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Journal of a Lady of Quality
Chapter I. The Voyage to the West Indies

Burnt Island Road on board the Jamaica Packet
9 o'Clock Evening 25th Oct 1774.

[Burntisland is a seaport of county Fife, on the north side of the Firth of Forth, five miles across from Leith and Edinburgh. As there was a ferry from Leith, it is quite probable that Miss Schaw and her party drove to Leith in carriages and there boarded the ferryboat for Burntisland. The seaport has an excellent harbour and was a favorite anchorage for vessels entering or leaving the firth, but the fact that the owner of the vessel lived at Burntisland may furnish an additional reason for the place of departure. Some of the Scottish regiments serving in the Revolutionary War sailed from this port, and as early as 1627 we meet with a vessel called the Blessing of Burntisland.]

WE are now got on Board, heartily fatigued, yet not likely to sleep very sound in our new apartments, which I am afraid will not prove either very agreeable or commodious; nor, from what I can see, will our Ship be an exception to the reflections thrown on Scotch Vessels in general, as indeed, nothing can be less cleanly than our Cabin, unless it be its Commander, and his friend and bedfellow the Supercargo. I hinted to the Captain that I thought our Cabin rather dirty. He assured me every Vessel was so 'till they got out to Sea, but that as soon as we were under way, he wou'd stow away the things that were lumbering about, and then all wou'd be neat during the Voyage. I appear to believe him; it were in vain to dispute; here we are, and here we must be for sometime. My brother has laid in store of whatever may render our Situation agreeable, and I have laid in a store of resolution to be easy, not to be sick if I can help it, and to keep good humour, whatever I lose; and this I propose to do by considering it, what it is, merely a Voyage.

As we have no passengers but those of our own family, we will have all the accommodation the Vessel is capable of affording, and we can expect no more.

My Brother has not yet got on Board, I dare say he will be sadly fatigued with the business lie has had to go thro'. I will send this on shore with the boat that brings him off.

I propose writing you every day, but you must not expect a regular Journal. I will not fail to write whatever can amuse myself; and whether you find it entertaining or not, I know you will not refuse it a reading, as every subject will be guided by my own immediate feelings. My opinions and descriptions will depend on the health and the humour of the Moment, in which I write; from which cause my Sentiments will often appear to differ on the same subject. Let this therefore serve as a general Apology for whatever you observe to do so thro' my future Letters.

I am just now contemplating the various Sensations our intended Voyage and its destination produce in the little Group around me. [Miss Schaw was accompanied by her brother, Alexander, and by the three children of John Rutherfurd, of North Carolina—Fanny, aged eighteen or nineteen, John Jr., aged eleven, and William Gordon, aged nine, all of whom, though born in North Carolina, had been sent to Scotland in 1767 for their education.] The two young Rutherfurds have not the most distant remembrance of their Father, yet such is the power of natural affection on their little hearts, that they are transported with the Idea of seeing him, and were they to draw his Portrait I dare say it wou'd be the most charming picture in the world; as the three people they love best are with them, they have nothing to damp their pleasure. The case however is different with their Sister, she perfectly remembers her Father, and tho' she is equally rejoiced at the hopes of being once more clasped to the bosom of a fond Parent, yet her satisfaction is check'd by various considerations. In the first place, her Modesty makes her afraid he has drawn a picture of her person in his own Imagination, to which she will by no means come up, and her diffidence of her own attainments makes her fear he will not find her so accomplished as he has reason to expect. I believe she may make herself easy as to these, for few Fathers ever had better reason to be satisfied.

But there is another Source of distress, to a sensible mind, still more severe. In this Country [Scotland] all her early friendships and connexions have commenced, which can only be foun'd in the delightful Season of Youth; to break these all at once, and bid them an eternal farewell, requires the utmost exertion of fortitude, and I have reason to believe it has been no easy task. As to myself, the approbation of my own conduct is my support against a thousand invading Passions. I had long taken root in my native Soil, yet it is not the spot of Earth that gave me being I call my Country. No! it is the Social Circle of such friends, as few can boast their brightest hours of prosperity were enriched with, it was these that constituted my happiness; the western world may shew me higher Scenes of riches, and Luxury may bid me view the difference, and how far they exceed us, but never can they afford my soul such evening Conversations as I have feasted on in the friendly Circle of our Chearfull Hearth.

Give me again that glowing sense to warm,
The song to warble, and the wit to charm.

My going will chear the Travils of the best of Brothers, and once more give me the other, lost from childhood. [The "best of brothers" was, of course, Alexander; "the other, lost from childhood," was Miss Schaw's brother Robert, probably older than herself. Later in the narrative, she says that he 'had not seen a bleaching washing since he was a boy," which would mean that he must have left Scotland a very early age. For a further account of him, see Appendix XII.] Time will restore me to you, perhaps to my dear Native land, on which may Heaven shower its choicest blessings. But farewell, my spirits are quite worn out, and my fatigues require rest, tho' I fear my narrow bed will be no great inducement to the drowsy powers. Adieu, sound and peaceful be the slumbers of my friend, whatever Mine prove.

Sleep was more obliging than I expected; it was not long before all my cares were lost, which wou'd sooner have happened, but front music of Mrs Mary's nose who had got the start of me. ["Mrs Mary" was Mrs. Mary Miller, Miss Schaw's waiting woman, who accompanied her mistress on her travels. Whether she attended Miss Schw during her Lisbon sojourn is doubtful (see below, page 210, note).]

Our Bed chamber, which is dignified with the title of State Room, is about five foot wide and six long; on one side is a bed fitted up for Miss Rutherfurd and on the opposite side one for me, Poor Fanny's is so very narrow, that she is forced to be tied in, or as the Sea term is lashed in, to prevent her falling over. On the floor below us lies our Abigail, Mrs Mary, now Mrs Miller. As she has the breadth of both our Beds and excellent Bedding, I think she has got a most envyable berth, but this is far from her opinion, and she has done nothing but grumble about her accommodation, and I fear will prove a most complete Abigail indeed.

We had not slept above an hour, when my Brother arrived, he let down the half door to enquire after our healths. We both waked with pleasure at his well-known and friendly Voice, and made him happy by assuring him we found ourselves much better than we expected. After delivering the affectionate Compliments of merry friends, he warned us not to be alarmed if We heard a noise and screaming on Deck, for that the boat had gone off to bring Ovid, our owners poor Devil of a Negro man on Board, who was to be laid in Irons, 'till we were fairly out at Sea. We desired to know what crime the poor wretch had committed to deserve so hard a sentence. He replied, he knew of none, for he believed he was a much worthier man than his Master, whom he had reason to think a very great scoundrel without heart or feeling. Just then we heard the Boat along side: my brother left us, and went on Deck to mitigate, if possible, the rigours intended against this unfortunate creature, and we lay trembling in fearful expectation of the event, but happily for our feelings, poor Ovid finding himself overpowered by numbers, submitted without resistance.

Just then Mrs Miller awoke, was much surprised how we could sleep in so odious an hole, for herp art, she never expected to close an eye in this Vile ship, was deadly sick with the motion (tho' by the bye it had not yet begun to move), and fell fast asleep with the words half pronounced on her Tongue. I am sure she is to be a great plague, but as she has left her Country with us, nothing shall prevent her being kindly treated, however little she may deserve it from her behaviour. My brother, who was sadly fatigued, had got into his Cott, which swings from the roof of the Cabin; our two little men were fast asleep in a bed just below him, when we were informed from the Deck that they were going to weigh anchor. Every body that was able, got up to see this first grand operation. ?Iy Brother descended from his Cot, the boys sprung out of bed, all hands were on Deck, hurry, bustle, noise, and confusion raged thro' our wooden kingdom, yet it was surprizing how soon every thing was reduced to order. In little more than a quarter of an hour, all was over, the watch was set, and nothing to be heard, but the sound of the man's feet moving regularly backwards and forwards at the helm, and the crowing of a Cock that the noise had waked in the Hen Coop. My Brother, as he again retired to his airy couch, informed us in passing our state room, that we were now underway, and that we wou'd be in the Channel [The "Channel" is the Firth of Forth.] in a few hours, where we wou'd have the finest view of the finest Country in the World. He then gave poor Fanny some Saline drops to settle her stomach, which had felt the very first motion of the ship; a circumstance that gives me much concern, as I fear she will find it too much thro' our Voyage. As yet I am very well, and hope I will not be much hurt, tho' I must expect a little touch as well as others. My Brother now mounted into his Cot, the boys got to bed, we shut up our half door, and in a few moments, we were all again in the arms of Sleep.

But short must be the slumber in so unquiet and uncertain a situation, we were soon roused again by the Voice of our Captain, [The captain was Thomas Smith, and the vessel a brig or frigate of eighty tons, built in Massachusetts in 1772 and registered at Kirkcaldy, a seaport of Fife, northeast of Burntisland and the nearest port with a naval office. Captain Smith had registered the vessel on October 22, three days before sailing (See below, page 144, note).] who was talking to my Brother, and it was with no small vexation that we were informed by him that the wind had chopt about, and being now full in our Teeth, it was impossible for him to proceed up the channel, and that it was necessary to change his course, and go round by the North of Scotland. It is hardly possible to imagine a more disagreeable passage at this Season of the Year than this must be. The many Islands, Shelves and Rocks, render it very dangerous, which, with the addition of a rough sea, sudden squalls, and the coldest climate in Britain, gives as uncomfortable a prospect as one wou'd wish. However my brother agreed, all hands were called, hurry again filled the Vessel, "About Ship" was now the word, in the performing of which operation, every thing was tumbled topsyturvy. A few moments however settled us once more, and quietness wou'd again have restored us to rest, had not the Cock, as harbinger of day, repeatedly told us it was now morning. Nor were we the only passengers on Board whom this information concerned, his wives and children who now heard him, made such an outcry for Breakfast, as shewed their Stomachs suffered nothing from the Sea Air.

Their demands complied with, the outcry ceased, but they kept such a Peck Pecking directly over head, that it was impossible to rest, and banished all desire to sleep. This was a Misfortune much less felt by me than my poor young friend, who was now sick to death. I prevailed on Mrs Miller to get up and give us a dish of Tea, this she actually tried, but was not able to stand on her feet, as she was now really sick, and the motion of the Ship very violent. It was in vain for either of us to think of moving, and we were almost in despair, when fortunately I bethought me of Robert, my brother's Indian servant, a handy good fellow. "Oh!" cried I, to the first that I saw, "oh! for Heaven's sake send us Rob', Black Robt." Robt approached our state room, with all the dignity of a slow-stalking Indian Chief. "Dear Robt," exclaimed I, "cou'd you be so good as to get us a dish of Tea?" "To be certain, my Lady," replied he, "but Miss is very badly, and Tea is not good for her; I will get her a little good Chicken broth." "Do, dear Robt," cried poor Fanny, in a voice of the utmost thankfulness. Robt stalked off, and it was not long before he made his appearance with a 'less of the most charming chicken broth that ever comforted a sick stomach; and if ever you are again at Sea, pray, remember Robert's receipt, and if you do not find it the best thing you ever tasted, surely J have no judgment in Broths. Robt dealt out his benefits in Tea cupfulls, every one had a little, and every one had a desire for more, so that his broth went thro' many Editions.

