago, and found firm root there. It is the annual "plowing match" which has come to be the most popular agricultural function in the County, and for years has exceeded in attendance any of the old-time County fairs which once were quite an institution. This "plowing match" anniversary owes its creation and continuance to the late James Patterson, whose birthplace was in the southwestern part of Scotland, celebrated for its plowmen. While yet a young man, Mr. Patterson, who had thoroughly learned farming in his native province, came to Will County, bought land, and became one of the widely known, respected, and successful farmers in a district famous for masters in that profession. He also brought with him an enthusiastic zeal for the best customs of his Scottish forbears’, land. One of these was the celebration, with the aid of capable workmen and under farming conditions, of the Ayrshire, Wigtownshire, and Kirkcudbrightshire—indeed of all agricultural Scotland—customs of yearly "plowing matches." These took place in the autumn, when the crops were harvested, and the fields were ready for "fall-plowing." Their objects were, to cultivate thoroughness in soil-preparedness and treatment, speed and skill in turning the furrows, and general interest and efficiency in all kinds of field-work. Prizes were awarded the successful plowmen. The competition was keen. The day set apart for the trials was an event. Then horses were employed before this day of the tractor. The teams were selected with care. The place where the work was done took on the appearance of a popular fair. The farming-implement manufacturers and dealers were there in evidence with their out-puts. This was the custom which Mr. Patterson introduced, and until the end of his life maintained with success at the "Scotch Settlement." The last one which the writer attended (1917) was held in the district, and it was reported that there were lined-up around the fields upwards of 1,200 automobiles, and about ten thousand spectators. The visitors represented practically every County in Northern Illinois, and considerable delegations were in attendance from the adjoining States of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Indiana.

In McDonough County, the heart of the Military Tract, the Scot early found a hospitable abiding place, and was rewarded by having a township named after his native land, Scotland.

Among the early events of public importance in the County is recorded the work of Charles Hume, son of a Scot, who taught the first school in Hire Township; he became County Judge, and was a gallant soldier in the Civil War. William McMillan was a State Senator from the district in 1844-8. William Cowan, of Tennessee Township, a prominent citizen, was of Scotch parentage. In Scotland Township, were James Clark, John and Alexander Watson, and the Barclays— John, James, Andrew and Robert—and Andrew Binnie, whose names tell their ancestry. In Prairie Township were Hugh Robertson, and J. M. and C. W. Hamilton. In Industry Township was James Allison. In Chalmers Township (Scotch) was Wm. M. Reid. In Bushnell Township, David Robinson taught the first school, and Martha Campbell was the first teacher in New Salem Township. In Macomb, James M. Campbell was long a leading citizen, and also Lewis W. Ross, William Job, and John and James Vance, and others of Scot and Ulster-Scot lineage.

No man was better known throughout that section, a third of a century ago, than the genial Alexander McLean. A native of Glasgow, he and his brother John were long active in public affairs. He (Alexander) was appointed in the first term of Governor Cullom a member of the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, and served on that body, it is believed, longer than any other man. Mr. McLean was the son of Hector and Catherine McMillan McLean, and came to the United States in 1849. He was a Presidential elector in 1876. There was another brother, Duncan, who became a judge in Idaho.

Adam Douglas, John McMillan, Andrew McCandless father of the well-known family, all were of Scotch blood, and reflected credit on their ancestry.

In Madison County we find such familiar names as that of David Gillespie, and his sons, Mathew and Joseph, who were Scotch, although of Ulster birth. The father came to Illinois in 1818, and delighted to trace his ancestry to the Clan Campbell of Argyllshire. Samuel McAlilly was also of Scotch descent, and settled during the same period in Madison County.

In early days Winnebago County’s settlers often were the victims of the depredations of organized bands of outlaws, who stole, intimidated, and sometimes murdered, the peaceful pioneers. At last the conditions became so serious, because of the boldness and badness of these bandits, that the settlers formed companies who were called "Regulators," to put a stop to the operations of the high-handed thieves. John Campbell, a Scotchman, a devout Presbyterian, and an esteemed citizen, was chosen to be the leader of the law-abiding people. In one of their enterprises, the outlaws killed Mr. Campbell. A desperado named Driscoll was held to be the murderer, and he was promptly executed for the crime. The summary punishment thus dealt out to one of their chief men rid the country of these ruffians.

Among the well-known early settlers of Winnebago County, were Scots who were prominent in private and public affairs. No attempt is here made to give anything like a list of them. Those mentioned may be taken as illustrations of how the Scot has made his way. These are named with the year of their arrival in the country! Thomas D. Roberston, 1838; Duncan Ferguson, 1839; D. H. Ferguson, 1839; Daniel Dow, 1841, and G. Tulloch, 1841. Mr. Robertson was an influential banker of Rockford. Duncan Ferguson was educated at the University of Glasgow, and was a leading citizen and official, D. H. Ferguson, who was an infant when he came, served (1866-1870), as Collector of Internal Revenue for the district, and was a banker.

The town of Caledonia, numerically not large, and commercially not considerable, is one of the most prosperous and best known in Boone County. The locality was settled in 1838; and, when the county was organized two years later, it began to show marked growth. The officials who had the matter in hand gave it its name upon the presentation of a petition which set forth that it had been chosen by the residents of the locality. Like its successful and not distant kith and kin, Argyle, its leading residents in the beginning were from Argyllshire, Scotland. John Greenlee, whose sons became prominent and prosperous business men in Belvidere, was from the parish of Southend. The native Scot understands that the village of Southend. is just east of the Mull of Cantire, and in sight of the famed ruin of Dunaverty, which stands like a sentinel on the shore. Alexander McNair and James Montgomery were of Argyllshire birth, and John and A. D. Ralston bore names of an influential family in Scotland, one of whose members became distin guished in California history.

To give in detail, within the limits of this paper anything like a complete account of the various "Scotch Settlements," in Illinois and their early residents, would be an impossible task. However, enough has been intimated to suggest somewhat of their members, locations, and the characters and lives of those who established them. It may be said, without fear of successful contradiction, that in no community has the Scot settled in Illinois where he has not left an impress that did not make for its betterment in every particular.

Northeast of Rockford, in Winnebago County, and near the western border of Boone County, is the "Scotch settlement," Argyle. It is the home of the Willow Creek Presbyterian Church. From the history of this congregation, prepared and read by D. G. Harvey, at the semi-centennial, held June 6-7, 1895, are taken many interesting annals, as well as valuable data that are published in the pamphlet containing the details of that celebration.

James Armour, of Ottawa, took up a claim of prairie and timber land, afterwards, known as "Scotch Grove," on Willow Creek. This claim came to be owned by George and John Armour, and then by George Picken, Wm. Ralston, and Robert Armour. In 1836, John Greenlee, "the pioneer and founder of the Argyle Settlement," located on the line between Winnebago and Boone Counties, and in 1837 he brought his family "to their new home, being the first Scotch family to locate in this part of Winnebago County." Others soon followed. We find among them, the names of Hugh Reid (1838); George Picken, Robert Howie, Andrew Giffen, and Alexander McDonald (1839); Wm. Ferguson, James Picken, John Andrew, Alexander Reid, Robert Armour, (1840); Gavin and David Ralston, Wm. Harvey, John McEachran, and John Picken (1841); David Smith, James Montgomery, Peter Caldwell, James and Alexander Reid, and Mr. McNair (1842); and in 1843, the families of Peter and Alex. Ralston, Charles Picken, and Lionel Henderson; thirty families who located there before the church was organized. There were fifty-one charter members, who represented seventeen groups of different names.

The Dukes of Argyll (written here Argyle) were and are chiefs of the distinguished Clan Campbell. The histories tell of the most of them as men of high character and excellent reputation. Some of their land agents—"factors" they are called over there—were not so favorably known. In the decade between 1830 and 1840 some of these "factors" treated the tenant-farmers of the then Duke with great harshness. These measures became so severe that an exodus of many of the farmers to Illinois followed.

