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Scots and Scots Descendant in America
Part I - Scots in the Settlement and Development of The United States

"Full credit has been awarded the Roundhead and the Cavalier; nor have we been altogether blind to the deeds of the Hollander and the Huguenote; but it is doubtful if we have wholly realised the importance of the part played by that stern and virile people whose preachers taught the creed of Knox and Calvin. These representatives of the Covenanters were in the West almost what the Puritans were in the Northeast and more than the Cavaliers were in the South. They formed the kernel of the distictively and intensely American stock who were the pioneers of our people in their march Westwards."

Theodore Roosevelt, Winning of the West, v. 1.

SCOTTISH emigration to America came in two streams—one direct from the mother-land and the other through the province of Ulster in Ireland. Those who came by this second route are usually known as ‘‘UlsterScots,’’ or more commonly as "Scotch-Irish," and they have been claimed by Irish writers in the United States as Irishmen. This is perhaps excusable, but hardly just. The constantly reiterated assertion that these emigrants were Irishmen is due to the fact, patent to all lustorical investigators, that apart from these Ulster-Scots Ireland proper has contributed only a very few individuals of outstanding prominence in American history.

Throughout their residence in Ireland the Scots preserved their distinctive Scottish characteristics. They did not intermarry with the native Irish, though they did intermarry to some extent with the English Puritans and with the French Huguenots. These Huguenots were colonies driven out of France by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and induced to settle in the North of Ireland by William III. To them Ireland is indebted for its lace industry, which they introduced into the country.

"In Ireland the Scottish immigrants remained as distinct from the native population as if they had never crossed the Channel. They were among the Irish, but not of them."

Again, many Irish-American writers on the Scots Plantation of Ulster have assumed that the Scots settlers were entirely or almost of Gaelic origin, ignoring the fact, if they were aware of it, that the people of the Scottish lowlands were "almost as English in racial derivation as if they had come from the north of England" (Ford. p 82). Parker, the historian of Londonderry, New Hampshire, speaking of the early Scottish settlers in New England, has well said: "Although they came to this land from Ireland, where their ancestors had a century before planted themselves, yet they retained unmixed the national Scotch character. Nothing sooner offended them than to be called Irish. Their antipathy to this application had its origin in the hostility then existing in Ireland between the Celtic race, the native Irish, and the English and Scotch colonists’’ (History of Londonderry, N. H., Boston, 1851, p. 68). On the same page Parker gives a letter from the Rev. James MacGregor to Governor Shute. in which the writer says:

We are surprised to hear ourselves termed Irish people, when we so frequently ventured our all for the British Crown and liberties against the Irish Papists and gave all tests of our loyalty which the Government of Ireland required, and are always ready to do the same when required.’’

If we must continue to use the hyphen when referring to these early immigrants it is preferable to use the term "Ulster-Scot" instead of "ScotchIrish.’’ as has been pointed out by the late Whitelaw Reid. because it does not confuse the race with the accident of birth, and because the people l)referred it themselves. ‘‘If these Scottish and Presbyterian colonists,’’ he says, ‘‘must be called Irish because they had been one or two generations in the North of Ireland, then the Pilgrim Fathers, who had been one generation or more in Holland, must by the same reasoning be called Dutch or at the very least English-Dutch" (Reid, p. 23).

To understand the reasons for the Scots colonization of Ulster and the later replantation in America it is necessary to look back three centuries in British history.

On the crushing of the Irish rebellion under Sir Cahir O’Dogherty in 1607. King James I of England adopted the experiment which on a smaller scale he had tried in the Isle of Lewis in 1598. Under his direction the Province of Ulster was divided into lots and offered on certain conditions to colonists from England. Circumstances, however, turned what was mainly intended to be an English enterprise into a Scottish one. Scottish participation ‘‘which does not seem to have been originally regarded as important,’’ became eventually, as Ford points out (p. 32), the mainstay of the enterprise. ‘Although froni the first there was an understanding between (Sir Arthur) Chichester and the English Privy Council that eventually the plantation would be opened to Scotch settlers, no steps were taken in that direction until the plan had been matured. . . . The first public announcement of any Scottish connection with the Ulster plantation appears in a letter of March 19, 1609, from Sir Alexander Hay, the Scottish secretary resident at the English Court, to the Scottish Privy ( Council at Edinburgh ‘ (Ford, p. 33). In this communication Hay announced that his Majesty ‘‘out of his unspeakable love and tender affection’’ for his Scottish subjects had decided that they were to be allowed a share, and he adds, that here is a great opportunity for Scotland since we haiff greitt advantage of transporting of our men and bestiall (i.e., live stock of a farm) in regard we live so near to that coiste of Ulster’’ (Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, v. 8, pp. 268, 794).

Immediately on receipt of this letter the Scottish Privy Council made public Proclamation of the news and announced that those of them ‘‘quho ar disposit to tak ony land in Yreland’’ were to present their desires and petitions to the Council. By the middle of September seventy-seven Scots came forward as purchasers, and if their offers had been accepted, they would have possessed among them 141,000 acres of land. In the following year, in consequence of a re-arrangement of applicants the number of favoured Scots was reduced to fifty-nine, with 81,000 acres of land at their disposal. Among the fifty-nine were the Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Abercorn, Lord d’Aubigny, Lord Burley, and Lord Ochiltree. (The full list of Scottish undertakers is printed in the Register of the Privy Council. v. 8, pp. lxxxviii-xci, and the amended list in v. 9, pp. Lxxx-lxxxi.

