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The Border or Riding Clans
The Clan Dickson

These variations of spelling proper names are not peculiar to Scotland. I think it was Dugdale who stated that he had found over one hundred and forty variations of the name of Mainwaring or Mannering, anciently de Mesnilwarin.

Dickson is now the usual form in Scotland, but in England where the similar name is not a clan name, and where there are numerous different families who do not pretend to claim a common origin, but all derive their surname from being sons of various Dicks, it is almost invariably written Dixon.

The clan are descended from the Keiths, Earls Marshall, one of the most powerful families in Scotland, when, with the sole exception of the Royal Family, the title of Earl was the highest in the kingdom, and who had so many possessions that it was formerly said that they could journey from the north to the south of Scotland and sleep every night in one of their own castles.

This descent is proved by no less than three entries in the Records of the Lyon Office between the years 1672 and 1694.

And here it may be well to explain that during a temporary occupation of the country by the English most of the public records, including those of the Lyon Office, were shipped to London and lost at sea, and about the year 1670, the remaining records of that office were destroyed by fire.

The earliest Register of Arms, now extant, is that of Sir David Lindsay, Lord Lyon King at Arms, containing over three hundred shields beautifully emblazoned, with the names added, as "Dikesoun of yat Ilk." This which was executed about 1542, was authenticated by the Scottish Privy Council in 1630, and is preserved in the Advocate's library.

In 1672, an act of Parliament was made ordaining all the nobility and gentry to register their armorial bearings, but Nisbet complains that many of the most ancient and considerable families neglected to register, partly through indolence and partly through a false pride, considering themselves so well known that it was unnecessary.

Three of our name obeyed the law, the first of whom is entered thus: "Mr. [Mr. was his title as Advocate.] Robert Dickson, Advocat, descended of ye familie of ye Earle Marischall, Bears," — etc. The second reads: "Mr. Alexander Dicksone of Westerbinning, descended of the family of Buhtrig which was descended of the Earle Marshall, Bears,"— etc., and the third is as follows:-

"Captain Robert Dickson of Sornbeg, and which surname was originally Keith, Bears,"— etc.

Nisbet in his Heraldry (Edinburgh, 1722) says the Dicksons are descended from one Richard Keith, said to be a son of the family of Keiths Earls Marshall of Scotland, and in proof thereof carry in their arms the chief of Keith Marischal.

This Richard was commonly called Dick, and his sons were styled after him, the affix of son in the  Lowlands answering to the prefix of Mac in the Highlands.

It is probable that he was the son of the Great Marshal Hervey de Keth, who died in 1249, by his wife Margaret, daughter of William third Lord Douglas, because it was customary in Scotland in those days before the introduction of quartering for cadets to compose their Arms by adding to their paternal bearing a part or the whole of their mother's Arms to show their maternal descent, and to difference themselves from other descendants of the family, and the Arms of Keith are Argent on a Chief gules three pallets or (but Nisbet says in several paintings the chief is paly of six or and gules, which agrees with their traditionary origin that at a battle with the Danes a chief of the Keith's slew the Danish leader, which being perceived by King Malcolm, he drew, with the blood of the dead man, long stripes on the conqueror's shield — and also agrees with the Chief of Dickson of Buhtrig), while the House of Douglas, before the death of the Bruce in 1329, bore simply Azure three mullets argent. The heart was added by William first Earl of Douglas, and appears on his seal in 1343.

Some of the Dicksons seem to have preferred the Douglas mullets alone, for Thomas (II) of Hazelside, who succeeded his father in 1307, bore a sword between two mullets, and others bore mullets only.

The Dicksons of Buhtrig, however, bore the Chief of Keith with the Douglas mullets in base, a perfect specimen of composed Arms. The early records being lost it is impossible to say when they first bore that coat, although it may have been adopted as early as when Thomas (II) of Hazelside chose his armorial bearings. They were generally assumed in those days. The granting of Arms by Herald's Colleges is of later date.

The first Dickson on record, moreover, was evidently a person of very good standing, such as a grandson of the Earl Marshall might be expected to be, a man of wealth as well as of influence, and was also a clansman of the Douglas. Two of the oldest Scottish Historians recount his deeds, Archdeacon Barbour who wrote in 1375, and Blind Harry, or Henry the Minstrel, whose metrical history was written about 1381.

There are some who speak slightingly of the bard, but Major, who was born in 1405, says he was living about that time and that he recited his compositions in the presence of princes or men of the highest rank (corant princijibus), and Chalmers in his Caledonia, says "Blind Harrie, whom the Scotch Historians generally follow but dare not quote. Blind Harrie is, however, supported by the Tower Records."