The large settlement in Winnebago County in which they made their homes they named Argyle after the shire in the home-land.

In the early years, religious meetings were held in the homes of the people, for the settlers did not fail to "assemble themselves together for prayer, praise and reading of the Scriptures." In 1842, a log-house was erected, which was used for day-school, Sunday School, and public worship. Frontier fraternity prevailed. The people were ministered to, when possible, by Baptist and Methodist clergymen. In 1843, an effort was made to organize a church, but it was not until December, 1844, that this was done. In January, 1845, the church decided to unite with the Old School Presbyterian body. The church was staunch in doctrine, and pronounced in its anti-slavery convictions.

In those olden days the congregational singing was led by a "precentor," as in Scotland. The "elders" were ordained and installed according to time-honored Scottish custom. Those who held positions in the church as trustees, treasurer, and clerk, were styled "office-bearers."

There was a "manse," as the Scotch call a parsonage. When a minister was engaged to preach for a time, but not as a settled pastor, he was known as a "supply." The custom prevailed of having "candidates," if there was a vacancy in the pulpit. If a janitor of the church were needed, "bids" for the place were received by the trustees. Calls to the pastorate were "prosecuted before Presbytery ;" that is, submitted, and Presbyterial action followed. When a minister resigned, the "pastoral relation was dissolved." These things are familiar to Presbyterians, and are merely mentioned here for the information of those not members of that body.

The ministers of Willow Creek Church included Rev. James Maclaughlan, well known two score of years ago in Chicago as the pastor of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, and at the time of his decease, some two years ago, one of the oldest members of Chicago Presbytery, and minister of the Brighton Park Presbyterian Church.

A number of the ministers became prominent in the denomination. The church in this respect has a remarkable record.

Among the young men who grew up in this church, was Rev. John A. Montgomery. He was a son of Elder James Montgomery and his wife Jane Caldwell Montgomery. Mr. Montgomery was born in Argyllshire, Scotland, December 18, 1839, and came to the United States with his parents when a child. He was educated in the Marengo Academy, in Wheaton College, and in the Chicago Congregational Theological Seminary, at Union Park. He graduated with the highest honors from college and academy. The late venerable President Franklin W. Fisk of the latter institution, was ever a warm personal friend of Mr. Montgomery, and expressed his deep appreciation of him to the effect that "you (Mr. Montgomery), have been a constant joy to me all the years since you went from the Seminary." Mr. Montgomery served in the active ministry for twenty-five years, in three Congregational Churches—Dwight, Morris and LaGrange. In his pastorates, he drew about him, men like Dr. Keeley, Edward Kemeys, the sculptor of the lions in front of the Art Institute, Chicago; Gen. P. C. Hayes, Member of Congress; Justice Orrin N. Carter, of the State Supreme Court; F. D. Cossit, the Founder of LaGrange; George M. Vial, Moderator of the Illinois Congregational Conference; and Rev. J. C. Armstrong, D. D., of the well-known Armstrong family of La Salle County, and for more than a third of a century Superintendent of the Congregational City Missionary Society of Chicago. Mr. Montgomery was always a close student, an indefatigable worker, and was held in high esteem by his ministerial brethren. He was an honored official of the State Congregational Association, and was a delegate from Illinois to the First National Council of Congregational Churches, in 1871.

The Argyle Church history shows that three other young men of the parish became ministers, namely: John Giffen, Matthew Howie, and James A. Harvey. This is another instance of the country church being the "mother of ministers." All of them discharged faithfully their duties as preachers and teachers, "rightly dividing the word."

it may here be recorded that some of these independent former Argyllshire farmers at times seriously considered the advisability of sending back to the hard-hearted "factors" of the Duke a testimonial which should fittingly express their deep appreciation of the exactions that had caused them to leave their ancestral farm-steadings. They felt that but for the severities imposed upon them by the "factors" they would probably never have come to America, and never have achieved the prosperity and peace which had fallen to their lot in their adopted country. Here they came to own their own farms. In their native land they would always have been tenants. So they often talked of showing the despotic "factors" what a blessing their course had been, although it was never thus intended; and they would have rejoiced to show their gratitude in some way to the "factor bodies" whose vigors had made them in one way exiles, but in another way, had led to plenty. And yet, it has been remarked by some who do not know the true nature of the Scot, that he has no sense of humor.

The name Cantire is also written Kintyre. It’s headland—the Mull, as it is called—is the last prominent landmark in the Scottish coast to which the Scot sailing from Glasgow bids farewell on leaving his native Caledonia, and the first which greets him on his return from journeying in foreign climes. It used to be said of the stalwart and hospitable Scots of Argyle, Winnebago County, that any chance visitor to their neighborhood was certain of a hearty "Highland Welcome" if he but correctly pronounced "Machrihanish" or "Southend."

Such were some of the products of this "Scotch Settlement" at Argyle. It would be impossible to trace their influence. Only the "book of remembrance" will reveal it. But so much of it as we know intimates, in a fragmentary way, perhaps what a community of God-fearing, honest, industrious, intelligent people may accomplish for the promotion of good government, for the encouragement of education, and for the advancement of the race.

Scots and their descendants have never comprised any considerable part of the legal profession in Illinois. What they have lacked in numbers, however, they have fully made up in the character, ability, and achievements of their representatives.

From the time of Senator Stephen A. Douglas to the diplomatic services of Hon. William J. Calhoun, the men of the race, who have occupied official position, or have been active in the practice, have left records to which their countrymen may now refer with satisfaction. The brilliant career at the bar, on the bench, and as a statesman of Senator Douglas need not here be recapitulated. His public life belongs to the Nation, although Illinois claims him as one of her most distinguished sons.

A great lawyer, and an able and honored jurist, was Judge Thomas Drummond. Born in the State of Maine, his father, James Drummond, was a farmer of direct Scottish descent, noted for his sound sense and excellent judgment, qualities which his eminent son possessed in a high degree.

We may infer the insignificance of Chicago, and the importance of Galena, in 1835, when we recall that the latter city was described, by the writers of that day, as so many miles north of St. Louis, while no reference whatever was made to its distance from the present metropolis on the shores of Lake Michigan. The bar of Galena even then was composed of "some of the ablest practitioners in Illinois." Mr. Drummond soon was acknowledged as one of the leading lawyers in that entire circuit. The characteristics for which he was noted are epitomized by his biographers as "intense application to the solid work of his profession; investigation of facts and precedents; cautious and thorough analysis of the principles of law involved in the case at bar; and ,above all, absolute integrity, sincerity, and candor. (Kirkland’s and Moses’ "History of Chicago," vol. I, p. 161). He was appointed at the age of 41 by President Taylor to the office of United States District Judge for Illinois. In 1855, when the State was divided into two districts, he became the Judge of the Northern District. In 1869, he was promoted to the United States Circuit Court, which comprised then, as now, the states of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. The period of his service was one during which many important causes were decided, especially those involving railroads. It is related that in this latter class alone, receivers were appointed representing bonded indebtedness of perhaps a hundred million of dollars. All this business came directly or indirectly under Judge Drummond’s care, and his name passed through the long ordeal unassailed by a breath of suspicion, not only of corruption but of unfairness" (Idem, p. 161). He was a patriot in the true sense, never a partisan. His attitude towards the bar was invariably considerate, dignified, modest, firm. He ranks with the great judges who have adorned the United States Courts of this country.