Measures were carefully taken that the settlers selected should be "from the inwards parts of Scotland," and that they should be so located in Ulster that ‘‘they may not mix nor inter-marry’’ with ‘‘the mere Irish.’’ For the most part the settlers were selected from Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, Galloway, and Dumfriesshire.

The colonists of course did not at once proceed in a body to their new homes, but a steady stream of emigration must have been kept up, as Gardiner the historian says that in 1640 it was estimated that there were 40,000 ablebodied Scots in the north of Ireland. Sir William Petty states "that a very large emigration had taken place from Scotland after Cromwell settled the country in 1652," and, writing in 1672. he estimates the Scots population of Ireland at 100,000, mainly concentrated in Ulster. "Before the Ulster plantation began there was already a considerable Scottish occupation of the region nearest to Scotland. These Scotch settlements were confined to Counties Down and Antrim, which were not included in the scheme of the plantation. Their existence facilitated Scottish emigration to the plantation, and they were influential in giving the plantation the Scottish character which it promptly acquired. Athough planned to be in the main an English settlement, with one whole county turned over to the City of London alone, it soon became in the main a Scottish settlement’’ (Ford, p. 79).

\Vriting of these hardy Scots, Froude the historian has well and truly said: ‘‘They went over to earn a living by labour, in a land which had produced hitherto little but banditti. They built towns and villages, they established trades and manufactures, they enclosed fields, raised farmhouses and homesteads where till then there had been but robbers’ castles, wattled huts, or holes in the earth like rabbit-burrows. While without artificial distinctions. they were saved from degenerating into the native type by their religion then growing in its first enthusiasm into a living power which pervaded their entire being."

The eagerness with which the Scots embraced the opportunity to colonize in Ulster was due to the necessity for an outlet to the energies of the people. For centuries indeed before the beginning of the plantation of Ulster the adventurous spirit of the Scots had led them all over Europe in search of adventure or gain. As a rule, says Harrison (Scots in Ulster, p. 1), the Scot turned his steps where fighting was to be had, and the pay for killing was reasonably good.’’ The glorious records of the Scots men-at-arms and lifeguards in France, formed in 1418, are but one chapter in this history. The battle of Baugé, fought in 1421, ranks next to Bannockburn among Scottish victories. in this battle the Scottish legion in the service of France covered themselves with glory through their victory over their "old inemeys of Ingland," as an old chronicler calls the English. To the life-guards of France add the equally famous Scots brigade in the service of the United Netherlands, which dantit mightily the proud hosts of Spain in the Low Countries during the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

In the more peaceful channels of commerce the influence of the Scots on the continent has been deep and widespread. Some idea of the extent of the early Scottish colonization of central and eastern Europe may be gleaned from the remark of William Lithgow, the celebrated traveller, who visited Poland about 1625, that there were ‘‘thirty thousand Scots families’’ in that country, and that Poland was the ‘‘nurse of Scotland’s common younglings’’ (Advenures and Painful Peregrinations, London, 1632. p. 422). One interesting illustration of the Scottish influence on the commercial life of eastern Europe may here be mentioned. in the Lithuanian language the name for a pedlar is szalas. As most of the trade of Lithuania was carried on by Scots we have little difficulty in recognizing in this word the national name borrowed into Lithuanian through the German Schotte.

As this is not the place to deal at length with the history of Scottish influence on the European continent, it will be sufficient to refer the reader seeking further information on tile subject to the following works: (1) Fischer, Th Scots in Germany (1902). The Scots in Eastern and Western Prussia (1903), The Scots in Sweden (1907) ; all three volumes published in Edinburgh. (2) Steuart, Scottish Influences in Russian Glasgow. 1913 : Papers relating to the Scots in Poland. Edinburgh. 1915; and numerous essays by the same author in recent volumes of the Scottish Historical Review. (3) Donner, The Scottish families in Finland and Sweden, Helsingfors. 1884. (4) Forbes Leith, The Scots Men-at-arms and Life-guards in France, Edinburgh. 1882. 2 v.

The Scots were not long settled in Ulster before misfortune and persecu tion began to harass them. The Irish rebellion of 1641, which was in fact an outbreak directed mainly against the Scottish and English settlers in Ulster, caused them much suffering. The Revolution of 1688 was also long and bloody in Ireland and the sufferings of the settlers reached a climax in the siege of Londonderry (April to August, 1689). The Ulster colonists suffered also from the restrictions laid upon their industries and commerce by the English government. The exportation of cattle from Ireland to England was prohibited and ships from Ireland were treated as if belonging to foreigners. In 1698 the manufacture of woollen goods in Ireland was suppressed, though by the same act encouragement was given to the manufacture of linen. These and other events naturally caused great discontent, and with the accession of George I distress had reached such a head that relief was sought for through emigration to the American colonies.

About this time, or roughly from 1718 to 1750. was the first steady stream of eniigration. In consequence of the famine of 1740-41 it is stated that for "several years afterward 12,000 emigrants annually left Ulster for the American plantations’’ while from 1771 to 1773 ‘‘the whole emigration from Ulster is estimated at 30,000, of whom 10,000 are weavers’’ (Harrison).

