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History of the St Andrew's Society of the State of New York
Historical Sketch

On the 19th November, 1756, a number of gentlemen, natives of Scotland or of direct Scottish descent, assembled in the City of New York, and agreed to form themselves into a Scotch Society.

There was at that time only four like societies in America, viz.:— The Scots’ Charitable Society of Boston, Massachusetts, organized in 1657; the St. Andrew’s Club of Charleston, South Carolina, organized in 1729; the St. Andrew’s Society of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, organized in 1749; and the St. Andrew’s Society of Savannah, Georgia, organized in 1750. The existence of these national societies was based upon the collection and distribution of charitable funds among poor and needy Scotsfolk, and the promotion of social intercourse among the members by holding an annual banquet on the name-day of their patron saint.

As there was no organization of such a character in the Province of New York, the little assembly determined to found a Saint Andrew's Society, and declared its purpose to be the charitable relief of those fellow-Scotsmen, resident in New York, who might be in want or distress. A Constitution, modeled upon that of the St. Andrew’s Society of Philadelphia, was framed and adopted, which placed the government of the Society in the hands of a President, a Vice-President, a Treasurer and a Secretary, together with a board of four Assistants, later called Managers.

The founders of the Society were almost all the heads or members of the best and most prominent Scotch families in the then Province of New York, and occupied important positions in the professional and business community.

Philip Livingston was unanimously chosen for the first President, and the names of the forty-seven original members were as follows: Andrew Barclay. Henry Barclay, G. T. Buchannan, Donald Campbell, Malcolm Campbell, Stair Campbell Carre, Alexander Colden, Thomas Doherty, James Drummond, John Duncan, James Duthie, Dr. William Farquhar, Charles Forbes, Simon Fraser, Edward Graham, Ennis
Graham, William Hay, Walter Hunter, Joseph Innes, David Johnston, Robert Kennedy, John Livingston, Philip Livingston, William Livingston, James Louttit, Coll McAlpine, John McGuson, Allan McLean, John McQueen, Dr. Peter Middleton, Thomas Miller, John Milligan, Richard Morris, Donald Morison, Dr. James Murray, Lieutenant Frances Pringle, John Ross, Honorable John Rutherfurd, Walter Rutherfurd, John Morin Scott, Dr. Adam Thomson, John Troup, John Waddell, John Walker, John Walker, Jr., John Watts, Thomas Wood.

Thus arose the ancient and honorable Saint Andrew’s Society of the Province, later the State, of New York, and there is strong indication that Dr. Adam Thomsen, an eminent Colonial physician, was the prime mover of the association. The facts that Dr. Thomson had been a founder, an assistant, and vice-president of the Philadelphia Saint Andrew’s Society, which furnished a model for the Constitution of the New York society; had taken up a residence in New York about 1756; and was chosen the first vice-president of the young New York association, point significantly to his influence and efforts in organizing the Society.

The first anniversary of the founding of the Society was celebrated with due honor on Wednesday, November 30th, 1757, and the issue of the New York Mercury of Monday, December 5th, 1757, contains the following interesting description of the festivities of the occasion.

“On Wednesday last, being Saint Andrew’s Day, the Resident and Honorary Members of the New York St. Andrew’s Society held-their Anniversary Meeting at Scotch Johnny’s, where agreeable to the Intention of that Charitable Institution, a considerable Sum of Money it is said, was collected for the Use of the Poor. After which, as there happened to be a great many Scotch Gentlemen belonging to the Army in Town, upwards of Sixty Members in all dined together in a most elegant manner. Many loyal and patriotic Toasts were drank on the Occasion, heartily, yet soberly. In the evening the same Company gave a Ball and Entertainment at the Exchange Room, and King’s Arm Tavern to the Town, at which a large and polite Company of both Sexes assembled. The Ladies in particular made a most brilliant appearance, and it is thought there scarcely ever was before so great a number of elegantly dressed fine Women seen together at one Place in North America. As there were a great many of His Majesty’s Officers present, several too, of the first Rank, who had never before seen a public Company of Ladies in this Part of the World, they were most agreeably surprised and struck with the charming Sight! The whole was conducted with the most Regularity, Decency and Elegance; and nothing but gaiety, good Humour and universal Satisfaction appeared from Beginning to End.

For the next eighteen years quarterly and anniversary meetings of the Society were regularly held, and Saint Andrew’s Day, November 30th, in each year was celebrated with a banquet and social gathering of the members. Leading Scotsmen of the Province and City of New York were enrolled as members, and the early records of the Society are filled with the names of men prominent in the history of the Colonial period.

Natives of Scotland, their kinsmen and descendants, were thus united in social and friendly intercourse; the wants of their poor and destitute fellow-countrymen were cared for and relieved from the bounty of the Society; “implements and materials for domestic manufacture were provided for the industrious poor, and the highest prices were then paid for what their skill and labor produced.” The distribution of the charitable moneys of the Society was placed in charge of a Board of Assistants, called Managers after 1788, who devoted their personal time and attention to investigating cases of distress called to their notice, and, when found worthy, relieved the sufferers with money, medicine, clothing and fuel. The aged and infirm, those without living relatives to support them, and those destitute of means, were all provided with homes and cared for by the Society. Thus the system of pensions was established which has continued to this day, and still forms an important feature of the charitable administration.

In 1774, the agitations which finally lead to the War of the Revolution had a marked effect upon the progress of the Society, and finally resulted in the suspension of all meetings during the continuance of the war. Many of the higher officers of the Scotch and English regiments stationed in and near the Province of New York, were members, and their duties called them away from the city; while those members of the Society who favored the cause of independence were compelled to flee from the British officials who from time to time held possession of the City of New York. No records or notices of the Society from 1775 to 1784 have been found, either in the archives or in the early newspapers, and doubtless all active work ceased, and any capital fund accumulated was expended in charitable work during these years.

As many of the Revolutionary patriots had taken an active interest and part in the organization before the war, Saint Andrew’s Society was immediately reorganized upon the restoration of peace, and once more took up its existence. From that time until the present day the Society has continued to carry out and extend the principles upon which it was founded and to foster a spirit of Christian charity and good-fellowship among the Scottish residents of the City and State of New York.

Owing to the radical changes in the system of government and the creation of the United States, a thorough revision of the Constitution of the Society was made necessary in November, 1784, and it was again slightly amended in November, 1787. The governing rules, however, were still found to be imperfect, and in 1794 a committee was appointed to examine into the defects and to report such additional amendments as might be necessary for the sound and smooth administration of the Society. The committee named were: Robert Lenox, Vice-President; Dr. James Tillary, Physician; Rev. John Bissett, Chaplain; Peter Jay Munro, Secretary; Dr. John Kemp, Dr. Benjamin Kissam and Hay Stevenson.

These gentlemen thereupon met and drafted a new form of Constitution, consisting of twenty-three' articles, which was unanimously approved and adopted by the Society on the 13th November, 1794.

The preamble to this document has been preserved and reads as follows:

“Every Institution, calculated for the charitable relief and assistance of our fellow-creatures in want and distress, is certainly commendable; such, it is hoped, the St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York will be acknowledged by all who candidly peruse the subsequent Constitution. ,

“When people fall into misfortune and distress in any part of the world, remote from the place of their nativity, they are ever ready to apply for relief to those originally from the same country, on the supposition that they may possibly have connections by blood with some of them, or at least know something of their relations. For these reasons the natives of Scotland, and those descended of Scotch Parentage, in the State of New York, have formed themselves into a Charitable Society, the principal design of which is, to raise and keep a sum of money in readiness for the above laudable purpose. If the application of this charity is confined, so is also the manner of collecting it; neither will it in the least prevent their acting up to the principles of universal charity on other occasions.