My Brother was now up, and tho' he wou'd not own he was sick, yet confessed he was a degree at least beyond squeemish. This he attributed to the smell of the Cabin, and to say the truth, this alone was enough. This sense of his has often been troublesome to him, and I am much mistaken, if he will find pleasure from it during his abode in the Jamaica Packet. Even the boys complain of being, they do not know how-ish, so he and they have gone on deck to try the Air. But tho' I make no doubt this is a good receipt, it is not in Miss Rutherfurd's power or mine to follow their Example, for, besides that we cannot keep our feet one moment, the Climate, we are in, is one of the coldest and worst in the World. The air is bitter beyond expression, with the addition of a constant dragling rain which renders it unsufferable, even to the poor Sailors, who are hardly able to stand out the watch; and as they never fail to be wet thro' and thro', my Brother is become very anxious about their healths, as he observes we have not half the compliment the Owner bargained with him for; his being obliged to stay so long at London made him trust to this fellow Parker the owner of the Ship, [The owner of the ship, the Jamaica Pachel, was George Parker, who had lived in Wilmington from 1762 to 1771 as a householder and merchant, and was well known to Rutherfurd and the Schaws. He had been a town commissioner in 1764, and in 1766, as owner of the ship Nancy, had taken part in the protest against the stamps during the Stamp Act troubles. In 1771 he decided to leave Wilmington and go to Burntisland, where he had a brother. Consequently, he sold his house on Market Street, his lands, negroes, pettiauger, furniture, chaise, etc., for £910 (Wilmington, Register's Office, Conveyances, F, 157-160) and returned to Scotland. He seems to have been under some obligation to Rutherfurd, but in his dealings with Miss Schaw and her party showed very little honesty or friendship. There are references to him in the Brunswick County Records, Conveyances, A, 129-130, the North Carolina Colonial Records, VI, 177-178, and the Wilmington Town Records.] and I am afraid we will find he has not paid much regard to the confidence that was reposed in him.

He came and pressed this Vessel on us, declaring that as he had the highest obligation to Mr Rutherfurd and my brother in Carolina, he had brought this ship from Newcastle, where he was destined for a different Voyage, on purpose to accommodate us, as she was an excellent Vessel, and he could let us have her entirely to ourselves. He affected a perfect indifference as to terms, which, however, in the end, turned out very high. We had the precaution however to have her Hull viewed, which was declared vastly good, and I hope is so. He told us his plan was to send her with a light lading to the West Indies, where she would dispose of her Cargo, and, after taking in some Rum, Sugar, etc., wou'd sail with my Brother (as soon as he had settled his affairs at St Kitts [Alexander was going out as searcher of customs at St. Christopher.]) to whatever American Fort he desired.

There is no such thing as being warm, do what we will, and tho' we have but little wind hitherto, yet we are jaulted to death by the motion of the ship in these rough seas. Yet the Capt is every moment congratulating us on the smooth- ness of our Vessel, which he declares is so soft in her Motion, that one may play at Bowls on the deck. However as I am like to beat out my teeth every time I try to drink, and often after all am not able to bring the cup to such a direction as to obtain my desire, I cannot help thinking he rather overrates the gentleness of her Motions, tho' the mate in confirmation of what his Captain says, asserts, that last time he crossed the Atlantick even in a calm, they were forced to ly flat on their faces, which the hogs stubbornly refusing, had their brains knocked out against the sides of the ship. How happy are we, who are only in danger of losing teeth and breaking limbs.

As I was amusing myself with my pen, and Fanny with her book, a little while ago, my brother came into the Cabin, and informing us the weather was tolerable fair. He had provided watch-coats to secure us from the cold, and begged we would go with him upon deck, as he was sure a little fresh air would do us much good. We immediately accepted his invitation, and while we were preparing for this excursion, asked my brother, if he had seen all our crew, and what sort of hands they were; for that as I lay awake last night in bed I heard a heavy groan, (from that part of the steerage ["Steerage" in the sailing vessels of the day was the space below decks aft, that is, in the stern of the vessel. The accommodations, as the narrative shows, were straitened and uncomfortable. "Steerage passengers" are mentioned quite early in the eighteenth century.]

which is only divided by a few boards from our State room,) when presently a Voice called out, "What's the matter, man," on which the groaner (as I supposed) replied, "Alas! alas! this is a hard pillow for three score years to rest on." My brother smiling took me by the hand, and reaching out the other to Fanny, bade us come along, and we wou'd probably discover our groaning Neighbour. We now ascended the Companion or Cabin stair, when, judge of my surprize, I saw the deck covered with people of all ages, from three weeks old to three score, men, women, children and suckling infants. For some time I was unable to credit my senses, it appeared a scene raised by the power of Magic to bring such a crowd together in the middle of the Sea, when I believed there was not a soul aboard but the ship's crew and our own family. Never did my eves behold so wretched, so disgusting a sight. They looked like a Cargo of Dean Swift's Yahoos [The Yahoos of Gulliver's Travels are described as brutes with human forms and vicious and uncleanly habits.] newly caught.

It was impossible to account for this strange apparition, till the Captain informed mc, that they were a company, of Emigrants, [For the highland emigration of these years, see Appendix I.] whom the owner had made him smuggle aboard privately, and had ordered to be kept close under the hatches till we were out at sea. He vindicated himself, by declaring, he was under the most absolute necessity of obeying the owner, whom he sincerely believed to be one of the greatest Villains upon earth; that he and every one was much surprized how we came to trust him, for that his character as a scoundrel was notorious wherever he had lived, that he himself had been ruined by him, and was now forced to serve him, as he had got his all into his possession, and put it out of his power to make bread in any other way. To this he added many other particulars, and summed up all by the comfortable intimation, that C----r, the supercargo, [Though it is hardly possible to recover the name of the supercargo, his character as "a republican and a violent American" is a sufficient indentification. He will be met with again (pp. 64, 65. It is evident that Miss Schaw did not like him, deeming him a silly fellow and a fool. A "supercargo" was an officer of a merchant ship who was entrusted with the sale of the cargo and other commercial transactions. Such an officer required not only a knowledge of business, but also a certain amount of diplomatic skill to deal with extraordinary situations. The following explanation of the origin of this functionary is given by an old American naval commander. "Captains of ships were not often educated men; they began to go to sea very young, they learned just enough to navigate their ships in the simple way and with the crude instruments of that day. They could handle their ships under all circumstances and they were proficients with lead and line, etc., but they were not merchants, and generally knew nothing about buying and selling cargoes; consequently it was necessary that a merchant should go with the ship to do the cargo-selling and buying, and that man was the Supercargo. They were always men of mercantile education, often of extensive education, collegiate, etc., etc. At sea, after preparing their account- books, etc., they had little to do and they often learned to handle the ship, to navigate, etc., and became expert seamen. Bowditch, whose work on Navigation [1802] is the basis of most navigation books and whose own work is used by three-fourths of the navigators of the world, was the supercargo of a ship. He learned seamanship for want of something else to do. He was a college graduate and stood high as a mathematician, and when he took up navigation on board the ship he found the methods in use were crude and erroneous and he proposed to make new rules and processes and actually did make new rules from day to day, which the captain used and pronounced much better than the old methods." Letter from Commander Edward Hooker, November 9, 1894 (Connecticut Historical Society).] was just such another, and put on board for the express purpose of cheating and deceiving us; he, the Captain, being thought too honest to perform this piece of duty. This tale he has also told my brother, which the goodness of his own heart induces him to believe: but for my own part, I take it to be a forged story altogether, and that they are all alike. The mate, however, notwithstanding the story of the hogs, seems an honest plain fellow, and I am inclined to think much better of him than of the others. Indeed he does not entertain a very high opinion of his messmates himself, nor appears much satisfied with his present berth, but says it is like Padie's Candles, it will not mend. He so often mentioned Padie's candles, that I became curious to know what sort of things they were, and found it was a favourite foremast joke of a teague, ["Teague" was a word for a simple, unsophisticated Irishman, used generally in a half contemptuous sense. In origin the name was that of a faithful Irish servant, blundering and inefficient, one of the characters in Sir Robert Howard's comedy, "The Committee" (1665).] who hung some candles before a fire to dry, and as they melted, swore, arrah, on my soul, now the more they dry the more they wet. This may be no joke to you, but has been such a one to us, that I am afraid the youngsters will make the poor man ashamed of his only piece of wit.

As I am resolved no more to encounter these wretched human beings, I will have the more time to write. Indeed you never beheld any thing like them. They were fully as sensible of the motion of the Vessel as we were, and sickness works more ways than one, so that the smell which came from the hole, where they had been confined was sufficient to raise a plague aboard. I am besides not a little afraid, they may bestow upon me some of their live-stock, for I make no doubt they have brought thousands alongst with them. Faugh! let mc not think of it; it affects my stomach more than this smooth sailing Vessel, or this shocking rough Sea, in which we are tumbling about so, that I can hardly hold the pen.

I am warm nowhere but in bed, and it is really surprizing how sound we sleep; we wake indeed regularly at the calling of every watch; but I begin to think it chearful. Poor Fanny is still vastly sick; when out of bed, she sits like a statue of monumental Alabaster, so white, so cold and so patient. This is by no means the case with my brother, who is deadly sick and even as impatient as it is possible. I am quite distressed to see him in such a plight, and can discover nothing to give him relief. I have exhausted all my physic and cookery to no purpose, poor soul, nothing sits on his stomach, nor can he rest a moment thro' the Night, but bounces in and out of his cot, every quarter of an hour, the ropes of which not being originally strong, down it comes, then all hands to tie him up. He gives them many a hearty curse, and truly I am often tempted to join him. His sufferings however never get the better of his good humour, he laughs at himself, and would freely allow me the same liberty, had I the heart to use it; he comforts poor Fanny; tho', thank God, she is not near so ill as he is.

I must now go and prepare for bed, which, I assure you, is no easy task, the toilet engages much more of my time at Sea than ever it did at land; we sit in bed till we dress, and get into it, when ever we begin to undress.

Mrs Miller is in such bad humour that we dare hardly speak to her. This, you may believe, would be matter of little moment, were she not mistress of the provisions, and will let us have nothing but what she chuses; we have, particularly, a large quantity of eggs prepared to keep thro' the Voyage. Iiss Rutherfurd, this morning, humbly begged one, but had not interest sufficient to obtain it, tho' she saw Mary eat a couple very comfortably to her own breakfast. If you have a mind to learn, they say, go to Sea. I remember an Anecdote of the Ship's Crew aboard which the Duke of Glocester first went abroad. The Sailors were all drawn up to pay they Compts as he came on board, but his highness hurried into the Cabin, without taking the least notice of them. "I think," cries Jack to Tom, "this same prince or Duke, has d—d little manners." "Why, where the devil should he have got them," returned Tom, "when he never was at Sea before." And so, dearest friend, good night, dream of me, as I shall try to do of you.
My poor brother has passed another night, with as little comfort as the former. He finds himself worst in the Cabin, and for that reason, stays continually on deck, notwithstanding the constant Rains, the oze and even the waves that wet him thro' and thro'. The Vessel is so deeply loaded, that she is within a few inches of the water, by which means the waves come all over the Deck. This indeed looks frightful, but as yet we have only a rough Sea to combat, for we have no more wind than is necessary to swell our sails and bear us along, and this, they assure us, is the reason we feel it so rough, as the ship lies tumbling about amongst the waves, and has not her sails sufficiently filled to buoy her above them; and this reasoning I begin to comprehend, yet cannot find in my heart to wish an increase of wind.

We have just finished breakfast, a meal which costs no little trouble. Miss Rutherfurd can get nothing she is able to taste. Tea without milk she cannot drink, and Coffee is reprobated by us all for the same want. We tried chocolate, but found it much too heavy. I have carried one point and got eggs, but we unfortunately trusted the provide the bread to our owner, and there is not a bisket on board fit for any thing but the hogs. However, my brother had swallowed an egg, and was just going to drink a cup of burnt Claret with spiceries, which Robert was cooking over the Cabin stove, with much care and attention, when the Nasty Captain coming down to take a dram from his gin case, set all our stomachs topsy turvy by the smell. My brother flew to the deck, Miss Rutherfurd to her state room, I applied to my smelling bottle, while Mrs Miller more wisely than any of us joined the Captain, and finds herself much the better for it.

Notwithstanding my resolutions of going no more on deck, I must attend my brother there just now, as he has sent to let us know that we are passing the fine islands of Orkney and Shetland. I little expected even to have had an opportunity of seeing them, so will give them a look in spite of the cold that flows off their frozen mountains.

I left you yesterday to view the Scotch Islands, which I accordingly did. We were almost opposite to Shetland, when we came on deck, but it afforded nothing to please my eye, or atone for the cold, that I suffered in looking at its barren heaths, frozen mountains and wild tracts of frightful rocks; and I was turning in disgust from so chearless a scene, when my attention was caught by one of the most affecting scenes that could be presented to a feeling heart, and, I thank God, mine is not composed of very hard materials. It is so warm on my mind that I fear I will not be able to reduce it into order, but if I am able to paint it the least like what I feel it, I am sure you will share my feelings.