Hon. William C. Goudy’s name occupies a deservedly high place among lawyers in the general practice. The Goudie family’s members were of Ayrshire, Scotland, origin. As elsewhere stated, the name was written in Scotland, Goudie. When the tyranny of the time led the Scots to emigrate to the Province of Ulster, and later to America, the orthography was changed to Goudy and Gowdy. As those who held it removed still farther westward, they settled in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and then came to Illinois. As one of his biographers (Hon. Ensley Moore, of Jacksonville, Illinois, in "A Notable Illinois Family," "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society" for 1907, pp. 315-323), has well said: "He was born May 15, 1824, an era when so many great were born, and he was destined to become, or to make himself, the most prominent and distinguished member of the family. There was much in common, in the early days, of the various struggles of such men as Douglas, Lincoln, and Grant, with poverty and other adverse circumstances, and Wm. C. Goudy belonged to that class of men."

He was successively, school teacher, college-graduate, lawyer, State’s Attorney, and State Senator; a power in the choosing of United States Senators; in the naming of Presidents; and in the selection of members of the Supreme Court of the United States. It is related of him that "in 1855 he argued his first case before the Supreme Court of Illinois. One hundred and thirty volumes of these reports have been issued (up to 1894), and in every one of them cases have been reported which have been argued by Mr. Goudy. In the higher courts of other Western States, and in the Supreme Court of the United States, he has been almost as conspicuous a figure." In his church relationships he was a leader, having long served on the Board of Directors of the McCormick Theological Seminary. Like Hon. Milton Hay, of Springfield, often he was consulted by distinguished public men, who held, his opinion and advice in high esteem, and. were largely guided in their course by his views.

Hon. William J. Calhoun was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., the son of a member of the Scottish Clan of Colquhon, as the name is written in Scotland. The Colquhons were of ancient lineage, and their chiefs were prominent in Dumbartonshire, and in other western districts of Scotland. One sect of the clan removed to Ulster, where the name came to be spelled more nearly as it was pronounced—Calhoun. The families of this latter branch were the progenitors of the Calhouns who have become distinguished in the United States. Mr. Calhoun’s parents were Robert and Sarah (Knox) Calhoun. The historian, Francis Parkman, makes frequent mention of "Knox’s Diary." This was the record kept by Capt. John Knox, a British officer who was Mr. Calhoun’s great-grandfather. At the age of sixteen Mr. Calhoun enlisted in an Ohio Volunteer infantry regiment. When the Civil War ended, he removed to Illinois, worked on a farm, taught school, studied law, and became an attorney in Danville. In 1882 he was elected to the Legislature. Two years later he was elected State’s Attorney for Vermilion County. In 1892 he was chosen general attorney for the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad. He had been acquainted in Ohio in youth with President McKinley, and in 1896 was active in bringing about his nomination. In 1897 he was appointed upon a difficult governmental mission to Cuba, which he discharged with fidelity and success. In 1898 he was selected as a member of the United States Inter-State Commerce Commission. The Venezuela difference called him into service in South America as a special commissioner, and there again he displayed great skill. From 1907 to 1913 he served as our Minister to China, and added to his already high reputation as a diplomat. His record was even that of a man of marked ability and integrity. He died September 17, 1916.

Several other names of men of Scotch birth and ancestry will illustrate as many different types of service performed.

Andrew Crawford, born in Ayrshire, Scotland, in 1831, was the son of an old and respected family. The Crawfords of that district in Scotland were eminent in the nation’s history for centuries. Mr. Crawford’s mother was of the Hay family, also a distinguished one. At the age of twenty-one he came to the United States; settled Geneseo, Illinois; studied law; in 1868 was elected to the State Senate; in 1873 made his home in Chicago; became a prominent attorney; was a specialist in railroad law; and when he died in 1900 was reckoned one of the wealthy and influential members of the bar.

Judge James A. Creighton, of Springfield, was elected to the State Circuit bench for six successive terms, a record only duplicated by the late Judge Joseph E. Gary, of Chicago, before whom the anarchists were tried. Judge Creighton was a native of Illinois. His biographer states:

"He was always proud of the fact that his parents, John and Mary Creighton, were both born in Illinois, as well as that they were direct descendants of an old Scotch family that came early to the United States, and removed from South Carolina to Illinois in 1817." The name in Scotland is also written Crighton and Crichton, and one of the distinguished men who bore it will be remembered as "The Admirable Crichton." The name of his brother, Judge Jacob B. Creighton, of Fairfield, is well known in Southern Illinois. Judge James A. Creighton died in Springfield in 1916. He was a highly respected jurist, and an esteemed member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Hon. James McCartney, who was Attorney General of Illinois from 1880 to 1884, was the son of Scotch parents, although he himself was born in Ulster. He served as a volunteer in the Union Army successively in the 17th and 112th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. At the close of the war he settled in Fairfield. During his administration, as the chief legal officer of the State, the "Lake Front Suits" of Chicago, were instituted, which resulted, after extended litigation, in a decision in favor of the city. He was a painstaking lawyer, a faithful official, and a citizen who enjoyed the regard of the community.

Judge John M. Scott, lawyer and jurist, born in St. Clair County, August 1, 1824, was of Ulster-Scot ancestry. For half a century he lived in McLean County. He was County School Commissioner (that is, Superintendent), County Judge, Circuit Judge, Judge of the State Supreme Court. One of his notable works was his "History of the Illinois Supreme Court." He died in Bloomington, January 21, 1898. He wrote several valuable papers on the Ulster-Scots and their services in Nation-building.

In Illinois, as indeed the world over, the Scot as a banker has been conspicuous. The intelligent reader need scarcely again be reminded that the founder of the great Bank of England was William Paterson, the son of a Dumfriesshire farmer, who inaugurated the most comprehensive system of financiering of the last two centuries, which has since influenced the transactions of every civilized country.

The most widely known financier in the North-West, during the first half of the last century, was George Smith. He was born in 1806 in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, a district noted for its men of affairs, ministers, scholars, military chieftains, and scientists. Like General St. Clair, in his youth Mr. Smith studied for the medical profession; like that soldier he came as a young man to America; but here their similarity ends, for Mr. Smith devoted his talents. exclusively to civil pursuits, and became and remained wealthy.

When he arrived in Illinois, in the middle "30’s," he came to a place which was only "in the gristle," and not far in, at that. Even then, however, he saw something of its possibilities, because of its geography, as did Wm. B. Ogden, its first mayor, and John Wentworth, Congressman, mayor and editor, and Isaac N. Arnold, lawyer, legislator, and historian, and others whose names are inseparably connected with the beginnings of the Garden City.

For several years he was engaged in various business enterprises. He extended his interests to Milwaukee, with whose large concerns he became closely connected. In these he was associated with Hon. Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, who was a banker, railroad builder, and National legislator. He was one of the early promoters and directors of the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad—now the Northwestern system—the first line west out of Chicago. He was a charter member of the Board of Trade of his city. In 1839-40 he established his bank in Chicago, which became probably the most important and influential financial institution in the North-West in its time. In 1860 he was accounted one of the richest and most successful men of the Nation. He strongly supported the Union in the Civil War. Upon his retirement from active life, he returned to Great Britain. He contributed liberally to the educational institutions of his native land, and was held to be one of the foremost financiers of his generation.

Kirkland’s and Moses’ "History of Chicago" (Vol. 1, 517-18) contains the following:

"From 1837 to 1840, Strachan and Scott were bankers—an enterprising firm of Scotchmen associated with George Smith. In 1840, the banking firm of George Smith & Co., was established, and continued to be the leading house for about sixteen years, when it dissolved, and the senior partner retired to his native Scotland with an ample fortune, and a reputation of being one of the shrewdest and most enterprising business men, who had up to that time made Chicago their home. George Smith of Chicago and Alexander Mitchell at Milwaukee, were two Scotchmen who enjoyed, the latter until his death, a few years since (this was written in 1894) "a most successful career in finance and other enterprises. Their resources were boundless, and their energy untiring, and although many attempts were made by their rivals to crush them, they always discomfited their opponents and carried their enterprises to successful conclusions." Their institutions were popularly known as "Smith’s Bank" and "Mitchell’s Bank."

