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The Story of a Pioneer
First Memories

My father's ancestors were the Shaws of Rothiemurchus, in Scotland, and the ruins of their castle may still be seen on the island of Loch-an-Eilan, in the northern Highlands.  It was never the picturesque castle of song and story, this home of the fighting Shaws, but an austere fortress, probably built in Roman times; and even to-day the crumbling walls which alone are left of it show traces of the relentless assaults upon them.  Of these the last and the most successful were made in the seventeenth century by the Grants and Rob Roy; and it was into the hands of the Grants that the Shaw fortress finally fell, about 1700, after almost a hundred years of ceaseless warfare. It gives me no pleasure to read the grisly details of their struggles, but I confess to a certain satisfaction in the knowledge that my ancestors made a good showing in the defense of what was theirs. Beyond doubt they were brave fighters and strong men.  There were other sides to their natures, however, which the high lights of history throw up less appealingly.  As an instance, we have in the family chronicles the blood-stained page of Allen Shaw, the oldest son of the last Lady Shaw who lived in the fortress.  It appears that when the father of this young man died, about 1560, his mother married again, to the intense disapproval of her son.  For some time after the marriage he made no open revolt against the new-comer in the domestic circle; but finally, on the pretext that his dog had been attacked by his stepfather, he forced a quarrel with the older man and the two fought a duel with swords, after which the victorious Allen showed a sad lack of chivalry.  He not only killed his stepfather, but he cut off that gentleman's head and bore it to his mother in her bed-chamber--an action which was considered, even in that tolerant age, to be carrying filial resentment too far.

Probably Allen regretted it.  Certainly he paid a high penalty for it, and his clan suffered with him. He was outlawed and fled, only to be hunted down for months, and finally captured and executed by one of the Grants, who, in further virtuous disapproval of Allen's act, seized and held the Shaw stronghold. The other Shaws of the clan fought long and ably for its recovery, but though they were helped by their kinsmen, the Mackintoshes, and though good Scotch blood dyed the gray walls of the fortress for many generations, the castle never again came into the hands of the Shaws.  It still entails certain obligations for the Grants, however, and one of these is to give the King of England a snowball whenever he visits Loch-an-Eilan!

As the years passed the Shaw clan scattered. Many Shaws are still to be found in the Mackintosh country and throughout southern Scotland.  Others went to England, and it was from this latter branch that my father sprang.  His name was Thomas Shaw, and he was the younger son of a gentleman--a word which in those days seemed to define a man who devoted his time largely to gambling and horse- racing.  My grandfather, like his father before him, was true to the traditions of his time and class. Quite naturally and simply he squandered all he had, and died abruptly, leaving his wife and two sons penniless.  They were not, however, a helpless band. They, too, had their traditions, handed down by the fighting Shaws.  Peter, the older son, became a soldier, and died bravely in the Crimean War.  My father, through some outside influence, turned his attention to trade, learning to stain and emboss wall- paper by hand, and developing this work until he became the recognized expert in his field.  Indeed, he progressed until he himself checked his rise by inventing a machine that made his handwork unnecessary.  His employer at once claimed and utilized this invention, to which, by the laws of those days, he was entitled, and thus the cornerstone on which my father had expected to build a fortune proved the rock on which his career was wrecked.  But that was years later, in America, and many other things had happened first. For one, he had temporarily dropped his trade and gone into the flour-and-grain business; and, for another, he had married my mother.  She was the daughter of a Scotch couple who had come to England and settled in Alnwick, in Northumberland County.  Her father, James Stott, was the driver of the royal-mail stage between Alnwick and Newcastle, and his accidental death while he was still a young man left my grandmother and her eight children almost destitute.  She was immediately given a position in the castle of the Duke of Northumberland, and her sons were educated in the duke's school, while her daughters were entered in the school of the duchess.

