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The Scotch-Irish in America
The Scotch-Irish of Ohio. By Hon. James E. Campbell, Governor of Ohio.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:

Scotch-Irish pertinacity descends to the remotest generation, and clings to the 'blood, however much diluted by admixture with other races. The Scotch-Irishman loves to recount the deeds of his ancestors, and listens with delight to their laudation. Those traits are exemplified in the unflagging attendance upon these prolonged ceremonies; and justify the belief that you will listen with patience to the modestly written record of Scotch-Irish influence, and achievement, in the Commonwealth of Ohio. To him who, at Columbia last year, sat spellbound under the burning words of Knott, Mcintosh, Hall, Henry, Kelley, McClure, and the other eloquent men who poured out their stores of wit and learning day after day; or who has reveled here for three days in the scholarly masterpieces of Perry, White, Robinson, Dalzell, Beyson and their compeers—the story of the Scotch-Irish in Ohio will sound like a "twice told tale."

The history of the race in one state is the history of all. The biography of one Scotch-Irishman is that of his fellow. Wherever the blood is, whether isolated in a single family, or congregated in an entire community, there will be found the dauntless courage, the lofty aspirations, the mental and physical superiority which marked it in the Old World, and have not deserted it in the New. As it is every-where else, so is it in Ohio. She has four millions of people. There are no better, richer, happier on earth. In every hamlet between the lake and the river the Scotch-Irishman has left the impress of his intergrity, his energy, and his intrepidity. His blood has furnished the masterful strain which makes the "Buckeye" the most cosmopolitan of all the assimilated races of the land, and a fitting link between his "Keystone" brother on the East and his "Hoosier" comrade on the West.

The printed annals of Ohio tell comparatively little that has been done in any single locality by the Scotch-Irish as a distinctive race of early immigrants. We have preserved in enduring form the history of the Yankee, and his Marietta purchase under the auspices of the goodly "Ohio Company of Associates." Two years ago a volume was published to celebrate the centennial of his arrival on the soil of the state. We read much of John Cleves Symmes and his fellow Jersey-

men who cleared the incomparable valley of the Great Miami. The thrift of the Connecticut settlers in the Western Reserve, and the industry of the Teutonic races who dwell on the sluggish Maumee are duly chronicled; but the Scotch-Irish are widely scattered over the entire state, and have no similar tale of large and solid settlements. From this, however, it must not be assumed that our race has but a small footing in Ohio: or that it has not done its full share in founding, fostering, and upbuilding the state.

The early history of Ohio, like much other American history, was written by the New Englander, or his descendant. This fact has been noted by others who have addressed you. As one who is half Puritan himself it is not for your present speaker to complain, nor animadvert upon his brethren; yet, while yielding to the English Yankee his full meed of praise, it is only fair to say that were it not for the Scotch-Irish there would be a much less glorious history to write. Many of the strong men who settled in Ohio, after the Revolutionary war were of ancestry which came from Ireland and Scotland by way of New Eng-land. Some indeed claimed to have been descendants of the Mayflower party, when, in reality, they were the off-spring of those same Presbyterians once railed against by the Cromwellian Puritans.

The history of Scotch-Irish influence in shaping the destiny of Ohio goes back farther than is at first apparent. During the Revolutionary war, while Washington and his galaxy of Scotch-Irish generals were debating the propriety of founding a new empire west of the mountains, should disaster overtake the patriot cause, the territory they talked of was being redeemed from British rule by a valiant young Scotch-Irishman, born near Monticollo, Virginia, who, at twenty-six years of age, had achieved such fame that John Randolph eulogized him as the "Hannibal of the West." George Rogers Clarke was his name, and the North-west Territory, with its five States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, and its fifteen millions of people, is his monument. The first exploration of this territory had been made by La Salle as early as 1680, but the trading posts established by the French as a result of that expedition had a precarious existence. France, becoming involved in war with England, finally relinquished her hold on this garden spot of the earth. By the treaty of Paris the western boundary of the English colonies was fixed at the Mississippi river; and the territory north-west of the Ohio was ceded by the British Government to the Colony of Virginia under the charter of James I—a prince whose perfidy assisted largely in making Scotch-Irish history in America. When Virginia assumed the dignity of statehood, the North-west Territory was held by British troops stoutly entrenched behind strong forts.