You remember I told you some days ago how much I had been surprized, as well as disgusted, at the appearance of a company of Emigrants, who had been privately Put aboard our Ship. I was too much chagrined at their being with us to give myself the trouble of inquiring who they were, but now find they are a company of hapless exiles, from the Islands we have just passed, forced by the hand of oppression from their native land.

The Islands were now full in sight, [At this point the route of the vessel is obscured by Miss Schaw's confusion of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. The islands they had "just passed" were not the Shetlands but the Orkneys, from one of which the Lawsons and others must have come. Miss Schaw could not have seen the Shetlands at all, for the next land, which the vessel must have passed on the south side, was the Fair Isle, a small island three miles long and two broad, lying midway between the two larger groups. The "safe basin" referred to was the only harbor that the island possessed, a shallow indentation on the eastern side, rarely, if ever, frequented by ships. All habitations were on the south, so that in watching what was going on Miss Schaw stood at the rail facing north. An excellent map and description of this Fair Isle may be found in Tudor, The Orkneys and Shetland, ch. xxxiii.] and they had all crowded to that side of the ship next to them, and stood in silent sorrow, gazing fondly on the dear spot they were never more to behold. How differently did the same sight affect them and me? What chilled my blood and disgusted my eye, filled their bosoms and warmed their hearts with the fondest, the most tender sensations, while sweet remembrance rushed on their minds and melted the roughest into tears of tenderness. The rude scene before us, with its wild rocks and snow cover'd mountains. was dear to them, far more dear than the most fertile plains will ever appear. It was their native land, and how much is contained in that short Sentence, none but those who have parted with their own can be judge of. Many. whom I now beheld, had passed year after year in peace and sweet contentment: they wished. they imagined nothing beyond what it afforded, and their gray hairs seemed a security that they should mingle their dust with that of their fathers, when the cruel hand of oppression seized on their helpless age. and forced them (at that late season) to seek a foreign grave across the stormy main.

Hard-hearted. little Tyrant of yonder rough domains. could you have remained unmoved, had you beheld the victims of your avarice, as I have done, with souls free from guilt, yet suffering all the pangs of banished villains; oh! had you seen them, their hands clasped in silent and unutterable anguish, their streaming eves raised to heaven in mute ejaculations, calling down blessings and pouring the last benedictions of a broken heart on the dear soil that gave them being; perhaps even a prayer for the cruel Author of all their woes [We have been unable to identify the "cruel Author of all their woes." though the reference seems very specific and the charge is directed against a very definite and seemingly prominent person.] mixed in this pious moment. Lord require not our blood at his hands, he is the descendent of our honoured, our loved Master, the son of him I followed to the field of Fame in my happy youthful days, of that loved Lord, who diffused peace, plenty and content around him. The eager eye now went forth in search of particular spots marked by more tender remembrance; there a loved wife reared with fond maternal pride a blooming offspring. 'Yonder is my paternal cottage, where my chearful youthful hours were passed in sweet contentment. Ah little then did I think of braving the wide Atlantick, or of seeking precarious bitter bread in a foreign land."

In this general group of Sorrow, there was one figure that more particularly engaged my attention. It was that of a female, who supported with one arm, an Infant about a month old, which she suckled at her breast; her head rested on the other, and her hand shaded her face, while the tears that streamed from under it bedewed her breast and the face of the Infant, who was endeavouring to draw a scanty nourishment from it. At her knee hung a little Cherub about two years old, who looked smiling up into her face, as if courting her notice, and endeavouring to draw her from her melancholy Reflexions; while a most beautiful little girl about eight years old stood by, and wept at the sight of her Mother's tears. I wished for Miss Forbes, with her pencil of Sensibility, to have done justice to this group of heart- affecting figures. I longed to address the Mother, but there is a dignity in Sorrow and I durst not intrude, but respectfully waited, till she gave me an opportunity. In a few minutes she raised her head from her hand and shewed me a face that had once been beautiful, was still lovely, but had a broken heart impressed on every feature. When she observed me looking at her, she stood up and curtsied. I returned her civility and moved towards her. "You are from one of these Islands," said I, "Yes, madam," returned she, "from that one we have just past." She looked abashed, and added with a heart-breaking smile, "You, no doubt, wondered to see me so much affected, but I was just then within view of my fathers house, he is the best of men as well as fathers, and I could not help thinking that perhaps, at that moment, he was pouring out his aged soul in prayers, for a lost and darling daughter"; but her words were choaked; something too seemed to choak myself; so I relieved both by speaking to her of her children, who are indeed extremely lovely. She told me, two were left with her father, and that she had one more on board. Just then a neat pretty girl about eighteen came up to take the child. "Is that your daughter?" said I, "No, madam," returned she, "that is an orphan niece of my husband, whom, in better days, he bred with a father's fondness. The poor child had no occasion to leave her own country. Many of her friends would gladly have taken her, but she would not leave us in our misery." I looked at Marion, for so she is called. I thought I never beheld any thing so beautiful. I wish to learn the history of this woman, which I will easily do, as they all know each other. I hope it will prove worth your reading and will give it a letter by itself. Tho' it be a hundred to one you never see these letters, yet as they give an idea of conversing with you, they afford myself infinite satisfaction.

Pity, thou darling daughter of the skies, what a change do you produce in the hearts where you vouchsafe to enter; from thee the fairest social virtues derive their being; it is you who melt, soften and humanize the soul, raising the man into a God. Before the brightness of thy heavenly countenance every dirty passion disappears—pride, avarice, self- love, caution, doubt, disdain, with all which claim Dame Prudence for their mother; and how different a set appears in thy train, those gently-smiling Goddess-charity, meekness, gentle tenderness with unaffected kindness. What a change has she wrought on me since my last visit to the deck. Where are now the Cargo of Yahoos? they are transformed into a Company of most respectable sufferers, whom it is both my duty and inclination to comfort, and do all in my power to alleviate their misfortunes, which have not sprung from their guilt or folly, but from the guilt and folly of others.

I have made many friendships since these last two days, and was not a little vain, on my coming on deck this morning, to hear the children with infantine joy, call to each other: "O there come the Ladies." We rewarded their affection with some apples, which we gave the young Rutherfurds to bestow, a task which, they declared, afforded them more pleasure than the best apple-pye would have given them. I find the woman I formerly mentioned is considered as superior to the rest of the company, and what is not always an effect of superiority, she is greatly esteemed by them. I was at no loss to obtain her history, as every one seemed willing to do justice to her miseries and misfortunes.

Mr and Mrs Lawson, (for so they are called while the rest are only called John or Margt), were, till lately, in very affluent circumstances. He rented a considerable farm, which had descended in a succession from father to son, for many generations, and under many masters. He had also become proprietor of a piece of ground, on which he had built a neat house, and was thought a good match for Mart Young, the daughter of a neighbouring Farmer, more remarkable for his learning and respectable for his many virtues, than for his herds or flocks. The term of Lawson's Lease being out sometime ago, advantage was taken of the strong attachment he had for what he considered his natural inheritance; and his rent raised far beyond what it could ever produce. He struggled hard for some time, but all his industry proving vain, he was forced to give up his all to the unrelenting hand of oppression; and [to see] the lovely family, I have been so much admiring, turned out to the mercy of the winter winds. While I listened to this melancholy story, many of the Emigrants joined the person who was relating it, and added circumstances with which their own sad fate was connected; all, however, composed a tale of wo, flowing from the same source, Vizt the avarice and folly of their thoughtless masters.

I shall finish this account by a few circumstances regarding poor Mrs Lawson particularly, who is, it seems, the only surviving child of her fond parent, her two brothers having been killed [in the] last war in America. [By the "last war in America" probably the French and Indian War is meant.] It is needless to make any comment on the conduct of our highland and Island proprietors. It is self-evident, what consequences must be produced in time from such Numbers of Subjects being driven from the country. Should levys be again necessary, the recruiting drum may long be at a loss to procure such soldiers as are now aboard this Vessel, lost to their country for ever, brave fellows, who tho' now flying from their friends, would never have fled from their foes. I have just seen Lawson, he is a well looking fellow, between forty and fifty, has a bold, manly, weather-beaten countenance, with an eye that fears to look no man in the face, yet I saw it glisten, when I complimented him on the beauty of his family. "Yes, Madam," said he, "they deserved a more fortunate father," turning abruptly away to hide a tear, which did him no discredit, in my opinion.

I am just now summoned to the deck to take a view of the Fair Isle. For what reason it bears so pretty a name I cannot guess, for I expect little beauty in these Seas.

The Fair Isle, which we passed yesterday, is the last land which belongs to Scotland, and has indeed as little beauty as I expected. The side that lay next us, is one continued chain of perpendicular rugged Rocks, and in many places the upper parts hang over, so that a ship that was to be driven against them, would have very little chance of Salvation. I observed almost in the centre of the Island however, a very safe Bason, which would admit tolerable large Vessels, and very convenient for boats to land from, and I should think it a snug place to carry on a contraband trade. Yet I don't find any such use made of it, the inhabitants living entirely on what the Island affords, together with a little trade for provisions, which, ships who are passing purchase of them. It was peopled many years ago from Denmark, and has kept so clear of foreign connection, that they still retain their looks, their manners and their dress, and tho', in their intercourse with strangers, a bad sort of English is spoken by the men, yet, on the Island, nothing is spoken but their original language. Within our view was one very well-looking house, which, we were told, belongs to the proprietor of the Island; and at a little distance, a town composed of butts with a church. I observed several stack-yards, but neither a tree nor a shrub.

I have been the more particular as to this Island, as I do not recollect ever to have read any description of it, or indeed even heard of it, till the Captain advised me to trust to it for Sea-Stock, as an inducement to us to go north about, which, however at that time, we refused to do. He assured me, we would get poultry of all kinds extremely cheap, also eggs, fine dried fish and the best Cabbages, in the world. By the time we came on deck, he had hung out his flag and was plying off and on in the offing. The Sea was at that time running high, and it had begun to blow pretty fresh. I felt myself very uneasy for the boats, which, they told us, were extremely small. The signal was not out above a quarter of an hour, when we observed the shore full of people of both sexes, who were scrambling amongst the rocks, when presently they seemed to part, as if by consent, the one half making towards the town, while the other descended to the bason I formerly mentioned; and we soon saw them distinctly launch a number of boats, and put out on this rough Sea, a sight which greatly encreased my Anxiety. But as they came nearer, I was much pleased with the lightness with which they bounded over the waves. They are indeed light, pretty, neat Vessels, all extremely clean, and painted with various colours. They were each manned with four rowers and are long and narrow. I fancy they resemble Indian canoes, but appear extremely proper for these Seas. A number of them arrived safe at our ship, in a few Moments after they put off from the shore, and no sooner got along side the Vessel, than three of them quitted every boat—the fourth remained to take charge of her—and bearing their merchandize in their arms, were aboard in a moment. The novelty of their appearance greatly amused me. They are entirely different from the inhabitants of Scotland in general, and even from those of the Islands that lay next them; they are of a middling Stature, strong built and straight, their complexions uncommonly fair, their skins remarkably smooth, their features high, aquiline noses and small eyes. Their hair is not red but real yellow, and the older ones wore it long on the bottom of the chin, which is very peaked. They wore red caps lined with skin and Jackets of the same with a Paulice [pelisse] of coarse cloth and boots of undressed skin, with the rough side outmost, over which were trousers made of cloth. They are very active and their figures tho' uncouth, are by no means disagreeable.