Another and an important cause of the early appearance of Scots in America was the wars between Scotland and England during the Commonwealth. Large numbers of the unfortunate Scottish prisoners taken at Dun-bar (1650) and at Worcester in 1651 were sold into service in the colonies. A shipload of these unfortunates arrived in Boston Harbour 1652 on the ship John and Sara. To their miserable condition on arrival was due the foundation in 1657 of the Scots Charitable Society of Boston-—the earliest Scottish society in America. A list of the passengers of the John and Sara is given in the Suffolk Deed Records, book 1. pp. 5-6. and in Drake's work on the Founders of New England. These men, says Bolton, ‘‘worked out their terms of servitude at the Lynn iron works and elsewhere, and founded honour-able families whose Scotch names appear upon our early records. No account exists of the Scotch prisoners that were sent to New England in Cromwell’s time; at York in 1650 were the Maxwells, McIntires and Grants. The Mackclothlans (i.e., MacLachlans); later known as the Claflins, gave a governor to Massachusetts and distinguished merchants to New York City" (Bolton, p. 11).

The bitter persecution of Presbyterians in Scotland during the period of Episcopal rule in the latter half of the seventeenth century also contributed largely to Scottish emigration to the new world. A Scottish merchant in Boston named Hugh Campbell obtained permission from the authorities of the Bay Colony in February, 1679-80 to bring in a number of settlers from Scotland and to establish them in the Nepmung county in the vicinity of Springfield, Mass.

In 1706 the Rev. Cotton Mather put forth a plan to settle hardy families of Scots on the frontiers of Maine and New Hampshire to protect the towns and particularly the churches there from the French and Indians. He records: "I write letters unto diverse persons of honour both in Scotland and in England; to procure Settlements of Good Scotch Colonies to the Northward of Us:" and in his Memorial of the Present deplorable State of New England he suggests that a Scots colony might be of good service in getting possession of Nova Scotia. In 1735, twenty-seven families, and in 1753 a company of sixty adults and a nuniber of children, collected by General Samuel Waldo in Scotland, were landed at George's River, Maine. In honour of the ancient capital of their native country. they named their settlement Stirling.

Another large emigration from Ulster came in five ships to Boston, August 4, 1718, under the leadership of Rev. William Boyd, consisting of about 700 people. They were permitted by Governor Shute to select a township site of 12 miles square at any place on the frontiers. A few of these settled at Portland, Me., Wicasset. and Worcester and Haverhill, Mass., but the greater number finally at Londonderry, N. H. In 1723-24 they built a parsonage and a church for their minister. Rev. James MacGregor. In six years they had four schools and within nine years Londonderry paid one-fifteenth of the State tax. Previous to the Revolution, ten distinct settlements were made by colonists from Londonderry. N. H., all of which became towns of influence and importance. Two townships in Vermont, one in Pennsylvania and two in Nova Scotia were settled from the same source at the same time. Notable among the descendants of these colonists were Matthew Thornton, Henry Knox, Gen. en. John Stark, Hugh McCulloch, Horace Greeley, Gen. George B. McClellan, Charles Foster, Salmon P. Chase, and Asa Gray.

A number of Scottish Colonists from earlier emigrations to Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New Jersey settled a township (now Stirling) in Wind-ham County. Conn. From them were descended Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Andrew Dickson White, former Ambassador to Germany.

So desperate had matters become in Scotland at the beginning of the ninth decade of the seventeenth century that a number of nobles and gentlemen determined to settle in New Jersey and in the Carolinas. One of these colonies was founded in New Jersey in 1682 under the management of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, John Drummond, Robert Barclay the Quaker, author of the celebrated Apology for the People called Quakers, David and John Barclay, his brothers, Robert Gordon, Gawen Lawrie, and George Willocks. In 1684 Gawen Lawrie was appointed deputy governor of the province, and fixed his residence at Elizabeth. In the same year Perth (so named in honour of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the principal proprietors; now Perth Amboy) was made the capital of the new Scottish settlement. During the following century a constant stream of emigration both from Scotland and from Ulster came to the colony. Gawen Lawrie was succeeded as governor of the province by Lord Neill Campbell, who with a number of others had been exiled from Scotland for participation in the Earl of Argyll’s uprising in 1685.

One of the prime encouragers of the Scottish colonization of New Jersey was George Scot of Pitlochrie, a son of the celebrated Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet, author of the well-known work bearing the alliterative title The Staggering State of Scottish Statesmen. George Scot had been repeatedly fined and imprisoned by the Privy Council of Scotland for attending "conventicles," and in the hope of obtaining freedom of worship in the new world he proposed to emigrate "to the plantations." To encourage others to do likewise he said "there are several people in this kingdom (i.e., Scotland) who, upon account of their not going that length in conformity required of them by the law, do live very uneasy, who, beside the other agreeable accommodations of that place may there freely enjoy their own principles without hazard or trouble." In 1685 he published at Edinburgh a work called The Model of the Government of the Province of East New Jersey, in America; and Encouragement for such as design to be concerned there. This work is extremely rare (ten copies only are known to be in existence), but the work has been reprinted by the New Jersey Historical Society (1846) as an appendix to the first volume of its Collections. In recognition of his services in writing this book, Scot received from the proprietors of East New Jersey a grant dated 28th July, 1685, of five hundred acres of land in the province. A few days later he sailed from Leith with nearly two hundred others, including his wife and family, and his wife’s cousin, Archibald Riddell, one of the obnoxious Presbyterian preachers. During the voyage a malignant fever broke out among the passengers and nearly half on board perished, including Scot and his wife. A son and daughter survived. The latter married in 1686 John Johnstone, an Edinburgh druggist, who had been one of her fellow-passengers on the voyage. To him the proprietors issued (January 13, 1686-7) a confirmation of the grant made a year before to his father-in-law, and their descendants occupied a good position in the colony. Many of their descendants left America as loyalists at the Revolution, but some of them are still living in New Jersey.