My thoughts dwell lovingly on this grandmother, Nicolas Grant Stott, for she was a remarkable woman, with a dauntless soul and progressive ideas far in advance of her time.  She was one of the first Unitarians in England, and years before any thought of woman suffrage entered the minds of her country-women she refused to pay tithes to the support of the Church of England--an action which precipitated a long-drawn-out conflict between her and the law. In those days it was customary to assess tithes on every pane of glass in a window, and a portion of the money thus collected went to the support of the Church.  Year after year my intrepid grandmother refused to pay these assessments, and year after year she sat pensively upon her door-step, watching articles of her furniture being sold for money to pay her tithes.  It must have been an impressive picture, and it was one with which the community became thoroughly familiar, as the determined old lady never won her fight and never abandoned it.  She had at least the comfort of public sympathy, for she was by far the most popular woman in the countryside.  Her neighbors admired her courage; perhaps they appreciated still more what she did for them, for she spent all her leisure in the homes of the very poor, mending their clothing and teaching them to sew.  Also, she left behind her a path of cleanliness as definite as the line of foam that follows a ship; for it soon became known among her protegees that Nicolas Stott was as much opposed to dirt as she was to the payment of tithes.

She kept her children in the schools of the duke and duchess until they had completed the entire course open to them.  A hundred times, and among many new scenes and strange people, I have heard my mother describe her own experiences as a pupil. All the children of the dependents of the castle were expected to leave school at fourteen years of age. During their course they were not allowed to study geography, because, in the sage opinion of their elders, knowledge of foreign lands might make them discontented and inclined to wander.  Neither was composition encouraged--that might lead to the writing of love-notes!  But they were permitted to absorb all the reading and arithmetic their little brains could hold, while the art of sewing was not only encouraged, but proficiency in it was stimulated by the award of prizes.  My mother, being a rather precocious young person, graduated at thirteen and carried off the first prize.  The garment she made was a linen chemise for the duchess, and the little needlewoman had embroidered on it, with her own hair, the august lady's coat of arms.  The offering must have been appreciated, for my mother's story always ended with the same words, uttered with the same air of gentle pride, ``And the duchess gave me with her own hands my Bible and my mug of beer!'' She never saw anything amusing in this association of gifts, and I always stood behind her when she told the incident, that she might not see the disrespectful mirth it aroused in me.

My father and mother met in Alnwick, and were married in February, 1835.  Ten years after his marriage father was forced into bankruptcy by the passage of the corn law, and to meet the obligations attending his failure he and my mother sold practically everything they possessed--their home, even their furniture.  Their little sons, who were away at school, were brought home, and the family expenses were cut down to the barest margin; but all these sacrifices paid only part of the debts.  My mother, finding that her early gift had a market value, took in sewing.  Father went to work on a small salary, and both my parents saved every penny they could lay aside, with the desperate determination to pay their remaining debts.  It was a long struggle and a painful one, but they finally won it.  Before they had done so, however, and during their bleakest days, their baby died, and my mother, like her mother before her, paid the penalty of being outside the fold of the Church of England.  She, too, was a Unitarian, and her baby, therefore, could not be laid in any consecrated burial-ground in her neighborhood.  She had either to bury it in the Potter's Field, with criminals, suicides, and paupers, or to take it by stage-coach to Alnwick, twenty miles away, and leave it in the little Unitarian churchyard where, after her strenuous life, Nicolas Stott now lay in peace.  She made the dreary journey alone, with the dear burden across her lap. In 1846, my parents went to London.  There they did not linger long, for the big, indifferent city had nothing to offer them.  They moved to Newcastle-on-Tyne, and here I was born, on the fourteenth day of February, in 1847.  Three boys and two girls had preceded me in the family circle, and when I was two years old my younger sister came. We were little better off in Newcastle than in London, and now my father began to dream the great dream of those days.  He would go to America. Surely, he felt, in that land of infinite promise all would be well with him and his.  He waited for the final payment of his debts and for my younger sister's birth.  Then he bade us good-by and sailed away to make an American home for us; and in the spring of 1851 my mother followed him with her six children, starting from Liverpool in a sailing-vessel, the John Jacob Westervelt. I was then little more than four years old, and the first vivid memory I have is that of being on shipboard and having a mighty wave roll over me.  I was lying on what seemed to be an enormous red box under a hatchway, and the water poured from above, almost drowning me.  This was the beginning of a storm which raged for days, and I still have of it a confused memory, a sort of nightmare, in which strange horrors figure, and which to this day haunts me at intervals when I am on the sea.  The thing that stands out most strongly during that period is the white face of my mother, ill in her berth.  We were with five hundred emigrants on the lowest deck of the ship but one, and as the storm grew wilder an unreasoning terror filled our fellow-passengers.  Too ill to protect her helpless brood, my mother saw us carried away from her for hours at a time, on the crests of waves of panic that sometimes approached her and sometimes receded, as they swept through the black hole in which we found ourselves when the hatches were nailed down.  No madhouse, I am sure, could throw more hideous pictures on the screen of life than those which met our childish eyes during the appalling three days of the storm. Our one comfort was the knowledge that our mother was not afraid.  She was desperately ill, but when we were able to reach her, to cling close to her for a blessed interval, she was still the sure refuge she had always been.

