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Scots and Scots Descendant in America
Part V - Biographies
Andrew Carnegie, LL.D

THE biography of a great and successful man is always interesting and inspiring, especially to one who is determined to improve, and become something more and better than he is; such an one is eager to find out the secret of a successful career, as it kindles a high ideal in his breast and strong courage to push forward himself. Mr. Carnegie is a noteworthy example of one who began life with practically no advantages, and has overcome almost insuperable difficulties. Anyone who reads his life-story must of necessity be greatly influenced by it.

In an article, How I Served My Apprenticeship as a Business Man, contributed to the Youth’s Companion in 1896, Mr. Carnegie told the story of his early struggles in simple yet vivid English. To this article we are indebted for some of the details in the earlier part of this biography.

Mr. Carnegie was born November 25, 1835, the elder son of a well-to-do master weaver in the old " royal city" of Dunfermline. Here he grew up like many another Scots laddie, playing at the "bools," spinning his "peerie," and mastering the "three R ‘s" at the "skule’ ‘—all unconscious of his future greatness. But the demon of progress, in the shape of the factory-system, crushed his father out of his business of hand-loom weaving. "I was," he says, "just ten years of age when the first lesson of my life came to me, and burned into my heart, and I resolved then that ‘the wolf of poverty’ would be driven from our door some day, and I would do it." Finally, as a result of a family council, it was decided to sell off the old looms and to depart overseas to join relatives already in Pittsburgh, at that time a town of about 25,000 inhabitants. The family—father, mother, himself and younger brother—sailed from Broomilaw, Glasgow, for New York, in 1848, in the Wiscasset, a barque of 900 tons. Of this decision to try their fortunes in America, Mr. Carnegie says: "I well remember that neither father nor mother thought the change would be otherwise than a great sacrifice for them, but that ‘it would be better for our two boys’."

Mr. Carnegie’s father was a man of strong character and of some literary and oratorical ability, who wrote and spoke freely upon the economic questions that were agitating the people of Scotland at that time. His uncle on his mother’s side, from whom he received the major part of his education, also held strong democratic ideas, which he expressed vigorously. Evidently, from them Mr. Carnegie received the pronounced republican tendencies that have characterized his whole life. He often refers with pride to the fact that his uncle was imprisoned for "upholding the rights of the people, and vindicating the liberty of free speech." His habits and tastes were largely formed by his mother, a thrifty woman of shrewd common sense, who took in hand his early education and whose training he never forgot. He admits that she was the secret of his success in life.

Soon after arriving in Allegheny City, the future iron-master entered a cotton factory, where his father had secured employment, beginning as a bobbin boy for the magnificent salary of one dollar and twenty cents a week— roughly, two cents an hour. He was then just about twelve years old. "I cannot tell you," writes Mr. Carnegie, "how proud I was when I received my first week’s own earnings. One dollar and twenty cents made by myself and given to me because I had been of some use in the world! No longer entirely dependent upon my parents, but at last admitted to the family partnership as a contributing member and able to help them! I think this makes a man out of a boy sooner than almost anything else, and a real man, too, if there be any germ of true manhood in him. It is everything to feel that you are useful. I have had to deal with great sums. Many millions of dollars have since passed through my hands, but the genuine satisfaction I had from that one dollar and twenty cents out-weighs any subsequent pleasure in money-getting. It was the direct reward of honest manual labor; it represented a week of very hard work, so hard that but for the aim and end which sanctified it, slavery might not he much too strong a term to describe it.

About a year later he was employed by John Hay, a bobbin-maker and a friend of his parents, for a time working in the cellar firing a boiler and running the small steam engine which drove the machinery. This was an arduous task for one of his years. As he says: "The responsibility of keeping the water right and of running the engine and the danger of making a mistake and blowing the whole factory to pieces, caused a great strain, and I often awoke and found myself sitting up in bed through the night trying the steam gauges."

Mr. Carnegie writes with feeling of this period of his life: "For a lad of twelve or thirteen to rise and breakfast every morning, except the blessed Sunday morning, and go into the streets and find his way to the factory, and begin work while it was still dark outside, and not be released till after darkness came again in the evening, forty minutes’ interval only being allowed at noon, was a terrible task. But I was young and had my dreams, and something within always told me that this would not, could not, should not last— I should some day get into a better position. Besides this, I felt myself no longer a mere boy but quite ‘a little man,’ and this made me happy. I never told them at home that I was having a ‘hard tussle.’ No! no! everything must be bright to them. This was a point of honor, for every member of the family was working hard except, of course, my little brother, who was then a child, and we were telling each other only the bright things. Besides this, no man would whine and give up—he would die first.

"You know how people moan about poverty as being a great evil, and it seems to be accepted that if people had only plenty of money and were rich, they would be happy and more useful, and get more out of life. It is because I know how sweet and happy and pure the home of honest poverty is, how free from perplexing care, from social envies and emulations, how loving and united its members may be in the comnon interest of supporting the family, that I sympathize with the rich man’s boy and congratulate the poor man’s boy; and it is for these reasons that from the ranks of the poor so many strong, eminent, self-reliant men have always sprung and always must spring. If you will read the list of the ‘Immortals who were not born to die,’ you will find that most of them have been born to the precious heritage of poverty."

It was with Mr. Hay that Mr. Carnegie received his first commercial experience. The kind old Scotsman, finding he could cipher and write a good hand, promoted him to be his clerk, make out bills and keep his accounts; but he continued to work hard part of the time in the factory.

His next advancement was his appointment as messenger boy in the Pittsburgh telegraph office. Mr. J. Douglas Reed, also a native of Dunfermline, who had come to America and had attained a high place in the telegraph service, had promised the father to give young Carnegie a trial. In his History of the Telegraph, Mr. Reed says: "I liked the boy’s looks, and it was very easy to see that though he was little he was full of spirit." During the whole time Mr. Carnegie was in the telegraph office, Mr. Reed did all he could to help him forward. Alluding to this experience, in an address at a dinner in his native town, Mr. Carnegie said: "I awake from a dream that has carried me back to the days of my early boyhood, the day when the little white-haired Scotch laddie, dressed in a blue jacket, walked with his father into the telegraph office at Pittsburgh to undergo examination as applicant for position of messenger boy. Well I remember when my uncle spoke to my parents about it. My father objected, because I was then getting one dollar and eighty cents per week for running a small engine in a cellar in Allegheny City, but uncle said the messengers’ wages were two dollars and fifty cents. If you want an idea of heaven upon earth, imagine what it was to be taken from a dark cellar, where I fired the boiler from morning till night, and dropped into the office, where light shone from all sides, and around me books, papers and pencils in profusion, and oh! the tick of those mysterious brass instruments on the desk, annihilating space, and standing with throbbing spirits ready to convey intelligence throughout the world. This was my first glimpse of Paradise."