This fleet, however, brought us no provisions, but were loaded with the Island manufactures: such as knit caps, mittens, stockings, and the softest coarse cloth I ever saw made of wool. They informed us that the people we saw making to the town were gone for provisions, with which they would load their boats and be with us presently, that the best hen and duck was sold at four pence, a goose for sixpence, Chickens in proportion, eggs eighteen for a penny and plenty of Cabbage to boot. This was a most agreeable account; and while those concerned were settling their bargains, which was not to be done without much haggling, Fanny, my brother and I leaned over the side of the Vessell, diverting ourselves with the motions of this second fleet, which made towards us with surprizing celerity. While we were thus engaged and thinking all was peace and kindness round us, the cry of "Murder, help, murder," made us turn suddenly round. Nor can I describe what were our sensations, when we beheld our Captain, Supercargo and even some of the sailors binding one of the Islanders to the mast and stripping off his cloths. The poor creature applied to us for protection, which he would have instantly got, had not my Brother's attention been called off to an object that more immediately engaged his humanity. This was one of the boats, which with a single rower on board, had got under the stern of our ship. The sea was so rough, that the motion of the Vessel was very violent, and she must have been dashed to pieces and the poor lad drowned, had not my brother flown to his assistance, part of the crew who had not joined the Captain and all the Emigrants engaging in this humane labour. The young man was saved, tho' the boat was all broke to pieces. As soon as they had got him safely on board, my brother turned sternly to the Captain and demanded the meaning of this outrage. "Oh D—n them," cried the Captain, "they know well enough." "Oh, your honour," cried the poor wretch frighted to death, "we never did him any harm, we did all we could to save his Ship and Cargo." This brought out a secret; and we now found, that, some months before this, our Captain had lost a ship on the frightful coast, I have been just describing. He could not deny they had used their utmost endeavours to serve him on that occasion; but that he had lost a chest which contained sundry articles and which he supposed was stolen, and was determined to have it hack. And this noble motive, we have reason to believe, was the reason we have been brought round this dangerous and shocking navigation. This account, however, added stronger reasons still for my brother's interesting himself to obtain them good treatment, that of some future Vessel, perhaps, having a like fate, when it was not to be doubted, but these people would remember the reward they had from our grateful and humane Captain. He therefore assumed such an air of Authority as awed our commander into compliance. He let fall the rope's end, unbound the Victim of his resentment, and released those he made prisoners below, who were now permitted to return. Other boats, but unfortunately for us, had time enough to give a scream of caution to their friends, who were now just at hand, and, who understanding the signal, instantly turned and rowed back to the shore as fast as they were able. And here ended our last Scotch adventure, with every hope of adding to our stock of provisions, which luckily, however, is sufficiently large to last us till we reach Antigua, which will now be the first land we will see. Adieu then, thou dear, loved native land. In vain am I told of finer Climates, or of richer soils, none will ever equal Scotland in my estimation. And in the midst of all the luxuries of the western world, I will envy the Cottager in his snow-surrounded hamlet. The wind encreases very fast, we will not have the prayers of the fair Islanders.

We have had a very blowing night, and my poor brother is ready to die with sickness. He begins to lose his colour, and I fear much this constant straining at his stomach will bring on some serious illness. Fanny, thank God, is now quite well, and bears every thing without repining; that is indeed the sole employment of Abigail and we leave it entirely to her. I was set this morning very gingerly by the fire-side in an elbow chair I had made lash to for me close by the Cabin Stove, with my back to the door. I had taken up a book and was reading as composedly as if sitting in my closet. I did not however enjoy this calm Situation long, for presently I heard a rumbling just behind me. This I took for a barrell of spoilt Callavans pease, which made part of the ship's provision, but which no body would eat, and it was an amusement to kick them over, two or three times a day, but what was my surprize, when the Cabin-door burst open and I was overwhelmed with an immense wave, which broke my chair from its moorings, floated every thing in the Cabin, and I found myself swimming amongst joint-stools, chests, Tables and all the various furniture of our parlour. Fanny escaped this and has laughed heartily at me, but I fancy we will all have our share before the Voyage be over. It Blows harder and harder, the shrouds make a terrible rattling, it is a horrid sound. Oh Lord! here comes the Captain, who tells us the dead lights [Dead lights were the heavy double windows or shutters put up outside the cabin windows to keep out the water in case of a storm.] must be put up. I know the meaning of the word and yet it makes me shudder. He says, he expects a hard gale, I suppose he means this, a soft word for a hard storm. Very well, Winds, blow till ye burst. I know the same protecting providence which rules at land, commands at Sea. Thou great, infinite, omnipotent Creator, who formed by thy word this vast, this awful profound, into thy hands I commit myself and those clearest to inc. If death is to be our fate, afford us the necessary fortitude to support thy awful sentence. But be it life or he it death, thy will be done.

Thank God, the storm is at last subsided, [Twelve days have passed.] and tho' the sea still looks frowningly, vet it does not wear the same face of horror it lately did. Beautiful and Emphatick is that expression of the Psalmist, "Those who go down to the great waters see thy wonders and on the deep behold thy mighty works, awfully magnificent indeed they appear."

Where wave on wave and gulph on gulph
O'ercomes the pilots art.

I wou'd willingly give you a description of the horrors we have sustained for these ten or twelve days past, but tho' they made a sufficient impression on my own mind, never to be forgot, yet I despair of finding words to convey a proper idea of them to you. You remember I gave over writing, just as the Carpenter came in to put up the dead Lights, and a more dreary operation cannot be conceived; my heart, at that moment, seemed to bid farewell to Sun, Moon and Stars. But I now know one God commands at Sea and at Land, whose omnipotence is extended over every element. I praise him for his Mercys past, and humbly hope for more.

The dead lights were no sooner up and a candle made fast to the table, by many a knot and twist of small cord, than my young companion took up a book, and very composedly began to read to herself. I begged her to let me share her amusement by reading aloud. This she instantly complied with. She had however taken up the first book that came to hand, which happened not to be very apropos to the present occasion, as it proved to be Lord Kames Elements of Criticism. [The reference is to Lord Kames's Elements of Criticism, three volumes, Edinburgh, 1762. There was a third edition with additions, published in 1765, in two volumes. An American edition in one volume was issued in 1871. Henry Home, Lord Karnes, was a judge of the court of sessions in Scotland, who died in 1782. He was a well-known barrister, judge, and writer, who tried several cases in which some of those who emigrated to North Carolina —James Hogg, for example—were plaintiffs. There is a good account of him in the Dictionary of National Biography and records of cases tried before him can be found in the Scots Magazine. Boswell, in recording Dr. Johnson's prejudices against Scotland, cites his opinion of Karnes. "But Sir," said Boswell, "we have Lord Karnes." "You have Lord Karnes" (replied Johnson), "keep him, ha, ha, ha! We don't envy you him" (Boswell's Life, II, ç4). The books in the cabin were brought on board by Alexander Schaw for the use of the party. They were left at St. Christopher on his departure from that island In January, 1775, but whether afterwards recovered or not we cannot say. Alexander Schaw's will (i8to) mentions books among his possessions.] She read on however and I listened with much seeming attention, tho' neither she nor I knew a word it contained. And by this you may guess at our feelings during that time, which were indeed too confusedly felt by ourselves to be very accurately described. The storm roared over and around us, the Candle cast a melancholy gleam across the Cabin, which we now considered as our tomb. We did not, however, assist each other's distress, for neither of us mentioned our own. During this time, all was in the utmost hurry and confusion on deck. The melancholy sound of the Sailors pulling with united strength at the ropes, the rattling of the sails and every thing joined to render the fearful scene more frightful. My brother was still obliged to keep on deck and brave the fury of the waves that now came continually aboard, and was every moment in danger of washing off our people.

We did not continue above an hour in this dreary Situation, tho' to us it appeared many, when the Captain came down and entering the Cabin with a chearful and assured countenance, congratulated himself and us on the fine breeze which was carrying us ten knotts an hour, and so elated was he with his good fortune, that tho' no singer, he could not help concluding with a favourite ballad of "How happy are we when the winds blow abaft." Tho' this was mere affectation in him, it had an immediate effect on our Spirits; our terror vanished in a moment, and we laughed at our own fears. It was now we discovered we were meeting death, like philosophers not Christians: with a Lord Kames in our hands in place of a Bible. This imaginary calm did not, however, last long. As the evening advanced, the storm gathered strength, and not only encreased all that night, but all next day. The Sea was now running mountain high, and the waves so outrageous, that they came aboard like a deluge; and rushing from side to side of the Vessel, generally made their way into the Cabin, and from thence into the stateroom, which was often so full of water as almost to reach us in our beds. Poor Mary had now real cause to complain, as she was actually very near drowned while asleep, and could no longer ly in the state room but was forced to peg in with the boys who could easily let her share with them, fear and curiosity never suffering them to be in bed above a quarter of an hour at a time. But disagreeable as you will think our present situation, it was no more than a prelude to what followed. As we were constantly assured there was no danger, we made ourselves as easy as we could.

On the second day of this breeze (as it was still termed) the joyful cry, "a sail, a sail," made us run on deck, regardless of the Weather, to see at a distance, a thing which con- tamed within its wooden sides, some fellow-creatures, and tho' these were to us unknown, it is impossible to describe the pleasure every one felt on looking at her. She came within hail of us and proved to be a brig from Liverpool loaded with merchant goods for Philadelphia; her figure shcwed the nation she was from, neat, clean and lightly loaded. She seemed to rise above the waves, yet notwithstanding these advantages over our poor heavy hulk, she had her dead lights up also, and dipt them so often under the water, that it shewed us plainly the necessity there was for this precaution. As our course was different, we soon parted, and every heart felt a pang at losing sight of a ship we knew nothing of and being separated from people with whom we had no concern. Man is certainly by nature a kindly Social animal. The law of affection was planted in his breast for the best of purposes. The depravity of Individuals makes us on our guard amidst a populous world, and, indeed, has rendered caution so necessary, that it has cooled the best propensities of the heart and obliged us to set a guard on our feelings, least they betray us into kindness. But no sooner are we divided from our natural associates than humanity re- gains its superiority; we forget their faults; we love them as brethren and all our philanthropy instantly returns. To this I attribute the benevolence, sincerity and warm hearts we generally meet with in Sailors. They have no use of Prudence on board and scorn to make up an acquaintance with such an old mercenary Jade ashore, and tho' being strangers to her often hurts their purses and still oftener their health they never mind that.

A light heart and a thin pair of breeches
Goes round the wide world, brave boys.

It was now about fifty hours the wind had been very high, tho' not dangerous. The sailors, however, began to complain heavily of their hard duty; besides, many things about the Vessel were beginning to give way: the ropes particularly, (which were not originally good,) were rendered so slight by the constant rain, that they every moment snapt in the working, by which means the Ship underwent such sudden and violent evolutions, that we were often thrown off our seats. This forced us to ly abed nor were we even safe there from its effects.

The rains continued, and the winds seemed to gain new strength from a circumstance that, in general, calms them. The sailors's hands were torn to pieces by pulling at the wet ropes. Their stock of Jackets were all wet, nor was there a possibility of getting them dried, as the Steerage was quite full of the Emigrants and hard loading; a piece of inhuman- it)', that I do not believe even Avarice ever equalled in any other owner. However our honest Johns did their best to keep a good heart, and weather out the gale. And when the wind would permit us to hear them, we were still serenaded with true love-garlands, and histories of faithful sailors and kind-hearted lasses. But on the fourth evening of the gale (as it was now termed) the whole elements seemed at war: horror, ruin and confusion raged thro' our unfortunate wooden kingdom, and made the stoutest heart despair of safety.

Just after the midnight watch was set, it began to blow in such a manner, as made all that had gone before seem only a summer breeze. All hands, (a fearful sound) were now called; not only the Crew, but every man who could assist in this dreadful emergency. Every body was on deck, but my young friend and myself, who sat up in bed, patiently waiting that fate, we sincerely believed unavoidable. The waves poured into the state-room, like a deluge, often wetting our bed-cloths, as they burst over the half door. The Vessel which was one moment mounted to the clouds and whirled on the pointed wave, descended with such violence, as made her tremble for half a minute with the shock, and it appears to me wonderful how her planks stuck together, considering how heavy she was loaded, Nine hogsheads of water which were lashed on the deck gave way, and broke from their Moorings, and falling backwards and forwards over our heads, at last went over board with a dreadful noise. Our hen-coops with all our poultry soon followed, as did the Cab-house or kitchen, and with it all our cooking-utensils, together with a barrel of fine pickled tongues and above a dozen hams. We heard our sails fluttering into rags. The helm no longer was able to command the Vessel, tho' four men were lash'd to it, to steer her. We were therefore resigned to the mercy of the winds and waves. At last we heard our fore main mast split from top to bottom, a sound that might have appaled more experienced Mariners, but we heard all in Silence, never once opening our lips thro' the whole tremendous scene:

"At last from all these horrors, Lord,
Thy mercy set us free,
While in the confidence of prayer,
Our Souls laid hold on thee."