According to the Minstrel, when Douglas wished to recover his castle of Sanquhar in 1295, he applied to Thom Dycson who was "born to himself," i. e., relation or clansman by birth, and addresses him as "Dear Friend," and relied so much upon him that he afterward selected him to pass through the enemy's camp of some three thousand men to bear a message to Wallace; while Barbour says he was rich in moveables and cattle and had many friends, besides which his house could not have been a small one as it contained a private chamber where he not only concealed Douglas but also brought persons to see him without attracting notice, and the space for such a secret apartment could not have been taken out of a small house without being perceived.

It is necessary to make this explanation because Hume of Godscroft, in 1648, calls him a "servant," by which he evidently meant a feudal retainer, and Scott follows Hume without explaining the modern meaning of the word as he should have done, so that probably every reader of Castle Dangerous considers Doughty Dickson, as he is still called, to have been a menial, instead of which he was, Laird of at least two Baronies and Governor of Douglas Castle. McDowell, in his History of Dumfriesshire, absurdly styles him "a soldier of humble rank," instead of which he was a "tenant in capite," holding direct from the Crown. This


Laird of Symonston and Hesleside, county Lanark, and Castellan of Douglas, son of Dick de Keth, was born A. D. 1247, and if grandson of the aforesaid Hervey de Keth was then also second cousin to William seventh Lord Douglas, father of the good Sir James eighth Lord, to both of whom Dickson was certainly a trusty friend.

After the capture of Berwick in 1295, Sir William Douglas wished to recover his castle of Sanquhar, then held by the English who had laid waste all the surrounding country, and accordingly as the Minstrel says, went to

"A young man than that hardy was and bauld (bold),
Born till him selff and Thom Dycson was cauld;
Der freynd he said I wald preyff (Prove) at my mycht,
And mak a fray to fats Bewfurd the knycht,
In Sanquhar duellys and dois full gret owtrage
Than Dycson said my self in that wiage (voyage),
Sall for you pass with Anderson to spek."

Anderson supplied the castle daily with fuel and Dickson persuaded him to lend him his apparel and cart. At night Douglas with thirty men concealed himself in a ravine near the castle and

"To the Sanquhar Dickson alone he send,
And he soon made with Anderson this end
Dickson should take both his horse and his weed (dress),
By it was day a draught of wood to lead,
Again he passed and told the good Douglas
Who drew him soon into a privy place.
Anderson told what stuff there was therein
To Thom Dickson that was near of kin;
Forty there are of men of mickle vail.
Be they on foot they will you sore assail.
If you happen the entry for to get
On thy right hand a stalwart ax is set,
Therewith you may defend you in a thrang,
Be Douglas wise he hides not from you lang."

It was just daybreak, Anderson arranged the load and gave Dickson his clothes. The porter opened the castle gates and when the cart was between them, Dickson, with one blow, cut loose the piece of harness by which the horse was attached so that the load stuck fast, preventing the closing of the gates. He then killed the porter with his knife and seizing the axe that Anderson had told hire of beckoned therewith to the ambush who rushed- forward, slew the three wardens and took possession before the garrison were out of their beds.

The English soon, however, laid seige to the castle and Douglas led Dickson out through some postern or secret passage mounted on a fleet horse to warn Sir William Wallace.

"Thom Dycson than was met with good Wallace
Quhilk grantyt sone to reskew I)ouglace
Dicson he said wait (know) thow thair inultipli
Three thousand men thair power mycht nocht be —
[Two of these extracts are from the MS. of 1488.
The second is from the edition of 1758 which is much modernized.]

The English having notice of Wallace's approach raised the siege and retreated, but were overtaken and lost five hundred men.

For this and other services Dickson received the lands of IIisleside or Hazelside, about ten miles west of Douglas, where there is still a house bearing the name. There is scarcely a vestige of the old mansion remaining, but there are indications that it was a building of magnitude and strength.

Dickson must have done good service to his country for ten years later King Robert Bruce, about the year 1306, conveyed to Thomas filius Ricardi, the barony of Symundstun, now Symington, in the county of Lanark, and he was also created Hereditary Castellan or Governor of Douglas Castle. As such he resided in his own house except in case of war, when he left his house in charge of his dependents and himself took command of Castle Douglas.