The sparse settlements were constantly menaced by red savages incited by England to make murderous incursions into Virginia and Kentucky. In 1778 Clarke was commissoned by the Scotch-Irish Governor of Virginia, Patrick Henry, to make a secret expedition into the Ohio country for the purpose of restoring to Virginia the territory that had been ceded to the colony after the treaty of Paris. The soldiers selected to accompany him on this perilous expedition, so fraught with the destiny of the colonies, were picked men ; the whole two hundred known for their skill as Indian fighters—men of stubborn endurance, resolute fortitude and persistent valor. Need it be said that Clarke found them among the Scotch-Irish in the valley of Virginia?

This expedition by Colonel Clarke was one of the most successful ever made. Governor Hamilton was taken, the forts captured and the North-west territory restored to Virginia.

In 1780 she ceded it to the United States—Thomas Jefferson, the greatest Scotch-Irishman of America, being the author not only of the ordinance of cession, but also of the plan of government for the territory. It was provided by him that after the year 1800 there should be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any of the five great states carved out of the territory; and thus began Scotch-Irish influence upon the material and spiritual development of our state, giving us a force in the maintenance of civilization that will abide so long as the spirits of Knox and Melville are an inspiration.

Let it be here recorded that had it not been for the daring courage of Colonel Clarke, it is possible the Ohio river would now be the southern boundary of Canada. Thus, as we are indebted to Jefferson for the Louisiana purchase which gave our country the boundless West; to Polk, another Scotch-Irishman, for the golden slope of the Pacific; and to big-hearted, Scotch-Irish Sam Houston for Texas ; so are we indebted to George Rogers Clarke for the possession of the North-west territory, and to Thomas Jefferson for its permanent peace and prosperity. In this connection listen to the following tribute paid their memory by the eloquent Virginian, John Randolph Tucker, at the Marietta Centennial in 1888. He said, "and so, from the day that the mountain heights of Monticello stood as sentinel guards over the cradled infancy of George Rogers Clarke and Thomas Jefferson, Providence had decreed that the one should conquer by prowess of arms, and the other by a wise diplomacy, the open water-way for the products of the West to the markets of the world."

At the opening of this century the country west of the mountains, the Ohio of to-day, was a wilderness that required strong arms, resolute wills, and a fixed purpose to subdue. The advance guard came to the
mouth of the Muskingum in the spring of 1788, to be followed in December by a settlement "opposite the mouth of Licking Creek," where the "Queen City" now stands. When the year 1800 came, there were settlements not only thickly scattered along the Ohio river, notably at Steubenville, but in the interior where now stand the prosperous cities of Dayton, Chillicothe, Zanesville, Xenia and others south of the Indian Treaty established by Wayne.

In this influx of immigration no race stands more prominent than the Scotch-Irish. It was aggressive, bold, and sure of action; and in reclaiming the wilderness, building the home, the village, the church, and the school, none took a stand more advanced. Locally speaking, the trend of Scotch-Irish immigration to Ohio was in two main lines; one over the mountains through New York and Pennsylvania. These settled chiefly in the eastern and central parts, forming communities usually Presbyterian in religion. The other came from the Carolinas, and the Huguenot settlements in the South, that they might be freed from the baleful effects of slavery. These located in the southern portion of the state, principally between the Muskingum and the two Miamis. The early settlers were Revolutionary soldiers seeking the victories of peace. They were, for the most part, stalwart, God-fearing men, who looked to mental and spiritual as well as natural development; and they laid broad and deep the foundations of a moral and intellectual state. They were so constantly harassed by the Indians that life was one long battle, until General Anthony Wayne appeared. His undaunted bravery soon gave the patriot pioneers immunity from savage depredations. Peace was not their boon, however, until after Wayne's signal victory over the Miamis in 1794. General Wayne was born in Pennsylvania, but his father was a native of Ulster, and his grandfather followed the standard of Orange at Boyne Water.