About seven in the morning, my Brother, the Capt and our young men came down to us. They too had been on deck all night, fear not suffering them to stay below. Jack had behaved thro' the whole with great fortitude, but poor Billie, who is scarcely ten years old, had been sadly frighted, and could not refrain from crying. "Why, you little fool," said my brother to him, "what the duce do you cry for; you are a good boy, if you are drowned, you will go to heaven, which is a much finer place than Carolina." "Yes, uncle," returned he sobbing, "Yes, Uncle, I know if I had died at land, I would have gone to Heaven, but the thing that vexes me is, if I go to the bottom of this terrible sea, God will never be able to get me up; the fishes will eat me and I am done for ever"; at this thought he cried bitterly, it was annihilation the poor little fellow dreaded, for as soon as he was convinced that God could get him up, he became quite calm and resigned.

Tho' the immediate danger was now over, the storm had not subsided. The sea was in most frightful commotion, and the waves so tumultuous, that the deck was never a moment dry. Judge then what must have been the sufferings of the poor emigrants, who were confined directly under it; without air but what came down the crannies, thro' which also the sea poured on them incessantly. For many days together, they could not ly down, but sat supporting their little ones in their arms, who must otherwise have been drowned. No victuals could be dressed, nor fire got on, so that all they had to subsist on, was some raw potatoes, and a very small proportion of mouldy brisket. In this condition they remained for nine days, with scarcely any interval, (good Heavens! poor Creatures) without light, meat or air, with the immediate prospect of death before them; from the last indeed they should have found the only comfort. Their innocent Souls had little to fear from that prospect. This world had been to them a purgatory, and a few short fluttering sighs, with a little struggle, would have finished their pains, and put a period to a life of disappointment and sorrow. They would soon have found a watery tomb and been for ever at rest. But what rest remained for the iron-hearted tyrant, who forced age and infancy into such distress? Could he sleep in peace, who had provided such a cradle for the Babe, and such a pillow for the hoary head? Perhaps he did, but he may be assured that unless he meet that mercy he has not shown, the lot of these despised wanderers is envyable, cornpared to his. Forgive this, but the scene is before me, and that will excuse me to a heart so feeling as yours.

After several days' confinement to bed, we at last got to the Cabin. During our confinement, we were fed by our honest Indian with a large ham, he had been wise enough to boil, when he observed the storm first begin; together with a little wine and bisket. It was now finished to our no small regret, nor could we in any way supply it, for the weather was still very squally, and tho' the wind at times intermitted its violence, yet the sea ran so high, that the motion of the Vessel was intolerable, nor could any lire be made, as the waves came on board and drowned it out as soon as lighted. The Emigrants were still confined below the hatches, and this was really necessary, as they must have been washed over had they gone on deck, which their misery would have made them venture. In this wretched situation, a poor young woman, who had been married only a few months, was so terrified, that she miscarried. She was supposed for sometime dead by the women about her, nor could the least assistance or relief be afforded her. This was a sight for a fond husband; the poor fellow was absolutely distracted, and, break- ing thro' all restraint, forced up the hatch, and carried her in his arms on deck, which saved her life, as the fresh air recalled her Senses. He then flew to us, and in the most affecting manner, implored our Assistance, but what could we do for her? her cloaths all wet, not a dry spot to lay her on, nor a fire to warm her a drink. I gave her, however, a few hartshorn drops, with a bottle of wine for her use, and she is actually recovered.

We had not yet ventured on deck, nor were our dead lights taken down, when an unforseen accident, had nearly completed what the storm had not been able to effect, and sent us to the bottom at a minute's warning. Were you a sailor, J need only tell you our ship broached to, to inform you of the danger we were in, but as you are not one, I may suppose you unacquainted with sea terms, and will therefore inform you, that it is one of the most fatal accidents that can happen to a ship, and generally proves immediate destruction. Which, tho' you be no Sailor, you will comprehend, when I tell you that the meaning of broached to, is, that the Vessel fairly lies down on one side, but you will understand it better by being informed of what we suffered from it.

We were sitting by our melancholy Taper, in no very chearful mood ourselves; my brother (fortunately for him) was within the companion ladder. The Captain had come down to the Cabin to overhaul his Log-book and Journal, which he had scarcely begun to do, when the Ship gave such a sudden and violent heel over, as broke every thing from their moorings, and in a moment the great Sea-chests, the boys' bed, my brother's cott, Miss Rutherfurd's Harpsicord, with tables, chairs, joint-stools, pewter plates etc, etc., together with Fanny, Jack and myself, were tumbling heels over head to the side the Vessel had laid down on. It is impossible to describe the horror of our situation. The candle was instantly extinguished, and all this going on in the dark, without the least idea of what produced it, or what was to be its end. The Capt sprung on deck the moment he felt the first motion, for he knew well enough its consequence; to complete the horror of the scene, the sea poured in on us, over my brother's head, who held fast the ladder tho' almost drowned, while we were floated by a perfect deluge; and that nothing might be wanting that could terrify us, a favourite cat of Billie's lent her assistance. For happening to be busily engaged with a cheese, just behind me, she stuck fast by it, and sadly frighted with what she as little understood as we did, mewed in so wild a manner, that if we had thought at all, we would certainly have thought it was Davy Jones the terror of all sailors, conic to fetch us away.

Busy as this scene appears in description, it did not last half the time, it takes in telling. Nothing can save a ship in this situation, but cutting away her masts, and the time necessary for this generally proves fatal to her, but our masts were so shattered by the late storm, that they went over by the Board of themselves, and the Vessel instantly recovered. This second motion, however, was as severely felt in the Cabin as the first, and as unaccountable, for we were shoved with equal Violence to the other side, and were overwhelmed by a second deluge of Sea water. At last however it in some degree settled, and, thank God, no further mischief has happened, than my forehead cut, Jack's leg a little bruised, and the last of our poultry, a poor duck, squeezed as flat as a pancake.

When the light was rekindled, a most ridiculous scene was exhibited, vizt the sight of the Cabin with us in it, amidst a most uncommon set of articles. For besides the furniture formerly mentioned, the two state rooms had sent forth their contents, and the one occupied by the Captain, being a sort of store room, amongst many other things a barrel of Molasses pitched directly on me, as did also a box of small candles, so I appeared as if tarred and feathered, stuck all over with farthing candles.

The Cabin was at last put to rights. A fire was now able to he lighted, and fortunately our Tea Kettle was safe; so Robert with all expedition got us a dish of very bad tea, no milk nor any succedaneum to supply its place, the ham eat out, and every thing else gone to Davy Jones' locker, that is to the Devil. We were now forced to demand the Ship's provisions, for which we had paid very handsomely, and of which I had a splendid list in my pocket from the owner, but it was the man with the bacon and eggs; whatever I asked had been unfortunately forgot, but what else I pleased. At last I prayed them to tell me what they really had on board, and had the mortification to find that the whole ship's provision for a voyage cross the Tropick, consisted of a few barrels of what is called neck-beef, or cast beef, a few more of New England pork (on a third voyage cross the Atlantick, and the hot Climates), Oat meal, stinking herrings, and, to own the truth, most excellent Potatoes. Had our stock escaped, we had never known the poverty of the Ship, as we had more than sufficient for us all. But what must now become of us? Our cabbages, turnips, carrots all gone, except a few Turnips, which provident Robert had placed in such a manner, as to spring and produce us greens and sallad, a delicacy, which you must cross the Atlantick, before you can properly relish as we do.

We now called a general council on this truly interesting and important question, What shall we eat By the returns made by Robert and Mary, we found we had still a cag of excellent butter, a barrel of flower, a barrell of onions, and half a Cheese, besides a few eggs. As an addition to this the Captain had the humanity to restore us a parcel of very fine tusk [sic], which he had accidentally stowed away. I wish he had likewise let us have a cask of porter, which had the same fate. Of these materials Mary and Robert make us something wonderfully good every day. For example, Lobs- course is one of the most savoury dishes I ever eat. It is composed of Salt beef hung by a string over the side of the ship, till rendered tolerably fresh, then cut in nice little pieces, and with potatoes, onions and pepper, is stewed for some time, with the addition of a Proportion of water. This is my favourite dish; but scratch-platter, chouder, stir-about, and some others have all their own merit.

But alas our Voyage is hardly half over; and yet I ought not to complain, when I see the poor Emigrants, to which our living is luxury. It is hardly possible to believe that human nature could be so depraved, as to treat fellow creatures in such a manner for a little sordid gain. They have only for a grown person per week, one pound neck beef, or spoilt pork, two pounds oatmeal, with a small quantity of bisket, not only mouldy, but absolutely crumbled down with damp, wet and rottenness. The half is only allowed a child, so that if they had not potatoes, it is impossible they could live out the Voyage. They have no drink, but a very small proportion of brakish bad water. As our owner to save our expence, took the water for his ship from a pit well in his own back yeard, tho' fine springs were at a very little distance, even this scanty allowance is grudged them, and is often due sometime before they are able to get it weighed out to them. Adieu, my friend, I go to dream of you; My soul takes wing the moment its heavy companion is laid to rest, and flies to land, forget- ting the watery scene, with which we are surrounded. Yet it is wonderful how sound we sleep; amidst danger, death and sorrow, an unseen hand seals up our eyes, watches over our slumbers, and wonderfully supports and preserves our healths, and I make no doubt, will at last set us safely on sound ground. Adieu, adieu.

Our Ship is a complete wreck. Masts, Sails, and rigging of all kinds, lying on the deck, the ship itself an inactive hulk, lying on the water peaceably, thank God, for the winds and waves seem satisfied with the mischief they have done. They talk of putting up Jury Masts, [A jury mast was one rigged for temporary service in an emergency] but what these are I do not yet know. I have now given you as far as I remember, all that has happened aboard, since I laid my pen clown when the storm began, and not having much subject for this day, hope you will excuse my once more introducing my Emigrants to your notice, whose misfortunes seem to know no end.

As soon as I heard they were released from their gloomy confinement, I went on deck to see and to congratulate them on their safety. I was happy to find my number compleat, for I hardly expected to see them all living, but was much concerned to find them engaged in a new scene of distress. When these unhappy wanderers were driven from what they esteemed their earthly paradise, they had gone to Greenock, [Greenock, in the mouth of the Clyde, is the seaport of Glasgow.] in hopes of meeting a Vessel to bear them far from the cruel hand that forced them forth, but most unluckily all the ships were sailed. Having no means to support life another year, they rejoiced to hear of our ship, which, tho' late, was vet to sail this season. With infinite labour and expences from their little stock, they reached Burnt Island. They threw themselves on the mercy of the owner, who was generous enough to take only double, what he had a right to. Their long journey had so far exhausted their finances, that they could only pay half in hand, but bound themselves slaves for a certain number of years to pay the rest. [The Highlanders had bound themselves to the master of the ship in return for their food and transportation. Thus they had become indentured servants, whose time for four, five, or six years might he sold on their arrival in the colony to whomsoever would buy. The buying of these indentures or contracts was a recognized method of obtaining laborers in nearly all the British colonies in America, West Indian and continental alike. The hardships involved and the extent to which the servants suffered practical slavery differed with the period and the colony.] Lawson bound himself double, to save his wife and daughter. This was too advantageous a bargain for Avarice to withstand, he greedily closed with the proposal, but thought only of deceiving us, not of providing for them, so that as soon as they were got on board, with many kind and fair promises, they were shut under the hatches, where they were confined, till the third day we were at sea. In the meantime, all that remained of their worldly wealth, was contained in a timber chest for each family, which were without mercy or distinction thrown into the long boat, and as that was under water for near fifteen clays, the consequence was the glue had given way, the chests fallen to pieces, and every thing was floating promiscuously above the water. Notwithstanding all their former misfortunes, this severely affected them; the women particularly could not stand it, without tears and lamentations.