In this position he made up his mind to master thoroughly his business. He learned the names of all the streets in Pittsburgh, and the names and locations of all the principal business firms, and in his spare moments practised sending messages, learning to take these by ear, which was very uncommon at that time. One morning, before the operator arrived, when he heard Philadelphia calling Pittsburgh, and giving the signal "Death Message," he received the message and delivered it before the operator came. The reward of his diligence and ability was the favourable notice of his superiors, and promotion to the rank of operator at twenty-five dollars a month. His father died about this time: and this salary, with his mother’s earnings, binding shoes at home, which netted four dollars a week, was sufficient to support the family. The six newspapers of Pittsburgh received telegraphic news in common, and Mr. Carnegie was soon offered a gold dollar each week for furnishing the copies in duplicate. This brought him into pleasant contact every evening with the newspaper reporters and gave him his first pocket money that he did not consider family revenue.

About this time the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed to Pittsburgh, and Mr. Thomas A. Scott, who was then Superintendent, visited the telegraph office often to communicate with his superiors in Altoona. He was attracted to the young operator, through whom he sent many of his messages, and when the great railway system put up a wire of its own, Mr. Scott offered Mr. Carnegie a situation with the railway at an advance of ten dollars a month on the salary he was then receiving, besides giving him a wider opportunity for his energies and the development of his gifts. He soon made himself a favourite with his chief and won his confidence both as an employer and a friend. He took a keen interest in railway work, mastering the details, and gradually acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of the whole system. Once, in the absence of Mr. Scott, an accident occurred which required prompt and decisive action. His knowledge enabled Mr. Carnegie, who was now Mr. Scott’s private secretary and operator, to grasp the situation at once, and he took immediate action. These early railroads had but one track, and the freight trains were on the sidings along the lines, waiting for the express, which had the right of way. He wired the conductor of the express that he was giving the freight trains three hours and forty minutes of his time, and asked for a reply. He then wired the conductor of each freight train and started the whole of them. The telegrams were signed "Thomas A. Scott." Mr. Scott thoroughly appreciated the ability displayed by his young lieutenant. He recognized that he could be depended upon in a crisis, and thenceforth regarded him as his right-hand man. In 1863, when Mr. Scott became Vice-President of the company, he made young Carnegie Superintendent of the Pittsburgh division of the line. During the thirteen years of his service with the railroad, Mr. Carnegie introduced many improvements in the service. At the age of twenty-six, when the Civil War broke out, he was placed by Mr. Scott, then Assistant Secretary of War, in charge of the military railroads and government telegraphs. His position here was a responsible one; it was his duty to see to the transport of the troops and stores, and generally to supervise all transportation and communication—a duty which required a clear head and steady nerves. He operated the lines during the battle of Bull Run, and was on the last train from Burke Station after the defeat. At Washington, in the War Department, he had his most interesting experiences, and while engaged in his duties there he inaugurated a system of telegraphing by ciphers, which was found to be of invaluable service. Parenthetically, it may be noted as a curious fact that, although not a combatant, Mr. Carnegie was the third man wounded in the War. A telegraph wire that had been pinned to the ground, upon being loosened sprang up and cut a severe gash in his cheek. To the sight of the carnage, bloodshed and destruction of property of which he was a daily witness in the course of his duties, is due his horror and detestation of war. He returned with Mr. Scott to Pittsburgh in June, 1862.

Shortly after he entered the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad Cornpany, Mr. Scott called Mr. Carnegie’s attention to an opportunity for buying ten shares of Adams Express Company. They would cost six hundred dollars, and his chief offered to advance one hundred dollars if Mr. Carnegie could secure the balance. Mr. Carnegie tells of his acceptance of the offer, though he had no idea where the money was coming from: "the available assets of the whole family were not five hundred dollars. But there was one member of the family whose ability, pluck and resource never failed us, and I felt sure the money could be raised somehow or other by my mother." A family council was held the same evening, and when Andrew had explained the situation, his mother, ever on the lookout to help her industrious son, replied: "It must be done. We must mortgage the house" ‘—-which the family had by this time managed to purchase, worth eight hundred dollars. "I will take the steamer in the morning for Ohio, and see uncle and ask him to arrange it. I am sure he can." Her ability, pluck and resource triumphed. The visit proved successful, and the money was obtained. "She succeeded. Where did she ever fail ?" The shares were bought., but no one ever knew that the little home was mortgaged to "give our boy a start." Adams Express then paid monthly dividends of one per cent., and in due time the first check for ten dollars arrived. Mr. Carnegie says: "Here was something new to all of us, for none of us had ever received anything but from toil. A return from capital was something strange and new. How money could make money, how without any attention from me this mysterious golden visitor should come, led to much speculation on the part of my companions, and I was for the first time hailed as a ‘capitalist.’ " In this, as in other instances, it was his mother’s sound business judgment that helped him to lay the cornerstone of his successful career. Of this Mr. Carnegie is justly proud. It is evident he inherited his genius for finance and his great commercial ability from his mother.

His next venture in the field of business occurred shortly after his return from the war, in 1862. Travelling on the railroad one day he was accosted by a stranger who showed Mr. Carnegie the model of the first sleeping-car. Its value struck him like a flash. "Railroad cars in which people could sleep on long journeys—of course there were no railways across the continent, yet— struck me as being the very thing for this land of magnificent distances." He introduced the inventor, Mr. -Woodruff, to Mr. Scott, who with his usual quickness grasped the idea, and the outcome was that two trial cars were put on the Pennsylvania Railroad. A sleeping-car company was immediately formed, and Mr. Carnegie offered an interest, which he promptly accepted. The cars were to be paid for in monthly installments, and again our young financier was in difficulty as to where to obtain the money for his first monthly payment, two hundred and seventeen dollars and a half. Finally, he decided to visit the local banker and ask him for a loan, pledging to repay at fifteen dollars a month. The banker promptly granted it, putting his arm over Mr. Carnegie’s shoulder, saying: "Oh, yes, Andy, you are all right." The Woodruff Sleeping Car Company, which was afterward absorbed by the Pullman Palace Car Company, was a success from the start, and Mr. Carnegie was able to pay the subsequent installments out of the dividends distributed. The returns from the sleeping-car venture also enabled him to repay the loans from his mother and his banker, and put him in possession of his first substantial capital for investment. In 1863, the following year, he was appointed Superintendent of the Pittsburgh Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad and returned to Pittsburgh from Altoona.