Walter Ker, of Dalserf, Lanarkshire, banished in 1685, settled in Freehold and was active in organizing the Presbyterian Church there, one of the oldest in New Jersey. The Scottish settlers who came over at this period occupied most of the northern counties of the state and a number went south and southwest, mainly around Princeton, and, says Samuel Smith, the first historian of the Province, "There were very soon four towns in the Province, viz., Elizabeth, Newark, Middletown, and Shrewsbury: and these with the country round were in a few years plentifully inhabited by the accession of the Scotch, of whom there came a great many." These Scots, says Douglas Campbell, largely gave "character to this sturdy little state, not the least of their achievements being the building up, if not the nominal founding, of Princeton College, which has contributed so largely to the scholarship of America’’ (The Puritan, v. 2, p. 484).

In 1682 a company of noblemen and gentlemen in Scotland entered into bonds with each other for making a settlement in South Carolina. The royal encouragement and protection was given to the scheme and the constitution of the colony was altered to secure to these Scots greater immunity from oppression. The place of settlement was Port Royal. The colonists consisted mainly of Presbyterians banished for attending conventicles, as clandestine religious gatherings were called, and, says Wodrow, for not owing the king’s supremacy, declining to call the engagement of Bothwell Brig a rebellion, and refusing to renounce the Covenants. The names of some of these emigrants, whose descendants exist to the present day, were James McClintock, John Buchanan, William Inglis, Gavin Black, Adam Allan, John Gait, Thomas Marshall, William Smith, Robert Urie, Thomas Bryee, John Syme, John Alexander, John Marshall, Matthew Machen, John Paton, John Gibson, John Young, Arthur Cunningham, George Smith, and George Dowart. The colony was further increased by the small remnant of the ill-fated expedition to Darien. Of the seven vessels which left the Isthmus to return to Scotland only two reached home in safety. One, the largest ship of all, called the Rising Sun, made the coast of Florida under a fierce gale. They succeeded in making their way from there to Charleston, under a jury mast. Here the Rev. Archibald Stobo was waited upon by a deputation from the Church in Charleston and invited to preach in the town while the ship should be refitted. He accepted the invitation and left the ship with his wife and about a dozen others, and went ashore. The following day, the Rising Sun, while lying off the bar, was overwhelmed in a hurricane and all on board, believed to have numbered one hundred and twelve, were drowned. One of the most noted of the descendants of Rev. Archibald Stobo is Hon. Theodore Roosevelt.

In the following year (1683) the colony was augmented by a number of Scottish colonists from Ulster under the leadership of one Ferguson, but little is known of them. A second colony in the same year, conducted by Henry Erskine, Lord Cardross, who had suffered much persecution in Scotland for his religious opinions, founded Stuartstown (so named in honour of his wife). Another large Scottish settlement from Ulster was that of Williamsburgh township (1732-1734), who named their principal village Kingstree.

There were settlements of Scottish Highlanders in North Carolina, on the Cape Fear River, as early as 1729; some are said to have located there as early as 1715. Neill MacNeill of Jura brought over a colony of more than 350 from Argyllshire in 1739, and large numbers in 1746, after Culloden, and settled them on the Cape Fear. Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, was the center of these Highland settlements. The mania for emigration to North Carolina affected all classes and continued for many years. The Scots Magazine for September, 1769, records that the ship Molly sailed from Islay on August 21, full of passengers for North Carolina, which was the third emigration from Argyll "since the close of the late war." A subsequent issue states that fifty-four vessels full of emigrants from the Western Islands and other parts of the Highlands sailed for North Carolina between April and July, 1770, conveying 1,200 emigrants. Early in 1771, the same magazine states that 500 emigrants in Islay and adjoining isles were preparing to sail for America. Again it records that the ship Adventure sailed from Loch Erribol, Sunday, August 17, 1772, with upwards of 200 emigrants from Sutherlandshire for North Carolina. In 1772 the great Macdonald emigration began and continued until the breaking out of the war in America. In 1753, it was estimated that there were 1,000 Scotsmen in the single county of Cumberland capable of bearing arms, of whom the Macdonalds were the most numerous. Gabriel Johnston, governor of the province from 1734 till his death in 1752, bears the reputation of having done more to promote the settlement and prosperity of North Carolina than all its other colonial governors combined. Being very partial to the people of his native country, he sought to better their condition by inducing them to emigrate to North Carolina. Among the charges brought against him in 1748 was that of his inordinate fondness for Scotchmen (Hanna, v. 2, p. 37).

The heroine, Flora Macdonald, and her husband, Allan Macdonald, Laird of Kingsburgh, set sail from Campbeltown, Scotland, on the ship Balliol, in August, 1774, bound for North Carolina. They landed at Wilmington and proceeded to Cross Creek (Fayetteville), in both settlements receiving a most enthusiastic reception. Their first home was at Cameron’s Hill (then Mt. Pleasant), but they removed later to the west, into Anson County, to an estate which they named "Killiegrey." Flora and Allan Macdonald inscribed their names in the roll of the old Barbaque Kirk, near Cross Creek. This was one of two churches founded in 1758 by Rev. James Campbell, a native of Campbeltown, Argyllshire, and at that time was under the ministry of the Rev. John MacLeod.