Affecting as the scene was in general, it was impossible not to smile at some Individuals. Besides the company of Emigrants, there was a Smith with his wife, two taylors and a handsome young Cooper. These were voluntarily going to the West Indies, to mend or make their fortune, so had no claim to that pity the others had a right to. The Smith's wife, who ruled her husband with a rod of iron, had made him lay out much money to figure away in a strange country, and had bestowed great part of it on dress for her own person, which had now shared the fate of the others. As she was in perfect despair at her loss, I had a curiosity to see what it was, and found she had provided for her West India dress, a green stuff damask gown, with Scarlet Callamanco cuffs, a crimson plaid, and a double stuff Petticoat, the rest of the dress I suppose in proportion. As we were condoling this Lady, a little fellow came up and with a sorrowful face begged to know, if any body had seen his goose. I supposed his goose had shared the fate of my Duck, which I was very sorry for; but found he was a tailor who had lost his smoothing iron. But while I was amusing myself with the imaginary distress of these adventurers, I observed Mrs Lawson sitting composedly on the deck, with her little family round her, paying no attention to what was going on. "I hope," said I to her, "your things are not there; you appear so calm and easy." "Alas, Madam," returned she, "I am hardened to Misfortunes, all I have in the world is there, but, thank God, my infants are all safe." Just then little Marion came up, with a face full of anxiety, and a lap full of wet cloths. "Oh! Dear Aunt," cried she, "here is every tiling ruined, here is your very [best] popline gown all spoiled, and here is my Uncle's new Waistcoat and your best petticoat," continued she, shaking them out as she spoke, and hanging them up to dry. Mrs Lawson took up her little boy, kissed it, and smiled resignation; so leaving little Marion to perform her task of duty and affection, I moved to the Cabin.

Could love be quenched like common fire, surely not a single spark would have remained aboard the Jamaica Packet, yet if we may believe the word of an Abigail, this is far from being the case, and the little deity finds as good sport in shooting our sea gulls as your land pigeons. If I am not mistaken Mrs Mary has herself got a scratch, tho' she was a very prude at land. Love is not a passion (says a philosophic friend of mine) but inspired from situation. How then can the poor maid be blamed, there are two or three handsome fellows aboard, on one of whom I suspect she has Cast the eye of affection. He is no Joseph, I dare say, and as Mary keeps the keys, I make no doubt she will be successful. It is wonderful how this gentle passion has sweetened her temper, and we think ourselves much obliged to David, for so he is called, for her good humour. We took notice of him first in compliment to her; and soon made him our acquaintance, from a better reason, as my brother finds him the only person that knows any thing of this navigation, he having made the voyage two or three times. He is besides a sensible clever fellow, and much fitter to sail the ship than his Captain. By him we are assured we are a great way out of our course. He shewed my brother a reckoning he privately kept, which was very regular, and much better than that of the Capt. My brother has kept one all along, and has great suspicions of what he is now told.

We were all like to be overset, with our new friend Davy this morning. Scandal, that sad amphibious monster, that can thrive both by land and water, has given much disturb- ance to poor Mary, who entered the Cabin this morning all in a flutter. "Dear Ladies," cried she, "what do you think; to be sure 'tis no wonder we had such storms; for a judgment must follow such doings, to be sure I make no doubt we will all be cast away." "Pray, Ms Miller," said I, "what's the matter?" "I intend to tell," said she, "but who would ever have thought it, that handsome man. But now I think he is not handsome a bit, for handsome is, that handsome does." She run on a great while longer, but to relieve you sooner than she did me, I will tell you that she had been informed he had another fair one on Board, to whom he paid more attention than to her, and to add to the injury, the very wine which she gave him, had been converted to the use of this favourite Sultana. He has contrived to make up matters, and she now says that if there were not bad women, there would be no bad men. 'Tis a constant maxim with us always to throw the blame on our own sex, when a favourite Lover is unfaithful, we never fail to discover he has been taken in by art to deceive us.

I hope this fine weather will give me something better worth your reading, but as I write every day, you must sometimes be satisfied with such subjects as this narrow scene affords. We are now in the latitude of Madeira, but what that is, I leave you to consult the map for. I will tell you however that the weather is fine; tho' we have not got into the trade winds. I told you before that my brother suspects the Captain's calculations; this he is daily more convinced of, which does not make us very easy. Our Capt is an excellent practical sailor, very alert, knows all the dutys of a foremast man, is the first to go aloft, and takes his share of the hardest duty; but tho' he would do very well in that station, has had no education to fit him to command a ship; and were not my brother on board, we could not take even an observation with any certainty. We arc almost continually on deck, the weather is so fine, and we find great amusement from the sky over us and the water under us. In the first place, we not only build castles, but plant forests, lay out gardens, and raise cities, and wander with much delight thro' hills, groves and valleys. Do not despise these airy Scenes, for pray my friend how much better are you employed in your world? Do not your schemes of happiness change, vary and disappear? Indeed, indeed, by sea and by land we are at best pursuing a cloud which fancy has raised, and your fairest enjoyments are not more durable than our sea landscapes, if I may call them so.

We have had two sharks that followed us all this day. They have stole our beef and spoilt our Lobscourse, but we are busy contriving to be revenged and to eat them. You have them much better described than I can, as only their head and tail are seen above the water. They are very swift Swimmers, and it is said that they have such strength in their tail, that when brought on board, they often damage the deck, by beating it about; so that when they are hooked, the Carpenter stands ready with his axe to cut it off.

As I was pleasing myself this morning, with lying over the side of the ship, and seeing the fishes in pursuit of each other, gliding by, I observed a fine hawk-bill turtle asleep, almost close along side. Oh! how our mouths did water at it, but watered alas in vain; for before any method could be thought of, it waked and dived under the water. I presently recollected, however, that this pride of luxury was too luxurious himself to be many miles from land. This I mentioned to the Captain, but as his reading or observation had not reached so far, he held mine very cheap. We have however laid a bet: he, that we are many hundred leagues from land; I, that we are not above a hundred Miles. He says, twenty four hours will determine the wager, for, if I am right, in that time we will see some land; if not, we will see none till we arrive amongst the Leeward Islands. My brother joins me, tho' he owns he has no other reason, than the same observation I made from seeing the turtle.

The weather is now so soft, that my brother and Miss Ruthcrfurd are able to amuse themselves with their musick. His German flute is particularly agreeable, and one would think, by the number of fishes that are crouding round us, that he were the Orpheus of the water. If some of the sea- green nymphs would raise their heads and join their Voices, it would be a pretty concert. Some of our fair Shipmates, however, favour us with a melancholy "Lochaber Nae maer," or "heaven preserve my bonny Scotch laddie," sounds that vibrate thro' several hearts.

Pleasant as this evening is, I must leave it for my little state room, and get into bed; which is almost a pity. How sweet it is, the moon shines over us so clear, that it puts me in mind of what I have been told of two lovers who were to part far. They promised that at a certain hour, they would constantly look at the Moon, and have the pleasure to think they were then both admiring the same object. I think I could improve on this. Suppose at a certain hour, we both were to adore the same great power, who rules by Sea and land, and to beg blessings of him for each other. Don't you think, my long loved friend, that in such a moment, our Souls, tho' not our bodies, might meet and mix, we know not how? I go to try the experiment, and hope you also are above this low world to meet me.

I have won my wager; we came in sight of land long before the expiration of the twenty four hours. Just as we were stepping into bed, the Captain came and owned I was right, for that we were along side of land, but what land, he confest, he was utterly ignorant. We presently slipt on our wrapping gowns and with great joy went on deck. The moon was now down, and we could only observe a thing resembling a great black cloud. The Captain swore that he believed after all it was only Cape Fly Away. [A cant word for mistaking a cloud for land.] But we were all positive we smelt the land Air, which on my word I really did. My brother had now got all the maps, charts, Journals, etc., be- fore him, and in a very short time, declared with absolute certainty, that we were among the Azores or Western Is- hands. The Captain, the Mate and all now agreed in the same opinion. These, I suppose you know, are a set of very fine African Islands, which appertain to the kingdom of Portugal. Mr Schaw further assured us that the one we were now over against, was called Graciosa, a name it had from its extraordinary beauty. The next thing was to get the Captain to ly to, as it was very dangerous for him to proceed on his way, thro' a cluster of Islands, of which he was confessedly ignorant. This being agreed to, we all returned into the Cabin. Read the description of the Island from Salmon's Geographical Grammar. [Thomas Salmon, A New Geographical and historical Grammar, with a set of twenty-two maps, London, octavo, 1749. Sixth edition, 1758. There were later editions also.] We're charmed to find it produces every thing we want, Sheep, poultry, bread, wine and a variety of Vegetables, besides the finest fruits in the world. The means to obtain them was the next question, for which purpose my brother wrote three cards, one in Latin to the Superior of the convent, one in French to whoever could read it, and one in English to our Consul, if there was such on the Island. [The knowledge of languages possessed by Alexander Schaw and Miss Schaw's later friend, Archibald Neilson (pp. 218-221), is suggestive of the culture of Edinburgh and other lowland Scottish towns at this time.] These set forth that aboard were several people of fashion, particularly two Ladies, that we had lost every thing by the storm, and that the Ladies could not doubt of being properly supplied from the known politeness and gallantry of the Portugueze. As the cards added that the boat would pay whatever price was demanded, there was no doubt but we would have been plentifully supplied with whatever the Island could afford. But our brute of a Captain rendered all this useless, and has fixed us down to finish our Voyage without a single comfort.

After this affair was settled, we went to bed, but our spirits were so elated that we could not sleep, so were again on deck by the first peep of morning dawn. We now saw the Island most distinctly, and must own that it deserves its name, for never did my eyes behold so beautiful a spot. It does not seem in length above five or at most six Miles; its breadth I could not see. In the centre is a large extensive plane, surrounded with hills in form of an Amphitheatre; the ground rises by an easy ascent all the way from the shore, and in the bosom of the hills stands a very noble house, round which is a great deal of fine laid out policy. [A Scottish word meaning the improved grounds around a country house.] It fronts the shore, and is entirely open to the Sea, and tho' the Island is evidently under the power of winter, the beauty of the Verdure is inconceivable; and when the Vines, which are now leafless and cut clown, are in foliage and fruit, it is certainly a garden that, had our first parents been sent to repent in, they would soon have forgot their native Eden. The hills behind the plane were covered with pasture or Vineyard, and we observed forts on two of them, but no other house of any note, tho' some hamlets were scattered here and there, and what we took to be Orange groves by the figure of the tree. The Captain however expressly refused to send the boat ashore.

In this resolution he was confirmed by a fright he got in the morning, and which indeed alarmed us all, and with reason; this was the appearance of a ship which was taken for an Algerine corsair, with which these Seas are terribly infested. "O God!" cried the Captain as he entered the Cabin, "we are undone, for we have no Mediterranean pass."