“In order to secure and perpetuate the advantages resulting from this Society to the Natives of Scotland and their descendants, in the State of New York, the following Rules were unanimously approved and established, as the Constitution by which the Society shall hereafter be governed.”

The government of the Society was placed in control of a President, two Vice-Presidents, six Managers, two Chaplains, a Physician, a Treasurer, a Secretary and an Assistant Secretary, elected by ballot at a Preparatory Meeting held in November of each year. Membership was limited to Scotsmen and the children and grandchildren of a native of Scotland, the entrance fee fixed at not less than $12, and the annual dues at $2.50.

Strangers, natives of Scotland, or children or grandchildren of a native of Scotland, or of a resident member, might be elected as honorary members by the Board of Managers, with the consent of the highest officer of rank in the City, but must be non-residents of New York City and pay a sum of not less than $8 on their election.

The Constitution could not be altered except at a Preparatory Meeting, and when the President or one of the Vice-Presidents and at least fifty of the Resident Members were present.

The provisions of this Constitution were of so wise and practical a nature that, with a few minor amendments, it remained the guide of the Society for a period of over seventy years.

From the inception of the organization, the officers were impressed with the necessity of providing some form of Permanent Fund, the income of which, added to the annual dues of the Society, would supply an amount applicable to the relief of the poor. With this end in view, the Managers jealously guarded and invested the small surplus each year until it aggregated a substantial sum, available for investment. Between the years 1787 and 1790 the Treasurer was able to purchase bank shares to the amount of £900, and, during 1791, added to his purchases £973 6s. 8d. of three per ccntiim hank-stock, which was later resold to Robert Stuart for £1,200.

Early in the year 1785 a plan was proposed to erect a building for the accommodation of the members, to be called “Saint Andrew’s Hall,” and on the 10th December, 1785, the Society voted to open a subscription list for this purpose. For some reason, however, the list was not opened until six years later, in 1791. Then a large sum was promptly pledged and the lots now known as Nos. 10 and 12 Broad Street, and Nos. 8 and 10 New Street, were purchased of Thomas Barrow in 1791 for the sum of £1,660. The scheme, however, did not prove practical and ultimately was abandoned, the lots being resold for £2,700, the Society receiving the rents during the intermediate period, and netting what was at that time considered a handsome profit. From the proceeds of this sale the sums subscribed by the various members were returned to them and the surplus added to the Permanent Fund.

The original list of these subscribers, dated the 30th November, 1791, with their autograph signatures, together with the original list of returned subscriptions, with autograph receipts, dated the 12th March, 1792, is preserved in the archives of the Society and proves a most interesting object to collectors. From this list and the Treasurer’s books, it appears that £757 18s. 8d. was collected, and £757 11s. 2d. returned to the original subscribers, leaving a small balance to the good.

For the next fifty years the Society continued to flourish and the scope of its work was extended in proportion to its increase in membership and available funds. From time to time the aggregate surplus was invested in income-producing securities, and thus the annual amount devoted to charitable bounty steadily increased.

On the 1st December, 1806, the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the Society was celebrated at Mechanics’ Hall, and the occasion was rendered noteworthy by an account of the monument erected by the Society to the memory of the late General Alexander Hamilton, a former member, at a cost of $746.15. The following extract taken from the New York Commercial Advertiser of December 3d, 1806, is interesting reading:

“Sunday last being St. Andrew’s Day, Monday was celebrated with accustomed hilarity by the St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York. The mutual gratulations of the members and their satisfaction in meeting each other with that undissembled and manly regard which has ever characterized their association received a new interest from the knowledge that their institution during the last year has continued to distinguish itself by the most efficient benevolence. Under the frugal and vigilant direction of the Managers, funds to a considerable amount have been applied to the relief of many worthy suffering individuals and families.

“The report of the Committee appointed at the last anniversary to superintend the erection of a monument to the memory of their late illustrious brother, Major-General Alexander Hamilton, while it excited fresh pain in a wound which never has been closed, afforded them the melancholy pleasure arising from an attempt to give permanent expression to their feelings.”

* * * * * * *

“The monument is in the form of an obelisk, on a pedestal four feet square, and nearly three feet above the base. The obelisk itself is composed of white marble, eight feet in length, and is surmounted by a flaming urn; the elevation of the whole structure fourteen; enclosed with a neat railing, the ground having been generously ceded to St. Andrew’s Society by Captain James Deas, one of its members.

The site of the Monument commands a view of the City of New York, and of the west side of the island, and an extensive water prospect reaching from a point several miles above it in the North River, across the Bay, through the Narrows, to a point several miles below them. So that every inhabitant of the city, and every stranger who approaches our port, may see, at once, the Memorial which the Society has erected to the irreparable loss which America has sustained in the death of her most distinguished citizen.

“The front of the pedestal bears the following inscription:

On this spot Fell,
July 11th, 1804,
Major-General Alexander Hamilton.
As an expression of their affectionate regard to his memory and of their deep regret for his loss,
The St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York have erected this Monument.

On the reverse:

“Incorrupta Fides, unaque veritas Quando ullum inverrient parem?
Multis ille quidem flebilis occidet.

“The usual business of the Society being over, they sat down to an elegant dinner provided by Mr. Little, at Mechanics’ Hall, and on the occasion were honoured with the company of the Mayor and His Britannic Majesty’s Consul-General.

“After dinner the following toasts were drank, interspersed with music, and many national and appropriate songs. I. The Day and and all who honor it: 2. The Land of Cakes;—may she not be weary’ in well doing: 3. The Land We Live in: 4. The President of the United States: 5. The King of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland: 6. The Navy and Army of the United States: 7. The Navy and Army of Great Britain: 8. Auld Lang Svne: 9. All Benevolent Societies—while they smile they soothe affliction: 10. Wisdom to our rulers to discern the true interests of our country, and firmness to pursue it: 11. Weel-timed Daffin: 12. The Beggars’ Benison: 13. The Bonnie Lasses that play among the Heather: 14. The Auld Kirk of Scotland: 15. The American Fair—we’ve shown how well we like them: 16. Geordie M'Gregor’s Malice, to all the enemies of Scotland: 17. May care and trouble ne’er fash, but mirth and joy be wi’ us a’: Volunteer, from the chair—The Mayor and new Corporation—three cheers: Our absent President and his Family.”

Strange to relate, the erection of this monument upon the ground where the celebrated Burr-Hamilton Duel took place appeared to encourage personal encounters of this character, and it became the fashion to fight all affairs of honor upon the fatal spot where Hamilton fell.

An extract from a communication published in the New York Columbian on the 13th July, 1815, signed "Hoboken,” in regard to this monument, states:

“It is a subject of complaint to the citizens in the vicinity and a standing absurdity and outrage on the morals, manners and feelings of society. By the pernicious effect of a conspicuous example, the young and chivalrous are invited to combat and feel a degree of vainglory in measuring ground on a spot where that great man fell from all his glory and usefulness and furnished a bloody beacon to posterity, which should be, at least, shrouded from the light of day. Nowadays, the boats arrive from your island in broad daylight, the combatants take their stand on each side of the ominous monument, and, before the inhabitants can reach the spot, the mischief is done and the unfortunate survivors hurried off, too soon to be arrested by the gathering neighborhood. Such is the sensation, I understand, excited by the use of this modern Aceldama, that it is not to be expected the pillar will long retain its station, it being a baleful nuisance, not a vestige of which should be suffered to remain on earth. But for the eminent cause of its origin I should be almost as willing to have a gallows near my house.”