In Rockford were two Scots bankers—Thomas D. Robertson and D. H. Ferguson, who were known as leaders far beyond their own communities.

The brothers, James B. Forgan and David R. Forgan, are recognized as among Chicago’s prominent bankers. When Lyman J. Gage was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in President McKinley’s cabinet, James B. Forgan became President of the First National Bank of Chicago, an office which he filled for nearly a quarter of a century with signal ability, satisfaction, and success. David R. Forgan was founder and is President of the National City Bank of Chicago.

Of John Crerar the "History of Chicago," by Kirkland and Moses (Vol. II, pp. 730-31), thus speaks:

"Mr. Crerar never married, and left no posterity to inherit his estate and perpetuate his memory. He made the public his heir, and erected a monument which will endure after marble has crumbled to dust, and the fame of mere earthly deeds shall have faded from the memories of men. By the provisions of his carefully prepared will he left the greater portion of his estate, amounting to two and a half million dollars, for the founding and maintenance of a free public library. A million dollars were bequeathed to religious, historical, literary, and benevolent institutions, one hundred thousand dollars for the erection of a colossal statue of Abraham Lincoln, and six hundred thousand dollars to relatives and friends."

Mr. Crerar was born in New York City, the son of Scotch parents. His father was a native of Crief, Perthshire, his mother’s maiden name was Agnes Smeillie. His father died the year of the son’s birth. In 1862 he came to Chicago, and was long the senior member of the Crerar, Adams & Co. firm. He had large holdings in a number of leading manufacturing and transportation corporations, banks, and insurance companies. His benefactions embraced many charities, and religious and other societies. He was a member of the Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago. The only office he ever held was that of Presidential Elector in 1888, when a Presbyterian elder was chosen Chief Magistrate of the Nation. He was a generous supporter of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society, the oldest chartered charitable organization in the State.

The fund which he provided for the library has been well expended. Two of its original trustees were the late Col. Huntington W. Jackson and the late Norman Williams, both intimate friends. That it might in no way compete with the great Newberry Library which is in the North Division, he provided that it should be located in the South Side. His high ideals are seen in this statement in his will: "I desire that books and periodicals be selected with a view to create and sustain a healthy moral and Christian sentiment. I want the atmosphere that of Christian refinement, and its aim and object the building up of character." Truly the library which bears his name is a memorial of the most enduring nature.

"The Crerar Library," says S. R. Winchell, in his "Chicago" (1910) "is exclusively a reference library, and aims to cover especially the field of scientific and technical literature, in order that the scope of the leading libraries of the city may not be duplicated."

Two companies of a semi-military character, organized for, and devoting much time and attention to, training in arms before the Civil War, won recognition in Illinois, and made fine records during the Great Conflict. Each had a distinctive uniform. The members of both represented some of the choicest young men of Chicago. In the case of one, its leader met an untimely death early in the war; in the other, the Commander served throughout the war, and returned home in safety, after having passed through many hazardous experiences. These companies were the Ellsworth Zouaves and the Highland Guards. In the chapter of this paper entitled "Historical Publishers" mention is made of the first-named troop. In this connection reference will be made to the second.

The Highland Guards were organized in Chicago, on May 3, 1855. The members were Scotchmen. Their uniform was the Highland garb— kilts. On public occasions the Guards were in constant demand. In 1859, when the Centennial celebration of the birth of the poet, Robert Burns, was observed, and when probably the largest and most striking procession which Chicago had witnessed up to that time took place, the Highland Guards were the most picturesque division of the day. In 1859-1860, the records show these officers: Captain, John McArthur; First Lieutenant, Alexander W. Raffen; Second Lieutenant, J. T. Young; Third Lieutenant, Andrew Quade; Fourth Lieutenant, Robert Wilson; Secretary, T. McFarland; Treasurer, John Wood. Capt. John T. Raffen was in command when the Civil War began. The Guards were among the first to answer the call of President Lincoln. They were mustered in as Company E of the Nineteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and soon were at the front. Thereafter their record is part of that of the splendid "Old Nineteenth."

One of this regiment’s exploits was at the battle of Murfreesboro, otherwise called Stone River. General Rosecrans’ gallant army there met the seasoned troops of General Bragg. The fighting had been heavy and protracted. At a critical hour the Confederates had made vigorous and successful inroads on the Union left. All along that sector the peril was so great that it seriously threatened other parts of the Federal lines.

The "Old Nineteenth," by a magnificent charge, achieved glory on the field that day. The apparently overwhelming tide of the opposing hosts was effectually stemmed. The impending disaster was turned into complete victory. General Rosecrans’ army held the battle-ground. General Bragg’s forces filed away to Chattanooga. In the rain of shot and shell, the valiant Colonel Scott., commander of the Nineteenth, was so severely wounded that he died soon after. Col. Joseph R. Scott was born in 1838 in Brantlord, Canada, of Scotch parentage, and was one of the youngest colonels in the Union armies, having been made commander of his regiment in August, 1862, (James Barnet’s "Martyrs and Heroes of Illinois," published in Chicago in 1865). The Highland Guards, with high courage and dauntless deeds, maintained the traditions of their countrymen at the relief of Lucknow; when they held "the thin red line" at Balaclava; and in the desperate engagement at Tel-el-Kebir ;—a reputation which the Scotch troops perpetuated in many a sanguinary struggle during the late World War, when the kilted soldiers came to be known and to be designated by the Germans as "the Ladies of Hell."

The contribution of this State to the Union armies during the Civil War is told in the ringing words of Dr. Chamberlin’s popular song:

"Not without thy wondrous story,
Illinois, Illinois,
Can be writ the Nation’s glory,
Illinois, Illinois."

Men of Scotch birth and blood had no small or inconspicuous part in that history. We may but remind the student of our National chronicles of some of those whose achievements are known and read of all. We, therefore, need but recall the names of Grant, and Logan, and Hawlins, and McClernand, and David Hunter, and McNulta, and Owen and David Stuart, and McClurg, and Daniel Cameron, and Beveridge— all Illinois men of Scotch nativity or ancestry, who served in our armies, and whose deeds are large parts of our State’s and Country’s history.

Gen. John McArthur was the most prominent Illinois soldier of Scottish birth who was a Civil War Commander. He was born in the parish of Erskine, in Renfrewshire, on February 17, 1826. At the age of twenty-three he came to the United States, and settled in Chicago. For some years he was engaged in the manufacturing business. Amid all the activities incident to the establishing of his concern’s enterprises, he found time to give to the building up of the Highland Guards. The year before the Civil War he was chosen its Captain. When Fort Sumter was fired on, he promptly volunteered, and was commissioned a captain in the Twelfth Illinois Infantry. His promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel and Colonel was deserved and rapid. For gallantry at Fort Donelson he was made a Brigadier-General. He participated in the battle of Shiloh, where he was wounded, but immediately upon having his injuries dressed, he returned to the fighting line.

When the lamented Gen. W. H. L. Wallace fell mortally wounded, General McArthur succeeded to the command of his division. In the operations against Vicksburg, he commanded a division of General McPherson’s corps. At the battle of Nashville, commanding a division, his services were so signally satisfactory that he won a brevet Major-Generalship. Upon returning to his home city, at the close of the war, he was for several years a member of the Board of Public Works, in which he repeatedly gave evidence of his honesty and ability. From 1873 to 1877, he was Postmaster at Chicago. General McArthur delighted to wear the "Scottish bonnet" which accompanies the full-dress Highland garb. In his residence of nearly three-score years in Chicago he was the recipient of many honors at the hands of his fellow-citizens. When he died on March 16, 1906, his passing was considered as a public bereavement.

Col. James McArthur, a younger brother of the General, and Maj. George Mason, a nephew, were brave soldiers, and respected by former comrades-in-arms, as well as by a large circle in civil life. Major Mason is a well-known and esteemed resident of Chicago.