[A Mediterranean pass was a necessary document for all ships, British and colonial, trading in the Mediterranean or along the Atlantic coast, north and south of the Straits of Gibraltar. It was a permit on parchment, partly engraved and partly written, issued by the British Admiralty to protect vessels from attack by the Barbary cruisers, under the terms of treaties previously entered into with the Barbary states. A single pass could be used for more than one voyage. Under Admiralty rules, it was to be endorsed by the British consul at every port entered and when done with to be returned to the issuing office. The form and wording were as follows:
[King of England, etc.] to all persons whom these may concern greeting.
Suffer the ship ------- to pass, with her company, passengers, goods, and merchandizes, without any let, hinderance, seizure, or molestation ; the said ship appearing unto us, by good testimony, to belong to our subjects, and to no foreigner. Given under our sign manual and the seal of the Admiralty, at the court at -------, this ------ day of, -------- in the year of our Lord, one thousand and seven hundred and ------
By his Majesty's Command,
[Signature of the Secretary to the Admiralty] [Signature of the King]]

You may guess our situation on this intelligence. But my brother whose presence of mind never forsakes him, asked us in a pleasant way, if we were afraid of being their Sultanas and bade us dress, that our appearance might gain us respect, and the hope of a ransome procure us civil treatment. We immediately obeyed him, but before our task was finished, our fears were happily at an end, by the Vessel sailing from us as fast as she was able. We plied off and on, in hopes that some boats would come off to us, But they are so much afraid of the Algerines that they seldom venture out. The morning was now pretty far advanced, the smoke began to rise from the chimneys of the elegant house, which was full in our view, and my Imagination formed a delightful parlour, where a happy family were saluting each other with the compliments of the morning, and sitting down in comfort to a cheerful breakfast; and I had such an inclination to join this family, that I cannot help thinking I am some how connected with them, and found myself so familiar with them, that I am certain in some future period of my life, I will be on that Island.

We now despaired of boats, so were forced to set sail again with much regret. As we sailed along the Island, we saw every hill covered with Vines or rich pasture. A very fine highway went round the Island, and near the end of it was a large church, and a considerable building which we supposed to be a convent, also a fort which seemed of some strength. The day turned out very clear and fine, but we were not sufficiently near any of the other Islands to see them distinctly. St George stands very high, is rocky and seems a fine Island; St Thomas [There is today no "St. Thomas" among the Azores; the reference may be to the island of Terceira. "Pecoa" is now Pico.] is still smaller, but looks very green and seems to have many trees on it. We had a distant view of Pecoa, which appears one high rock formed like a sugar loaf. We now came on Fyall, which is a noble Island; here we wished greatly to put in and refit. We knew this Island carried on a very considerable trade with Britain, that many English resided on it, and above all saw by the Alrnanack that a Scotch man was Consul. The Captain seemed to yield, as he was forced to confess the Vessel was hardly in a state to proceed. But the Supercargo would not be prevailed on. We sailed sixteen or eighteen miles along the Island, but not the side on which the town and harbour stand. We saw however some noble churches and convents, and a prodigious number of Vineyards. This Island is famous thro' the West Indies and America for its wine, which is a sort of weak Madeira; much better than that we have from Teneriff, and I wonder we do not often get it at home, as they tell me it sells amazingly cheap. We have got clear of the Islands, and with a heavy heart once more lost sight of land, and are again to sup on Lobscourse.

I have not had it in my power to take up my pen these five days. As we have had another terrible tempest after our fine weather. It began about two that morning after we got thro' the Azores; that we were thro', was a most happy circumstance, for had it happened while we were amongst them, I had not now been informing you of it. We have reason however to fear that tho' we are safe, much mischief has happened. I will not give you a minute description of this storm, because it so much resembled the other; with the addition of the most terrible thunder and lightning that ever were seen. All our temporary repairs are destroyed, we have not a stick standing, nor a rag of sail to put up, and we lie tumbling amongst the waves. All hands are employed in making sails, our Smiths and Carpenter busy patching our bitts of timber, so as to make something like Masts, which however were not yet put up. When we were sailing by, the Boyn, a King's ship of seventy four guns, bore down on us to inquire for her consort from whom she was parted in the late storm, and we found she had troops on board for Boston. She is a beautiful ship, but the pleasure of looking at her was all the advantage we gained by the meeting, for tho' she saw us in a merchant Ship, belonging to her own country, in the utmost distress, tho' we begged her to let us only have a few spare sticks, of which no doubt she had enough, yet they refused to let us have one, tho' they had every reason to believe that we would never reach our destined port. I know not the Captain's name, but whoever commanded the Boyn in one thousand seven hundred and seventy four, on the third of December, is an exception to the character I formerly gave of Sailors.

[The incident of meeting the Boyne offers the only serious difficulty that we have encountered in reconciling the statements of the journal with the evidence from other sources. Miss Schaw says definitely that they met the Boyne on December 3, the log of the Boyne says with equal definiteness that that vessel "spoke a brigg for Antigo com'd from Leith" on November 17, a discrepancy of more than two weeks. Either Miss Schaw is wrong in her date or the entry in the log concerns another vessel than the Jamaica Packet. The former is the more likely explanation, as the Boyne "saw Cape Ann," that is, the coast of Massachusetts, on December 7, which would have been impossible had she been seen by the packet on December 3.

The captain of the Boyne, whom Miss Schaw so vigorously condemns, was Broderick Hartwell. Had she and others on the packet, particularly that violent republican, the supercargo, though aware that the Boyne was taking soldiers to America, foreseen the part that those soldiers were to play in American history, they might have been more lively in their comments. The Boyne, the Asia, which carried Major Pitcairn, and the Somerset, which was the consort referred to, were transporting the marine detachments that fought in the battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill. Miss Schaw, without realizing it, had witnessed a significant event in the history of the American Revolution.

Oddly enough, "little Billie" was gazing at a vessel bearing the same name as that on which he was to serve as acting lieutenant in 1794, nineteen years later. The Boyne of 1774 was a third-rate of 74 guns and 300 men; that of 1794 was the flagship of Sir John Jervis (afterwards Admiral Earl St. Vincent), a second-rate of 98 guns and 772 men, which was commissioned in 1792 and sailed from England with "little Billie" on board in November, 1793.]

The meeting this Ship has introduced politicks. The supercargo is from Boston a republican and violent American, and tho' we consider him as a very silly fellow, you cannot think how much we feel the ridicule with which he treats our dilatory conduct. God grant that what this fool says may not prove at last too true. We have been all this morning on deck, hard at work with the new sails. I never saw any thing so neat and handy as our Johns. Every man appeared with his clew of thread, his sail needle and his thimble, which he properly terms his palm, as it is worn in the palm of the hand, fastened over the back with a strap of leather. With this he works as cleverly as any sempstress with her needle. We will soon look very clean and neat, but you cannot think how much we are ashamed to enter the Islands with our humble masts, I wish to God we were there however; the appearance we make will give me little pain.

Congratulate me, my friend, we are at length got into the long looked for wind. It met us this morning about four o'clock; what a relief to our poor Sailors, who will now have nothing to do, but dance, sing and make love to the lasses, but let them beware beware of little 'Marion; her uncle's eye is never off her, and honest John [Lawson] has an hand that would fell an Ox.

By the observation just taken, we will cross the Tropick [of Cancer] in about thirty hours. We see a number of Tropical birds, and have every reason to believe this calculation just, and as we are now approaching a new World, we have also reason to look for new objects. And indeed the Sea, the Sky, and every thing seem to change their appearance. The moon is ten times more bright than in your Northern hemisphere, and attended by a number of Stars, each of whom may claim a superior title, and pass for sparkling suns. The beauty of the evenings is past all description, and tho' the days are rather warm, yet we feel less inconveniency than one could believe. By the help of an awning we are able to sit on the deck, where I now write. Every moment gives us something to amuse our fancy or excite our curiosity; the colour of the water is now a bright azure blue, and at night all round the Ship seems on fire. This fire is like globules, that tho' larger, bear a resemblance to those produced by Electricity, and I dare say is an effect of the same kind from the strong salts of this vast Ocean.

The inhabitants of this wat'ry world seem to bid us welcome; the Sea appears quite populous, droves of porpuses, like flocks of Sheep, pass dose by us. They have a droll gait and keep a tumbling, as if they proposed playing tricks for our diversion. The dolphin is a most beautiful fish; his skin resembles that of a Mackerel, but the colours more strong, and when he rises out of the water, he appears all over green and like burnished gold. His prey is the flying fish, which, when pursued, rise out of the water, and keep flying while the fins, which answer for their wings, are wet, but the instant that they dry, they drop down, by which means they often fall down on the deck. We have eat some, and I have preserved some for your inspection. We have another fish called pilot fish, [The pilot fish was so called because often seen with a shark, swimming near a ship, from which the sailors imagined that it acted as a pilot to the shark.] which eats much like our whibers. These greedily take the bait, and we would get them in plenty, had they not such friendships as make them almost superior to the Arts of men; for the moment one is hooked, others come round him, and if you are not very quick they bite and nibble the line, till they break it thro' and let their friend go free. They have never heard our human proverb, 'Avoid the wounded deer and hooked fish.'

We have had an unwieldy companion all this day by the Ship, a Crampus or small whale. He tumbles about, and when we throw him any thing overboard, he turns on his back, and catches it in a very small mouth.

The effect of this fine weather appears in every creature, even our Emigrants seem in a great measure to have forgot their sufferings, and hope gives a gleam of pleasure, even to the heart-broken features of Mrs Lawson and if we had any thing to eat, I really think our present situation is most delightful. We play at cards and backgammon on deck; the sailors dance horn pipes and Jigs from morning to night; every lass has her lad, and several chintz gowns have been converted by our little taylor into jackets for the favourite swains. Our handsome cooper, however, has been an unfortunate enamorato. As he fixed his fancy on a young wife, who had a husband she was very fond of, this has produced a commissary trial, [That is, a mock divorce suit. In eighteenth century Scottish law a commissary court was a probate and divorce court.] to the no small diversion of every body but the love-lorn youth. It turned out in proof, that for several mornings as soon as the husband was up, this young spark tumbled into his place; this was rather an unceremonious method of declaring his passion, but as he got up the first and second time begging pardon, and laying the blame on accident, the woman said nothing of it, from which I suppose, he concluded, she would not be offended tho' he lay a little longer. In this however he was mistaken. She was enraged at his insolence and flew to her husband with a terrible complaint. This rough fellow had not the patience of our husbands of fashion, he presently went in quest of the lover, and would have used him in a very cruel manner, had he not thrown himself into the protection of the Cabin, and in his own vindication protested that it was accident, for as their beds lay along side of each other, the ship heeld so much, that he was involuntarily thrown into the other bed. It was however remarkable that this never happened when the husband was there, nor during all the bad weather, when it might more naturally have happened.

Last night was most particularly beautiful. I sat on the deck till past twelve. The lustre of the stars, the brightness of the moon, the clearness of the sky, and the Sea washing the side of the Vessel, for we have now no waves, carried my mind beyond itself, and I could not refrain expressing myself in the language of the psalmist: "When I look up into the heavens which thou bast made, and unto the moon and stars, which thou bast ordained, then say I, what is man that thou shouldst remember him, or the son of man that thou regardest him." Certainly Man appears but a very small part of the creation, when compared with these grand works, yet that he is the favourite, still greater proofs have been given, than even the creating these glorious Luminaries for his use and pleasure. I think it is not possible to look at these without recollecting what we are told of a new heaven and a new earth; what that is, we cannot conceive, neither could I have formed the least idea of the glory of the firmament that canopies this part of the world.

We have now thrown off our ship-dress and wear muslin Jackets and chip hats: that however is not so wonderful, as our lying under a single Holland sheet, and even that too much. We have got a window cut into our state room from the Companion stair. This is shaded with nothing but a thin lawn curtain, yet is too warm. The people from the Steerage up on deck, the boys will no longer go into bed, but sleep on the Sea-chests, yet this is the month of December.

We find ourselves greatly the better of bathing which we do every morning in a large cask prepared for the purpose. Tis a very solemn ceremony; when we are to leave the cabin in our bathing dress, all the people quit the deck, and remain below till we return.

My brother is now quite well, and would eat if he could get it; he has lost a good deal of his English beef, but looks very well notwithstanding. Fanny is in great beauty, she has improved amazingly with her Sea-Voyage. This is a long letter and it is time to give both you and me rest.