Many of these Cape Fear Scotsmen, unlike the Scottish settlers of South Carolina and Virginia, remained loyalists during the American Revolution. They were led, through their interpretation of their oath to Governor Martin and their loyalty to Flora Macdonald, to join in the misguided uprising which resulted so fatally at the battle of Moore’s Creek Bridge, February 27, 1776, where all were killed or captured. Of more than 700 prisoners, the private soldiers were released on parole, the officers, including Allan Macdonald, afterward were exchanged as prisoners and sent to Halifax. After the war several of these settled in the Maritime Provinces. Flora Macdonald returned to Scotland in 1779, where her husband, Allan, joined her in 1783.

There were also large settlements of Ulster Scots in North Carolina, 1740-1760. Notable among these were the communities in Orange, Rowan and Mecklenburg Counties. From the latter came the famous Mecklenburg Resolutions, adopted in Charlotte, N. C., May 31, 1775, more than a year before the Declaration of Independence, which Bancroft characterizes as the first voice raised for American Independence. The Mecklenburg Assembly, which met on May 20, 1775, was composed of "twenty-seven stanch Calvinists, of whom nine were Presbyterian ruling elders and one a Presbyterian minister" (E. W. Smith, p. 144).

Some Scottish Presbyterians were also settled near Norfolk, Virginia, on the Eastern branch of the Elizabeth River, before 1680. In Maryland there seems to have been a colony about 1670 under Colonel Ninian Beall, settled between the Potomac and the Patuxent. At intervals during the next twenty years he induced many of his friends in Scotland (estimated at about two hundred) to join him. Through his influence a church existed at Patuxent in 1704, the members of which included several prominent Fifeshire families. Many other Scottish colonists were settled on the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia, particularly in Accomac, Dorchester, Somerset, Wicomico and Worcester Counties. To minister to them the Rev. Francis Makemie of Ramelton, was sent by the Presbytery of Lagan in the North of Ireland at the invitation of Col. William Stevens. Three of these churches, founded by him in 1683, at Snow Hill, Pitts Creek and Rehoboth, Maryland, were the charge of Rev Samuel MacMaster, who came from Scotland or the North of Ireland, for thirty-seven years (1774-1811), during the Revolutionary War period. They are the oldest organized Presbyterian churches in America. Another prominent minister of the time, a friend of Makemie, was the Rev. William Traill, a graduate of Glasgow University. He had suffered imprisonment for his opinions at home, and upon his release came to Maryland in 1682. Upper Marlborough, Maryland, was founded by a company of Scottish emigrants under the pastorate of the Rev. Nathaniel Taylor about 1690.

Two shiploads of Scottish Jacobites taken at Preston in Lancashire were sent over in the summer of 1717 in the ships Friendship and Good Speed to Maryland and sold as servants. The names of some of these "Rebels" were Dugall Macqueen, Alexander Garden, Henry Wilson, John Sinclair, William Grant., Thomas Spark, Alexander Spalding, James Webster, John Robertson, William MacBean, William MacGilvary, James Hindry, Allin Maclien, William Cumins, William Davidson, Hector Macqueen, David Steward, Thomas Donolson, James Mitchell, Thomas McNabb, James Shaw, John Maclntire, Alexander Macdugall, Finley Cameron, James Renton, James Rutherford, Daniel Grant, Finloe Maclntire, Daniel Kennedy, William Ferguson, Laughlin MacIntosh, John Cameron, Alexander Orrach, William Macferson, etc. (Scharf, History of Maryland, v. 1, pp. 385-387). In 1747 another shipload of Jacobites taken in the Rebellion of ‘45 were sent over to Maryland in the ship Johnson of Liverpool, and arrived at the port of Oxford July 20, 1747. Their names are recorded on a worm-eaten, certified list preserved among the records of Annapolis. Among those named are: John Grant, James Allen, Alexander Buchanan, Thomas Claperton, Charles Davidson, Thomas Ross, John Gray, Patrick Murray, William Melvil, William Murdock, James Mill, Peter Duddoch, Naile (? Neill) Robertson, John Macnabb, Hugh Maclean, Roderick Macferrist, Sanders Walker, Gilbert Maccallum, John Arbuthnot, etc. (Seharf, v. 1, p 435).

In 1734, Robert Harper, an Ulster Scot, came to the junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers and established the ferry which gave its name to the settlement.

In 1735 the General Assembly of South Carolina, with a view to the strengthening of the colony, commissioned Lieutenant Hugh Mackay to recruit among the Highlands of Scotland. So successful was he that one hundred and thirty Highianders with fifty women and children were in a short time enrolled at Inverness. These individuals, together with several grantees going at their own charge and taking servants with them, sailed October 18, 1735, and landed in the Savannah River in January following. "These men," says Jones, "were not reckless adventurers or reduced emigrants volunteering through necessity, or exiled by insolvency or want. They were men of good character, and were carefully selected for their military qualities. . . . Besides this military band, others among the Mackays, the Dunbars, the Bailies, and the Cuthberts applied for large tracts of land in Georgia, which they occupied with their own servants. Many of them went over in person and settled in the province" (History of Georgia, v. 1, p. 200; Boston, 1883). Shortly after their arrival they ascended the Alatamaha River for some distance and there founded a permanent settlement which they named New Inverness. To the district which they were to hold and cultivate they gave the name of Darien. Both these places are in McIntosh county. Efficient military service was rendered by these Highlanders during the wars between the colonists and the Spaniards and by their descendants in the American Revolution. "To John Moore McIntosh, Captaill Hugh Mackay, Ensign Charles Mackay, Colonel John McIntosh, General Lachlan McIntosh, and their gallant comrades and followers, Georgia, both as a colony and a state, owes a large debt of gratitude. This settlement was subsequently augmented from time to time by fresh arrivals from Scotland. Although located in a malarial region, it maintained its integrity and increased in wealth and influence. Its men were prompt and efficient in arms, and when the war cloud descended upon the southern confines of the province no defenders were more alert or capable than those found in the ranks of these Highlanders" (Jones, v. 1, p. 201). With the first colony, the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge sent out the Rev. John Macleod of Skye to preach to the people in Gaelic. It would be interesting to know how long the knowledge of Gaelic existed among the colonists in Georgia. Rupp, the historian of the counties of Berks and Lebanon in Pennsylvania (1844, p. 115), says the language had disappeared from there before his day.