As a born Scot would say, "it’s a far cry," that is, a long way, from the Black Hawk War of 1832 in Illinois to the fateful field of Culloden of 1746 in Scotland. And yet, they are "sib" which as Robert Louis Stevenson might say, in our manner of speaking, means, related or connected by blood-ties.

Drumtossie, or, as it is generally known in history, Culloden, is a moorland situate only a few miles from "the rose red town" of Inverness, Scotland, also called "the Capital of the Highlands." It was on Drumtossie, or Culloden Moor that "Bonnie Prince Charlie," sometimes styled "the Pretender," met total defeat, on April 16, 1746, and put an end forever to the attempts of the luckless house of the Stuarts to regain the British crown. The victorious army of King George was commanded that day by the Duke of Cumberland.

Many of the chivalric Highland chiefs had advised strongly against the "uprising," as the campaign of Charles Edward was designated. Among them was the gallant Lochiel. When, however, the Prince persisted in undertaking the enterprise, they threw themselves into it with characteristic abandon, although they foresaw inevitable disaster to the allied clans from the numerous and disciplined hosts that were marshaled against them. Scottish song and story perpetuate their loyalty and sacrifice on behalf of the scion of a dynasty that fell far short of their Highland idealism in his later life. The clans were decimated. The survivors became fugitives. Government offered large sums for the apprehension of Prince, chiefs, and other participants. Some, hunted like game, and hiding in caves and clachans, among woods and moors, at last made their way to the Continent. Others, after numberless hair-breadth escapes, succeeded in reaching the American Colonies. One of these latter was the grandfather of our Gen. Winfield Scott, who settled in Virginia. And, thus, Culloden’s calamitous field gave the Colonies, in the Revolutionary War a gallant patriot soldier, and, subsequently, the United States the commander-in-chief of its armies.

The student of our history may read into this tragic incident of a decadent dynasty several strangely suggestive lessons.

Whatever may be said of the personal qualities and of the impossible dreams of Black Hawk, the war which bears his name was undertaken by many of the allied tribes as their final, desperate stand for what they beelieved to be their right to their ancient home and hunting-grounds, as against its invasion and occupancy by the white race.

It may interest the American reader to be reminded of the not inconsiderable contribution to Scottish literature which grew out of the various, though futile, attempts of the Stuarts to wrest the crown from the house of Hanover. The important fact is, that many of the distinguished Americans of Colonial, Revolutionary, and later times, were direct descendants of men who "came out in ‘45," that is, who joined "the Pretender" in that unsuccessful endeavor. The remarkable feature is, that they followed a leader, and forfeited their all for a cause, that represented in its extremest form "the divine right of kings," to become in this land the champions of personal liberty, and the founders of popular government on this side of the Atlantic.

Old Fort Dearborn occupied the site of what is now a business block opposite the south approach to the Rush Street Bridge, Chicago; on which business block was a tablet commemorative of the fort. The name connected with the building of Old Fort Dearborn is that of Capt. John Whistler. He was of Ulster-Scot blood. During the Revolutionary War he served in America under Burgoyne at the battle of Saratoga. After peace was declared, be entered the United States Army. In 1803-4 he was stationed at Detroit, and was detailed to the command of the post at Chicago, and to build there three forts. He remained in charge until 1810, when he was succeeded by Captain Heald. He became a major, and died in 1827. His grandson was James McNeil Whistler, the brilliant etcher and painter.

Col. A. J. Nimmo, of Jonesboro, Union County, was the son of a native of Virginia of Scotch ancestry. The colonel was a gallant volunteer soldier in two wars—the Mexican, and the Civil. He recruited and commanded the One Hundred and. Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry in the great conflict, and made a record which was one of high credit. He was repeatedly honored by his fellow-citizens in having been elected to offices of trust, and discharged their duties with fidelity and ability.

Maj. John Wood, a leading citizen of Cairo, was a native of Scotland, having been born near Edinburgh. He came to the United States when he was seventeen years of age (in 1850). He was a brave and capable volunteer in the Civil War, and rose to the rank of major. He was a member of the commissions that built the State Hospital at Anna, and the Southern Illinois Normal at Carbondale.

The reports of State Adjutant General Allen C. Fuller, contain a complete roster of the Civil War Volunteers from Illinois, and. also an outline-history of each regiment and battery engaged in the service from 1861 to 1865. From these voluminous and valuable records some interesting facts are learned. Thirty-one Illinois regiments, beside their numerical designations, had distinctive names, by which they were known. The Twelfth Regiment, whose first commander was Col. (afterwards Maj. Gen.) John McArthur, was called the "First Scotch." Its chief used to wear the "Scotch bonnet," which crowned a handsome and soldierly figure. The Sixty-fifth Regiment, commanded by Col. (afterwards Brig. Gen.) Daniel Cameron, was known as the "Second Scotch," also called the "Highlanders." The achievements of both regiments are among the most creditable of the Prairie State’s Volunteers.

Of the officers who served in the Illinois regiments, and who attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and above that, we find in Adjutant General Fuller’s records upwards of sixty who were of Scottish birth and ancestry. The officers from Major to Second Lieutenant of Scots descent number into the hundreds. These officers represent every arm of the service, and entered the army from practically every district in the State. It is needless to remind the reader that these Scots and Ulster-Scots and their descendants include the one who became the General of the United States Army as well as the most distinguished. Volunteer Major General of the era. It may be added, that no instance is recorded wherein a single one of these patriot leaders was found derelict in the discharge of his duty, or who came out of the great conflict with a blot on his escutcheon.

The most distinguished literary man to whom Illinois may lay claim probably was Hon. John Hay. Lawyer, journalist, statesman, author, he was descended from John Hay, who fought with famous Scots Brigade in the Low Countries, and whose son emigrated to America. The family history relates that two of the sons of this soldier served on the side of the Patriots during the Revolutionary War. Although Indiana was the state of John Hay’s birth, his active public life was shaped and begun in Illinois, and will always be held as a part of our State’s heritage. Educated at Brown University, he studied law in Springfield, and in 1861 was admitted here to the bar. He became secretary to President Lincoln, and served in several military capacities during the Civil War. Called to important positions in our diplomatic service, he was successively connected with the United States Legations at Paris, Madrid, and Vienna. For a period he was engaged in journalism, having been editor of "The Illinois State Journal" of Springfield, and upon the staff of the "Tribune" of New York. In 1897 he was our Ambassador to Great Britain, and from 1898 to 1905 was Secretary of State of the United States. It was during his administration that the Panama Canal negotiations were carried to a successful issue; the integrity of China was recognized by the United States; also, the dispute settled with reference to Samoa, and the Alaska gold-boundary question. In the realm of literature his works include the well-known "Pike County Ballads," the "Castilian Days," the "Bread Winners," and, in collaboration with John G. Nicolay, the "History of the Life and Times of Abraham Lincoln." Several of his poetical contributions have included notable hymns of a religious character. His early impressions and experiences received while he lived in Illinois remained with him to the end of his career, and afford us warrant for claiming him for our State.

James Barnet, a half century ago, was one of the best known printers in Chicago. He and his brother Alexander were typical, loyal Scots, and were among those who organized the Scotch Presbyterian Church of that city. James was a book publisher and writer, and many pamphlets and not a few books, issued before the Chicago Fire of 1871, were from his pen and press. Nearly all these have disappeared. One, however, survives, and is in the writer’s library. It is entitled "The Martyrs and Heroes of Illinois," and was edited and published in 1865 by Mr. Barnet, who was an industrious compiler. It contains a brief and appreciative biography of President Lincoln, and sketches of some seventy Illinois soldiers who were killed or died of wounds and disease during the war.