It was doubtless the unknown author of the above extract who laid violent hands upon the memorial, for in 1820 the feeling against dueling becamc so acute that the monument was demolished and no trace of it left on the historic spot.

In later years, Hugh Maxwell, when President of the Society, in 1835, found the marble slab containing the inscription in a New York junkshop, and purchasing it, sent it to the then owner of the Weehawken property where the monument formerly had been erected. The slab was finally turned over to the New York Historical Society, where it may now be seen.

In 1823 the Society published a paper pamphlet which contained a brief historical sketch, the Constitution, and a full list of the former and present Honorary and Resident Members of the Society. But one copy of this small book is known to be in existence, and that single copy is owned by the Society, has been bound, and is now preserved in the archives. It was discovered in 1906 and has proved of the greatest value in compiling the history of the association.

On the 12th August, 1835, the Society suffered an irreparable loss in the destruction of all its early records by fire, when the counting room and warehouse of John Campbell, the then Secretary, situated in Ann Street, was completely consumed. The strong box containing all the papers and other property appertaining to the Secretary’s office was stored in Mr. Campbell’s office, and nothing of value was saved. The official communication of this disaster was made to the officers at a Special Meeting held on the 16th September, 1835, and the following inventory of the property which had been in the custody of the Secretary and which had been destroyed, was presented:

“Book containing the Constitution, with the original signatures of the members; three books of minutes containing the records of the regular meetings of the Society up to the last anniversary, (1834); several books containing an alphabetical list of the members, with the dues and payments; all the bills, accounts and vouchers appertaining to the Secretary’s office; all the officers’ badges, except the President’s; the Seal of the Society; copper plate for the Certificate of Membership; copper plate for the anniversary festival tickets; the Snuff-Mull and Ballot-Box; the Flag and Transparency.”

The following resolution was thereupon passed:

“That the Managers take immediate measures to replace the property of this association destroyed by the late fire, and that the Secretary shall procure a suitable book, in which shall be entered as preface and explanatory of the present proceedings, the communication he has just made, then the Constitution of the Society, and that the signatures of the members be obtained to the same as far as practicable.”

Fortunately, the pamphlet published in the year 1823 contained a history of the origin and progress of the Society as collected from the original records, together with the names of former members, so that all the important particulars appertaining to the institution were still preserved. Nevertheless, much desired information concerning the early history of the Society was forever lost, and the destruction of the autograph signatures to the original Constitution was irreparable.

The Treasurer’s Books and Accounts from 1785, however, were not in the Secretary’s care, and escaped destruction, so that the Society fortunately possesses a full financial record of its funds since 1785, the date of its reorganization, to the present time.

Mr. Hugh Maxwell presented a new Snuff-Mull to the Society on the 30th November, 1835, to take the place of the one destroyed by the fire, and this was used from 1835-1848 at the Anniversary Banquets held each year in the old City Hotel, with the exception of the year 1842, when the dinner was given at the Astor House.

Under the provisions of the Constitution of 1794, all distribution of relief funds was under the direct supervision and charge of the Board of Managers. During the first eighty years of the Society’s existence these officers personally investigated all applications for relief and passed upon the worthiness of those seeking the Society’s aid. A full record of these cases appears ivi the Managers’ Book, which were personally kept in turn bv the successive Managers, and have been preserved since 1805, showing the number of Scottish poor then in the city, and the extent of their suffering.

The constant growth of the city and the increasing tide of Scottish immigration soon told heavily upon the available funds, and it became apparent that a radical increase of income would be necessary. The Managers were also hampered by the rule that only fifteen dollars could be expended on any one individual case during the year, and owing to the number of new applicants it became impractical to apply more than ten dollars to any one person, and that amount only to urgent and especially worthy cases.

It was then suggested to increase the income of the Society either by advancing the annual dues to five dollars—that being the then current rate of assessment for all other charitable societies in the city—or to hold more frequent meetings in order that the members might become more conversant with the operation and character of the Society, and thus subscribe more liberally to the charitable fund.

As a result of this discussion, an amendment to Article Nineteen of the Constitution was proposed at the Preparatory Meeting held on 14th November, 1839, to the effect that the annual dues be raised from $2.50 to $5, but as no notice had been given of such amendment, and less than fifty members constitutionally required to vote on same were present, the desired change in the Constitution could not be effected until the lapse of another year. In order, however, to ascertain the views and sentiments of the members, and to judge more correctly of the expediency of the measure, a resolution was passed recommending that the proposed raising of the annual dues commence at once, and that the Secretary solicit from the members payment of the new amount. So cheerfully and promptly did the members respond to the increase that no further action was taken in the matter of amending the Constitution, and for years thereafter the dues of five dollars were paid without demur or formal action. The suggestion to revive the quarterly meetings, however, proved impossible and was never carried out. The Managers at this meeting also explained the difficulty of devoting their personal time and attention to all the applicants for relief, and the Society thereupon unanimously:

“Resolved, That the Managers be authorized to employ the services of a respectable Scotchman as Almoner to the Society for the present year, but his compensation to be paid by voluntary subscription.”

Apparently great difficulty was had in finding a competent and desirable person to act in the newly created office, for no further action was taken at this time to carry out the authorization of the Society.

On the 15th February, 1840, the Managers were appointed a committee, with power to add to their number such members- of the Society as they thought proper, to examine into the actual conditions of the regular pensioners of the Society and make a list of the same, with a record of the circumstances and claims of each, for the purpose of guiding the Managers in distributing the Society’s bounty. There is no record that such a committee ever acted or reported to the Society, but doubtless it met and discussed the question without formal action.

The question of relieving the Managers from their burdensome duties in investigating the worthiness of charitable applicants continued to be agitated, however, and at the Annual Meeting held the 30th November, 1841, they were authorized to secure and employ an Almoner at a salary not to exceed two hundred dollars a year, whose duty it should be to visit and relieve those seeking the bounty of the Society, under the direction of the Managers. This change in the system of charitable administration was of the utmost benefit to the Society, as it relieved the Managers from a most arduous and exacting duty, and secured for the less fortunate Scotsfolk a sympathetic and skilled visitor. The fact of the Almoner coming into personal communication with every applicant and reporting on each case to the Managers prevented fraud and secured the wise and economic distribution of the charitable monies.

On the 30th November, 1851, the Almoner’s salary was increased to two hundred and fifty dollars a year, and it was thereafter increased from time to time until it finally reached the sum of twelve hundred dollars a year in 1901, to keep pace with the increasing duties of the position. The office was eventually recognized by the Constitution and the right of appointment thereto vested in the Board of Managers. The list of those who have held this important position, with their respective terms of office, is as follows: John F. Mackie, 1841-1857; James W. Munroe, 1857-1883; George Calder, 1883-1905; Eliza B. Dalzell, 1905-.

In 1841, the Secretary was authorized to print a new pamphlet containing the roll of former and present members of the Society, and the second edition of the rccord book duly appeared in 1842, a copy being now preserved in the archives.

The annual gatherings and dinners continued to be a social feature of the Society, and the members dined together from 1841-1852 at the Irving House, and from 1853 to 1858 at the old Metropolitan Hotel.

