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The Scottish Nation

LOCKHART, originally Locard or Lockard, a surname of great antiquity in Scotland, In the reigns of David I. (1124-1153) and Malcolm IV. (1153-1165) flourished Stephen Lochard, described as “a man of rank and distinction.” He and Simon Locard, stated to be his son, though this is doubted by Chalmers, who supposes them to have been contemporaries, (Caledonia, vol. i. p. 537,) possessed lands in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. Simon was knighted by William the Lion. His estate in Upper Clydesdale, then called Wudekirch, was afterwards from him called Symonstoun, now the parish of Symington. He had also lands in Kyle, from him also called Symington, now also a parish. Both were held under Walter the Steward of Scotland. His name occurs ad a witness in a charter of donation to the abbey of Kelso, in 1164, and also in one of King William to the said abbey of a chapel on his lands.

      His son, Malcolm Lochard, is witness in several charters in the beginning of the reign of Alexander II. (1214-1249). With one daughter, he had two sons; Sir Simon, and William, progenitor of the Lockharts of Bar.

      Sir Simon, the elder son, proprietor of Craig-Lockhart, in the shire of Edinburgh, was knighted by Alexander III. He had two sons; Malcolm, who swore a force fealty to Edward I. in 1296; and Sir Stephen, who succeeded his brother, and was the first of the family designed of Lee and Cartland. In 1306, he was compelled to swear allegiance to Edward I. for his lands in Mid Lothian. He died about 1320. His son, Sir Simon Lockard of Lee, accompanied the good Sir James Douglas on his expedition with the heart of Bruce to the Holy Land, when Douglas was killed in a battle with the Moors, in Spain. The Lockharts, in consequence, have ever since carried a heart placed within a padlock, as part of their armorial bearings, with the motto, Corda serata pando, “I lay open the locked hearts.” Sir Simon went to the Holy Land, as a soldier of the Cross, and brought home the celebrated stone called ‘the Lee penny,’ still in possession of the family, on which Sir Walter Scott founded his romance of ‘The Talisman’ in the ‘Tales of the Crusaders.’ The way he became possessed of it tradition states to have been as follows: Having taken prisoner a Saracen chief, the wife of his captive came to ransom him, and on counting out the money, a stone or composition of a dark red colour and triangular shape, set on a silver coin, fell to the ground. She hastily snatched it up, which Sir Simon observing, insisted upon having it, before giving up his prisoner. (See Preface to the Talisman.) They also changed the spelling of their name to Lockheart, now Lockhart. Sir Simon died in the reign of Robert II.

      Allan Lockhart of Lee, the fifth in descent from Sir Simon, was killed at the battle of Pinkie in 1547. The third from this Allan, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, born in 1596, was, in his youth, appointed a gentleman of the privy chamber to Charles I., and knighted. In 1630 and 1633, he was one of the commissioners of the Estates for the county of Lanark, and on 20th June of the latter year was chosen a lord of the Articles. In 1645 he was again returned to parliament. He was appointed one of the commissioners of exchequer, 1st February, 1645, and on 2d July 1646 was admitted a lord of session, when he took the judicial title of Lord Lee. Being a sincere loyalist, he zealously supported “the Engagement” for the relief of Charles I. in 1648, and commanded a regiment under the duke of Hamilton at the battle of Preston. He was in consequence deprived of all his offices on 15th February 1649, and by an act of the Estates passed on 4th June 1650, he and others were banished from the kingdom. On 5th December the same year, on his humble supplication, he was allowed to return to Scotland, when he was appointed one of the committee of Estates, chosen to superintend the levy then making for an invasion of England under Charles II. With several others of the committee he was unfortunately surprised at Alyth on 28th August 1651, by a party of English soldiers, and carried first to Broughty castle, and afterwards sent to the Tower of London, where he was confined for several years under the Commonwealth. He at last obtained his liberty through the intercession of his eldest son, the celebrated Sir William Lockhart.