Another business opportunity soon presented itself, when he joined with Mr. Scott, Mr. Woodruff and others in purchasing the famous Storey Farm on Oil Creek. Here, again, he showed remarkable foresight; for the great possibilities of oil were not then even guessed at. The well, at that time, was producing one hundred barrels daily, but even so far-sighted a man as Mr. Carnegie had his doubts about its future capacity, and large reservoirs were provided to store up and hold the oil for the market when the well should cease producing. However, though thousands of barrels were sold, the production did not diminish. The property, which cost the investors forty thousand dollars, soon was valued at five millions, and in one year paid dividends of one million dollars on the original forty thousand. What an investment!

This success, however, was but preliminary to his great career. His experience as a railroad man and his observation while in Washington convinced him that a great industrial revival was certain to follow the dark days of the war, including a prosperous future for the iron business along the line of manufacturing. Up to this time, wooden bridges were used exclusively by the railways. but the Pennsylvania Railroad Company had begun to experiment with bridges built of east iron. Mr. Carnegie had seen so many delays caused by burned and broken bridges, that even before this he had foreseen that they would need to be rebuilt with some more permanent material. He had a practical connection with the iron business, having associated himself with Mr. Thomas N. Miller in the Sun City Forge Company, a small iron business in Pittsburgh, in 1861; and he immediately realized the possibilities of a firm that could manufacture iron bridges. With an engineer, two bridge-builders and some friends he organized the Keystone Bridge Works, borrowing about fifteen hundred dollars from the bank to pay his share. The company built the first great bridge over the Ohio River, which had a three-hundred foot span, and has built many of the most important structures since. The Keystone Bridge Company was the first in the field and bore an excellent reputation, and as the superiority of iron bridges became generally known, reaped a rich harvest. In 1865, Mr. Carnegie resigned his post with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, in which he had risen from telegraph operator to divisional superintendent, in order to devote his whole time to the development of his enterprises. He admits: "I never was quite reconciled to working for other people. I always liked the idea of being my own master, of manufacturing something and giving employment to many men." Here his splendid faculties for the first time were permitted full sway. The success of the Keystone Bridge Company was due to the most progressive business methods and "the boldest and most enterprising innovations. Mr. Carnegie was always a man of great commercial daring; once having convinced himself of the value of an innovation or the soundness of a scheme, he never wavered in his purpose, but, confident in his ability, and encouraged by past successes, set himself to carry his enterprises through to a triumphant issue. Calling to his aid every force that could help him in any way, and perfecting his organization at every point, he was prompt to avail himself of the discoveries of science and to seize upon every new invention."

From this time on, Mr. Carnegie ‘s name is inseparably associated with the development of the iron and steel industry in America. From these beginnings all his great works were built, the profits of one building the others. His whole career, in fact, is an excellent illustration of the truth of Shakespeare ‘s words:

"There is a tide in the affairs of men
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune."

As he had foreseen, the substitution of iron for wood became general, in bridge-building and in many other directions, and the Keystone Bridge Company had soon largely to extend its works. In 1863, Mr. Carnegie built another mill in Pittsburgh, and in 1864 he was one of the organizers of the Superior Rail Mill and furnaces, Pittsburgh. In 1867, he united two mills in Pittsburgh in which he had an interest, the Cyclops and the Kloman; and in 1866 he started a locomotive works in Pittsburgh.

Mr. Carnegie, who was now spending his summers regularly in his native Scotland, and who made it a point to become acquainted with all the leading iron and steel men of Britain, was well acquainted with Sir Henry Bessemer and visited him while he was completing the development of his process for making steel. He immediately recognized the revolution that the new process would bring about in the iron industry of the world. He acquired all the necessary knowledge and equipment and in 1868 began his plans for the erection of an enormous plant in Pittsburgh for the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer process. Steel was already supplanting iron in many ways, especially in the manufacture of railway rails, and to Mr. Carnegie, with his large interests in iron, this was a matter of vital importance. While in the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad, he had seen iron rails taken out of the track every six weeks at certain points, because they could not stand the strain of the growing traffic. He had suggested to the company a process for hardening the face of iron rails with carbon, similar to the Harvey process, and had brought the inventor, a Mr. Dodds, to America to carry out the experiments, and had purchased his patents. These rails were tried in the worst curve of the track and proved very successful; but Mr. Carnegie saw that Bessemer steel was something superior—and he must have it.

When he laid the matter before his partners in the iron business, explaining the success and significance of the Bessemer process, they were too cautious to join him, so he went out among his friends, Mr. McCandless, Mr. John Scott, and others, and organized the Edgar Thompson Steel Works. The mills were building when the panic of 1873 struck the country, and work was suspended for a time. The partners had each put in about twenty thousand dollars, and many of Mr. Carnegie’s friends needed their money and begged him to repay them. Between this time and 1876 he was persuaded to buy so many of them out that he held the controlling interest.

As Mr. Carnegie says, he was "in at the birth of steel; followed it, and steel did become King." His courage was justly rewarded. "As he had been the first in America to recognize the immense superiority of iron over wood for certain purposes, so now he was the first to realize the great superiority of steel over iron. Just as he had reaped a rich harvest through his foresight in being ready to turn out iron bridges, so he now reaped an even richer harvest in being prepared to supply the sudden demand for steel rails. He appeared with his magnificent manufacturing facilities just at the period when the prosperity of America was in its infancy. The unparalleled railway extension in the country had scarcely commenced; great towns were springing up on all sides, and in every direction enormous quantities of iron and steel were needed for structural purposes."

No expense of time, labor or money were spared in the construction of the great Edgar Thompson Steel Works, at Braddock’s Field, which were so named for Mr. Carnegie’s friend, John Edgar Thompson, President of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. The most skilful engineers were employed and everything in the way of machinery and science was brought together in the finest plant that money could buy. Yet even this was soon insufficient to supply the rapidly growing demand for the product. He was now determined to become the undisputed master of the steel market, to shrink from no responsibility in order to maintain his lead. He must increase his output; but he did not have time to wait for the construction of fresh works. The regular steel manufacturers of Pittsburgh (not Bessemer) had combined and were building jointly a great plant at Homestead, just across the Monongahela, on what Mr. Carnegie considered the finest site on the river. He opened negotiations with these competitors, and in 1880 bought them out. Large extensions were made in both these properties and the Duquesne Steel Works purchased in 1890. The works at Homestead alone covered seventy-five acres of land and employed more than four thousand men. They furnished steel for everything from the rim of a bicycle to the two-hundred-ton armor plates of a battleship or the skeleton of a skyscraper. The blast furnaces of the Edgar Thompson Works turned out twenty-eight hundred tons of pig-iron daily; and the rail mill, the finest in the world, sixteen hundred tons of steel rails per day. The Duquesne Works had a capacity for converting two thousand tons of pig-iron daily into steel billets, rails, sheets and bars. Another innovation Mr. Carnegie introduced in the manufacture of steel was the patents of Gilchrist and Thomas, known as the "basic process," which enabled the high phosphoric ores to be used for steel. Mr. Carnegie purchased an option on the patents and brought Mr. Sidney Thomas to America, and in consideration of his generosity in handing over the process to the Bessemer Association the share of the cost of the patents was never charged to the Carnegie Company. He also introduced a successful method for using the non-bessemer ores in open-hearth furnaces and built the huge open-hearth plant at Homestead, one of the industrial wonders of the world.