In the year 1856, the Dumfries and Galloway Society, founded in 1803 “for the relief of indigent natives of Dumfriesshire and Galloway and their children,” being reduced to five resident members, decided to transfer the amount of their permanent fund—then consisting of forty shares of the Union National Bank Stock, of the par value of $2,000, and a cash balance in bank of $228.98—to Saint Andrew’s Society, to be held as the “Dumfries and Galloway Fund,” and to be administered as nearly as possible in accordance with the objects of the original Society. This donation was accepted on the 13th November, 1856, and since that date the Society has utilized the income of the fund under the terms and conditions of the deed of gift.

On the 1st December, 1856, the Centennial Anniversary of the founding of the Society was celebrated with a banquet at the old Metropolitan Hotel, and an address entitled “The Scot Abroad and the Scot at Home,” was delivered in Niblo’s Garden by the Reverend John Thomson, D.D., Pastor of the Grand Street Church, and at that time one of the Chaplains of the Society. Owing to the unique character of the celebration and the antiquity of the Society, the dinner was attended by many more of the members and their friends than usual, and the large number of thirty-eight new members were elected to the Society.

Accounts of this celebration may be read in the local journals of the day, hut the following extract taken from the Morning Express, issue of December 2d, 1856, may be of interest.

“Precisely at four o’clock the members of the Society entered, preceded by a Scotch bagpiper (the late James Clelland) dressed in full costume of his country and playing ‘The Campbells are Coming.’ After arriving on the stage, the President (Adam Norrie, Esq.) stated that this Society had been established for charitable purposes and they had now assembled to celebrate its centennial anniversary.

“The senior chaplain of the Society, the Rev. Dr. McLeod, then opened the exercises with prayer, after which the orator of the day, the Rev. John Thomson, D.D., was introduced.

* * * * * * *

“Immediately after the blessing the Highland piper struck up the national air of ‘Scots Wha’ Hae Wi’ Wallace Bled,’ the whole company following him to the dining room where they inspected the banquet.

“We must do the Messrs. Leland the justice to say that they have not fallen off a whit in their mode of catering for the public; their hotel has been selected for several years past as the rendezvous of this Society, and each year the hosts have, if possible, outdone the last in the variety, quantity and quality of the viands served up. Some six hundred ladies, with as many gentlemen, entered the room, and inspected the tables previous to the commencement of the banquet, each and all being loud in their expressions of approbation at the appearance of the tables, which literally groaned under the good things prepared for the guests. Mr. Warren Leland himself was everywhere, and, followed by his efficient corps of waiters, gave much satisfaction to the Society and their guests.

“At the head of the upper table, and immediately behind the President, was a full length portrait of St. Andrew, carrying his cross, over which were the words, ‘Relieve the Distressed,’ and beneath the motto—‘Nemo me impune lacessit’—the whole surrounded by thistles, and wreathed with American flags.

“The following ornaments adorned the tables: Robert Bruce, the last King of Scotland; Hindoo Statue, supporting a Caramelle Fruit Vase; Oriental Frosting Tower; Neptune, God of the Sea; Scotch Military Officer, in full costume; Grand Fountain, decorated; Flower Vase, with Gothic decorations; Frosting Octagon Tower, ornamented.

“About four hundred dishes, consisting of fish, game, etc., were served up, and among them were a roast loin of English beef, and a roast saddle of English mutton, presented to the St. Andrew’s Society by Captain Judkins, of the Steamship Persia,

Note.—His oration has heen printed in full and appears in the editions of the Record Books of 1856. 1867 and 1895,

“Robertson’s String Band furnished the music, and played several Scotch and other airs during the dinner.

“At seven o’clock the guests entered the dining room, preceded by Mr. Clelland, the Highland Piper, playing Scotch airs on his pipes.

“At the head of the table, on the right of the President, were seated Jflr. Fowler, President of the St. George’s Society; William Young, Esq., ex-President; and J. Jones, Jr., Vice-President St. David’s Society. On the left were Mr. Steward, of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick; Mr. Bonny, of the New England Society; Air. Garri-gue, President of the German Society; and J. De Peyster Ogden, President St. Nicholas Society.

“The Rev. Dr. McLeod having said grace, the company, to the number of some two hundred, sat down to dinner. During the evening, Mr. Clelland promenaded the room with his pipes several times, and was loudly applauded.

“After the cloth was removed, the following toasts were drunk in succession:

1. The Day, and a’ who honor it. May our Society celebrate each Centennial to the end of time with increasing honor; may its resources grow with its wants, and charity and love of our forefathers ever be the bond of union among all members.

2. The Land o’ Cakes.

3. The Land we live in.

4. The Queen.

5. The President of the United States.

6. Scottish Homes and Scottish Firesides. The sources of the intellectual distinction and domestic virtues of the Scottish People.

7. The Orator of the Day.

8. Our Sister Societies.

9. The poetry and music of Scotland, her bards and her minstrels— honor to those who have so signally honored their native land.

10. The Societies of St. Andrew throughout the World—may they endure in prosperity and honor to celebrate, not one only, but many centennials.

11. Honest Men and Bonnie Lassies.

12. May care and trouble never fash.

But mirth and joy be wi’ us a’.”

A detailed account of the various speeches, interspersed with songs, then follows. At the eighth toast, “Our Sister Societies,” the representative of each sister society in turn rose and spoke, concluding with a return sentiment, delivered in the old fashioned style, as follows:

Mr. Joseph Fowler, for St. George’s Society, proposed: “Scotland and Scotchmen: A classic land and a thrifty race. In all the virtues which conduce to success in life, Scotchmen are unsurpassed.”

Mr. Stuart, for the Friendly Sons of Erin, proposed: “The St. Andrew’s Society of the State of New York—their first Centennial Anniversary. May this evening’s entertainment stimulate her members to continue their noble deeds of charity.”

Mr. Jones, for St. David’s Society, proposed: “Scotland—Her mountain vales, streamlets and lakes, emblems of Scottish character. Lofty, noble and impregnable, we behold in her mountains the towering genius of her bards, the exalted character of her patriots, and the firmness and steady independence of her people. Beautiful and blooming, we behold in her vales the charms and loveliness of her fair. Continuous and ceaseless, we behold in her merry and musical streamlets the tireless industry of her toiling sons—whilst in her placid and reposing lakes we behold the providential character of the Scot, adorned by his bounteous hospitality.”

Mr. DePevster Ogden, for St. Nicholas Society, proposed: “The St. Andrew’s Society—May your years continue to set as lightly as they now do, and may each succeeding anniversary, for years to come, find you prosperous and happy.”

Mr. Bonny, for the New England Society, proposed: “Scotchmen in America—Exhibiting, indicating and illustrating here the principles and characteristics which have been the success of the prosperity and glory of their native land.”

“The remainder of the regular toasts were appropriately honored, and sentiment and song happily intermingled with eloquent addresses. The company broke up at an early hour this morning, after singing ‘Auld Lang Syne’ in the accustomed manner, all hands joined around the table. Altogether it was one of the most pleasant celebrations the St. Andrew’s Society has ever had. May they enjoy many more such.”

As it may interest the present members to see the viands set forth for their predecessors, a facsimile copy of the bill of fare for the Centennial Celebration has been inserted in these pages, and the choice, variety and amount of savory viands therein contained testifies to the appetites and endurance of the banqueters.

A third edition of the historical sketch and list of former members was printed in 1856, and a copy of same is now preserved in the archives.