      After the Restoration, Lord Lee was appointed a member of the privy council, and a commissioner of exchequer. He was also restored to his seat on the bench. In 1661, 1665, and 1669 he was elected commissioner to the Estates for the shire of Lanark, and in all these years he was a lord of the Articles. On 28th July 1671, he was appointed lord-justice-clerk, and a pension was settled on him by the king of £400 sterling yearly for life. (Douglas’ Baronage, p. 326.) He died in 1674, in his 78th year. by a first wife he had no surviving issue. By a second wife, Martha, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Mordington, and maid of honour to the queen of Charles I., he had, with two daughters, four sons, namely, Sir William, a distinguished statesman and soldier, of whom a memoir is given below; Sir George, lord president of the court of session, the first of the Lockharts of Carnwath, of whom a memoir is also given below; Sir John, of Castlehill, a lord of session (1665) and of justiciary (1671), whose male line failed; and Captain Robert Lockhart, who was slain in the civil wars.

      Sir William, the eldest son, was twice married, By his first wife, a daughter of Sir John Hamilton of Orbiestoun, a lord of session, he had a son, James, who died young. By his second wife, Robina Shouster, niece by her mother of Oliver Cromwell, the lord protector, he had, with two daughters, five sons, namely, Cromwell, his heir; Julius, killed at Tangiers, named after Cardinal Mazarine; Richard; John, and James, who were all successively inheritors of Lee.

      Cromwell Lockhart of Lee, the eldest son, succeeded his father in 1675. He married, first, a daughter of Sir Daniel Harvie, ambassador extraordinary from England to Constantinople, without issue; secondly, his cousin Martha, daughter and heiress of Sir John Lockhart of Castlehill, also without issue. After his death she took for her second husband, Sir John Sinclair of Stevenston, and the estate of Castlehill descended to a younger branch of the Sinclair family, who assumed the name of Sinclair.

      James Lockhart of Lee, who succeeded his three elder brothers in the estate and the representation of the family, was M.P. for Lanarkshire and one of the commissioners of equivalent. John, his son, inherited the estate in 1718, but though twice married, he died in 1777 without issue, when the succession to Lee devolved on Court Lockhart-Wishart of Carnwath, the descendant of Sir George Lockhart, lord president of the court of session, the founder of the Carnwath branch. Sir George purchased the extensive estates of the earls of Carnwath in Lanarkshire. With a daughter, he had two sons, George, of whom a memoir is given below, and Philip, who was shot as a rebel at Preston in 1715. Philip’s second son, Alexander, of Craighouse, was a lord of session, under the title of Lord Covington. He had distinguished himself as an advocate at the trial of several of the unfortunate persons taken at Carlisle after the rebellion of 1745, and previous to being raised to the bench was dean of the faculty of advocates.

      The eldest son, George, born in 1700, succeeded to the Carnwath estate in December 1731. Like his father he was a strong partisan of the Stuarts. He married Fergusia Wishart, daughter and coheir of Sir George Wishart of Cliftonhill, Mid Lothian, and with a daughter, had three sons, namely, 1. George, who was so strenuous a supporter of the cause of the Pretender, that he was specially exempt from every act of amnesty issued by the government. He died abroad before his father. 2. James, who succeeded. And 3. Charles, who married Elizabeth, only child of John Macdonald, Esq. of Largie, on whose death he assumed the name and arms of Macdonald of Largie.

      James, the eldest surviving son, assumed, in right of his mother, the name of Wishart in addition to his own. He was one of the lords of the bedchamber to the king of Hungary, count of the holy Roman empire, knight of the order of Maria Theresa, and general of the imperial forces. On the death of John Lockhart, last of Lee, in 1777, he succeeded to that estate. The celebrated Lee penny, to which a small silver chain is attached, is preserved in a gold box, the gift of the empress Maria Theresa, His son Charles, of Lee and Carnwath, and Count Lockhart Wishart, dying in 1802, without issue, the foreign honours became extinct, the Cliftonhill property descended to his half-sister, Maria Theresa, while the Lee and Carnwath estates devolved on his cousin, Alexander Macdonald, eldest surviving son of Charles Lockhart and Elizabeth Macdonald of Largie. On inheriting the estates and representation of the family he resumed the name of Lockhart, and was created a baronet of Great Britain, 24th May, 1806. With two daughters, he had three sons, namely, Sir Charles, second baronet; sir Norman, third baronet; and Alexander, M.P. for Lanarkshire from 1837 to 1841.

      The eldest son, Sir Charles Macdonald Lockhart, married Emilia Olivia, daughter of Sir Charles Ross, sixth baronet of Balnagowan, and had two daughters. On his death, 8th December 1832, he was succeeded by his brother, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, who died in 1849, when his son, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, born in 1845, became the fourth baronet.