In 1889, Mr. Carnegie invited Mr. Henry Clay Frick, who at that time dominated the coke-making industry, to join forces with him. The fuel question had become critical. Jealous competitors, together with railways and mine-owners, threatened to combine against him. Carnegie ‘s fighting blood was stirred, he answered with action, in his usual practical way. If the mine-owners would not sell him iron ore and coal at the right prices, he would buy and work iron and coal fields of his own: and, further, if the railroads discriminated against him, he would build and operate railroads of his own. The Frick Coke Company owned forty thousand acres of coal-bearing lands, and in addition more than two-thirds of the famous Connellsville, Pa., coal fields. It operated more than ten thousand ovens, with a daily capacity of twenty thousand tons. Mr. Carnegie also acquired the most valuable mines and ore leases in the Lake Superior iron region, mines producing six million tons of ore annually; he built a fleet of steamers to carry the ore nearly nine hundred miles to Cleveland and Conneaut, Ohio, with great docks for handling ore and coal, and railway lines from Lake Erie to his foundries; he gradually purchased and owned seventy thousand acres of natural gas territories, with two hundred miles of pipe line. He had reduced the cost of production to a minimum. He had brought his mineral resources within easy access of his furnaces, and had acquired every tool and process necessary to manipulate with his own materials, and by his own workmen, the rough ore to the finished product. It was possible to bring the ore from Lake Superior to Pittsburgh, a thousand miles, and convert it into steel in ten days. The nineteen blast furnaces, three vast steel mills, and seven smaller mills, produced annually three million two hundred thousand tons of steel alone. The company maintained its own private telegraph system to its offices in every important city in the country; it was the largest employer of labor in the world, giving work to fifty thousand men. The payroll of the year exceeded eighteen millions, and the profits forty millions of dollars. If we reckon five members to a family, it means that one firm controlled the happiness of nearly two hundred and fifty thousand persons. These vast interests were reorganized as the Carnegie Steel Company, in 1900, with a capital stock of $160,000,000, and bonds, $160,000,000. The properties owned and controlled by the Carnegie Steel Company at that time were:

The Edgar Thompson Blast Furnaces, Foundries and Steel Works; The Homestead Steel Works—-Bessemer, open-hearth and armor plate departments, and finishing mills; The Duquesne Steel Works and Blast Furnaces; Carrie Blast Furnaces; Lucy Blast Furnaces; Keystone Bridge Works; Upper Union Mills; Lower Union Mills; The H. C. Frick Coke Company; The Larimen Coke Works; The Youghiogheny Coke Works; all the capital stock of the following companies—Union Railroad Co., Slackwater Railroad Co., Youghiogheny Northern Railway Co., Carnegie Natural Gas Co., Youghiogheny Water Co., Mount Pleasant Water Co., Trotter Water Co., Pittsburgh & Conneaut Dock Co.; all or controlling stock of—-Pittsburgh, Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad Co., Pennsylvania & Lake Erie Dock Co., New York, Pennsylvania & Ohio Dock Co., Oliver Iron Mining Co., Metropolitan Iron & Land Co., Pioneer Iron Co., Lake Superior Iron Co., Security Land & Exploration Co., Pewabic Co., Pittsburgh Limestone Co. (Ltd.) ; and other interests in ore mines, transporation companies, dock companies, valuable patents and compames owning patents, etc. The following were the partners, December 30, 1899, in the Carnegie Steel Company (Ltd.), with the percentage of their holdings (the fractions being fractions of one per cent)

Mr. Carnegie now so thoroughly dominated the steel and iron situation as to make competition almost impossible. His more powerful competitors looked to the formation of a Steel Trust; but before such a project was feasible the Steel Master must be bought out. Mr. Carnegie had announced his intention of equipping enormous works at Conneaut, Ohio, at a cost of $15,000,000, to be devoted to special competition with the products of the Trust; also another steel mill, greater than any in existence. Mr. Carnegie was approached to sell out through Mr. Frick and Mr. Phipps, two of his partners, who secured a sixty-day option, but it was forfeited. When this project failed, Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan was brought into the situation and negotiations were opened up anew, through third parties, and the Carnegie Steel Company was bought out at Mr. Carnegie ‘s own price. He received for his interest, representing about one-half, $250,000,000 in five per cent. bonds on the Trust’s properties, capitalized at $1,100,000,000. These terms were better than cash, for the security was ample.

There has been much talk of Mr. Carnegie’s holding out for a higher price. At his appearance before the Committee of Investigation of the United States Steel Corporation, of the House of Representatives. January, 1912, Mr. Carnegie testified: "I considered what was fair; and that is the option that Morgan got. Schwab went down and arranged it. I never saw Morgan on the subject nor any man connected with him. Never a word passed between him and me. I gave my memorandum and Morgan saw it was eminently fair. I have been told many times since by insiders that I should have asked $100,000,000 more, and could have gotten it easily. Once for all, I want to put a stop to all this talk about Mr. Carnegie ‘forcing high prices for anything.’

When Mr. Carnegie retired, and the United States Steel Corporation was formed, he was in his sixty-sixth year, at the height of his health and vigor.

"An opportunity to retire from business came to me unsought, which I considered it my duty to accept. My resolve was made in youth to retire before old age. I always felt that old age should be spent in making good use of what has been acquired."

Several factors stand out as the foundation of Mr. Carnegie ‘s wonderful business success; his great foresight, his genius for organization, and his insight into human nature and power to judge men. This latter faculty was a true genius, as is proven by his ability to discover young men of unusual qualifications and, after associating them with himself, to fire them with his own enthusiasm and indomitable spirit. Mr. Carnegie is never sparing in his tribute to the great part these partners contributed to his success. "Concentration,’’ he says. ‘‘is my motto—first, honesty; then, industry; then, concentration." He believed in young and competent men, and gave them heavy responsibilities, preferring them always as executives—" Older heads should be reserved for counsel." "The great manager," he said, "is the man who knows how to surround himself with men much abler than himself." Again. "I do not believe any one man can make a success of business nowadays. I am sure I never could have done so without my partners, of whom I had thirty-two, the brightest and cleverest young fellows in the world. All are equal to each other, as the members of the Cabinet are equal. The chief must only be first among equals. I know that every one of my partners would have smiled at the idea of my being his superior, although the principal stockholder. The way they differed from me and beat me many a time was delightful to behold. No man will make a great business who wants to do it all himself or to get all the credit for doing it."