Peter Grant, born in the beautiful valley of the Spey, one of Scotland’s largest and noted rivers, was for years the popular Bard of the Caledonian Society of Chicago, before he made his home in Detroit, Mich. Like so many other Scots who have the spirit and gift of song, he began to compose while still a lad tending the flocks and herds in his native strath. To Illinois he brought with him the warmest recollections of the land of heather and heroes, which find fitting expression in his varied verse. Loyalty to his adopted country is frequently and forcefully voiced in his limpid lines. Among historical collections, none furnishes more or better illustrations of the versatility of his muse than "By Heath and Prairie," published in 1900. Here we have the lyric, the ballad, the love song, the nature study, the sturdy defense of the revered religion of his forefathers, the championship of freedom and right as they live in the Republic; mingled with a lighter vein that is characterized by pawky humor; and all having the lilt that reveals the true son of song in delightful doric and in present American.

In all of the Fifty-one General Assemblies of the State of Illinois, since its admission into the Union, the Scot has been a more or less prominent factor. The first chief executive of this Commonwealth who was of Scottish extraction was Joseph Duncan, of whom mention is made in the chapter devoted to "Education." The other Governors to whom we may refer who were of Scotch descent have been John L. Beveridge, John M. Hamilton, William J. Campbell (President of the State Senate and Acting Lieutenant Governor), and Frank O. Lowden. All served in the State or National Legislative Branch of the Government. Gov. Richard J. Oglesby (who was elected three times chief State executive, and also was a United States Senator, and a Major General in the Civil War) liked to trace his ancestry to Scotland.

The Scots and the descendants of Scots who were either Members of Congress or State Senators and members of the Legislature number close to two hundred. They have come from some sixty different counties of the one hundred and two in the State. In every one of the sessions of the General Assembly from 1818 to 1919, the impress of these Scots is seen in the framing of the session laws. Their work has covered practically every chapter of the State Statutes. As an illustration of the kind of legislation in which they have been prominent, it may be noted that members like Dan McLaughlin, Wm. Mooney, and W. H. Steen, of Will County, Wm. Scaife, of Grundy County, and David Ross, of La Salle County, have made records of the utmost value to the coal miners of the entire State, in providing for safety appliances and intelligent and rigid inspection of the mines where so many men are engaged in this hazardous occupation. The long and distinguished careers of Joseph Gillespie, of Madison County, and John McNulta, of McLean County (later of Chicago), are examples of the useful public services of descendants of Sects whose memories this State delights to honor. In the several Constitutional Conventions the Scot has had his part, as well as in such measures as Illinois shares in the World’s Columbian Exposition, and in the commission which drafted the bill creating the great Chicago Drainage (Sanitary District) Canal, one of whose members, a Scot, then a State Senator, was largely instrumental in securing the passage in 1889, of this act which has secured to the Garden City a perpetual supply of pure water for its millions of people.

Few if any of the stalwart citizens of Kane County compared with Hon. John Stewart, of Elburn, commanding as he was in stature, he was even more so in character and ability. Farmer, lumberman, capitalist, legislator, traveler, he was a remarkable man. Born in New Brunswick of parents both of whom were Scotch, he passed over sixty years of his active, useful, and honorable life in Illinois. As a business man, his word passed current wherever it was given. As a member of the Legislature, he was incorruptible, capable, and courageous. In the councils of his political party, he was a leader. He was a man who did things, Alexander Stewart, represented the Wausau, Wis., district in Congress for a number of terms. His son, Hon. Thomas Stewart, of Aurora, has served in the State Senate. Both brother and son worthily sustained the family reputation. Mr. Stewart was one of the famous "103" who elected, in 1885, Gen. John A. Logan to the United States Senate, the last time he was chosen to fill that office.

Hon. Robert A. Gray, of Macon County, was a member of the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth General Assemblies. He was of Ulster-Scot ancestry. He was a farmer, legislator and poet. His career as a law-maker was one of intelligence, industry, and honesty. He had in an unusual degree the ability of writing verse. Several of his lyrical productions have been widely published. They found a well-merited place in the "Readers" of the late Dr. Richard Edwards, who for four years was State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Illinois. One of the most pathetic and popular of these poems was entitled, from a line it contained, "There’s But One Pair Stockings to Mend Tonight," tender, touching, and revealing the spirit and power of the true songster.

"Peace hath her victories
No less renowned than war."

Sir William Keith, a Scot, was related to the "Illinois Country" during the era of French Dominion. As far back as 1718—the time of John Law—Sir William, who was royal Governor of Pennsylvania, sent out an agent, James Logan (also a Scot?), to explore this region, with the object of discovering some routes to the Mississippi which might be of use to the British. The report made by Logan is quoted in Andreas’ voluminous and valuable "History of Chicago" (Vol. I, p. 79). Says Logan: "From Lake Huron they (the French) pass by the Strait of Michilimakina four leagues, being two in breadth, and of great depth, to the Lake of Illinois (Michigan) ; thence one hundred and fifty leagues to Fort Miami, situated at the mouth of the river, Chicago. The fort is not regularly garrisoned." It is stated, in the same history, that "this fort (at Chicago) was doubtless a stockade, erected by the French to facilitate the trade between Canada, via the lakes, and their settlements at Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres."

The introduction to Chicago of the orchard and garden products of southern Illinois was an enterprise of considerable value to both districts. The originator of this project was D. Gow, who was born near Edinburgh, Scotland, February 15, 1825, and, settling in Cobden Township, Union County, became one of the leading fruit and vegetable growers in that region. Those of the older generation who were acquainted with the late John B. Drake, whose name was so long connected with the famous Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, may recall that it was to him that Mr. Gow shipped his products which made that popular place one of the best in the Garden City.

Among the well-known and successful manufacturers, by whose enterprise the city of Cairo was built, was John T. Rennie, born May 20, 1819, in the "Auld Town o’ Avr," the native place of Scotland’s National Poet, Robert Burns.

Family names have undergone numerous and radical changes in the United States, especially in the West, including and since the days of the never one who was noted for his "much speaking." His brother, Hon. pioneers. The historian is frequently confused in his endeavors to trace these names to their parent-stems. The orthography has greatly varied with localities. This has been due to the people themselves, and to the public registrars of lands, marriages, births, and deaths. In many frontier communities, a century or so ago, there was little "book learning." Schools were few and far between. Teachers were rarely able to do more than impart the rudiments of the "three R’s." Family records generally were not kept. When it became necessary to make record of names, the writers were often compelled to enter them on their books "as they sounded." Therefore, it came to pass, that a family name would be spelled one way in, say, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky or Ohio, and quite differently in Indiana and Illinois. Even in adjacent settlements these variations obtained.

A few illustrations will serve to show how these changes were brought about. It will be remembered that John Kinzie, "the Father of Chicago," was the son of John McKenzie, a Scot. Why John dropped the "Mc" and wrote "Kinzie" for "Kenzie" is now a matter of conjecture. In Scotland, Sinclair, (pronounced "Sinkler" with the accent on the first syllable) is that also written here St. Clair or Saint Clair. In Wigtownshire, Scotland, the name Hanna (from which Mark Hanna, of Ohio, descended), was long ago written "Hannay." MacMillan is variously written as McMillan, M’Millan, McMillain and McMillin. Jamieson becomes Jameson and Jamison. Stuart is also Stewart, Steuart, and Steward. Ainslie is changed to Ainsley, Ansley, and finally Ensley. Paton is Patton, and Patten. Tait is made Tate. Ballantyne becomes Ballantine and Ballentine. Goudie of Ayrshire, was written Goudy in Ulster, and when it reached Ohio, Indiana and Iowa, it was and is Gowdie and Gowdy. Mathieson of Gairloch, Scotland, is written Matteson in Colorado. But perhaps the most remarkable transformation is that of the Highland MacPherson, where the "Mac" was discontinued, and the "Pherson" became Person, and at last by some is written Farson. MacCutcheon has been so changed that Cutcheon is now Cutchen. These are but a few instances which will show to the reader how pioneer names, properly understood, can be traced back to their originals. The interested reader may find in this brief remark that which will aid in connecting present-time families with their remote ancestors, who in early day came across the Atlantic to these then distant parts of the American Continent.