      The Lockharts of Milton-Lockhart are descended from Stephen, second son of Sir Stephen Lockhart of Cleghorn, armour-bearer to James III., and had of the principal branch of the house of Lee. Stephen Lockhart of Wicketshaw, or Waygateshaw, Stirlingshire, great-grandson of the first Stephen, married Grizel, daughter of Walter Carmichael of Hyndford, by whom he had three sons. William, the eldest, who succeeded him, in the reign of Charles II., was a leader of the Lanarkshire Covenanters, and one of the first to join the rising which terminated in the defeat at Rullion Green (Kirkton’s church History, p. 234), on which account his estate was forfeited. This branch became extinct in 1776, by the death, without issue, of his grandson, Sir William Lockhart Denham, baronet. The second son, Robert of Birkhill, had a horse shot under him at Bothwell Bridge, and while in concealment after the battle, with other Covenanters, some of them proposed to join in a psalm of praise, from which Birkhill tried to dissuade them, ad the enemy was in close pursuit. Finding his remonstrances vain, he took refuge on the top of a tree, and the soldiers of Claverhouse having come upon his friends, they shortly afterwards ended their career on the scaffold. He himself, worn out by fatigue and privations, was soon after found dead in a moss, and secretly buried after nightfall within the church of Carluke. The sword and pistols he wore at his death are preserved by his family. (New Stat. Account of Scotland, vol. vi. p. 579, note.) The third son, Walter Lockhart of Kirkton, a cadet of the family of Wicketshaw, at first held a commission in the royal forces, but afterwards espoused the cause of the Covenant. He was paymaster of the forces in Scotland, and died in Edinburgh castle in 1743, aged 87.

      William Lockhart of Milton-Lockhart and Germinstown, eldest son of the Rev. Dr. Lockhart, and half brother of John Gibson Lockhart, son-in-law of Sir Walter Scott, and grandson of William Lockhart of Birkhill, was chosen M.P. for Lanarkshire in 1841. He died Nov. 21, 1857, when he was succeeded by his younger brother, Lawrence Lockhart, D.D., minister of Inchinnan. He resigned that charge in 1860.

      For the Lockharts of Cleghorn see SUPPLEMENT. Allan Elliott Lockhart of Cleghorn, Lanarkshire, and Borthwickbrae, Selkirkshire, admitted an advocate at the Scotch bar in 1824, was elected M.P. for Selkirkshire in 1846.

LOCKHART, SIR WILLIAM, of Lee, a distinguished statesman and soldier, eldest son of Sir James Lockhart, Lord Lee, was born in 1621. He received the principal part of his education in Holland, and afterwards entered the French army as a volunteer, when the queen-mother procured for him an ensign’s commission. Subsequently he accompanied Lord William Hamilton to Scotland, and was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. Having been introduced to Charles I., after his surrender to the Scots army before Newark, he received the honour of knighthood from the king. He joined in the “Engagement,” under the duke of Hamilton, but being captured at Preston, he remained for a year a prisoner at Newcastle, and only regained his liberty by the payment of one thousand pounds. After the arrival of Charles II. in Scotland, Lockhart held a commission in the royalist army; but having been treated, on one or two occasions, with disrespect by that prince, he is said to have haughtily exclaimed, that “No king on earth should use him in that manner.” He was present at the battle of Worcester, where his regiment fought bravely on the king’s side. After living two years in retirement, he went to London, and was induced to accept of employment under the commonwealth. On May 18, 1652, he was appointed by Cromwell one of the commissioners for the administration of justice in Scotland; and he recommended himself so highly to the Protector, that in 1654 the latter gave him his niece in marriage, though some writers think that the lady was a daughter of General Desborough. IN the latter year, and in 1656, Lockhart represented the county of Lanark in the Scots parliament. He was also nominated one of the trustees for disposing of the forfeited estates of the royalists, and sworn a member of the Protector’s privy council for Scotland.