Mr. Carnegie ‘s relations with labor were always cordial. He had begun at hard work himself, and he expected his men to work hard and conscientiously; but he never refused to meet and consult with them on such problems as arose. In his own words he always enjoyed these conferences. Before the U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations. February 5. 1915. he said: "I knew them all by name, and I delighted in it. And, you see, behind my back they always called me ‘Andy’, I liked that; I would rather have had it than ‘Andrew’ or ‘Mr. Carnegie’. There is no sympathy about these. But once you have your men call you ‘Andy’ you can get along with them." It was a policy of the Carnegie works not to employ new and untried men—to hold their old men at all costs, even at times at a loss. Many of these workmen rose to permanent high positions, and not a few to partnerships in the company. They had only one serious disaster with labour, the Homestead strike of 1892. Mr. Carnegie was coaching in the Scottish Highlands at the time, and did not hear of the riots until days afterward. He wired that he would return to America at once; but his partners begged him not to come. From this cable, he supposed all was settled. He takes great pride that the reason for this was that some of his partners thought him too easygoing with labour, "his extreme disposition to always grant the demands of labour," as Mr. Phipps once testified, "however unreasonable"; and wanted to manage the affair in their own way. Some of the men at the works cabled him at that time: "Kind Master, tell us what you want us to do and we will do it for you." What a tribute of confidence!

Mr. Carnegie was one of the first, years ahead of his time, to put into practical application the theories of co-operation that are attracting so much attention to-day. In his Empire of Business, he says: "We shall one day all recognize Capital, Labor and Business Ability as a three-legged stool, each necessary for the other, neither first, second nor third in rank—all equal. This is to be the final solution of the problem of capital and labor." In his testimony before the U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations, after a reference to "that unaccountable being, Henry Ford," and the work of Judge Gary and the officers of the Steel Corporation, Mr. Carnegie said: "I consider this the greatest of all steps forward yet taken for making workmen and capitalists fellow workmen indeed, pulling and owning the same boat. This cannot fail to prove highly profitable to both. Far beyond the pecuniary advantage I esteem the fellow partnership which makes Judge Gary, Mr. Farrell, Mr. Dinkey and other high officials fellow partners with their workmen. I know of no greater triumph that labor has won." Though these methods of cooperation are being carried out practically by many firms to-day, it must not be forgotten that Mr. Carnegie was the pioneer in recognizing, a half century ago, the benefit accruing from close fellowship between capital and labor, and was the first to apply these ideas with his own employees.

After his retirement, public interest was turned from the contemplation of the shrewd business capacity which had enabled Mr. Carnegie to accumulate such an immense fortune to the public-spirited way in which he devoted himself to expending it on the great amelioration schemes described later on. His views on social subjects and the responsibilities which the possession of great wealth involved, were made known to the world in his Triumphant Democracy, published in 1886, and in his Gospel of Wealth, which gives title to a book of his magazine contributions published in 1900. These views created a great and world-wide interest at the time of their publication, and were much discussed in many reviews and newspapers both in America and Europe, Mr. Gladstone being the foremost to name it the Gospel of Wealth. Mr. Carnegie considers the duty of a man of wealth to be: "First, to set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display and extravagances; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to benefit the community. The man of wealth thus becomes the mere agent and trustee for his poorer brethren, bringing to their service his superior wisdom, experience and ability to administer, and doing for them better than they would or could do for themselves." Again, he says: "The day is not far distant when the man who dies, leaving behind him millions of available wealth, which was free for him to administer during life, will pass away ‘unwept, unhonoured and unsung,’ no matter to what use he leaves the dross which he cannot take with him. Of such as these the public verdict will be: ‘The man who dies thus rich, dies disgraced.’

In his second article on the Gospel of Wealth, contributed to the North American Review, in 1891, Mr. Carnegie dealt with seven objects which, in his opinion, were worthy of the attention of those possessed of wealth. These objects were, briefly: (1) To found or enlarge a university; (2) to found free libraries; (3) to establish hospitals and laboratories; (4) to present public parks to municipalities; (5) to provide public halls with organs; ( 6) to erect swimming baths; (7) to build churches. In all his benefactions, Mr. Carnegie has shown himself to have been dominated by an intense belief in the future greatness of the English-speaking people, in their democratic government, and in the progress of education along unsectarian lines. The list of his gifts in the shape of buildings and endowments to aid in the rapid attainment of this ideal is too numerous for individual mention, and the following summary must suffice.

FREE LIBR.ARIES.—The founding of free libraries in America and in Great Britain was one of Mr. Carnegie ‘s earliest methods of providing for the welfare of his fellow men. He has frequently referred with justifiable pride to the fact that his father, a working weaver, was one of a small band who combined their limited collections of books to form the first library in Dunfermline for the working-men. But the mainspring of his motive in establishing public libraries is found in his own youthful experience in Pittsburgh. When a boy there, striving hard to improve his education, he was permitted, along with a few other lads, to borrow books from the private library of a gentleman named Colonel Anderson. He then resolved that, if ever wealth should fall to his lot, he would use it to establish free libraries, so that poor boys might have opportunities of reading the best books. His method in carrying out this work is to build and equip, on condition that the municipality provides the site and undertakes to maintain the library for all time. In this way local interest and responsibility are secured. To date, about 2,560 libraries have been erected among the English-speaking race all over the world, at a cost of about $60,000,000. In 1901, Mr. Carnegie offered to erect branch libraries in Greater New York, of which about seventy have been built and opened to date, at a cost exceeding five and a half million dollars. On the same plan he has given Philadelphia about thirty branch libraries.

THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTE IN PITTSBURGH.—In Pittsburgh, as we have seen, Mr. Carnegie began his career, and it is natural to expect that it should have become the place of the earliest of his greater benefactions. Mr. Carnegie began by offering $250,000 for a Free Library, which for some reason was refused; Allegheny City, now incorporated in Pittsburgh, asked and received the rejected gift. Soon afterward the city authorities of Pittsburgh repented of their decision and made application for another gift. In return Mr. Carnegie generously gave $1,000,000 for the foundation of an Institute including a Hall of Music. This gift later led to the formation of an Orchestra and a Museum of Natural History, followed by a Department of Fine Arts and Technical Schools, including the Margaret Morrison School for Women. The attendance is now more than three thousand, from forty-two states, more than a third of whom are men from industries, striving to improve their condition. The buildings housing these institutions form a magnificent group, and represent an endowment of about $24,000,000. Additional gifts were announced in 1916.