In order to mark the occasion of the Centennial Anniversary in 1856 it was proposed to raise a special fund bv private subscription of the officers and members, to be known as the “Centennial Fund,” for the purpose of relieving' exceptional cases of suffering and distress, and paying out in extreme cases a larger amount than was permitted under the Constitution. The suggestion met with hearty approval, and the sum of $1,305 was promptly subscribed and paid in by sixty-one original subscribers.

The Managers thereupon passed the following preamble and resolutions, viz.:

“A Fund of some Thirteen Hundred Dollars having, by the liberality of the Members of the St. Andrew’s Society, been contributed, on the occasion of our Centennial Anniversary, for the purpose of giving aid in extreme cases of suffering, to persons who require a larger amount than the fifteen dollars allowed by the Society, the Managers deem it necessary to make some regulations to govern this fund—and it is therefore

Resolved, that this fund shall be called the Centennial Fund—that our thanks are due to our worthy President, Adam Norrie, who has kindly consented to become Treasurer of this fund, and to allow a reasonable rate of interest on running account for it.

Resolved, that this fund shall not be drawn on, but to give aid in extreme cases of suffering, and that it is desirable, if possible, that some one of the Managers should personally examine each case before giving aid, and that not more than Four Hundred Dollars shall he drawn from this fund in any one year unless by consent of the Managers.

Resolved, that as it would he troublesome for the Treasurer to pay the small drafts arising from each case, that some one of the Managers shall pay out and keep a record, and make a monthly draft on the Treasurer for the disbursements of the month; this draft to be signed by two of the Managers.

Resolved, that the experience of the present Managers satisfy them that a fund of this description is absolutely necessary to enable the Society to carry out the objects for which they were associated— to relieve the distresses and misfortunes of their honest, worthy, but unfortunate countrymen, they therefore recommend to their successors in office that this fund be kept up by occasional contributions from the members of the society—and if they meet with the same liberality that the present Managers have, they will have no difficulty in increasing the amount, and, consequently, the usefulness of the Society.”

As the amount was expended, the Managers from time to time appealed to the members at large to keep up this unique source of special relief, and so laudable was its object and so extensive the good done, that the fund eventually rose to about Two thousand four hundred dollars. Repeated calls upon the principal, however, finally exhausted the amount, but in 1869 a vigorous effort for new subscriptions was made, which resulted in re-establishing the principal of the fund to the amount of about $3,400, and since that time the Centennial Fund, having its special treasurer, remained a feature of the Society.

From its inception in 1856 the Centennial Fund has had only three Treasurers, viz.: Adam Norrie, from 1st December, 1856, to nth November, 1869; Robert Gordon, from nth November, 1869, to 10th November, 1881, and Walter Watson, from 10th November, 1881, to 12th November, 1896. It is due to the wise administration of these able officers that this special charitable fund became so efficacious for good during the forty years of its existence.

At some unknown date the Society was presented with a marble bust of Sir Walter Scott, and on the 12th November, 1857, it was “Resolved, that the Treasurer be instructed to obtain possession of the bust of Sir Walter Scott by Chantry, the property of the Society, and place the same in the custody of the President, and that it pass from a retiring president to a new president as one of the badges of office.” After being handed down from chief officer to officer for some years, the bust was finally deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, where it may now be viewed.

On the 10th November, 1859, an engraving of His Royal Highness, the Prince Consort, in Highland costume, from a picture by John Phillips, Esq., A.R.A., the eminent Scottish painter, was presented to the Society in the name of the engraver, Thomas Oldham Barlow, Esq., of London, and now hangs in the office of the Society.

The annual dinners continued to be held from 1859 t0 *861 at the St. Nicholas Hotel, and constantly grew in attendance and popularity. Accounts of these festive gatherings may be found in the leading journals of the day, and many of the original toast-lists and bills of fare, preserved in the archives, make interesting reading.

As the cost of living grew greater it became apparent that the fixed rule of not expending more than fifteen dollars on one applicant was not elastic enough to meet even average contingencies, and on the 30th November, 1861, the Constitution was amended so as to permit the Managers to disburse to the extent of thirty dollars on any one family or individual.

The suffering and distress caused by the War of the Rebellion soon affected the attendance at the annual meetings of the Society, and at the Preparatory Meeting held the 14th November, 1861, it was unanimously agreed that, in view of the greatly to be deplored existing national calamity, and in sympathy with the distress and trouble, the usual public anniversary dinner should be dispensed with, and a quiet and sociable entertainment at the St. Nicholas Hotel should be substituted in its place on Saint Andrew’s Day. These quiet gatherings were held in 1862 at the St. Nicholas Hotel, and in 1863 and 1864 at the Maison Doree; but in 1865, at the close of the war, the anniversary banquets were resumed and held at old Delmonico's, Fifth Avenue and Fourteenth Street, until 1875, when the Society followed the movement uptown of this celebrated restaurant, and held its banquets from 1876 to 1896 at Delmonico’s, Fifth Avenue and Twenty-sixth Street.

During the course of 1862, Adam Norrie, on retiring from the presidency, after a term of eleven years’ service, generously presented the Society with a perpetual right to a bed in St. Luke’s Hospital, and in 1870 George and John Laurie gave a like privilege to a second bed in St. Luke’s Hospital, and a bed in the Presbyterian Hospital. The sick Scottish poor have received incalculable comfort and care as the result of these generous benefactions.

On the 10th November, 1864, it was resolved that Resident Members be allowed to becomc Life Members 011 payment of one hundred dollars, and that all moneys so raised be added to the Permanent Fund, in order to swell the income of the Society derived from that fund applicable to charitable disbursement. Thereupon, a number of the members availed themselves of this privilege and the amount of the principal of the Permanent Fund was increased proportionately.

A special meeting of the Society was called on the 18th April, 1865, for the purpose of affording the members an opportunity of expressing their sentiments on the afflictive event which bereaved the nation of its illustrious President, Abraham Lincoln, and it was thereat

“Resolved, that we desire to express our heartfelt participation in the universal grief and horror caused by the hideous crime and appalling calamity whereby the Nation has been suddenly bereaved of a Chief Magistrate, whose integrity of character, eminent personal virtues and patriotic public services had secured him an exalted place in the confidence and affection of his Countrymen, and that we respectfully tender to the bereaved family of the deceased, the expression of our sincere sympathy under this most afflictive dispensation of Divine Providence.”

On the 30th November, 1865, Messrs. William Wood, Richard Irvin, Adam Norrie, William Paton, Robert Gordon, James Fraser, Thomas H. Faile and John A. Hadden presented the Society with a new and handsome design for the certificate of membership engraved on a steel plate, at a cost of five hundred dollars, and accompanied by five hundred copies of the certificate. At the same time, William Paton presented a new Saint Andrew’s Flag of large size for use at the meetings of the Society.

For nearly seventy years no important change had been made to the Constitution, and the rules governing the conduct of the Society adopted in 1794 had sufficed for all the needs of the members. Built up on a foundation of common sense, simplicity and practical worth, they furnished a remarkable evidence of the sound judgment and wise deliberation of the forefathers of the Society. The rapid march of progress and commercial prosperity throughout the United States, and the changed conditions of living in the Empire City in 1866, made it evident to all the members that the ancient rules of the Society would require revision to keep pace with the times. Accordingly, on the 8th November, 1866, Messrs. John Taylor Johnston, Robert Gordon and James Callender were appointed a committee to examine into and draft amendments to the then Constitution. At the same time, the Society was authorized to publish a new and full list of the former members of the Society, and this fourth edition of the history of the Society was brought out in 1866.