      In December 1655 Sir William was appointed ambassador to France, and set out for Paris in the succeeding April. At the siege of Dunkirk, in 1658, he commanded the British foot, with which he attacked and defeated the troops of Spain. On obtaining possession of that important place he was appointed its governor, in which capacity he refused to open the gates to Charles II., after the death of Cromwell, even at the critical period when Monk was scheming with the king for the restoration of the monarchy. though the request to receive the king was accompanied with the most brilliant promises of reward and promotion, his answer was decided, “That he was trusted by the Commonwealth, and could not betray it.” Clarendon says, that at that very time “he refused to accept the great offers made to him by the Cardinal (Mazarine), who had a high esteem of him, and offered to make him marshal of France, with great appointments of pensions, and other emoluments, if he would deliver Dunkirk and Mardyke into the hands of France; all which overtures he rejected; so that his majesty (Charles II.) Had no place to resort to preferable to Breda.”

      On the Restoration, sir William was deprived of the government of Dunkirk, which was conferred on Sir Edward Harley. By the intercession of Middleton he was allowed to return to Scotland, where he spent some years on his estate, chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits. He subsequently went to reside with his wife’s relations in Huntingdonshire. In 1671, through the influence of the earl of Lauderdale, he was appointed ambassador from King Charles to the courts of Brandenburg and Lunenburg, when, according to Burnet, “he found he had nothing of that regard that was paid him in Cromwell’s time.” He died in the Netherlands, March 21, 1675, supposed to have been poisoned by a pair of gloves. Subjoined is his portrait:

[portrait of Sir William Lockhart]

LOCKHART, SIR GEORGE, of Carnwath, a distinguished lawyer, second son of Sir James Lockhart, Lord Lee, one of the judges of the court of session, was admitted advocate, Jan. 8, 1656, during the protectorate of Cromwell. He was appointed lord advocate, May 14, 1658, having then been named advocate to the Protector during his life, “or so long as he demean himself well therein.” On the Restoration he was obliged to take the oath of allegiance to Charles II. and to express his regret at having accepted office under the usurper, and he was knighted by Charles in 1663. In 1672 he was elected dean of the faculty of advocates. Having, in 1674, rendered himself obnoxious to government for his share in appealing a suit from the court of law to the parliament, he was, with Sir John Lauder, Sir Robert Sinclair, and others, debarred from pleading at the pleasure of the king, on which fifty of the younger advocates, to resent the insult offered to the bar, also voluntarily withdrew from practice. Most of them were afterwards prevailed upon by Sir George Mackenzie to give in their submission, but Lockhart was not restored to the privileges of his profession till January 28, 1676. Two years afterwards he made a bold and eloquent defence as counsel for Mitchell, tried on his own confession, on the promise of pardon, for an attempt to shoot Archbishop Sharpe; and, in 1681, he was one of the advocates employed by the earl of Argyle at his memorable trial. In the Estates of that year he took his seat as one of the commissioners for Lanarkshire, which he represented till his death. In 1685 he succeeded Sir David Falconer of Newton as president of the court of session, and was soon afterwards made a privy councillor and a commissioner of the exchequer. He joined in the opposition against Lauderdale, and attached himself to the party of the duke of York. After that prince’s accession to the throne, Lockhart was called up to London to be consulted as to the design of freeing the Roman Catholics from the penal statutes, which the king had then so much at heart. According to the account of his friends, he went along with the king, because he considered that he could be more useful to the Protestant religion by continuing in office than by retiring, and expected to moderate the designs which he durst not openly oppose. This great lawyer, whom Burnet describes as “the best pleader he had ever yet known in any nation,” was murdered on Sunday, March 31, 1689, on his way from church, by John Chiesley of Dalry, in consequence of having, as one of the arbiters in a suit for aliment raised by Chiesley’s wife against her husband, given a decision in her favour. Chiesley, for the crime, was hanged on the Wednesday following, and his body hung in chains between Leith and Edinburgh.