To such noble types of our race were the intrepid pioneers indebted for deeds that made Ohio a home of safety. In connection with Wayne should be mentioned that thorough-bred Scotch-Irishman, Simon Kenton, whose exploits and escapes are familiar to the readers of pioneer history. Kenton was with Wayne in the Indian wars, and was also a companion of Daniel Boone and General James Loudon, both of whom sprung from the race which has so largely shaped the destiny of the republic. He was with Clarke in his expedition against the British; and at the call of Governor Shelby, of Kentucky, for troops to fight the second war of independence, responded with the zeal of a true Scotch-Irishman. When Ohio was created a territory, who should better become its first Governor than he who was selected—the native Scotchman, Arthur St. Clair? He earned his military fame at the Heights of Abraham, in the Indian wars, and through the long years of the Revolution. In Ohio he found an ample field for a statesmanship which had been schooled in the Continental Congress. His classical learning left its impress on the intellectuality of the state; and his inflexibility of purpose—the birth-right of the obdurate Scot—mellowed by the suavity of his manner. To his early guidance the people of Ohio are gratefully indebted. Many of his ablest successors in the gubernatorial chair were of the race whose deeds we celebrate to-day. One of the earliest and most noted was Jeremiah Morrow, whose ancestors figured at the seige of Londonderry. He was the first, and for ten years, the sole representative in the Federal Congress from the newly admitted State of Ohio. While serving there he originated the idea of the Cumberland road, whose benefits to the traffic of that early day can not be measured, and was active in all internal improvements. Subsequently he became United States senator, and governor, and lived to the age of eighty-one, venerated and loved by the entire people of the state. Henry Clay said: "No man in the sphere within which he acted ever commanded, or deserved, the implicit confidence of Congress more than Jeremiah Morrow. A few artless, but sensible words, pronounced in his plain Scotch-Irish dialect, were always sufficient to secure the passage of any bill or resolution which he reported."

Of the distinguished governors of Ohio none stand out in bolder relief than Allen Trimble, whose ancestors, paternal and maternal, were of the courageous Scotch-Irish stock that gave to the valley of Virginia those valiant soldiers who justified Washington's boast that with an army of them he could defy the world. In the year 1784, Governor Trimble's father, a Revolutionary soldier, came West with an expedition of five hundred Scotch-Irish from the valley. Allen, then but eight months old, was carried on horseback in his mother's arms. The party was accompanied by General Henry Knox, Washington's Secretary of War. Need we say that he, too, was a Scotch-Irishman? Young Trimble afterward settled in Ohio, and was elected governor in 1826. He was a man of liberal and enlightened views, a statesman of perception and perseverance ; and he stamped upon the state the strong traits of his character. To him are we indebted for the public school system which has been so powerful a factor in our progress. As acting governor, in 1821, he appointed a committee which formulated the plan upon which the free schools were founded, and to him this committee was much indebted for intelligent aid in its task. He also inspired our canal system, which at one time was a great artery pulsating with the country's commerce.

Duncan McArthur. another Scotchman, was elected Governor in 1830, his administration being in keeping with his high character. A soldier of the war of 1812, his daring won promotion with rapidity. He was of iron will, pushing and energetic; and, being the son of poor parents, had a hard struggle for his education, but acquired fame in every station, whether as soldier, lawyer, surveyor, or statesman; and is honored yet as one of Ohio's greatest governors. He was a member of the constitutional convention, and twice elected to Congress.

General Joseph Vance was a Washington county Scotch-Irishman. These Washington county Scotch-Irish are to-day filling most of the pulpits and many of the offices in Ohio. With penetration to discern and energy to perform, Vance early made his influence felt in the affairs of state. In him the distinctive Scotch-Irish traits, mental and facial, were indelibly marked. He was in the war of 1812, member of Congress for eight years, member of the constitutional convention, and twice elected governor.

Our race gave Ohio her first native-born governor in the person of William Shannon, a noble type of manhood, a credit to his ancestry and an honor to the commonwealth which he served long and faithfully. He was a sedulous student under the tutelage of such eminent teachers of the blood as Charles Hammond and Dr. David Jennings; and was no less noted for profound attainments, than for the boldness and diligence which characterized him as a lawyer. His influence was national in extent, and wholesome in its direction. He was an active member of Congress, minister to Mexico, and territoral governor of Kansas.

Has any governor of Ohio left a more delightful memory, or was one personally more popular, than Thomas Corwin, who was also of Scotch-Irish extraction? The eloquence of his tongue has never been equalled by any son of Ohio; nor do his shining witticisms grow stale with repetition. As congressman, senator, foreign minister, and governor, his name is held in fondest esteem by the people of his state. Another distinguished scion of Scotch-Irish stock, who occupied the gubernatorial chair, and upon whom yet greater honors were thrust, is Rutherford B. Hayes—a brave general in war, a faithful representative in Congress, and an efficient participant now in all the charitable and benevolent movements of the state.

Others governors who have shed honor on the Scotch-Irish name might also be mentioned. In the older days there were Robert Lucas and Seabury Ford; in the latter day, Reuben Wood, William Medill, whose legal acumen is impressed on the fundamental law, and the gallant soldier, Thomas L. Young.