PENSION FUND FOR AGED AND INJURED WORK MEN.—In a letter instituting this fund, in March, 1901, Mr. Carnegie says: "I make this first use of surplus wealth upon retiring from business as an acknowledgment of the deep debt I owe to the workmen who have contributed so greatly to my success." The amount given by Mr. Carnegie was $5,000,000, one million of which was for the maintenance of libraries and halls he had built in connection with the various steel works. To this gift his successors, the United States Steel Corporation, later generously added another $4,000,000. The fund is designed to relieve those of the workmen in the steel mills who may suffer from accidents, and to provide small pensions for those needing help in old age. In 1914, there were more than twenty-five hundred beneficiaries of the fund, which paid out almost $512,000.

THE HERO FUND.—The original fund, established in 1904, to which Mr. Carnegie devoted $4,000,000, embraced the United States, Canada and Newfoundland. The purpose of this fund is to place those following peaceful vocations, who have been injured in heroic efforts to save human life, in somewhat better pecuniary positions than before until again able to work. Should the hero lose his life, his widow and children, or other dependents, are to be provided for, and for exceptional children exceptional grants are made. A generous tribute was paid to Mr. Carnegie by the Emperor of Germany, who, after having had five German cases brought to his notice, instructed his ambassador to inform Mr. Carnegie that he had "from the first recognized his generosity, but now he placed first his discernment." Similar Hero Funds have since been established in Great Britain, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy—the total endowments for all countries being $11,790,000.

CARNEGIE PEACE FUND.—This fund, created in 1910, is of such recent origin, that as yet there is little to chronicle of its operations, but we hazard the opinion that it will ultimately prove to be a benefaction to mankind. Mr. Carnegie’s strong antipathy to war, in which he is supported by all really civilized people, is well known. In his letter to the trustees endowing the fund, he rightly describes war as "the foulest blot upon our civilization," and adds: "The crime of war is inherent, since it decides not in favour of the right, but always of the strong." So firm is Mr. Carnegie’s belief that war will sooner or later be discarded as disgraceful to civilized man, that he authorizes his trustees after universal peace has been secured to consider "what is the next most degrading evil or evils whose banishment, or what new elevating element or elements, if introduced or fostered, or both combined, would most advance the progress and elevation and happiness of man, and apply the Peace Fund thereto." The trustees have mapped out their plan of campaign under seven heads, to be carried out in three main divisions: (1) Division of International Law; (2) Division of Economics and History; (3) Division of Intercourse and Education. The fund given by Mr. Carnegie for this purpose consists of $10,000,000 in bonds of .the value of $11,000,000. His gift of $1,500,000, in 1903, for the erection of a Temple of Peace at The Hague should also be mentioned in this connection.

CARNEGIE ‘S PEACE GIFT TO THE CHURCHES.—-In February, 1914, Mr. Carnegie announced to representatives of eleven different denominations his gift of $2,000,000, to spread the propaganda of world peace throughout this country, by sermons, lectures and pageants. The interest of this sum is to be used for this laudable work. He announced the gift in the following letter:

"Gentlemen of many religious bodies, all irrevocably opposed to war and devoted advocates of peace: We all feel, I believe, that the killing of man by man in battle is barbaric and negatives our claim to civilization. This crime we wish to banish from the earth; some progress has already been made in this direction, but recently men have shed more of their fellows’ blood than for years previously. We need to be roused to our duty, and banish war."

THE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING.—This fund was set aside in 1905. In the letter accompanying the gift, Mr. Carnegie stated that he had "reached the conclusion that the least rewarded of all the professions is that of the teacher in our higher educational institutions.

The consequences are grievous; able men hesitate to adopt teaching as a career, and many old professors, whose places should be occupied by younger men, cannot be retired." The fund applies to the teachers of universities, colleges and technical schools in the United States, Canada and Newfoundland, and consists of $16,125,000 in five per cent, bonds, yielding an annual income of more than $800,000. In addition to this magnificent sum, Mr. Carnegie has also made gifts from time to time to hundreds of colleges and institutions in the United States and Canada of sums ranging from $1,000 to $650,000, in all making a total of about $27,000,000. Among the institutions to which he gave largely were Tuskegee Institute, under Booker T. Washington, and Hampton University, for negro education. He has also been a powerful supporter of the movement for simplified spelling as a means of promoting the spread of the English language.

THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS OR PAN AMERICAN UNION.—This is a voluntary association of twenty-one American Republics, including the United States, united together for the development of peace, friendship and commerce between them all. The association is controlled by a governing board composed of the diplomatic representatives in Washington of the other twenty governments, and the Secretary of State of the United States; the latter is chairman ex-officio. Mr. Carnegie was appointed by the late President Harrison a member of its first conference, and he showed his practical interest in its work by a gift of $850,000 to erect a Peace Palace for the Bureau in Washington. The Union, at a meeting held in August, 1910, resolved that Mr. Carnegie deserved the gratitude of the American Republics, and agreed to present him with a gold medal, bearing on the obverse: THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS TO ANDREW CARNEGIE, and on the reverse:

BENEFACTOR OF HUMANITY. The presentation was made in May, 1911, in the Palace erected by him in Washington, before a large and influential audience, presided over by President Taft. In presenting the medal, the President said most truly that it was given "to the individual foremost in the world in his energetic action for the promotion of peace."

SCOTTISH UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FUND.—Mr. Carnegie’s love for his native country and her struggling sons was shown by his gift, in 1901, of five per cent, bonds of the value of $11,500,000 to establish a trust for "providing funds for improving and extending the opportunities for scientific study and research in the universities of Scotland and by rendering attendance at these universities, and the enjoyment of their advantages, more available to the deserving and qualified youth of Scotland, to whom the payment of fees might act as a barrier to the enjoyment of their advantages." It is worthy of note that Mr. Carnegie was led to make this endowment through reading an article in the Nineteenth Century, advocating free university education. The writer was Thomas Shaw, a Dunfermline laddie, the son of a baker, who later in life rose to be Solicitor-General for Scotland, and is to-day Lord Shaw. In making this gift, Mr. Carnegie gave instructions that the self-respect of parents and students should be respected. Provision was therefore made for treating the sums paid for fees as advances to be repaid or not at the recipient’s choice. The proceedings of the trustees are strictly confidential, and it will not, therefore, be known whether or not a student has paid any fees. This noble benefaction to Scotland led to Mr. Carnegie ‘s being elected Lord Rector of St. Andrews University, in 1906, and later Lord Rector of Aberdeen University. The Scottish Universities conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws, in recognition not only of his gift, but of his high literary attainments; and he has received degrees from many colleges and universities, in Britain, Canada and the United States. He has received the freedom of more than fifty cities of England, Scotland and Ireland. He has given millions to his native town, so that Dunfermline, with 25,000 inhabitants, is more richly endowed than any city in Great Britain.

THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON.—The purpose of this institution "is to secure, if possible, for the United States of America leadership in the domain of discovery and the utilization of new forces for the benefit of man." The trustees were incorporated by an act of Congress, April 28, 1904, and the objects of the corporation are there declared to be: "to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner investigations, research and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and, in particular, to conduct, endow and assist investigation in any department of science, literature or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals." To carry out this comprehensive scheme, the Institution has been divided into ten departments, as follows: (1) Botanical Research; (2) Experimental Evolution; (3) Economics and Sociology; (4) Geophysical Laboratory; (5) Marine Biology; (6) Meridian Astronomy; (7) Historical Research; (8) Solar Laboratory; (9) Terrestrial Magnetisrn; (10) Nutrition Laboratory. The funds originally made over to the Institution were $10,000,000, to which $15, 000,000 have since been added. Many volumes of the greatest scientific importance have been issued by the different branches of the Institution.

ORGAN GIVING.—Mr. Carnegie is intensely fond of music, and, as we have seen, he includes the distribution of organs as one of the principal objects worthy of the attention of wealthy men. Mr. Carnegie, however, seems to have himself monopolized this field of usefulness, as he has given away about $6,000,000, being approximately 6,000 gifts averaging $1,000 each. His method has generally been to give one-half the cost of the instrument, leaving the other half to be raised by the church or hall. By these means he helps those who help themselves. His erection of Carnegie Hall in New York, and his presidency of the New York Oratorio Society are additional evidences of his love for music.

ENGINEERING GIFTS.—Mr. Carnegie has always shown great interest in mechanical inventions and machinery of all kinds; his keen appreciation of the utility of the steam engine is set forth in his admirable Life of James Watt. In his address, June 1, 1908, at the unveiling of Watt’s statue at the institute, Greenock, he said: "It is a strange fact that the three men who changed the conditions of life upon the earth were contemporaries, all Scotch in blood, and two of them Scotch by birth. There must be something in the climate and the race it produced, that could have brought Watt, Symington and Stephenson within a radius of a hundred miles of Greenock, in the same country, and all of Scottish blood."

In 1891, Mr. Carnegie became a member of the General Association of Mechanics and Tradesmen, and to the Institute, located on West 44th Street, New York, he gave $325,000 for repairing and enlarging the building, and later $200,000 for an endowment. This Institute has more than two thousand students, to whom free instruction is given, and in February, 1914, over two hundred were graduated. He also gave for the Engineering Buildings, New York, located in 39th and 40th Streets, and devoted to the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Engineers’ Club, $1,500,000.

Mr. Carnegie has given hundreds of thousands in ways that have not been made public. When he was President of the St. Andrew’s Society of New York, he gave $100,000 to that Society, and he has made several similar gifts to other worthy organizations. Beginning by accepting the funds of widows of his friends, who were anxious to secure safety for them, he now holds deposits from upward of one hundred and fifty widows, aggregating $3,137,-394, giving his personal note and guaranteeing six per cent. income. This fund is regularly examined by a representative of the State Banking Department, and removes all anxiety from the minds of these worthy women as to the security of the funds upon which they are able to live in comfort. Mr. Carnegie testified recently that he had no less than 481 regular pensioners upon his list, receiving a total of $214,954 a year. He has incorporated the Carnegie Corporation of New York with $125,000,000, to continue his library and other work. His library, organ and college gifts total, to the United States, $96,-927,287.75; to Canada, $3,371,867; and to Great Britain and the colonies, $25,617,636. Before the U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations, February, 1915, Mr. Carnegie reported that to the end of 1914, his foundations and gifts had reached the huge total of $324,657,399. This is the greatest amount ever contributed by any individual, and certainly entitles him to be forever known as the Benefactor of Humanity.

Personally, Mr. Carnegie is a most genial and democratic man. His great wealth has made him neither ostentatious nor unapproachable. He is about five feet six inches tall and well proportioned and erect in bearing. A strong constitution and careful living throughout his life have kept him keen, active and energetic though now in advanced years. His head is well moulded and his face and features strong and expressive. He is excellent company, possessing a ready and sparkling wit and a buoyant and youthful temperament. He has a boy’s zest in living and mixes with all sorts and conditions of men easily and unpretentiously, be they peasants or emperors. As he is an example of thrift and industry, he is also an example of temperance. He uses neither liquor or tobacco. Unlike most millionaires, he does not hire high-priced lawyers to express his views of public affairs, but is himself always ready to tell what he thinks of imperialism, the relations of capital and labour, or any of the many public questions of the day. His magazine articles are abundant evidence of this fact. He has appeared often before various committees of Congress regarding corporations, labor and the control of capital, and has always proved an interesting witness. He never fails to impress his well thought out ideas upon his hearers nor to lighten the serious atmosphere by his ready wit and contagious good humour.

One secret of Mr. Carnegie’s success, as has been pointed out, was his possession "from boyhood of the faculty of attracting the attention of the great and the rich. It was more than a knack; it was an instinct, and deep down beneath his diplomacy it was based upon the solid worth and forcefulness of his character. He was as great as they. Long before his wealth had made him famous, he was the personal friend of Gladstone, Rosebery, Matthew Arnold, Herbert Spencer, John Morley, James Bryce and others." When the Prince of Wales, later King Edward, visited this; country in 1860, Mr. Carnegie, then with the Pennsylvania Railroad, took him over the line. At the summit of the Allegheny Mountains, Carnegie induced the Prince to ride with him on the locomotive down the mountains, an experience he never forgot. As the two young men—one a prince by virtue of his birth, the other by virtue of his competency—clung to the narrow seat in the engineer’s cab, and were rushed downward, there began the spring-time of a friendship which remained unbroken, and which grew stronger with the passing years, until the death of King Edward.

Another secret of his success is his knowledge of men, and his foresight in surrounding himself with capable employees, and in giving them opportunities to better themselves, to such an extent that many of them became millionaires. Through the wide-spread distribution of his gifts he has furnished employment to thousands of men and women throughout the world. He has manifested the same wisdom in the choice of wise and trustworthy men as trustees and managers of his funds and endowments.

It would naturally be expected that the building up of such a gigantic business would tax all the time and energy of any one man, but in Mr. Carnegie’s case this has not been so. Literary work has always been a pleasure to him since his boyhood days in Pittsburgh, when he earned a little extra money every week by making duplicate copies of newspaper despatches for reporters. The journalistic craving, an inheritance from his father, has always been strong within him, and the writing of important articles for the monthly reviews on commercial and social questions, has been a welcome recreation. Many of these articles have won him international fame as a writer and social reformer. He is an earnest student of Scottish literature, and a lover of the poets, especially Shakespeare and Burns. He is also an orator, and his speeches have been described as possessing an excellent literary form, always distinguished by sound common sense, argument and logical reasoning. He speaks in a clear, telling voice, and enforces his points with graceful gestures.