The work of the Almoner had also so increased that it necessitated a permanent location for that official, and on the 30th November, 1866, it was decided to rent an office for the Almoner and to raise his salary to four hundred dollars a year.

During the course of 1867 the Committee on Constitution submitted its report and a draft of the proposed Constitution, which was duly approved and noticed for final action. At the Preparatory Meeting held on the 14th November, 1867, an unusually large attendance of members was obtained, and after a full and fair discussion, the new Constitution was unanimously adopted. A few of the changes were as follows:

The annual dues, which had remained at the nominal sum of two and one-half dollars, were raised to five dollars, although the members had voluntarily paid the latter amount for nearly thirty years; the entrance fee was reduced from twelve to ten dollars; Life Membership on the payment of one hundred dollars was recognized, and the proceeds of same were directed to be invested in the Permanent Fund; the Managers were permitted to expend as much as fifty dollars on one family or individual in distress or want, and even this amount could be exceeded by a vote of the Standing Committee, a body which for many years had had no apparent sphere of action, and to the five members of this committee, not being officers, was referred the duty of nominating an official ticket at each annual election.

Some question having arisen on the nominating power, however, the Constitution was again amended on the 14th November, 1873, and this authority taken from these five members on the Standing Committee.

A special meeting of the Society was held on the 226 September, 1881, to take appropriate action in regard to the death of President Garfield, and after appropriate addresses by the Chairman and principal members assembled, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

“Whereas, the Nation mourns with a great and bitter sorrow, all civilized peoples sharing therein, over the tragical death of James A. Garfield, the late honored and beloved President of the United States:

“Resolved, that we desire to declare our heartfelt participation in the universal grief, caused by this painful calamity—the result of a hideous crime—whereby the Nation has been deprived of a Chief Magistrate on whom its fondest hopes were fixed, whose noble character, manly nature, devoted patriotic public services, and eminent personal virtues had secured him a high and enduring place in the confidence and affection of his countrymen.

"Resolved, that we respectfully tender the expression of our heartfelt sympathy to the venerable mother, the brave, devoted, loving wife, and the orphan children of the deceased, under this most distressing dispensation of Divine Providence, commending them to the care and support of Him whose ear is ever open to the cry of the widow and the orphan.”

As it had been the custom from ancient time to select and re-elect from year to year the same gentlemen to serve as Managers, it was suggested by many of the members in 1890 that the interests of the Society would be promoted by more frequent changes in the board of management. The question of the Managers serving by rotation was earnestly discussed, and on the 13th November of that year the Society resolved that no more than four out of the six Managers should be eligible for re-election at the Preparatory Meeting in November, so that at least two new Managers might enter the Board each year. This plan was put into operation for a few years, but finally proved impractical and was discontinued without further action.

Repeatedly in the history of the Society attempts were made to hold the quarterly meetings provided by the Constitution, but without success. The attendance, never large at any save the Annual Meeting of the Society, became wofully small at the other meetings and finally every gathering was abandoned except the stated preparatory and annual meetings in November of each year, and such special meetings as might be called from time to time to transact urgent and unexpected business.

Feeling that the social side of the Society was suffering from this cause, the officers in 1895 determined to hold a Spring Meeting in May, followed by a reception tendered by the Board of Officers and Standing Committee to the members, and an informal supper. The experiment proved from the start a success, and since that year the Spring Receptions have been largely attended and called out much talent in the line of speaking, story-telling and singing. At the same time, an opportunity is thus afforded the members to hear unofficially of the work of the Society, and to get into closer communication with the managing heads of its several departments. These meetings have also served a good purpose in making known to the younger members the progress and scope of the Society, and thus attracting their attention to what must ever be its chief aim and spirit of existence—the dispensing of charity among the less fortunate Scottish kindred. The Spring gatherings furthermore facilitate the proposal of new members and thus perpetuate the design of the founders to make the Society a broad and representative association of the best Scottish element in the City and State of New York.

Meanwhile, the number of members and their guests attending the annual banquets became so large that it became impossible to secure proper attention for the regular annual meeting, hitherto always held before the dinner, and in the confusion and haste incident to the gathering, little or no routine business could be accomplished. Moreover, the duties of the Managers had become so many and urgent that they necessitated some increase in the number of the board.

It was apparent that these changed conditions must be met by a fresh revision of the rules, and on the 14th November, 1805, Messrs. George Austin Morrison, Bryce Gray, J. Kennedy Tod, John Reid, and Alexander Maitland were appointed a committee to revise and amend the present Constitution. A new and complete edition of the Record Book was published during the course of this year, making the fifth and last edition of that interesting compilation.

For some time the continued appeals for subscriptions to replenish the Centennial Fund, necessitated hv the somewhat lavish distribution of this fund by the Almoner, had become burdensome to the officers and members. During the period from 1894-1896 no less than $9,324 had been paid in to this fund, and in 1894 alone the disbursements had amounted to $5,302.20. To disburse the entire capital each year was contrary to the spirit in which the fund was started, and it became evident that under such a system of administration its utility would be short lived. Therefore, on the 12th November, 1896, the Society decided that, in view of the new Constitutional amendments doing away with the limit of the amount which the Board of Managers could apply to relieve any one individual or family, and taking into consideration that the income of the Society had so much increased that there was no longer any necessity for a supplemental fund, it was best to discontinue the Centennial Fund and to pay over any balance then remaining into the Regular Fund. As a matter of interest, the Treasurer’s books and accounts show that during the existence of the Centennial Fund, 1856-1896, the aggregate amount paid out in charitable distribution was $35,928.99, leaving a balance of $1,085.19, which was turned over to the Regular Fund. Thus ended one of the most important sources of the charities of the Society, and the record of good done is a splendid memorial of the Centennial Celebration of the Society, and should be a source of pride to all those officers and members who by their administration and generous subscriptions made such a fund possible and active.

The Constitution Committee of 1895 in due course reported that owing to the many changes and amendments of the old Constitution, they had thought best to draft a completely new Constitution, following wherever they could the form and language of the old Constitution, but radically changing many of the former provisions and adding a number of new and necessary rules. After due notice and deliberation the Society unanimously adopted the new Constitution at a meeting held on the nth November, 1897. The work of his Committee deserves the highest praise, and the new rules framed proved not only admirable in spirit, but of the greatest practical utility to the Society. Kindred St. Andrew’s Societies throughout the United States and Canada have repeatedly sent for copies of this Constitution and asked permission to incorporate some, if not all, of its features into their own By-Laws, and it may be said that it has been the foundation for many new Scottish societies recently organized.

Some of the new and necessary provisions are as follows, viz.: Where formerly only Scotsmen, their sons and grandsons could become members, now lineal descent from a Scottish ancestor constitutes eligibility; the entrance fee and annual dues were raised to ten dollars each, and the Life Membership to one hundred and fifty dollars; the number of Managers was raised from six to eight; no limit was set upon the amount the Managers could apply to a special case; the quarterly meetings of the Society were done away with and the regular meetings were to be held on the first Thursdays of May and November, the latter of which was to be called the Annual Meeting, thus doing away with the Annual Meeting on Saint Andrew’s Day, the date of the former annual meetings, and a new meeting, called the Joint Stated Meeting of the Board of Officers, Managers and Standing Committee, was established. A number of minor changes were made in regard to committees and their time of meetings, and setting aside all donations, bequests, life memberships and entrance fees to the Permanent Fund.