There is yet another Governor of Ohio, the immortal William Allen, whose Scotch-Irish ancestry is disputed ; but who had in a marked degree the essentially distinctive traits of that race. But if he were not Scotch-Irish himself, he married the daughter of Governor Mc-Arthur, and thereby insured undoubted purity of blood to his progeny. This is in accordance with the eternal fitness of things. If a man has the misfortune not to be bom in Ohio, he should marry an Ohio woman upon the first suitable, and lawful, occasion ; and, if he be not of Scotch-Irish descent, he should imitate William Allen's example and marry a Scotch-Irish girl. This was done by the illustrious Allen G. Thurman, a nephew of William Allen, who was careful to marry a noble woman of good Ohio Scotch-Irish stock. William Allen's statue stands in the capitol at Washington—one of the two chosen to be placed there by the people of Ohio. Allen G. Thurman's statue, we trust, may not be called for these many years. "May he live long and prosper."

The Scotch-Irish gave to Ohio seventeen judges of the Supreme Court under the old constitution. Among them was Jacob Burnett, the greatest of the pioneer lawyers. As a member of the legislative Council he was the author of many salutary laws. His character was marked by promptness, decision and inflexibility. Later, as a United States senator, he was noted for his fine presence, and courtly manners.

Judge John McLean, another Scotch-Irishman, was a tower of strength in the formation of the North-west Territory. He was a judge of the Ohio Supreme Court, Commissioner of the General Laud Office, Postmaster-General under Presidents Monroe and Adams, and, afterward, judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. He also entered the field of literature—his most noted work being ''Notes on the North-west Territory," an invaluable addition to a historical library. It could not be possible for one of Judge McLean's moral and intellectual worth to pass in view of a susceptible people, as he did during the many years of public life, and not exert a great influence.

Another distinguished jurist, Joseph R. Swan, for years chief justice of Ohio, came of Londonderry stock. A conservative judge, a stickler for the constitution, it is said that none of his decisions were ever reversed. He was the most voluminous legal author of his day, and his works are high authorities.

John C. Wright was also an eminent judge of the Supreme Court under the old constitution. His decisions were published as "Wright's Reports," and it is a standard legal work. He was an influential congressman also. Under the new constitution the Scotch-Irish gave the state such eminent Supreme judges as Thomas W. Bartley, W. B. Caldwell, William Kennon, Hocking H. Hunter, George W. McIlvaine, W. J. Gilmore, Rufus P. Ranney (whose decisions are of national reputation), Josiah Scott, John Clark, W. W. Johnston, John H. Doyle, and others.

The Scotch-Irish of Ohio have faithfully represented the state in the lower house of Congress, and nearly all the noted men, from William McMillen, the first delegate of the North-west Territory, to Major McKinley, now chairman of the most important House committee, sprang from that stock. We have also sent numerous representatives to the Senate of the United States, including the last man elected to that position—the railroad magnate, Calvin S. Brice.

The Scotch-Irish of Ohio have assisted to furnish the cabinet of almost every President of the United States. To name them would be a work of superfluity. Yet, as a specimen of what Ohio can do in that direction, let us recall the elder Ewing. Thomas Ewing, father of the present Thomas Ewing (late a general and now a distinguished lawyer) and also of other gallant soldier sons, was in the cabinet both of William Henry Harrison and Zachary Taylor. He stood for years in the front rank of American statesmen and jurists, and served in the upper House of Congress, where his influence was paramount. Nor is this all; we are indebted to Judge Ewing for General Sherman, whose energetic mind he trained and whose character he molded; and, if we can not claim General Sherman's lineage, yet Scotch-Irish influence is responsible for much of his success.