A strong infusion of Scottish blood in New York state came through settlements made there in response to a proclamation issued in 1735 by the Governor, inviting "loyal Protestant Highlanders" to settle the lands between the Hudson and the northern lakes. Attracted by this offer, Captain Lauchlin Campbell, of Islay, in 1738-40 brought over eighty-three families of Highlanders to settle on a grant of nearly 30,000 acres in what is now Washington County on the borders of Lake George (Smith, History of New York, p. 197; Phila., 1792). His expectations in regard to land grants were disappointed, and to add to his troubles many of the families he had brought over refused to settle on his lands. Notwithstanding the hardships incidental to pioneer life, these emigrants on the whole succeeded fairly well. "By this immigration," says E. H. Roberts, "the province secured a much needed addition to its population, and these Highlanders must have sent messages home not altogether unfavorable, for they were the pioneers of a multitude whose coming in successive years was to add strength and thrift and intelligence beyond the ratio of their numbers to the communities in which they set up their homes" (New York, v. 1, p. 286; Boston, 1904).

Many Scottish emigrants settled in the vicinity of Goshen, Orange County, in 1720, and by 1729 had organized and built two churches. A second colony arrived from the North of Ireland in 1731, which included Charles Clinton and his sister, Christiana Clinton Beatty, the former the father and grandfather of two Revolutionary generals and two governors of New York; the latter the mother of two noted Presbyterian divines, both named for her brother, Charles Clinton.

At the same time as the grant to Lauchlin Campbell, on Lake Champlain, in 1738 Lieutenant-Governor Clarke granted to John Lindesay, a Scottish gentleman, and three associates, a tract of eight thousand acres at Cherry Valley, in Otsego County. Lindesay afterward purchased the rights of his associates and sent out families from Scotland and Ulster to the valley of the Susquehanna. These were augmented by pioneers from Londonderry, N. H., under the Rev. Samuel Dunlop, who in 1743 established in his own house the first classical school west of the Hudson. October 11, 1778, the entire settlement was destroyed and thirty-two inhabitants, chiefly women and children, and sixteen soldiers killed, and the others carried off by the Royalists and Indians under Walter Butler and Joseph Brant.

Ballston in Saratoga County was settled in 1770 by a colony of Presbyterians, who removed from Bedford, N. Y., with their pastor, Rev. Eliphalet Ball, and were afterward joined by many Scottish emigrants from Scotland, Ulster, New Jersey and New England. The first Presbyterian church was organized in Albany in 1760 by Scottish emigrants who had settled in that vicinity.

Sir William Johnson, for his services in the French war, 1755-1758, and in the settlement and defence of northern New York, was given a grant of 100,000 acres of land in the Mohawk Valley, in the neighborhood of Johnstown, N. Y., and brought over in 1773-1774 many families from the Scottish Highlands, Glengarry, Glenmorison, Urquhart and Strathglass, Inverness-. shire. Prominent among these were the Macdonells of Glengarry. Sir John Johnson succeeded his father at his death, July 11, 1774. When the Revolutionary War broke out he led them in a Loyalist movement, which eventually removed almost the entire colony into Ontario.

John More and his wife, Betty Taylor More, natives of Rothiemurchus, Inverness-shire, Scotland, settled in the western Catskills on the site of the present village of Roxbury, New York, in 1773. Roxbury, the birthplace of Jay Gould and John Burroughs, the naturalist, was founded in 1788, when Abraham Gould and other settlers from Connecticut joined More in that region. September 3 and 4, 1915, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the John More Association in the United States, was celebrated by a historical pageant on the grounds of Mrs. Finley J. Shepard, who was Miss Helen Gould, a direct descendant of John More. Her grandfather, John Burr Gould, having married Mary More in 1827.

Rev. Francis Makemie preached to the Presbyterians in New York City in January, 1707, for which he was arrested and imprisoned. The First Presbyterian Church, "The Old First," Rev. Howard Duffield, D.D., pastor, now at Fifth Avenue, 11th to 12th streets, was founded in December, 1716, and December 3-10, 1916, celebrated its 200th anniversary. The Second Presbyterian Church, the "Scotch Presybyterian Church," Rev. Robert Watson, D.D., pastor, organized in 1756, the same year as the St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York, celebrated its 160th anniversary October 29 to November 5, 1916. The city now has sixty Presbyterian churches and 189 ministers connected with New York Presbytery.

Mention must also be made of the colony of several hundred Scottish weavers who settled more than a century ago in New York City, and there diligently plied their handicraft. They formed a community apart from the rest of the citizens, and are said to have won and maintained a good reputation as an industrious, useful, and. orderly people. The place where they resided in the city was in what was at that time the village of Greenwich, in a nook by the side of a country lane called Southampton Road, to which in memory of their home in the old country they gave the name of "Paisley Place." A view of some of their old houses in Seventeenth Street, between Sixth Avenue and Seventh Avenue, as they existed in 1863, is given in Valentine’s Manual for that year.