LOCKHART, GEORGE, a zealous adherent of the Stuart family, and an able political writer, eldest son of the preceding, by Philadelphia, daughter of the fourth Lord Wharton, was born in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh in 1673. He was educated for the bar, but having succeeded to a plentiful fortune, he did not enter upon practice. In 1703 he obtained a seat in the Scottish parliament, and made himself conspicuous by his uniform opposition to the measures of the government. Although adverse to the Union, he was nominated by Queen Anne one of the commissioners to that memorable treaty, and attended their meetings for the sole purpose of reporting the proceedings to his party. He corresponded regularly with the exiled court on that and other public subjects, and engaged in all the intrigues which had for their object the placing the Pretender on the throne. After the ratification of the Union he represented the county of Edinburgh in the first imperial parliament. At the next election he was also returned, after a keen contest, and it was mainly by his exertions, joined to those of a small knot of Jacobite Scots members, that the obnoxious act of 1711, restoring lay patronage in the Church of Scotland, and other measures avowedly intended to be prejudicial to the Presbyterian interest, were passed in parliament. Indeed, some of his proceedings, designed for the advancement of the Pretender’s cause, were so violent, that even his own friends procured an order from the court of St. Germains, recommending him to be more moderate in his conduct.

      On the attempt to extend the malt-tax to Scotland in 1713, he and the earls of Mar, Eglinton, and Ilay, and others, thought that occasion a favourable opportunity to endeavour to obtain a repeal of the Union, a project in which they nearly succeeded. He also zealously opposed the subsequent proposal to assimilate the Scottish to the English militia, and his conduct regarding that measure recommended him to the duke of Argyle, who, when he was arrested in August 1715, on suspicion of being a party to the designs in favour of the Pretender, procured his liberation, after fifteen days’ imprisonment in the castle of Edinburgh. Having, on obtaining his liberty, made some preparations for joining the earl of Mar, he was shortly after apprehended a second time, and again committed to Edinburgh castle, where he endured a long imprisonment; but, in the intercession of his friends, there not being sufficient evidence to connect him actively with the rebellion, he was at last set at liberty.

      After this period, Lockhart acted as a sort of confidential agent between the Pretender and his Scottish adherents, and displayed astonishing ardour in the cause he supported. A correspondence between him and the exiled prince, which had been continued from 1718 to 1727, having been intercepted by the government, a warrant was issued for his apprehension, on which he escaped into England. He remained in concealment at Durham for some time, and then retired to Holland. In April 1728 he was allowed to return home, and having made a reluctant submission to the reigning monarch, he lived unmolested on his estate in Scotland till 1732, when he was unfortunately killed in a duel. By his wife, Euphemia, daughter of the ninth earl of Eglinton, whom he married in 1697, he had seven sons and eight daughters.

      His principal work, the ‘Memoirs of Scotland, from the Accession of Queen Anne till the Union,’ was first published, although without his consent, in 1714. His ‘Papers on the Affairs of Scotland, from 1720 to 1725,’ were not printed till 1817, when they appeared in 2 volumes 4to.

LOCKHART-ROSS, SIR JOHN, an eminent naval commander, was born in the parish of Carstairs, Lanarkshire, November 11, 1721. From his earliest years he discovered a strong predilection for a seafaring life, and in 1735 entered as a midshipman in the navy. Having, while first lieutenant to Sir Peter Warren and Lord Anson, shown proofs of uncommon ability, diligence, and valour, he was in 1747 appointed to the command of the Vulcan fireship. In 1755, upon the appearance of a rupture with France, he was nominated to the Savage sloop of war, and in March 1756 to the Tartar frigate. In the latter ship he performed many bold actions, which raised his name in the navy. In November 1758, he was appointed to the Chatham of 50 guns, under the orders of Admiral Hawke; and in the action between the British and French fleets in July 1778, he commanded the Shrewsbury, 74. In 1779 he was promoted to the rank of rear-admiral of the Blue, when he hoisted his flag on board of the Royal George, and sailed under the orders of Admiral Rodney. The fleet fell in with eleven Spanish ships of the line, and having engaged them, they took the Spanish admiral and six of his ships, besides one blown up in the action. He afterwards superintended, amidst a tremendous fire, the landing of the stores for the relief of Gibraltar. In April 1782 he was appointed to the command of a squadron in the North Seas. His health declining, he returned to England; but the conclusion of hostilities rendered his re-appointment unnecessary. Upon succeeding to the estate of his maternal uncle, General Ross, he assumed that name in addition to his own. In 1768 he was elected M.P. for Lanark; and in 1780, on the death of his elder brother, he became a baronet of Nova Scotia. He died June 9, 1790. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Dundas of Arniston, lord president of the court of session, by whom he had five sons and five daughters; and was succeeded by his eldest son. (See ROSS.)

LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON, LL.D., an eminent critic and novelist, was born in Glasgow in 1793. He was the son of the Rev. Dr. John Lockhart, at one time minister of Cambusnethan, and afterwards of the College or Blackfriar’s church, Glasgow, by his second marriage with a daughter of the Rev. Dr. Gibson, one of the ministers of Edinburgh. The eldest son of Dr. Lockhart, by his first marriage, William Lockhart, Esq. of Milton Lockhart and Germistown, representative of the Lockharts of Waygateshaw and Birkhill, was elected M.P. for Lanarkshire in 1841. The subject of this notice received his education in his native city. He distinguished himself at the university, and was elected to one of the Snell exhibitions or bursaries at Baliol college, Oxford. Having chosen the law for his profession, he was admitted an advocate before the Scotch courts in 1816. He made, however, but few appearances at the bar, and soon turned his attention to the more congenial pursuits of literature. In 1817 blackwood’s Magazine was established, and he soon became a regular contributor to its pages. He had previously tried his hand on the ‘Lacunar Strivilenense,’ and one or two other pieces of task-work for the booksellers.

      In 1818 Mr. Lockhart made the acquaintance of his future father-in-law, Sir (then Mr.) Walter Scott, in his Memoirs of whom he thus states the circumstance: “It was during the sitting of the General Assembly of the Kirk in May 1818 that I first had the honour of meeting Scott in private society; the party was not a large one, at the house of a much valued common friend, Mr. Home Drummond of Blair-Drummond, the grandson of Lord Kames. Mr. Scott, ever apt to consider too favourably the literary efforts of others, and more especially of very young persons, received me, when I was presented to him, with a cordiality which I had not been prepared to expect from one filling a station so exalted. This, however, is the same story that every individual, who ever met him under similar circumstances, has had to tell. When the ladies retired from the dinner-table, I happened to sit next (to) him; and he, having heard that I had lately returned from a tour in Germany, made that country and its recent literature the subject of some conversation.” A few days after this, Mr. Lockhart received a communication from the Messrs. Ballantyne, to the effect that Mr. Scott’s various avocations had prevented him from fulfilling his agreement with them as to the historical department of the Edinburgh Annual Register for 1816, and that it would be acceptable to him as well as them, if he could undertake to supply it. This Mr. Lockhart agreed to do, and he had, in consequence, occasion to meet Scott pretty often afterwards. In October of the same year he visited Abbotsford for the first time, when he and Professor Wilson, the Christopher North of Blackwood’s Magazine, were invited there together, on their return from an excursion to Wilson’s villa of Ellerslie on the lake of Windermere. In 1819 Mr. Lockhart published what he calls himself “a sort of mock tour in Scotland,” entitled ‘Peter’s Letters to his Kinsfolk,’ which gave rise to much angry feeling at the time. The literary portraits therein contained are remarkable for their substantial truth, and their never-failing force and vivacity. Soon after its publication Sir Walter Scott wrote him a letter, in which he says: “What an acquisition it would have been to our general information to have had such a work written, I do not say fifty, but even five and twenty years ago, and how much of grave and gay might then have been preserved, as it were, in amber, which have now mouldered away. When I think that at an age not much younger than yours, I knew Black, Ferguson, Robertson, Erskine, Adam Smith, John Home, &c. &c., and at least saw Burns, I can appreciate better than any one the value of a work which, like this, would have handed them down to posterity in their living colours.”

      Besides, month after month, contributing some of its most biting and most brilliant papers to Blackwood’s Magazine, Mr. Lockhart published four admirable fictions, which took a high place among similar works of the time. These were ‘Valerius,’ the finest classic story in English literature; ‘Adam Blair,’ considered the most impressive production of its author’s versatile pen; ‘Reginald Dalton,’ a graceful and vigorous tale; and the deeply interesting chapters of ‘Matthew Wald.’ His translations from the Spanish Ballads appeared soon after the publication of the last of these works. To ‘constable’s Miscellany,’ he contributed the ‘Life of Burns,’ and to ‘Murray’s Family Library’ the ‘Life of Napoleon Bonaparte.’ On the 29th April 1820 he married Sophia Scott, the eldest daughter of the great novelist.