The list of persons who have held official position in Ohio discloses the fact that either the Scotch-Irish are gifted with the power of getting a full share of this world's honors, or that their pre-eminent merits have been readily recognized by an appreciative people. For instance, nearly every position of high trust in the state house at Columbus, today, is filled by persons having in their veins a greater or less infusion of this good old stock. Can it be possible that those people who accuse the "Ohio man" with being a trifle over-willing to hold office, have some slight justification? Lest this be true let us turn our eyes to other channels, and see what the Ohio Scotch-Irishman has done outside of office and politics. The first Presbyterian minister west of the mountains, Dr. McMillen, the founder of Washington-Jefferson college, in Pennsylvania, was also the founder of Franklin college. These schools have had an overwhelming influence in molding the intellectual character and achievements of the people of Ohio. Their pupils and graduates have gone over the state strengthening the name and fame of their race. Thus it happens, partially at least, that the Scotch-Irish have become a great factor in popular education. We have seen that Governor Trimble, a Scotch-Irishman, gave to Ohio her public school system, and it remained for that brilliant Scotch-Irishman. Samuel Golloway, to perfect it. He was known throughout the land as a finished scholar and orator, a thorough lawyer and teacher, and an active member of Congress. Robert W. Bishop, a Scotchman of broad dialect and hearty manner, long ruled over Miami University, the Oxford of Ohio. Robert W. McFarland, for many years its young president, was also a Scotchman. To-day its young president-—Warfield—is of thorough Scotch-Irish stock, a descendant of John Preston Calhoun and the Breckenridges. Colonel John Johnson, a brave Indian fighter, one of the founders of the Protestant Episcopal church in Ohio, was active in the establishment of Kenyon college—the pride of the church. Stalwart in physique and bright in mind, his influence was wide spread for good. Who stood higher in educational work than Bishop Charles Pettit McIlvaine, professor of Ethics at West Point, bishop of the Episcopal church of Ohio, head of Kenyon college, author and orator? What race but ours gave to the country W. H. McGuffey? And where is the student who does not know McGuffey's school books? Pay's arithmetics were the product of an Ohio Scotch-Irishman. Dr. Jeffers, president of the Western Theological Seminary, is an Ohio-born Scotch-Irishman, the son of the famous schoolmaster of the early days; and how much is this renowed institution indebted for its influence to our Dr. Charles C. Beatty, who in his life-time gave half a million dollars in aid of colleges? This generous donor was the son of a Revolutionary soldier, and in no man were the mental traits of the sturdy Scotch-Irish more distinctly marked. In 1829 he established in Steubenville the first female seminary west of the mountains. From its walls have gone missionaries to every clime ; and it is truthfully said that the sun never sets on the work of these consecrated women.

In art the Scotch-Irish of Ohio have been no less eminent than in other fields. Has any other race of any other state produced a sculptor the peer of J. Q. A. Ward, whose exquisite conceptions and creations adorn the most conspicuous art centers of our country? His masterpiece, the soldiers' monument to be erected in Brooklyn, is peculiarly appropriate in design—three of the four heroic figures being monuments of those typical Scotch-Irishmen, Jackson, Scott and Grant.

As we might demand and obtain distinction in warfare by resting our claim on the achievement of Grant, so might we go before the world with J. Q. A. Ward and obtain renown in the high arts; but the Scotch and Irish of Ohio do not rest here. Yesterday was dedicated in the beautiful city of Cleveland one of the most superb creations of the spirit of art in our great country. I feel that I speak within bounds of artistic judgment when I say that the monument created by Alexander Hoyle and erected to the memory of James A. Garfield, is an achievement in art that should fill the heart with a pride of race to the degree of exultation. James Wilson McDonald's statue of Fitz Greene Halleck in Central Park, of Carter at West Point, and of General Lyon at St. Louis, are but monuments to the achievements of the Ohio Scotch-Irish in time of peace.

The admired portrait of Mrs. Jefferson hanging in the White House, is from the brush of E. F. Andrews, an Ohio Scotch-Irishman. I am also told that Hiram Powers, whose Greek Slave is one of the best known of American sculptures, was of the race that never flags in efforts to attain to the top round of the ladder.

The Scotch-Irish of Ohio have given to journalism its most brilliant writers, men whose influence in affairs is as extensive as newspaper circulation and powerful thought can make it. Where is there a more eminent journalist than the successor of that illustrious Scotch-Irishman, Horace Greeley? Whitelaw Reid, Ohio born, of stalwart Covenanter stock, with the sticking qualities that made them famous, and of the highest literary attainments, now represents the republic in France.

Colonel W. J. Brown, the amiable and brilliant editor of the New York News, is an Ohio Irishman, who has won fame in the literary and political world. Colonel Cockerill, of the New York World, is an Ohio Scotch-Irishman, else how did he reach the height of fame attained by those who boast the mental and physical characteristics of our race? We gave Chicago Joseph Medill, the forceful editor of the leading journal of the West; and to Pittsburg the late Dr. Alexander Clark, author and writer, one of the founders of the Protestant Episcopal church, for years the editor of its organ, and the founder of the "School Day Visitor," from which grew the St. Nicholas Magazine, that paragon of periodicals for children.