On the second day the masts went down, and on the third day the disabled ship, which now had sprung a leak and was rolling helplessly in the trough of the sea, was rescued by another ship and towed back to Queenstown, the nearest port.  The passengers, relieved of their anxieties, went from their extreme of fear to an equal extreme of drunken celebration.  They laughed, sang, and danced, but when we reached the shore many of them returned to the homes they had left, declaring that they had had enough of the ocean.  We, however, remained on the ship until she was repaired, and then sailed on her again.  We were too poor to return home; indeed, we had no home to which we could return. We were even too poor to live ashore.  But we made some penny excursions in the little boats that plied back and forth, and to us children at least the weeks of waiting were not without interest.  Among other places we visited Spike Island, where the convicts were, and for hours we watched the dreary shuttle of labor swing back and forth as the convicts carried pails of water from one side of the island, only to empty them into the sea at the other side.  It was merely ``busy work,'' to keep them occupied at hard labor; but even then I must have felt some dim sense of the irony of it, for I have remembered it vividly all these years.

Our second voyage on the John Jacob Westervelt was a very different experience from the first.  By day a glorious sun shone overhead; by night we had the moon and stars, as well as the racing waves we never wearied of watching.  For some reason, probably because of my intense admiration for them, which I showed with unmaidenly frankness, I became the special pet of the sailors.  They taught me to sing their songs as they hauled on their ropes, and I recall, as if I had learned it yesterday, one pleasing ditty:

    Haul on the bow-line,
    Kitty is my darling,
    Haul on the bow-line,
    The bow-line--HAUL!

When I sang ``haul'' all the sailors pulled their hardest, and I had an exhilarating sense of sharing in their labors.  As a return for my service of song the men kept my little apron full of ship sugar--very black stuff and probably very bad for me; but I ate an astonishing amount of it during that voyage, and, so far as I remember, felt no ill effects. The next thing I recall is being seriously scalded. I was at the foot of a ladder up which a sailor was carrying a great pot of hot coffee.  He slipped, and the boiling liquid poured down on me.  I must have had some bad days after that, for I was terribly burned, but they are mercifully vague.  My next vivid impression is of seeing land, which we sighted at sunset, and I remember very distinctly just how it looked.  It has never looked the same since.  The western sky was a mass of crimson and gold clouds, which took on the shapes of strange and beautiful things.  To me it seemed that we were entering heaven.  I remember also the doctors coming on board to examine us, and I can still see a line of big Irishmen standing very straight and holding out their tongues for inspection.  To a little girl only four years old their huge, open mouths looked appalling.

On landing a grievous disappointment awaited us; my father did not meet us.  He was in New Bedford, Massachusetts, nursing his grief and preparing to return to England, for he had been told that the John Jacob Westervelt had been lost at sea with every soul on board.  One of the missionaries who met the ship took us under his wing and conducted us to a little hotel, where we remained until father had received his incredible news and rushed to New York.  He could hardly believe that we were really restored to him; and even now, through the mists of more than half a century, I can still see the expression in his wet eyes as he picked me up and tossed me into the air. I can see, too, the toys he brought me--a little saw and a hatchet, which became the dearest treasures of my childish days.  They were fatidical gifts, that saw and hatchet; in the years ahead of me I was to use tools as well as my brothers did, as I proved when I helped to build our frontier home.

We went to New Bedford with father, who had found work there at his old trade; and here I laid the foundations of my first childhood friendship, not with another child, but with my next-door neighbor, a ship-builder.  Morning after morning this man swung me on his big shoulder and took me to his shipyard, where my hatchet and saw had violent exercise as I imitated the workers around me. Discovering that my tiny petticoats were in my way, my new friend had a little boy's suit made for me; and thus emancipated, at this tender age, I worked unwearyingly at his side all day long and day after day.  No doubt it was due to him that I did not casually saw off a few of my toes and fingers.  Certainly I smashed them often enough with blows of my dull but active hatchet.  I was very, very busy; and I have always maintained that I began to earn my share of the family's living at the age of five--for in return for the delights of my society, which seemed never to pall upon him, my new friend allowed my brothers to carry home from the shipyard all the wood my mother could use.