The working of the new Constitution proved admirable with some few exceptions, and these were in due course adjusted by amendment, viz.: on the 3rd November, 1898, the entrance fee of ten dollars was abolished; and on the 6th November, 1902, the Joint Stated Meeting of the Board of Officers, Managers and Standing Committee was abolished. Since these final changes the Constitution has remained intact and continues to be well adapted to the administration of the affairs of the Society.

In March, 1897, a movement was instituted to re-establish the ancient custom of the members wearing badges at the Anniversary Banquets, and after much heraldic research a form of insignia was approved and adopted by the Board of Officers and Standing Committee. A description of the badge is as follows:

“A badge pendant by a gold crown and ring from a watered-silk ribbon of azure blue, one and one-half inches wide. The badge shall be surrounded by a wreath of thistles in gold and shall consist of a medallion of gold bearing in relief the figure of Saint Andrew and his cross within a dark blue enameled garter, bearing the motto, ‘Nemo me impune lacessit’ in gold letters.”

The figure of Saint Andrew and the cross in high relief surrounded by a dark blue garter the color of the ancient Scottish flag and again encircled by a wreath of thistles, is symbolic of the name and origin of the Society. The medallion is surmounted by the crown of Scotland, signifying that the Society was founded under the royal authority of George III. The entire insignia is hung from an azure blue ribbon, that being the color of the ancient flag of Scotland.

Members were enabled to purchase and own their respective badges, and the demand was so great that the initial cost of the dies and all expenses were paid from the first without any charge upon the Society funds. Since 1897, the wearing of the Society badge has become an attractive feature at all the social gatherings.

At the suggestion of the British Consul-General, the Societies of Saint Andrew, St. George and St. David united in holding a jubilee service in Trinity Church on Sunday, June 20th, 1897, in honor of the long reign of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, and as a tribute to those womanly qualities as wife and mother which endeared her to all of the English-speaking races. An acknowledgment of appreciation and thanks was received from the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, a few weeks later.

In the course of the year 1897, the old established house of Delmonico's decided to remove into a new and special building, located at Fifth Avenue and Forty-fourth Street. As for some years the rapidly increasing size of the Annual Banquet had become a source of anxiety to the Manager 011 account of lack of accommodation of the applicants for dinner seats, the Society held its 141st Annual Banquet in the new Banquet Hall of Delmonico’s, with a record attendance of three hundred and ninety-six members and guests, and continued to hold the annual gatherings there until 1905.

A Special Meeting of the Society was called on the 24th January, 1901, for the purpose of taking action upon the lamented death of Her Majesty, Victoria, late Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, and after appropriate addresses had been made by the President and several of the members present, a Committee was named to draw up suitable resolutions of regret upon the death of the Queen and of congratulations to His Majesty, King Edward the Seventh, upon his accession to the throne.

The form of resolutions finally determined upon was as follows:

“The oldest Society of New York, the Saint Andrew’s Society, composed of Scotsmen and their descendents, in meeting assembled, desires to express its deep sympathy with His Majesty, King Edward the Seventh, in his great loss and sorrow through the death of his revered Mother, Queen Victoria, a loss and a sorrow shared by the people of all lands to a degree never before equalled on the passing away of an individual who has appeared upon the earth, but by none more keenly than by those dwelling in this Republic, who are of the land of her heart,—her own beloved Scotland.

“The Society also desires to express its earnest hope that, following in his Mother’s footsteps, according to his announced intention, a continuance of the blessings which her reign brought to her people may be vouchsafed to his own.”

These resolutions were cabled and forwarded later in engrossed form to the Marquis of Lansdowne, Minister of Foreign Affairs, who subsequently acknowledged the courtesy and conveyed to the Society His Majesty’s “sincere thanks for this highly appreciated expression of sympathy in the heavy loss which has fallen upon him and upon his subjects, as well as for their good wishes upon His Majesty’s accession to the Throne.”

The Society in due course joined with the St. George’s Society and other associations having British affiliations in holding a memorial service to the late Queen Victoria in Trinity Church on the afternoon of Saturday, February 2d, 1901.

At the Annual Meeting held the 7th November, 1901, it was resolved that some memorial action should be taken in regard to the death of the late William McKinley, President of the United States, and, accordingly, the following minute was prepared and spread upon the records:

‘‘Whereas, The Honorable William McKinley, late President of the United States of America, received a mortal wound at the hands of an assassin on the 6th day of September, 1901, in the City of Buffalo, State of New York, which resulted in his death on the 13th day of September following:

“Now, therefore, we, the officers and members of Saint Andrew’s Society of the State of New York, in meeting assembled, desiring to place on record the expression of our heartfelt sorrow and regret, have unanimously

“Resolved, That in the sudden death by assassination of the late Honorable William McKinley, first citizen of this great Republic, we deplore the loss of a President eminent in statecraft, patriotic in administration, and faithful to the duties of the high office to which this Nation, grateful for the many benefits derived from his able and wise counsel, had called him. His long and varied public career was distinguished by a steadfast endeavor to advance the greatness and prosperity of his native land and by unselfish devotion to the happiness and welfare of his fellow countrymen. Though called to guide and uphold the commonwealth through the critical period of war with a foreign power, he brought to the solution of the difficult and unusual State problems therein involved sound judgment and temperate action, and successfully concluded the negotiations for peace with justice to the conqueror and equity for the conquered. In his private life he embodied those fine qualities of intellect and person which earned the respect of the world and love of his intimates. He was a zealous patriot, a devoted husband and a faithful friend, living and dying for the country he governed, and his name will be enrolled in the pages of history among those of the great men of this world.”

For many years it had been a traditional custom at the annual dinners for each Vice-President and Manager to preside over a long table and take entire charge and responsibility for the sale of tickets thereat. The entire number of seats available were thus at the disposal of the eight officers, and as the attendance was moderate and the room ample, these officers frequently filled up the tables with personal friends and acquaintances in order to make the dinner a success. The rapidly increasing popularity of the dinner soon caused a greater demand for places than could be filled, and as a result many members could not secure seats at all. Much criticism and dissatisfaction was expressed at this method of managing the banquet, and, accordingly, the Managers, on the 9th January, 1902, appointed a special committee of two of their number and the Secretary to consider and advise upon the proper arrangement and management of the Annual Banquet.

This Committee, consisting of Messrs. James McLean, Samuel Elliott and the Secretary, after careful deliberation, reported a new system and rules for regulating the management of the dinner, placing the control in a Committee of Five, consisting of the President, the Secretary and three Managers, appointed each year by the Managers, to be known as the Banquet Committee, directing all applications for seats to be made to the Secretary, and limiting the number of seats assigned to each member to five, the assignment and locating of seats being left to- the Banquet Committee.

The report was unanimously adopted by the Society on the 1st May, 1902, and the new system put to practical application at the 146th Annual Banquet, where it met with immediate approval and success. Every member and guest found his name and seat number indicated upon the dinner programme and went to his place without confusion or dispute, the location of which had been assigned according to the priority of his application. The representatives of the sister national societies of this city, who attended the Banquet, were so much impressed with this method of arranging and controlling the large assemblage that several sent for full sets of the rules, notices and circulars used, and have adopted them for their own organizations.

Meanwhile, the charitable work had grown out of all proportion to the executive means and methods of the Almoner’s office, and early in the course of the year 1905 the Managers determined to make radical changes in the manner of administering the bounty of the Society.

The services of a Scotch woman visitor were secured, who could call upon the aged and infirm applicants for relief, administer to their immediate wants, and report their condition from time to time to the Board of Managers. At the same time she could investigate and report upon the worthiness of those already on the pension list.