Samuel Muir was the son of a talented Presbyterian minister, Rev. James Muir, a Scot who preached at Alexandria, Va., from 1789 to 1820, the year of his death. The son was born in the District of Columbia in the year of his father’s settlement at Alexandria. He studied medicine in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1813, be became a surgeon in the United States Army. The year Illinois was admitted into the Union (1818), he resigned his commission, and married the daughter of the then chief of the Sac or Fox Indians. Settling among the people of his wife, he assumed their ways, and came to be considered as a leader. In 1829, he quitted the Indians, and went to Galena, where he practised medicine. In 1832, the year of the Black Hawk War, there was an epidemic of cholera among the United States Troops, and he volunteered his services, which were accepted. Dr. Muir saved many lives by his skill, but fell a victim to the disease within a few months (Dr. Peter Ross in "The Scots in America," p. 160).

David McKee was the first blacksmith in what is now Chicago of whom we find any mention in the early histories. He was born in Virginia, in 1800, of Scottish ancestry. He married Wealthy Scott, daughter of Stephen J. Scott, who presumably was of Scotch lineage. It is said that he arrived at Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in 1822 or 1823. At all events, it is of record that he paid taxes in 1825, and voted in 1826 and 1830, and his name appears on the poll-list as an elector. He was employed for a time by the Government at his trade. He built a home and shop at what is now the corner of Kinzie and Franklin Streets. The other civilians’ houses, outside the Fort, were then chiefly if not all on the north side. In 1828, he was the mail carrier between Chicago and Fort Wayne, Ind. He rode this mail route on horseback, and it took a month to make the round-trip—now by rail 151 miles, one way, and traversed by train in about four hours. He could speak fluently, the Indian language (probably the Pottawatomie). It is stated that he met at Chicago the families of the Israel P. Blodgett party, and guided them out to their future homes in what is now Du Page County. One of the early histories states that he served in the Black Hawk War in 1832. He died April 8, 1881, and is buried in the Big Woods Cemetery.

Capt. Joseph Naper, for whom Naperville, DuPage County, was named, was a prominent early citizen of the northern part of the State, and was of Scotch descent. In the early histories the name is spelled "Napier," that being still the recognized orthography followed in Scotland, where the family has not a few distinguished members. (S. Augustus Mitchell, published in Philadelphia in 1836.)

John Robertson, one of the leading men of Morgan County, and in his day probably the richest, was the son of Alexander and Elizabeth Robertson, both of whom were Scotch. He was born in 1823, and here became a leading banker. His Americanism was pronounced. In the time of President Lincoln and War-Governor Yates, he was reckoned among their most enthusiastic and capable supporters. When the Government, in Civil War times, needed financial assistance, as those of the past few years may well imagine, John Robertson, like Joshua Moore, and other loyal men of the county, liberally subscribed for its bonds, and otherwise labored to keep going the machinery of the National administration.

Two brothers, John and Samuel McCarty, were the founders of Aurora, Kane County, and were the sons of Charles and Mary (Scudden) McCarty, who were descended from old Protestant families of Scotch and English extraction. Samuel donated the land in Aurora on which was built the first Presbyterian Church. This place became famous as the one on which the first Republican State Convention was held, and where it received its name. [The first Republican or Anti-Nebraska State Convention was held at Bloomington, May 29, 1856. This convention nominated for Governor of the State William H. Bissell who was elected and was the first Republican Governor of Illinois.] He was a generous contributor to education, especially in building up Jennings Seminary in that city.

In the north entrance of the Federal Building, Chicago, which was wrecked, in 1918, by the bomb of an anarchist, stands a bust of George Buchanan Armstrong. It was erected by the clerks of the United States Railway Mail Service, in honor of the founder of that branch of the Post Office Department. Mr. Armstrong, for whom a public school in Chicago is named, was an Ulster-Scot.

Says Dr. Ross (in "The Scot in America") of one who was an interesting figure half a century ago: "Very considerable space might be given to the exploits of Allan Pinkerton, the ablest detective who ever assisted justice in America. Sketches of this man’s career are plentiful enough, and his successes and experiences have been told in a series of volumes bearing his name." Pinkerton was born at Glasgow, in 1819, his father being a policeman. He certainly became one of the best-known detectives in America, and was a terror to evil-doers of all classes. His home and headquarters were in Chicago, where he died in 1884. He performed valuable services for the United States during the Civil War.

When a native of Scotland would express his high appreciation of the ability of a youth of his acquaintance, he "cannily" describes him as "a lad of pairts." Such undoubtedly was Dr. Andrew Russel, the grandfather of Hon. Andrew Russel, of Jacksonville, former State Treasurer, and now (1919) State Auditor of Illinois. Dr. Russel was born in Scotland, in 1785, and his wife, Miss Agnes Scott, daughter of John Scott, was a native of Glasgow. In that city the Doctor received his literary and professional education. Upon his coming to Illinois, he bought a large farm some ten miles south of Jacksonville, remaining upon it until his removal to the County seat of Morgan County in the spring of 1853. There he continued to live until his decease in 1861. The Doctor was one of the prominent men of Morgan County. He and his wife, who lived to be octogenarians, were deeply religious, and were staunch Presbyterians. They left a record for loyalty, usefulness, and goodness which their children and their grandchildren have sustained. Auditor of State Russel is a banker of his home town, Jacksonville, and has long been associated with M. F. Dunlap, who also is well known throughout Illinois. Mr. Russel is one of the founders and a director of the Illinois State Historical Society.

In the realm of reformatory work for and among the erring, no one in Illinois occupies a more conspicuous place than Maj. Robert W. McClaughry. A native of Hancock County. Illinois, his ancestry was Ulster-Scotch, and Presbyterian by faith. He graduated in 1860 from Monmouth College, and when the Civil War began he volunteered, was elected a captain, served throughout that conflict, and rose to the rank of major. In 1874 he was appointed warden of the Joliet Penitentiary, filling that office until 1888; was superintendent of the Reformatory at Huntington, Pa.; was largely instrumental in framing and securing the passing of the act creating the Illinois Reformatory at Pontiac, of which he became Superintendent (1893-97) again warden of Joliet (1897-99); and warden of the Federal Prison at Leavenworth, Kansas, from 1899 until his retirement from active service. As a penologist he has been recognized throughout the Nation.

Dr. J. D. Scouller, a native of Ayrshire, Scotland, was for many years the Superintendent of the Reform School for Boys at Pontiac before it became a State reformatory for older persons, and previous to the founding of the School for Boys at St. Charles. He had remarkable aptness for and success in this line of work.

The Illinois Saint Andrew Society is the oldest charitable organization chartered by the State. It was instituted in 1846 and was incorporated in 1853. Like all the other bodies of that name the world over, its object is to aid those of Scottish birth and ancestry who are in need. It has built, and maintains, near Riverside, Cook County, the establishment known as the "Scottish Old People’s Home." This is endowed amply, and furnishes a beautiful, comfortable, and commodious retreat in their old age to nearly forty women and men. The Scot does not take kindly to a poor-farm or work-house, and the "Home" is a place for guests, not "Inmates." The building and endowing of this "Home" are due to the untiring efforts of John Williamson, a Scot, who has been President of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society, and is Vice President of the People’s Gas Company of Chicago.

Every civilized nation was represented at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Those who visited it will recall the matchless "Court of Honor." It was the center to which all naturally gravitated. The most striking feature of that surpassing scene was the Colossal Fountain. It has been reproduced oftener perhaps than any other one part of the entire exhibition, and with reason, for easily it was the most beautiful. To it was and is attached the name of the gifted artist whose inimitable creation it was. The "MacMonnies Fountain" will live when the memories of the ornate structures which adorned the ample grounds are forgotten. The sculptor, Frederick MacMonnies, may here be named because of his many contributions to the plastic arts, and on account of his lineage. He came of a Dumfrieshire, Scotland, family, although he first saw the light in Brooklyn, N. Y. The influence of his marvelous conception is not measurable. And we may claim a part of this "Court of Honor" as of a son of one of Scotia’s sons.