We remained in New Bedford less than a year, for in the spring of 1852 my father made another change, taking his family to Lawrence, Massachusetts, where we lived until 1859.  The years in Lawrence were interesting and formative ones.  At the tender age of nine and ten I became interested in the Abolition movement.  We were Unitarians, and General Oliver and many of the prominent citizens of Lawrence belonged to the Unitarian Church. We knew Robert Shaw, who led the first negro regiment, and Judge Storrow, one of the leading New England judges of his time, as well as the Cabots and George A. Walton, who was the author of Walton's Arithmetic and head of the Lawrence schools.  Outbursts of war talk thrilled me, and occasionally I had a little adventure of my own, as when one day, in visiting our cellar, I heard a noise in the coal-bin.  I investigated and discovered a negro woman concealed there.  I had been reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, as well as listening to the conversation of my elders, so I was vastly stirred over the negro question.  I raced up-stairs in a condition of awe-struck and quivering excitement, which my mother promptly suppressed by sending me to bed.  No doubt she questioned my youthful discretion, for she almost convinced me that I had seen nothing at all--almost, but not quite; and she wisely kept me close to her for several days, until the escaped slave my father was hiding was safely out of the house and away.  Discovery of this serious offense might have borne grave results for him. It was in Lawrence, too, that I received and spent my first twenty-five cents.  I used an entire day in doing this, and the occasion was one of the most delightful and memorable of my life.  It was the Fourth of July, and I was dressed in white and rode in a procession.  My sister Mary, who also graced the procession, had also been given twenty-five cents; and during the parade, when, for obvious reasons, we were unable to break ranks and spend our wealth, the consciousness of it lay heavily upon us.  When we finally began our shopping the first place we visited was a candy store, and I recall distinctly that we forced the weary proprietor to take down and show us every jar in the place before we spent one penny.  The first banana I ever ate was purchased that day, and I hesitated over it a long time.  Its cost was five cents, and in view of that large expenditure, the eating of the fruit, I was afraid, would be too brief a joy.  I bought it, however, and the experience developed into a tragedy, for, not knowing enough to peel the banana, I bit through skin and pulp alike, as if I were eating an apple, and then burst into ears of disappointment. The beautiful conduct of my sister Mary shines down through the years.  She, wise child, had taken no chances with the unknown; but now, moved by my despair, she bought half of my banana, and we divided the fruit, the loss, and the lesson. Fate, moreover, had another turn of the screw for us, for, after Mary had taken a bite of it, we gave what was left of the banana to a boy who stood near us and who knew how to eat it; and not even the large amount of candy in our sticky hands enabled us to regard with calmness the subsequent happiness of that little boy.

Another experience with fruit in Lawrence illustrates the ideas of my mother and the character of the training she gave her children.  Our neighbors, the Cabots, were one day giving a great garden party, and my sister was helping to pick strawberries for the occasion.  When I was going home from school I passed the berry-patches and stopped to speak to my sister, who at once presented me with two strawberries.  She said Mrs. Cabot had told her to eat all she wanted, but that she would eat two less than she wanted and give those two to me.  To my mind, the suggestion was generous and proper; in my life strawberries were rare.  I ate one berry, and then, overcome by an ambition to be generous also, took the other berry home to my mother, telling her how I had got it.  To my chagrin, mother was deeply shocked.  She told me that the transaction was all wrong, and she made me take back the berry and explain the matter to Mrs. Cabot. By the time I reached that generous lady the berry was the worse for its journey, and so was I.  I was only nine years old and very sensitive.  It was clear to me that I could hardly live through the humiliation of the confession, and it was indeed a bitter experience the worst, I think, in my young life, though Mrs. Cabot was both sympathetic and understanding.  She kissed me, and sent a quart of strawberries to my mother; but for a long time afterward I could not meet her kind eyes, for I believed that in her heart she thought me a thief.