The method of keeping the books and records was also improved, in order to modernize this branch of the work, and a system of index cards introduced, upon which the complete history of each applicant relieved was set forth, facilitating searching the records and preventing fraudulent repetition. The list of pensioners was in turn carefully examined and thoroughly revised in order that only the most aged and deserving be entitled to a regular monthly stipend from the charitable funds.

The wisdom of these changes immediately manifested itself by a reduction in the number of unworthy applicants, and a saving in the cash funds disbursed to transients.

Notwithstanding the increased accommodations and facilities for serving the banquets, however, the Society soon again became cramped for room, as the applications for dinner seats increased to over five hundred, and in the Fall of 1905 it became apparent to the Managers that in view of the coming 150th Anniversary Banquet some change must be made to comfortably seat those who desired to be present.

Accordingly, after a patronage of forty years, the Society was finally compelled to leave Delmonico's and to hold its 149th Annual Banquet in the Ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria. The change proved a happy and most successful one, there being ample accommodation for the five hundred and thirty-six members and guests present, the dinner being graced with the presence of the ladies, who occupied the double tier of boxes which surrounded the Banquet Hall, and thus for the first time in the annals of the Society viewed their husbands and friends in their celebration of the day.

It would be a difficult, if not an impossible, task to accurately compute the total amount disbursed in charity from the Regular Fund, since the year 1785, which is the earliest date of the financial records now in the Society’s archives. A fairly accurate estimate has been made, however, and the aggregate sum may be set down as $250,000. Adding to this sum the $35,870.99, expended from the Centennial Fund, will give a total of $285,870.99. These generous figures, and the good this sum has done, need no comment.

While the old Managers’ books from 1805 and the books of the former and present Almoners are preserved in the archives of the Society, any estimate of the number of applicants for relief would be out of the question without long and detailed examinations of accounts. Since 1835, however, the Society possesses Secretarial Notices, with the exception of the years 1836, 1845, ^49, 1851 and 1869—which cannot be found and are probably lost—and full Annual Reports have been published since 1873, giving a fairly reliable statement of the work done.

From these records it may be stated that from 1785 to 1856 there have been 72,000 applications for relief, and from 1856 to the present year, 117,906, making a grand total of 189,906.

The Permanent Fund was originally invested in bank stocks, but owing to the enaction of laws taxing this class of securities, a notable decrease in the income resulted, and acting under the advice of a special committee appointed for the purpose of reinvestment of the fund, the Society sold its bank stock in 1901 and purchased sound dividend-bearing railway bonds, yielding a fixed annual income.

The Permanent Fund at its present market value amounts to $222,232.59, and yields an annual income of about $9,000.

The Society has greatly benefited by the liberality of its officers and members, and the list of gifts and bequests is a memorable one. The names, dates and amounts of these gifts are given in full in a Statement of the Permanent Fund, which is incorporated in this volume, and need not be repeated here.

A burial plot in the Cypress Hills Cemetery was presented jointly to the Societies of Saint Andrew, St. George, St. Patrick and St. David by William Miles, when President of St. David’s Society, in 1856, and an appropriate iron railing has been placed around the Saint Andrew’s portions of same, at the expense of a few of the members.

In addition to this plot, twenty members of the Society presented it with six more burial lots in 1888, and in 1889 Mr. John S. Kennedy caused a beautiful monumental shaft of Peterhead granite to be erected at his own expense on the summit of the entire burial plot, bearing the inscription:

Sacred •

To the memory of Natives of Scotland,

Who, having sought a home in this Land,

Died while yet strangers in it.

They are lovingly remembered in Death By their fellow Countrymen, through Whose kindness they have here found A place of Sepulture.

“I dwell among mine own people”

2 Kings, 4-13.

The Society acquired additional ground by purchase in 1904, and the entire plot has been tastefully graded and sodded, and is now one of the handsomest in the cemetery.

From time to time the Society has received additional gifts from its officers and members, notably a Ram’s Head Snuff-Mull from Glenbusk, Argyleshire, the gift of VV. Butler Duncan in 1900, and a Stand of Colors, consisting of the Banner of St. Andrew, of white watered silk, beautifully emblazoned with the Arms of Scotland, and large silk flags of Scotland and Saint Andrew, the gift of twenty-nine members, in 1902.

On the 30th November in the present year the Society will celebrate the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of its organization. It was suggested that a Memorial Volume of the Society should be published, which should contain a Historical Sketch; the Charter; the Constitution; a List of the Officers and Committees from 1756 to 1906, arranged by years, and also alphabetically; the Portraits of all the Presidents, when obtainable, reproduced from paintings, engravings, photographs, sketches, miniatures, etc., together with their autograph signatures and short biographical sketches of their several lives; and such other data of interest as could be obtained by research and examination of the records in the archives of the Society and of this city.

Much time and labor has been expended in the work and the result is contained in this volume. The list of members has been carefully prepared from the ancient records, documents, and the former five editions of the Record Books, now preserved by the Society, and it is believed that now, for the first time in its history, the Society has secured as complete and accurate a list as it is possible to make.

The roll of present membership is as follows:

Honorary Members........................ 12
Life Members ............................. 59
Resident Members......................... 423
Total ................................ 494

In this, the one hundred and fiftieth year of its existence, the Society occupies an enviable position among the private charitable organizations of this city. While there may be general charitable organizations which exceed it in wealth and size, no national kindred society in the United States can equal its record of well-doing.

As the city increases in population and extent, the work of the Society becomes more difficult and exacting. Thanks to the spirit of Scottish pride which fills the hearts of all of Scotia’s sons, no unfortunate fellow-countryman has ever failed to secure comfort and aid from Saint Andrew’s Society, if found worthy of relief. It is confidently believed that future years, like those of the past, will find the members of this ancient and honorable association continuing their generous subscriptions to the cause of charity and annually uniting in good fellowship and cheer.

Such is a brief account of the Saint Andrew’s Society of the State of New York taken from the records in its archives, and its history may well evoke the praise and honest pride of every man who can claim a drop of Scottish blood in his veins.

Only two organizations in the State of New York precede it in antiquity, viz.: The School of the Collegiate Dutch Church, founded in 1633, and Columbia University (King’s College), founded in 1754; and neither of these associations can be strictly termed charitable associations.

Founded upon the principle of Christian charity, Saint Andrew’s Society owes its present strength and prosperity to long and earnest attempts to “do better” as year succeeded year, and in caring for the poor, the aged and the distressed, it cemented more firmly the bonds of its own membership. The spirit of sturdy self-reliance—one of the corner-stones of Scottish character—joined with a sense of clanship has animated the members from the first, and exerted a potent influence for the progress of the Society. Deep in the heart of every member may be found a great love for the mother country, coupled with an intense feeling for the character and traditions of the Scottish race, qualities which ever urge him on to hold forth a helping hand to all his fellow-countrymen. The success of this Society, dedicated to the patron saint of Caledonia, is thus based upon love of country and kin.

Among the many thousands of Scotsfolk who have come to the shores of this great republic, those sore afflicted and distressed in mind, body and estate, the poor and aged, the sick and suffering, the honest seekers for work, and the humble, patient toilers who have worn out their lives in service and been forgotten by the world, all have crossed the threshold of the Society and departed with joy in their hearts.. The blessing of giving has been returned many hundredfold to the Society, and while the land of brown heath and heather shall last, so long may the sons of Saint Andrew preserve and perpetuate the memory of their Patron Saint.

November 1st, 1906.

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