      While on a visit to London, in 1821, having in the course of some severe remarks been styled in the London Magazine, editor of Blackwood’s Magazine, then distinguished for its venom and scurrility, a hostile correspondence ensued between Mr. Lockhart and Mr. John Scott, the editor of the former periodical, author of ‘A Visit to Paris in 1814,’ and other works, which ended in Mr. Lockhart posting him. Statements were published by both parties on the subject. After Mr. Lockhart’s return to Scotland, Mr. Christie, his friend, fought a duel with Mr. Scott, who was mortally wounded, and died a few days after.

      In July 1825 he accompanied his illustrious father-in-law in his excursion to Ireland. Up to the close of that year, he resided in Edinburgh, having his summer residence at Chiefswood, in the neighbourhood of Abbotsford, but, on being then, on the death of the celebrated William Gifford, appointed editor of the Quarterly Review, he went to reside in Regent’s Park, London. That great literary journal he edited for the long period of twenty-eight years. Often a severe judge of men of known name or established reputation, he was indulgent, kind, and encouraging to rising merit. Where more substantial aid was required, his purse was freely opened, and many an unfortunate man of letters has felt, in the hour of need, how liberal and considerate was the bounty of him who had been regarded only as the stern and unsparing critic.

      On the death of Sir Walter Scott in 1832, he became his sole literary executor, and in 1837-8 he published the Life of his father-in-law, in 7 vols., which is one of the most interesting biographies in the English language. His Memoirs of the Life of his father-in-law led to the publication by the Trustees and son of the late Mr. James Ballantyne, of a pamphlet, entitled ‘Refutation of the Mis-statements and Calumnies contained in Mr. Lockhart’s Life of Sir Walter Scott, Baronet, respecting Messrs. Ballantyne.’ London, 1838, 12mo. Mr. Lockhart soon after published an answer, under the title given below, and to this his opponents rejoined with ‘A Reply.’ London, 1839, 12mo.

      Mrs. Lockhart died in May 1837, having survived by five years her first-born son, John Hugh Lockhart – the “Hugh Littlejohn” of the ‘Tales of a Grandfather.’ Her other son, Walter Scott Lockhart Scott, died in January 1853. Her daughter, Charlotte, married in August, 1847, James Robert Hope, Esq., who, on obtaining Abbotsford, in her right, assumed the additional name of Scott.

      Mr. Lockhart’s health had begun to decline some years before 1853, in the summer of which year he quitted the charge of the Quarterly Review. He spend the subsequent winter in Italy, and shortly before his death he retired from London to the quiet seclusion of Abbotsford, where he died August 25, 1854, and was buried at Dryburgh Abbey. Those who saw him in his daily walk in London, his handsome countenance – always with a lowering and sardonic expression – now darkened with sadness, and the thin lips compressed more than ever, as by pain of mind, forgave, in respectful compassion for one so visited, all causes of quarrel, however just, and threw themselves, as it were, into his mind, seeing again the early pranks with Christopher North, the dinings by the brook at Chiefswood, the glories of the Abbotsford sporting parties, the travels with Scott, so like an ovation, in Ireland, and the home in Regent’s Park, with the gentle Sophia presiding. These scenes formed a marked contrast with the actual forlorness of his last years.

      Mr. Lockhart’s works are:

      Peter’s Letters to his Kinsfolk (ascribed to J.G. Lockhart and Professor Wilson.) Edin. 1819. 3 vols. 8vo.

      Valerius. A Roman Story. Edin. 1821, 3 vols. 12mo.

      Statement made by J. G. Lockhart in relation to his dispute with J. Scott. London, 1821. Pamphlet.

      Adam Blair. A Tale. Edin. 1822, 12mo.

      Reginald Dalton. Edin. 1823, 12mo.

      Matthew Wald. A Tale, Edin, 1824, 12mo.

      Ancient Spanish Ballads, Historical and Romantic. Edin. 1823, 4to. The same. London, 1841, 4to.

      Life of Robert Burns. Edin. 1828, 18mo. Const. Misc. vol. 23.

      History of Napoleon Bonaparte. Lond. 1830, 2 vols. 18mo. Murray’s Family Library.

      Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Baronet. Edin. 1837-8, 7 vols. 12mo. In one vol. Imperial 8vo. 1845.

      The Ballantyne Humbug Handled; in a Letter to Sir Adam Fergusson. Edin. 1839, 12mo.

      Narrative of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Baronet. Edin. 1848, 2 vols. 12mo.

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