My second friendship, and one which had a strong influence on my after-life, was formed in Lawrence. I was not more than ten years old when I met this new friend, but the memory of her in after-years, and the impression she had made on my susceptible young mind, led me first into the ministry, next into medicine, and finally into suffrage-work.  Living next door to us, on Prospect Hill, was a beautiful and mysterious woman.  All we children knew of her was that she was a vivid and romantic figure, who seemed to have no friends and of whom our elders spoke in whispers or not at all.  To me she was a princess in a fairy-tale, for she rode a white horse and wore a blue velvet riding-habit with a blue velvet hat and a picturesquely drooping white plume.  I soon learned at what hours she went forth to ride, and I used to hover around our gate for the joy of seeing her mount and gallop away. I realized that there was something unusual about her house, and I had an idea that the prince was waiting for her somewhere in the far distance, and that for the time at least she had escaped the ogre in the castle she left behind.  I was wrong about the prince, but right about the ogre.  It was only when my unhappy lady left her castle that she was free.

Very soon she noticed me.  Possibly she saw the adoration in my childish eyes.  She began to nod and smile at me, and then to speak to me, but at first I was almost afraid to answer her.  There were stories now among the children that the house was haunted, and that by night a ghost walked there and in the grounds.  I felt an extraordinary interest in the ghost, and I spent hours peering through our picket fence, trying to catch a glimpse of it; but I hesitated to be on terms of neighborly intimacy with one who dwelt with ghosts.

One day the mysterious lady bent and kissed me. Then, straightening up, she looked at me queerly and said:  ``Go and tell your mother I did that.'' There was something very compelling in her manner. I knew at once that I must tell my mother what she had done, and I ran into our house and did so. While my mother was considering the problem the situation presented, for she knew the character of the house next door, a note was handed in to her--a very pathetic little note from my mysterious lady, asking my mother to let me come and see her.  Long afterward mother showed it to me.  It ended with the words:  ``She will see no one but me.  No harm shall come to her.  Trust me.''

That night my parents talked the matter over and decided to let me go.  Probably they felt that the slave next door was as much to be pitied as the escaped-negro slaves they so often harbored in our home.  I made my visit, which was the first of many, and a strange friendship began and developed between the woman of the town and the little girl she loved.  Some of those visits I remember as vividly as if I had made them yesterday.  There was never the slightest suggestion during any of them of things I should not see or hear, for while I was with her my hostess became a child again, and we played together like children.  She had wonderful toys for me, and pictures and books; but the thing I loved best of all and played with for hours was a little stuffed hen which she told me had been her dearest treasure when she was a child at home.  She had also a stuffed puppy, and she once mentioned that those two things alone were left of her life as a little girl.  Besides the toys and books and pictures, she gave me ice-cream and cake, and told me fairy-tales.  She had a wonderful understanding of what a child likes.  There were half a dozen women in the house with her, but I saw none of them nor any of the men who came.

Once, when we had become very good friends indeed and my early shyness had departed, I found courage to ask her where the ghost was--the ghost that haunted her house.  I can still see the look in her eyes as they met mine.  She told me the ghost lived in her heart, and that she did not like to talk about it, and that we must not speak of it again.  After that I never mentioned it, but I was more deeply interested than ever, for a ghost that lived in a heart was a new kind of ghost to me at that time, though I have met many of them since then.  During all our intercourse my mother never entered the house next door, nor did my mysterious lady enter our home; but she constantly sent my mother secret gifts for the poor and the sick of the neighborhood, and she was always the first to offer help for those who were in trouble.

Many years afterward mother told me she was the most generous woman she had ever known, and that she had a rarely beautiful nature.  Our departure for Michigan broke up the friendship, but I have never forgotten her; and whenever, in my later work as minister, physician, and suffragist, I have been able to help women of the class to which she belonged, I have mentally offered that help for credit in the tragic ledger of her life, in which the clean and the blotted pages were so strange a contrast.

One more incident of Lawrence I must describe before I leave that city behind me, as we left it for ever in 1859.  While we were still there a number of Lawrence men decided to go West, and amid great public excitement they departed in a body for Kansas, where they founded the town of Lawrence in that state.  I recall distinctly the public interest which attended their going, and the feeling every one seemed to have that they were passing forever out of the civilized world.  Their farewells to their friends were eternal; no one expected to see them again, and my small brain grew dizzy as I tried to imagine a place so remote as their destination.  It was, I finally decided, at the uttermost ends of the earth, and it seemed quite possible that the brave adventurers who reached it might then drop off into space.  Fifty years later I was talking to a California girl who complained lightly of the monotony of a climate where the sun shone and the flowers bloomed all the year around.  ``But I had a delightful change last year,'' she added, with animation.  ``I went East for the winter.'' ``To New York?'' I asked. ``No,'' corrected the California girl, easily, ``to Lawrence, Kansas.'' Nothing, I think, has ever made me feel quite so old as that remark.  That in my life, not yet, to me at least, a long one, I should see such an arc described seemed actually oppressive until I realized that, after all, the arc was merely a rainbow of time showing how gloriously realized were the hopes of the Lawrence pioneers.