Mr. Carnegie’s first book, Round the World, an account of his own trip, was originally printed for private distribution among his friends in 1879. It proved to be so popular that a regular edition was printed by Charles Scribner’s Sons in 1884. A German translation, Meine Reise urn die Welt, was published in Leipsig, 1908. His other books are: Our Coaching Trip—printed for private distribution among friends, 1882. It aroused so much interest that a second edition was called for the year following. In the second edition, the title was changed to An American Four-in-Hand in Britain. It was published by Charles Scribner’s Sons, and other editions were issued in 1885, 1891, 1903 and 1907. Triumphant Democracy: or Fifty Years’ March of the Republic—published by Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1886. This is Mr. Carilegie‘s best-known and most popular work. Other editions were published in 1887, 1888, 1890. In a revised edition, published in 1893, the title was changed to Triumphant Democracy: Sixty Years’ March of the Republic. The Gospel of Wealth, and Other Timely Essays—a collection of a dozen or so of his magazine articles. Published by the Century Co., 1900. The Empire of Business—similar essays on economics and success in business. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1902. James Watt—the best and most up-to-date life of the great Scottish inventor of the steam engine. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1905. Another edition was published in Edinburgh in the same year in the "Famous Scots Series," Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier. Problems of Today: Wealth-Labor-Socialism—Doubleday, Page & Co., 1908. Besides these standard works, he has contributed many articles on arbitration, and economic, political and social questions to such leading reviews as The North American Review, The Nineteenth Century, The Forum, etc. Many of these articles have been translated into French and German.

Mr. Carnegie has made New York his home practically since 1868. He is proud of his full American citiienship, his father having been naturalized while Andrew was still a minor. His beautiful city mansion, at Fifth Avenue and 91st Street, completed in 1903, reflects the simple, comfortable tastes of the owner. It is rich and impressive, but there is no unnecessary magnificence or useless display. A feature is Mr. Carnegie ‘s large and well-selected library. The large grounds and gardens are among the most beautiful of any city residence in New York.

For many years, Mr. Carnegie has spent his summers in Scotland. During the summers of 1915 and 1916 he remained in the United States. For several years he rented Cluny Castle, in Perthshire, as his Scottish residence, and in 1895 he acquired the estate of Skibo, on the northern shore of Dornoch Firth, in Sutherlandshire, at a price of $425,000. The castle occupies a high elevation, about half a mile from tide-water, with a fine view, and the estate extends many miles inland. There are references to Skibo as early as 1223 and 1245. The name is derived from the Norse "Skidhabol’ ‘—fire-wood farm, and is still pronounced "Skeeboll" by the Gaelic-speaking residents of the district. This is, strictly speaking, the correct form. The broad Scots pronunciation of the name as "Skebo" is due to the usage common to the Scottish dialect of omitting the termination ll after a broad vowel. The castle has many historical associations. In May, 1650, the great Marquis of Montrose, who married a Carnegie, the daughter of the Earl of Southesk, spent a night there as a prisoner. "And the lady of the castle, finding that the rank of the prisoner was not sufficiently recognized, beat Holbourn (the officer in charge) about the head with a leg of mutton, and had Montrose given the place of honor." The ancient castle has been rebuilt by Mr. Carnegie, and a new wing added, making it one of the finest Highland homes in the United Kingdom. Mr. Carnegie bears the reputation of being the best sort of landlord, mingling with, and respected and loved by his tenantry. He is fond of out-door sports, especially golf and yachting, and has fine links on the estate and a steam yacht at the pier. Of the wide circle of friends, many prominent men from all parts of the world have been his guests at Skibo. Life at Skibo is picturesque and interesting. Mr. Carnegie is wont to call it his "earthly paradise": the bag-pipe is in evidence, with many other customs of the Highland lairds. Mr. Carnegie was most happily married in 1887 to Miss Louise Whitfield, and has one daughter, Miss Margaret Carnegie. He often tells friends that his motto is not "Heaven our Home," but "Home our Heaven." His most intimate friends declare that all his ducks are swans. Happy man!

Dr. John Ross, Chairman of the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, in summing up Mr. Carnegie ‘s benefactions, has well said: "As regards the apparently disconnected purposes of the benefactions, I think if their author had from the first sat down, and before launching one, had considered how to bestow his money so as to produce a nearly perfect, harmonious circle of beneficient agencies, he probably could not have succeeded better than he has done, by simply following out the inspirations which have, from time to time influenced him. Kindly sympathy is shown for aged and infirm workers; generous help is extended to youth struggling after enlightenment; anxiety is shown for wresting from the secrets of Nature all that can relieve the pain and the sickness attending man’s passage through life; life itself is rendered not only tolerable but noble, by the means of culture afforded by scientific research, and by thousands of libraries, whereby through reading, reflection and observation, communities as well as individuals may get to know the best that can be known."

There are doubtless imperfections in some of the schemes; there are still gaps to be filled up, but undoubtedly Mr. Carnegie has succeeded in compassing what he proposed himself to do, namely, "to benefit mankind by carrying out the doctrine, ‘that the highest worship of God is service to man.’

A contributor to the Caledonian of April, 1914, in speaking of his visit to Dunfermline, says: "Having seen all these ancient places and things, we sought out the birthplace of a man greater than any of the men who lived or were buried here, kings and princes of the realm, princes of the Church though they were; none of them have set their mark or seal on Scotland’s or the world’s history for the good, the uplift of its people, as the babe born in the humble Scotch weaver’s home has done. The little biggin stands at the corner of Moody Street and Priory Lane. As we stood and looked at it, there came to mind visions of the great work he has done in his life-time, the things he has accomplished.

"We ride over miles and miles of railway in absolute safety and comfort because the name ‘Carnegie’ is branded on its rails, a certificate and guarantee that they are faultless. We enter buildings that tower hundreds of feet high, and feel secure ascending at marvellous speed on their elevators, because on the steel beams which form their frame-work the name ‘Carnegie’ appears. We enter hundreds of libraries in search of the knowledge stored in the many books that adorn their shelves, passing, as we enter the doors, under the name of ‘Carnegie’ carved on their lintels. We worship in many churches where the music by which our hearts are melted and attuned to harmony with the great, Unseen Presence is produced by organs that he has furnished. We ascend mountains thousands of feet high to find men of science gazing into the infinite depths of space in search of the unknown, that man ‘s knowledge of it may be increased, through instruments that he has provided. We think of the vast sums of money that he has placed in trust, that heroism may be encouraged and rewarded, and that higher education may be brought within the reach of the poorest of his fellows. We visit The Hague and see the great palace he has caused to be built there in which the representatives of the great powers of the world may meet to deliberate as to how ‘peace on earth and good-will to men’ may be realized; how best ‘swords may be beaten into ploughshares and spears into pruning hooks,’ so that men may learn the art of war no more. Unconsciously, standing before the humble biggin where this wonderful man first saw the light, we uncover and respectfully bow."

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