Although many Scots came to New England and New York they never settled there in such numbers as to leave their impress on the community so deeply as they did in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and the South. There were Presbyterian churches in Lewes, Newcastle (Delaware), and Philadelphia previous to 1698, and from that time forward the province of Pennsylvania was the chief center of Scottish settlement, both from Scotland and by way of Ulster. By 1720 these settlers had reached the mouth of the Susquehanna, and three years later the present site of Harrisburg. Between 1730 and 1745 they settled the Cumberland Valley, and still pushing westward in 1768-69 the present Fayette, Westmoreland, Allegheny and Washington counties. By 1779 they had crossed the Ohio River into the present State of Ohio. Between the years 1730 to 1775, the Scottish emigration into Pennsylvania often exceeded ten thousand in a single year. In 1736, it is recorded, there were one thousand families waiting in Belfast for ships to bring them to America.

Rev. John Cuthbertson, a Presbyterian missionary for nearly forty years (1751-1790), travelled through these primitive settlements establishing churches and visiting families. He rode on horseback more than 60,000 miles, preached 2,400 days, baptized 1,600 to 1,800 children and married nearly 250 couples, and founded fifteen churches. Rev. Charles Clinton Beatty, a graduate of Tennent's "Log College" at Neshaminy, was the first Presbyterian missionary to cross the Allegheny Mountains, with General Forbes in 1758. He and Rev. George Duffield visited western Pennsylvania again in the summer and fall of 1766. Both Cuthbertson and Beatty left Journals which throw interesting light upon the contemporary life of these hardy pioneers.

While the majority of the settlers came by way of Ulster, and while there were large settlements of Germans and Welsh throughout Pennsylvania (the Quaker settlements did not extend far beyond Philadelphia), an outstanding feature of these Journals, and those of other missionaries laboring in the same field, is that almost every family name mentioned in them is pure Scotch—Walkers, Rosses, Browns, Buchanans, Mitchells, McClellands, Dinwiddies, Flemings, McKnaughts, MePhersons, Pattersons, Ormsbys, Elliotts, Kings, Keiths, McCartneys, Hunters, Maclays, Murrays, McCandlish, Campbells, McDowells, McKays, Douglases, McCurdys and countless others. The preaching was often in the rude cabins of the settlers but more often, as Duffield writes, "in the woods, as we have done mostly hitherto." at places designed for building houses of worship,—" ‘ There is no house. I must preach among the trees." "I preached from a wagon, the only one present." Great difficulty was experienced in assembling the congregation, who often came for miles through the wilderness for the first preaching they had heard in years. Rev. James Finley in 1767, the Rev. Daniel McClure in 1772, the Rev. James Power in 1772 and in 1774, and the Rev. John McMillan in 1775 and again in 1776 visited the Pennsylvania settlements, which before the beginning of the Revolutionary War had laid the foundations of some of the most prosperous towns and cities in the Keystone State.

From the coast settlements the stream of immigration flowed south into the Virginias, the Carolinas, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and west across the Alleghenies into the great territory of Ohio. It is a matter of historical record that the majority of the hardy pioneers and settlers of the great Middle West were of Scottish birth or descent, and to this day the illiterate mother among the Kentucky mountaineers passes on her burden of tradition when she tells her unruly boy: " ‘Behave yourself, or Clavers will get you!’ To her Clavers is but a bogey; but to her ancestors Graham of Claverhouse was a very real cause of terror." (Bolton, p. 300.)

The passion for freedom among the Scots was developed by the centuries of bitter warfare waged against the aggression of their richer and more powerful southern neighbour—a warfare it may be said continued in a modified form to the present day. The Scots’ determination to maintain their freedom and independence early found literary expression in the Letter of Remonstrance addressed to the Pope by the Barons of Scotland in 1320, a document which has been well described as "the noblest burst of patriotic feeling, the finest declaration of independence that real history has to show." Addressing the Holy Father in most vigorous and stirring language the Barons declared: "For so long as a hundred remain alive, we never will in any degree be subject to the dominion of the English. Since not for glory, riches or honours we fight, but for liberty alone, which no good man loses but with his life." George Buchanan’s De Jure Regni apud Scotos ("The Jurisdiction of the Law over the Scots"), published in 1759, exercised a profound influence on Scottish opinion, and in the seventeenth century the work became "aVade Mecum to those who in Scotland and England were engaged in the struggle for political rights against the Stewart kings." The thesis of Buchanan’s work is that the king is inferior to the law, and that he is responsible to the people: "We contend," he says, "that the people, from whence our kings derive whatever power they claim, is paramount to our kings; and that the commonalty has the same jurisdiction over them which they have over any individual of the commonalty. The usages of all nations that live under legal kings are in our favour; and all states that obey kings of their own election in common adopt the opinion that whatever right the people may have granted to an individual, it may, for just reason, also re-demand. For this is an inalienable privilege that all communities must have always maintained."