The move to Michigan meant a complete upheaval in our lives.  In Lawrence we had around us the fine flower of New England civilization.  We children went to school; our parents, though they were in very humble circumstances, were associated with the leading spirits and the big movements of the day.  When we went to Michigan we went to the wilderness, to the wild pioneer life of those times, and we were all old enough to keenly feel the change. My father was one of a number of Englishmen who took up tracts in the northern forests of Michigan, with the old dream of establishing a colony there. None of these men had the least practical knowledge of farming.  They were city men or followers of trades which had no connection with farm life. They went straight into the thick timber-land, instead of going to the rich and waiting prairies, and they crowned this initial mistake by cutting down the splendid timber instead of letting it stand. Thus bird's-eye maple and other beautiful woods were used as fire-wood and in the construction of rude cabins, and the greatest asset of the pioneers was ignored.

Father preceded us to the Michigan woods, and there, with his oldest son, James, took up a claim. They cleared a space in the wilderness just large enough for a log cabin, and put up the bare walls of the cabin itself.  Then father returned to Lawrence and his work, leaving James behind.  A few months later (this was in 1859), my mother, my two sisters, Eleanor and Mary, my youngest brother, Henry, eight years of age, and I, then twelve, went to Michigan to work on and hold down the claim while father, for eighteen months longer, stayed on in Lawrence, sending us such remittances as he could. His second and third sons, John and Thomas, remained in the East with him.

Every detail of our journey through the wilderness is clear in my mind.  At that time the railroad terminated at Grand Rapids, Michigan, and we covered the remaining distance--about one hundred miles--by wagon, riding through a dense and often trackless forest.  My brother James met us at Grand Rapids with what, in those days, was called a lumber-wagon, but which had a horrible resemblance to a vehicle from the health department. My sisters and I gave it one cold look and turned from it; we were so pained by its appearance that we refused to ride in it through the town.  Instead, we started off on foot, trying to look as if we had no association with it, and we climbed into the unwieldy vehicle only when the city streets were far behind us.  Every available inch of space in the wagon was filled with bedding and provisions.  As yet we had no furniture; we were to make that for ourselves when we reached our cabin; and there was so little room for us to ride that we children walked by turns, while James, from the beginning of the journey to its end, seven days later, led our weary horses.

To my mother, who was never strong, the whole experience must have been a nightmare of suffering and stoical endurance.  For us children there were compensations.  The expedition took on the character of a high adventure, in which we sometimes had shelter and sometimes failed to find it, sometimes were fed, but often went hungry.  We forded innumerable streams, the wheels of the heavy wagon sinking so deeply into the stream-beds that we often had to empty our load before we could get them out again.  Fallen trees lay across our paths, rivers caused long detours, while again and again we lost our way or were turned aside by impenetrable forest tangles.

Our first day's journey covered less than eight miles, and that night we stopped at a farm-house which was the last bit of civilization we saw.  Early the next morning we were off again, making the slow progress due to the rough roads and our heavy load. At night we stopped at a place called Thomas's Inn, only to be told by the woman who kept it that there was nothing in the house to eat.  Her husband, she said, had gone ``outside'' (to Grand Rapids) to get some flour, and had not returned--but she added that we could spend the night, if we chose, and enjoy shelter, if not food.  We had provisions in our wagon, so we wearily entered, after my brother had got out some of our pork and opened a barrel of flour.  With this help the woman made some biscuits, which were so green that my poor mother could not eat them.  She had admitted to us that the one thing she had in the house was saleratus, and she had used this ingredient with an unsparing hand.  When the meal was eaten she broke the further news that there were no beds. ``The old woman can sleep with me,'' she suggested, ``and the girls can sleep on the floor.  The boys will have to go to the barn.'' She and her bed were not especially attractive, and mother decided to lie on the floor with us.  We had taken our bedding from the wagon, and we slept very well; but though she was usually superior to small annoyances, I think my mother resented being called an ``old woman.''  She must have felt like one that night, but she was only about forty-eight years of age.