Our own journalists are from the race that has the courage to fight and the perseverance to win; among them the Farans and McLeans of the Cincinnati Enquirer, perhaps the most successful newspaper in the country; W. W. Armstrong, so long with the Cleveland Plain Dealer, and the sturdy editor of the Commerical Gazette, Richard Smith. Charles Hammond, one of the first editors of the Cincinnati Gazette, was as profound in law as eminent in journalism, and the first prosecuting attorney of the North-west Territory. He is regarded by many as the ablest and most influential editor in the history of the state.

To the Methodist church we gave one of the most eminent men in the religious world of his time; one whose oratorical triumphs thrilled the people, and whose mind conceived the great enterprises that have planted Methodism on its abiding spiritual and material foundation. Bishop Matthew Simpson, the friend of Lincoln and Grant, during the dark days of our country had no little part in influencing action that is a part of history. He was born and educated in Ohio, and was led to abandon his chosen profession and enter the ministry by the sainted mother of a member of our society, Mr. W. H. Hunter, of Steubenville—a gentleman full of Scotch-Irish lore. The First Methodist church in the North-west was founded in Ohio by a Scotch-Irishman, the zealous Francis McCormic. The founder of the Free Presbyterian church of America was also an Ohio Scotch-Irishman, the intrepid John Rankin.

Indiana is indebted to the Scotch-Irish of Ohio for her Hendricks and McDonalds. The Scotch-Irish of Ohio gave to California her Samuel Wilson, the most noted lawyer of the Pacific slope, to Oregon her Benjamin Potts, to New York Anson G. McCook, sentry of the United States Senate, and to other states able jurists, eminent divines, teachers, enterprising men of office, including to New York Rockefeller, the head of the Standard Oil Company. To Japan we gave her first postmaster-general; and a Scotch-Irishman, John A. Bingham, a distinguished ex-congressman, represented the United States as minister to Japan, his term covering many years of ministerial service.

Passing from the Scotch-Irish civilian we come to the Scotch-Irish soldier ; and here, Ohio, though she may glow with pride in the glorious record of each of her sister states, yet yields to none her own place at. the head of the column. She wrote three hundred and twenty thousand names on the muster roll of the Union, and the Scotch-Irish names are written at the top. Recall some of them and ask yourselves where, without them, would be your boasted republic with its seventy millions of united people. Instinctively there comes first the name of that un-conquered soldier, so unyielding in battle, yet so magnanimous to the defeated that the most illustrious of his foes bowed their tear-stained faces at his bier. The great captain of the Union army first opened his eyes on the bank of the "beautiful river," in the county of Clermont and the state of Ohio. His are the victories both of war and peace. Ulysses S. Grant needs no eulogy here. Gallant Phil Sheridan, "Little Phil"—the very incarnation of war—first, saw the light in the rugged county of Perry. "Whose monuments, erected by his comrades—one of them in a beautiful park at the national capital, the other in his native village of Clyde—bear witness to a nobler hero than James B. McPherson, the Chevalier Bayard of the Union armies? Where did the genius of battle ever shine brighter than over the yellow curls of Custer—the hard-riding cavalryman or the North, and the massacred victim of the red man's wrongs? When Charleston, the cradle of the war, was shelled by the destroying "swamp angels," it was Quincy A. Gilmore who directed their iron hail. What '' Buckeye " is not proud of the "fighting McCooks?" The father and nine distinguished sons rallied around the flag together. There was "Bob," whose monument faces the great Music Hail in the city of Cincinnati ; and Aleck, who commanded a corps; and their five cousins of the same sturdy stock, who were conspicuous soldiers too. Who does not love Jim Steadman, the "hero of Chickamagua"; or Durbin Ward, "the tribune of the people," or "Old Rosy" as the idolizing soldiers nicknamed Wm. S. Rosecrans? There were the Ewings, of honorable ancestry; Irvin McDowell, the early leader; George W. Morgan, the hero of two wars; John Beatty, the hard-hitting foe of shams; O. M. Mitchel, the great astronomer-soldier; and a legion whose names it would weary you to count—all, all of that indomitable, unflinching Scotch and Irish stock, which gave to both sides of the late dreadful struggle names which will forever "lead all the rest."

This little sketch has been a meager outline only of what the Scotch-Irish have done for Ohio. They have accomplished much more than has been told here; and in the future bid fair to outdo the past. They are the solid conservative basis of the population. Their fond affection cherishes the family; their conservative morality buttresses society; and their clannish adhesion to home government guarantees stability and perpetuity to the state.

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