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War there were nearly seventy communities of Scots and Ulster-Scots in New England, including Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,. Massachusetts and Connecticut; from thirty to forty in New York; fifty to sixty in New Jersey; more than 130 in Pennsylvania and Delaware; more than one-hundred in Virginia, Maryland and Eastern Tennessee; fifty in North Carolina; about seventy in South Carolina and Georgia; in all about 500 settlements (exclusive of the English Presbyterian congregations in New York and New Jersey), scattered throughout all the American colonies. (Hanna, v. II. p. 2.) Bancroft estimates the total white population of the colonies in 1775 to have been 2,100,000 (by 1790, the date of the first national census, this had increased to 3,172,000) ; of these Hanna figures that those of Scottish ancestry were distributed as follows: New England, 25,000; New York, 25,000; New Jersey, 25,000; Pennsylvania, 100,000; Delaware, 10,000; Maryland, 30,000; Virginia, 75,000; North Carolina, 65,000; South Carolina, 45,000; Georgia, 10,000; in all, 4l0,000—about one-fifth of the white population. Others estimate that the white population at the time of the Revolution was 3,000,000, and that of this number 900,000 were of Scotch or Scotch-Irish origin, 600,000 were English, 400,000 were Dutch, German and Huguenot descent.—W. H. Roberts, Seventh General Assembly Council, 1899, p. 94.

In their new homes on this side of the Atlantic, to which they had come for greater freedom and liberty of conscience, it was not to be expected that a people who held such doctrine would tamely submit to kingly oppression. Hence it was that among the Scots and their descendants were found so many of the leaders in the struggle for American independence. Their leadership in the causes which led to the War of Independence has been well put by Bancroft in the following words: "The first voice publicly raised in America to dissolve all connection with Great Britain (the Mecklenburg and West-moreland Resolutions) came not from the Puritans of New England, nor the Dutch of New York, nor the Planters of Virginia, but from the Ulster Scottish Presbyterians" (History of the United States, v. 5, p. 77, Boston, 1861). And when the war finally came, it was they who bore the brunt of the fighting from the Hudson to Savannah. Joseph Galloway, than whom, says Ford, "there could be no better informed witness," "held that the underlying cause of the American Revolution was the (organized) activity and influence of the Presbyterian interest," and that "it was the Presbyterians who supplied the Colonial resistance a lining without which it would have collapsed." In his evidence before a Committee of the House of Commons in 1799, he declared that at the beginning not one-quarter of the people "had independence in view," and that in the army enlisted by the Continental Congress "there were scarcely one-fourth natives of America—about one-half Irish (that is, Ulster Scots), the other fourth were English and Scotch." The Hon. Richard Wright, at one time speaker of the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania, an Episcopalian, said "The War of Independence was a Presbyterian and it has girded on the sword it has put the Bible in the knapsack. It is Scotch-Irish war" (Scotch-Irish in America. Proceedings, v. 3, p. 135). So prominent, indeed, was the part taken by Presbyterians as individuals and as a church in the Revolutionary struggle that at its close rumors were rife that projects were on foot to make Presbyterianism the religion of the Republic (Breed, p. 56). The influence of Scotland and Presbyterianism on the formation of the Republic is further shown by the remark of Chief Justice Tilghman (1756-1827), who stated that the framers of the Constitution of the United States were, through the agency of Dr. Witherspoon, much indebted to the standards of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in modelling that admirable instrument under which we have enjoyed our liberty (Parker, p. 103).

It is a hardy race, the Scots. "It believed in prayer and it believed in work. It had faith and it could fight. It came to these shores, and we find it in New Hampshire, in Pennsylvania, in Virginia, and in the Carolinas. It was at Cape Breton, and at Quebec. It was in the Continental Congress, and in the Continental Army. It was in the infant navy and in the adult navy. It sailed with Preble and it fought with Decatur. It was with Farragut at Mobile, and roved with Semmes on strange seas. It gained the victory at King’s Mountain and saw the surrender at Yorktown. It helped to make the constitution and did more than its share in winning the west. It was with Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville, and with George H. Thomas at Chiekamaugua. It triumphed with Grant and surrendered with Lee. It believes in the family and in the home, in the church and in the school, and where presbtyerian, and representative government in church and in state is part of its religion. It is for the Sabbath that God ordained. It is mighty nearly the elected crown of American citizenship—yet vaunteth not itself." May its record in the future be as honourable and meritorious as it has been in the past!

A few years ago Mr. Jenkinson, United States consul in Glasgow, said: "If the Americans lived in liberty and independence, it was mainly through what the Scots had taught them. If they tried to elevate mankind morally and socially by a thorough system of popular education, they but followed the example of Scotland. If they refused to put on and wear the shackles which bound the consciences of men and prevented a full and free religious worship, they but accepted the results of the long and severe contest waged by the people of Scotland."

"Let anyone scrutinize the list of names of distinguished men in our annals; names of men eminent in public life from Presidents down; men distinguished in the Church, in the Army, in the Navy, at the Bar, on the Bench, in Medicine and Surgery, in Education, trade, commerce, invention, discovery—in any and all the arts which add to the freedom, enlightenment, and wealth of the world, and to the convenience and comfort of mankind; names which have won lustre in every honourable calling—let him scrutinize the list and see for himself how large a proportion of these names represent men who have this blood in their veins" (Dinsmore, p. 5). The proportion of men of this race who, the world over, have reached high distinction, is phenomenal. Nowhere has the influence of this people had greater scope than in the United States and in the British Colonies. In this country their impress is everywhere on the industries, the commerce, the inventions, the educational, philanthropie, charitable, and religious institutions of the country. In these pages it is obviously impossible to mention every Scot who has achieved distinction—to do so would require a large biographical dictionary. We can only here select a few prominent from the earliest to the present day.

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