At dawn the next morning we resumed our journey, and every day after that we were able to cover the distance demanded by the schedule arranged before we started.  This meant that some sort of shelter usually awaited us at night.  But one day we knew there would be no houses between the place we left in the morning and that where we were to sleep.  The distance was about twenty miles, and when twilight fell we had not made it.  In the back of the wagon my mother had a box of little pigs, and during the afternoon these had broken loose and escaped into the woods.  We had lost much time in finding them, and we were so exhausted that when we came to a hut made of twigs and boughs we decided to camp in it for the night, though we knew nothing about it.  My brother had unharnessed the horses, and my mother and sister were cooking dough-god--a mixture of flour, water, and soda, fried in a pan-when two men rode up on horseback and called my brother to one side.  Immediately after the talk which followed James harnessed his horses again and forced us to go on, though by that time darkness had fallen.  He told mother, but did not tell us children until long afterward, that a man had been murdered in the hut only the night before.  The murderer was still at large in the woods, and the new-comers were members of a posse who were searching for him.  My brother needed no urging to put as many miles as he could between us and the sinister spot. In that fashion we made our way to our new home. The last day, like the first, we traveled only eight miles, but we spent the night in a house I shall never forget.  It was beautifully clean, and for our evening meal its mistress brought out loaves of bread which were the largest we had ever seen.  She cut great slices of this bread for us and spread maple sugar on them, and it seemed to us that never before had anything tasted so good.

The next morning we made the last stage of our journey, our hearts filled with the joy of nearing our new home.  We all had an idea that we were going to a farm, and we expected some resemblance at least to the prosperous farms we had seen in New England.  My mother's mental picture was, naturally, of an English farm.  Possibly she had visions of red barns and deep meadows, sunny skies and daisies.  What we found awaiting us were the four walls and the roof of a good-sized log-house, standing in a small cleared strip of the wilderness, its doors and windows represented by square holes, its floor also a thing of the future, its whole effect achingly forlorn and desolate.  It was late in the afternoon when we drove up to the opening that was its front entrance, and I shall never forget the look my mother turned upon the place.  Without a word she crossed its threshold, and, standing very still, looked slowly around her.  Then something within her seemed to give way, and she sank upon the ground.  She could not realize even then, I think, that this was really the place father had prepared for us, that here he expected us to live.  When she finally took it in she buried her face in her hands, and in that way she sat for hours without moving or speaking.  For the first time in her life she had forgotten us; and we, for our part, dared not speak to her.  We stood around her in a frightened group, talking to one another in whispers.  Our little world had crumbled under our feet.  Never before had we seen our mother give way to despair.

Night began to fall.  The woods became alive with night creatures, and the most harmless made the most noise.  The owls began to hoot, and soon we heard the wildcat, whose cry--a screech like that of a lost and panic-stricken child--is one of the most appalling sounds of the forest.  Later the wolves added their howls to the uproar, but though darkness came and we children whimpered around her, our mother still sat in her strange lethargy. At last my brother brought the horses close to the cabin and built fires to protect them and us.  He was only twenty, but he showed himself a man during those early pioneer days.  While he was picketing the horses and building his protecting fires my mother came to herself, but her face when she raised it was worse than her silence had been.  She seemed to have died and to have returned to us from the grave, and I am sure she felt that she had done so.  From that moment she took up again the burden of her life, a burden she did not lay down until she passed away; but her face never lost the deep lines those first hours of her pioneer life had cut upon it.

That night we slept on boughs spread on the earth inside the cabin walls, and we put blankets before the holes which represented our doors and windows, and kept our watch-fires burning.  Soon the other children fell asleep, but there was no sleep for me. I was only twelve years old, but my mind was full of fancies.  Behind our blankets, swaying in the night wind, I thought I saw the heads and pushing shoulders of animals and heard their padded footfalls. Later years brought familiarity with wild things, and with worse things than they.  But to-night that which I most feared was within, not outside of, the cabin.  In some way which I did not understand the one sure refuge in our new world had been taken from us.  I hardly knew the silent woman who lay near me, tossing from side to side and staring into the darkness; I felt that we had lost our mother.

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