John Finley Wallace ranks among the great engineers of the United States. His father was Rev. Dr. David A. Wallace, the first President of Monmouth College, which is referred to in our chapter on "Education." Dr. Wallace’s four sons have all made records for usefulness that are well worthy of mention. These are: John Finley, Rev. William, Rev. Mack H., and Charles, who has reached high rank in the United States Signal Corps; while his daughter is the wife of Judge Taggart, who has been Superintendent of Insurance of Ohio. John Finley Wallace, the oldest, studied at Monmouth, and has occupied important positions in the river and harbor work of the Mississippi, in railroad engineering and administration, as general manager of the Panama Railroad and Steamship Line, as engineering expert for the Chicago City Council’s Committee on Railway Terminals, and in other important enterprises of a similar nature. His professional standing is evidenced by his election to the Presidency of the American Society of Civil Engineers. His home and headquarters in recent years have been in New York, and yet Illinois does not waive the right to hold him as one of its sons of Scottish ancestry.

Malcolm McNeil and John McNeil, brothers, Scotch of ancestry, birth, and training, for upwards of half a century have contributed largely to the business history of Illinois. The wholesale grocery house of McNeil and Higgins is known widely and well. The brothers established themselves in Chicago after the Great Fire of 1871, and the firm has since then been one of the most prominent and prosperous. Malcolm McNeil, now (1919) 87 years of age. retains his active connection with its large interests and has his home in the North Division of Chicago. John McNeil, whose home was in Elgin, traveled for years to and from Chicago, covering a distance in his time of a million of miles. He passed to the great beyond in April of this year (1919) at the age of four score. For nearly half a century he was an honored officer in the First Baptist Church of Elgin, and was president of the Home Trust and Savings Bank of that city. Malcolm McNeil is one of the representative men of Chicago, esteemed throughout the community, one in whose entire career are illustrated the sterling qualities characteristic of the best of his race.

Where the Scot has cast in his lot—and where has he gone ?—he has made a place and a name for himself, in the city and country alike. A few only, out of a number, are here mentioned, as time would fail, and space be utterly wanting, even to enumerate more than a limited list of those whose contributions have gone into the developing of Illinois. For from the days of John Kinzie—the son of a Scot, and known in all the histories as the "Father of Chicago"—until the present time, there has not been a decade in which Scotchmen have not been familiar figures, and played prominent parts, in the up-building of the city by the lake. Carlisle Mason and John McArthur had their names linked together before the Civil War. Mr. Mason is still represented by Maj. George Mason, who gallantly served his country during the Great Conflict. John Clark, a manufacturer, was a stalwart Reformed Presbyterian elder, who lost his life in the Chicago Fire of 1871. His name was continued by his son Robert, who with John T. Raffen formed the firm of Clark and Raffen. Robert was prominent in municipal councils, and was a generous supporter of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society. Captain Raffen was a brave soldier who went into the Nation’s armies at the beginning of the war with the "Highland Guards." James S. Kirk founded the company of fine toilet soap manufacturers which carries his name. John P. Pine and Andrew MacLeish, of the dry-goods house of Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., are known not only as merchants, but also as benefactors of church and educational enterprises. George Armour was one of the "grain kings" of his time, a loyal and liberal Presbyterian, one of whose memorials stands in the public square in his native city of Campbelltown, Scotland, to refresh with its cooling waters the passer-by. David B. Fraser and Thomas Chalmers were associated in the Eagle Works, of which P. W. Gates was president, and later they established the Fraser and Chalmers Company, whose great shops were in Chicago as well as in Erith, near London, England, and whose machinery has found its way into mills and camps in every civilized land. Their sons, respectively, Norman D. Fraser and William J. Chalmers, sustain well their forbears’ reputations. When Chicago was the world’s great lumber market, John Oliver, John Sheriff, and John McLaren were among the leaders in that line. John Alston was at the head of the paint house of his name. Andrew Wallace was the successful manager here of J. H. Bass, manufacturer and banker, of Fort Wayne, Ind. William Stewart, wholesale grocer, of the firm of Stewart and Aldrich, was the father of Graeme Stewart, of whom mention is elsewhere made. The extensive ship-yards and dry-dock of Thomas E. and Brice A. Miller, brothers, on the North Branch, were patronized by vessel men of the Great Lakes from Buffalo and Duluth to Chicago. William McCredie, whose home was in Hinsdale, Du Page County, was for many years an official of the Burlington Railroad. John Crighton, a member of the Board of Trade, occupied a leading place as Presbyterian elder and business man. Sylvester Lynd. sixty years ago was a prominent capitalist. George MacPherson was a pharmacist of high standing, a thorough and accomplished Gaelic scholar and one of the founders, and long an elder, of the Scotch Presbyterian Church. Hugh Templeton, a baker, well known, was one of the founders and an elder of the Jefferson Park Presbyterian Church.

The Scot in Illinois, as elsewhere, in the United States, entertains a sentiment for, and maintains a relationship to, his adopted country akin to the homeland, which, perhaps, cannot be more aptly described than by likening the former to the faithful husband and the latter to the affectionate son. He holds to the Scriptural injunction of leaving the parent, howsoever devoted, and cleaving to the wife. Hence, he becomes the patriotic naturalized American citizen, whose contribution to all that is best in the body politic is considerable, conscientious, and continuing. He sees to it that his children go and do likewise. He has never been known to pervert his nativity, nor to employ it, to obtain political position before the electorate. He has given America its most popular out-of-door pastime golf. In his anniversary celebrations he always links the toast of "The Land We Left" with that of "The Land We Live In." His countrymen are well aware that the "cottage where our Robbie Burns was born" is the shrine to which more American pilgrims annually travel, and is more popular, than even the home of the "divine William" at Stratford-on-Avon. He becomes and remains an American through and through.

The historical and biographical data herein given are necessarily incomplete. The object of the writer has been only to suggest somewhat of the field to be covered, and to intimate the sources from which the information expressed and implied have been obtained, together with the immediate and indirect influences of those who are named upon the creation and development of our Prairie Commonwealth. To the historian of the future must be committed the task—which here has been in the nature of a labor of love—of preparing a fuller, more comprehensive, accurate, and satisfactory chronicle of the Scot and his descendants in Illinois. It is hoped that in this direction a beginning has been made. This has become possible by the courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Society, which already has accomplished so much in the preservation in permanent form of our State records, without which these annals would soon forever be lost to coming generations. Sincere thanks are also acknowledged to the Society’s capable Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, for kindly cooperation.

NOTE.—It Is frankly admitted that, in the foregoing paper, there has been made scarcely more than a preliminary study of the subject, so far as known the first In Illinois. Many State and local, as well as National, authorities have been consulted. The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to these, and to all who have cooperated throughout the collection of the data, and whose suggestions have aided materially In their preparation.

Particularly are thanks due, and hereby expressed, to these friends for cordial and valuable assistance:

Hon. Ensley Moore, Jacksonville.
J. Ritchie Patterson, Chicago Public Library.
Miss Caroline McIlvaine, Chicago Historical Society.
President Charles M. Stuart, Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston.
President McMichael, Monmouth College, Monmouth.
Hon. Millard R. Powers, LaGrange (formerly of McDonough County).
Robert Collyer Fergus, Chicago.
E. E. Gore, LaGrange (formerly of Carlinville).
A. M. Langwill, LaGrange.
William J. Thompson, Chicago (formerly of Randolph County).
James G. Wolcott, Assessor Lyons Township, Cook County.
Mrs. Geo. M. Vial and family, LaGrange.
Charles Paterson, President Paterson Institute, LaGrange.

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