We are now fairly under the Tropick and are preparing for a farce that is played on this occasion by every ship that goes to or fro under the Tropick. It is, it seems, a sort of Mason word and till I am admitted in form, I must not appear to know it. I shall therefore only tell you that we have been made to expect a visit from old Tropicus and his ancient dame. He is a wizard and she a witch who inhabit an invisible Island in these Seas, and have a privilege of raising contributions from every Ship that passes their dominions, only however from such as never was that way before. But my account is cut short by the appearance of the Actors, who are dressed for their parts. Tropicus is performed by an old rough dog of a Tar, who needs very little alteration to be- come a callaban in mind and body, but his wife is played by a very handsome fellow, who is completely transformed. Every body is below waiting, in trembling expectation, and no wonder, for an awful ceremony this Visitation is. Tropick the Island was no sooner seen, than the Jolly boat [The jolly boat was generally slung at the stern of the vessel. Regarding the "awful ceremony," the author of A Brief Account of the Island of Antigua (1789), who made the voyage from the Downs to Antigua in 1786, says, "I had almost forgot to observe that on passing the tropic of Cancer, the old custom of ducking and shaving such as have not before crossed it, was performed by the seamen with some humour on one man and two boys. The passengers waved the ceremony by a liquor fine" (p.5)] was taken down, on pretence of going with the Captain aboard it to meet him, but in fact to be filled full of pump water for a use you shall hear by and by. This being done Tropick is spoke to thro' the trumpet, and with a hollow voice demands what strangers are aboard. All this the people below hear, and tho' many of the Emigrants appear sensible, yet all Highlanders and Islanders are so superstitious, that they may be easily imposed on, in such a thing as this; and they were completely so. The wizard now ordered them to be brought up, one by one blindfolded and their hands bound behind them; such was their fear, that they suffered this to be clone without dispute. In this situation, they were to answer certain questions which he put to them; if they spoke strictly truth, then he shaved them, took a small gratuity for his trouble, gave them his benediction, and let them pass. But if they disguised or concealed the truth, which he was supposed perfectly to know, then he tumbled them into the Sea, where they perished. Prepossessed with this idea, a poor lad was brought before the infernal Judge: "Answer me," said he sternly, "answer me truth; what made you leave home?" "O troth sir, I dina well ken": "but you must know," said he, "so answer me instantly." "O Dear, O Lord! I think it was, because so many were going, I did not like to stay behind." "And pray what are you good for in this world, to prevent me sending you to the next?" "Trouth, an please your honour, e'en very little." "What," said he, with a voice like thunder, "are you good for nothing?" "O yes, yes, I am no very ill at the small fishing." As this young man did not seem to overrate his own merits, the wizard was satisfied, placed him on the side of the boat, which he believed was the ship, being still blind folded and bound. The wizard began to shave him with a notched stick and pot-black. The sharp notches soon brought blood, and the poor devil starting from the pain, tumbled into the boat amongst the water, and thinking it the sea, roared with terror. And in this consisted the whole wit of the entertainment. He was now unbound and restored to the light and as keen to bring in his neighbours, who one by one, went thro' the same operation. As soon as it was over, custom licences the sailors to treat the officers with every degree of freedom, nor do they fail to take the opportunity. The Capt, mates, supercargo and all were chaced round and round, and drenched in the water from the boat, which they threw at them in bucket-fulls.

We had now got to the Cabin, and believed all was over, when a loud screaming on deck brought us to see what was the matter, and we found our Capt had begun to act a tragedy after our comedy, and to oblige these poor ruined creatures to pay five shillings for each, or be pulled up to a mast and from that plunged down to the Sea. This was a sum impossible to be raised, and the poor women were running with what remained of their cloths to give in place of it to save their husbands and fathers. Amongst others Marion was going with all speed, with her aunt's popline gown; but it was needless, for John Lawson now stood at bay, his fist clinched and swearing by the great God, that the first man that touched him had not another moment to live, nor was there one hardy enough to encounter a fist, which had not its fellow on board. But this was not the case with others, and they had one man tied, and only waited to see, if his wife had as many moveables as to save his life, for he was a poor weak old man, and would not have agreed with this method of bathing. I never in my life saw my brother in such a passion; he swore solemnly, that the moment begot to land, he would raise a prosecution against the Capt, who pleaded that it was the custom, and only intended as a little drink money to the sailors. If that is the case, replied my brother, let them give up their cloths, and they shall be satisfied. [Evidently meaning that if the sailors would give up their claim to the clothes of the emigrants, he (Mr. Schaw) would pay for their grog.] This was complied with cheerfully, he gave them what they were satisfied with, to which they returned three cheers, as he went to the cabin and serenaded us with the favourite song.

O grog is the liquor of life
The delight of each free British tar.

We are now in the constant look out for land; dear hope, how agreeably you fill the mind: yet what do I hope? I have no friend to meet. no fond parent to receive me with joy, no —but away gloomy ideas—why I hope once more to stand on Terra firma, which by the bye, I cannot be said to do on an Island.

I do not find the heat encreases since the first few days. Indeed the constant soft wind cools the air, and renders even the day agreeable. We have discovered that they have brought a quantity of Bristol beer out for Sale. This they concealed till we were in the West India climate, as they supposed till then we would not give them the price, which is no less than two shillings a bottle, and which we pay with pleasure. We see new birds every day, and observe a greater variety of fishes, but have seen no turtle, since that near the Azores. Every thing flatters us with the hope of Land, yet if you saw our state room, you would suppose we designed to continue in it for years. It is decked out with a toilet, pictures and mirror; so calm is the Sea, that the things never move. How soon are our sorrows forgot; the Sailors that were lately damning the Elements and grudging their duty, now wonder how any man can be such a Luber [lubber], as to stay at land; and I find myself a little in the same way of thinking, and am happy I have come abroad to see the world; tho' God knows I have seen but a small and disagreeable part of it. My travels have been to the moon and stars. The sun is too bright and too warm for me, and as for the earth, I have seen none of it since I left Scotland; I only smelt it off the African Islands. Land, Land, joyful sound, we are in sight of land, the infants are clapping their little hands, and the very cat is frisking about for joy.

Just as we finished supper last night, I was going on deck, when the first thing that struck me was the sight of land, which I should not have known, had I not formerly seen it in the same figure at the Azores. "Is not that land?" said I to the man at the helm, "Yes," said he, squirting out his quid of Tobacco with great composure, "as soon as the mate will come up, I will shew it to him." I did not wait that ceremony, but turning round to the Cabin, exclaimed as loud as I was able, "Land, Land!" Every body run up, such a whistling of joy, and such a shaking of hands. There was no doubt it was Antigua. No body thought of bed, but what will surprize you, Fanny in the midst of this joy was quite melancholy, she never considered herself as really out of Scotland, till now that she was soon to be on another land, and this thought affected her so much, that she is quite sick.

I was already on deck to see the lead thrown, to sound our depths, the colour of the water has already begun to change to a lighter blue, and in a little time became quite green like that at Leith. You remember how much Ossian was criticised for calling the Sea blue and the stars green, but that is truly the appearance they have, when sufficiently distant from land. We soon had a pilot on board, who with his black assistants, brought us round the rocks at the utmost points of Antigua. The beauty of the Island rises every moment as we advance towards the bay; the first plantations we observed were very high and rocky, but as we came farther on, they appeared more improved, and when we got into the bay, which runs many miles up the Island, it is Out of my power to paint the beauty and the Novelty of the scene. We had the Island on both sides of us, yet its beauties were different, the one was hills, dales and groves, and not a tree, plant or shrub I had ever seen before; the ground is vastly uneven, but not very high; the sugar canes cover the hills almost to the top, and bear a resemblance in colour at least to a rich field of green wheat; the hills are skirted by the Palmetto or Cabbage tree, which even from this distance makes a noble appearance. The houses are generally placed in the Valleys between the hills, and all front to the sea. We saw many fine ones. There were also some fine walks along the Shore shaded by different trees, of which I am vet ignorant. Will you not smile, if after this description, I add that its principal beauty to me is the resemblance it has to Scotland, yes, to Scotland, and not only to Scotland in general, but to the Highlands in particular. I found out a Dunkeld in one of these walks, [Dunkeld is a town in Perthshire on the west branch of the Tay. It was formerly the home of the Duchess of Atholl (p 243) and quite possibly had been at one time the home of Miss Schaw. The scenery, both above and below the town, was greatly admired.] nor do I think the birches there inferior in beauty to the myrtles here.

The other side exhibits quite a different scene, as the ground is almost level, a long tongue of land runs into the Sea, covered with rich pasture, on which a number of cattle feed. At the farther end of this Peninsula is a fort which receives the compliments from the Ships, and has a fee from them. After we passed this point, we saw some very rich plantations, all inclosed by hedges, but of what kind I know not. The next object that engaged our attention, was a high rock, on the sides of which grew a vast number of Oranges and lemons. At the top is a large building, which, our Pilot tells us, is the Old Barracks. [The author of the Brief Account says, "The new barracks and military hospital, situated to the eastward of the town, are spacious and healthy and allowed to be the most complete in the islands. There is also a barrack on Rat Island, in St. John's Harbour, but it has been suffered to go to ruin and is now [1786] out of use." The "high rock," to which Miss Schaw refers is Rat Island the barracks there, built in 1754.I755, were evidently occupied at the time of her arrival, for the new barracks could hardly have been completed in 1774. According to Sir Ralph Payne, governor at this time, the barracks contained four companies of the 2d Battalion of Royal Americans, exceedingly incomplete as to numbers, since they amounted to not more than 87 or 88 effective men. These companies had come to the island in 1772, replacing the 68th Regiment of Foot, which had been there since 174. The fort is James Fort erected in 1700, now dismantled and used as a quarantine station.] This Barracks is able to contain a thousand Men. But they had now built another, farther up the Island, and one half was gone there. We saw a number of the officers walking among the Orange-trees and myrtles, and I own I thought the prospect was mended by their appearance.

We have cast Anchor at about a mile or little more from the town of St John's, which we have in full view. It lies up a hill, and is certainly a fine town. but the houses are low, and have no chimneys, so that at this distance, it does not make a grand appearance; tho' I dare say it will mend, when we come nearer to it. [Antigua is one of the Leeward Islands, forty miles east of Nevis and twenty-seven miles from Montserrat. Its chief town, St. John's, was not incorporated until July, 1783. The best contemporary description of the island is that contained in Sir Ralph Payne's "Answers to Queries," written on June 26, 1774, just three months before the lady's arrival. "Antigua is in its greatest extent about 14 miles in length and in its narrowest breadth about ç miles. Its highest hills are to the southward, but it is in general by no means a mountainous island. It contains 69,277 acres and 108 square miles and 1/4. The soil on the north side is a black mould or marie, and to the southward a strong clay. The body of the island lies in latitude 17" 10' and its longitude from the meridian of London is 6o degrees west. The climate of Antigua as well as of the other Leeward Islands, is between the Tropics under the Torrid Zone, and like the other islands would be insufferably warm, were it not for almost constant breezes that blow chiefly from the eastward, and render it healthy and agreeable" (Public Record Office, C. 0. 152:q, no. 17). The number of its white inhabitants in 1774 was about 2590, of blacks 37,308.]

My brother and the Captain are gone ashore, the one to enter his ship at the custom house, the other to deliver his letters, and provide decent lodgings for us in the town. Miss Rutherfurd has been extremely ill all the morning; she has not enjoyed nor indeed seen the scene I have been describing, as she was forced to keep below. She is now better, and from the Cabin window has a fine view of the Island, town and shipping. of which a vast number lie round us. I take this opportunity of writing you once more aboard the Jamaica Packet, which I am to quit to morrow, at least for some time.

I hear a boat along side, I hope it is my brother, and that he has brought us something for Supper.

The boat did not bring my brother on board, but a card to let us know he was engaged by company, and could not come aboard that evening. This boat was freighted with the hospitality and politeness of the natives, who no sooner understood there were ladies on board, than they sent us whatever the Island could afford, and which indeed surpasses whatever I saw of the kind. Pine apples, Shadocks, oranges, grapes, guinea fowls and excellent milk. This last was of all others, to my young friends, the highest treat. We drank Tea and supped in luxury; that, you must be five weeks starved, before you can understand. We have been just seven weeks on our passage, [October 25 to December 12.] so that after all we ought to be satisfied; for that was no bad passage. This is a delightful evening, I hope to have a sound sleep, wishing you good night, I will go to my state room once more.

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