Archdeacon Barbour's account of the return of Sir James to Douglasdale in 1307, is as follows:

"Now takis James his wiage
Towart Dowglas his heretage

* * * *

And than a man wonnyt tharby
That was of freyndis weill mychty
And ryche of moble and of cateill
And had been to his fadyr leyll
And till himself in his youthed
He had done mony a thankful deid
Thorn dicson wes his name perfey."

i. e.
"Now takes James his voyage
Towards Douglas his heritage.

* * * *

And then a man dwelt thereby
That was of friends very mighty
And rich of movables and cattle
And who had been loyal to his father
And to himself in his youth
He had done many a thankful deed
Thom Dicson was his name by my faith.
To him he sends and prayed him
That he would come to him at once
To speak privately to hirn
And he regardless of the danger went to him
And when he told him who he was
He wept for joy and for pity
And took him directly to his house
Where, in a chamber privately
He kept him and his company
That no one perceived it
Of meat and drink and other things they had plenty.
He wrought with so much subtilty
That all the loyal men of the country
That were dwelling there in his father's time
This good man made come one by one
And do their homage every one
And he himself first homage made."

Douglas then by Dickson's aid recaptured his castle of Douglas from the English, but according to Hume of Godscroft's History of the Family of Douglas (Edinburgh, 1648), being oppressed by the multitude of his enemies, Dickson was himself cut down and slain.

Barbour's account is as follows:

"Here Ja of dowglas slays them in the church.
The folk upon the Sunday
Held to St. Bride's church their way
And they that in the castle were
Issued out both less and more
And went forth their palms to bear
Except a cook and a porter.
Iames of Douglas of their coming
And what they were had notice
And sped him to the church in haste
But ere he came to it hastily
One of his friends cried 'Douglas, Douglas,'
Thomas Dicsone the nearest was
To them that were of the castle
Who were all within the chancel
And when he `Douglas' so heard cry
He drew out his sword and fiercely
Rushed among them to and fro."

According to tradition, although cut across the middle by an English sword he still continued his opposition until he fell lifeless, and this account, says Sir Walter Scott, is supported by a memorial of some authority — a tombstone still to be seen in the churchyard of St. Bride of Douglas, on which is sculptured a figure of Dickson, supporting with his hand his protruding entrails, and raising his sword with the other in the attitude of combat.

I regret to say, however, that Sir Walter was here at fault. In my visits to Scotland I had never passed through the town of Douglas, but in 1887, applied to the minister, the Rev. W. Smith, intending to have the monument photographed. To my surprise, however, neither he nor his sexton had ever heard of it. He then wrote to the Rev. Dr. Struthers of Prestonpans, a noted local antiquary, who remembered perfectly the churchyard as it was fifty-four years ago, and knew all the monuments, but said although there were a number of Dickson tombstones this was not among them. None of the oldest inhabitants, even those of the name, knew any thing of it. Mr. Smith then applied to the former grave digger, a very old man whose father had been grave digger before him, and offered him from me a reward if he would point it out. He said that Dickson was killed at the church door and buried before the door, but that there was no such monument. That he believed the former minister, the Rev. Dr. Stewart was mistaken in supposing there was one, and that he had always thought Sir Walter was misinformed or that he jotted down notes which he misunderstood. That Sir Walter visited the church but took Clown his notes in the hotel at Douglas from an old man named Haddon while the latter was eating the breakfast Sir Walter had given him, and that Sir Walter was very ill at the time and died not very long after.

His state of health was, therefore, probably also the cause that he overlooked the term "Dear Friend," by which Douglas addressed Dickson, as well as Barbour's statement, and called the lord of two manors a servant. Tytler also calls him a servant, while at the same time he says that llouglas lay concealed in Dickson's house and "Here night after night did his principal vassals assemble." A menial's house would hardly have been large enough or suitable for such a purpose.

THOMAS DICSON, Laird of Symonston and Hazelside, Hereditary Castellan of Douglas, was killed on Palm Sunday, March 19, 1307, aged sixty, and was succeeded by his eldest son.

THOMAS DICSON (II), whose successors the eldest branch at least, afterward took the name of Symonston, and with them therefore we have no more to do, except only to add that in 1335-6, Edward III, declared forfeited "5 burgages [Lands held by a peculiar tenure.] now waste, in xvj s. vii] d, at Sennewhare (Sanquhar) belonging to Thome son of Thome Dikeson."

The other sons of Dick de Keth or of Thomas Dicson (I), or of both, and perhaps also the younger sons of Symonston retained the patronymic, and from them the clan is derived.

The Dicksons were formerly one of the principal Border Clans of the East Marches, and according to Dr. Rogers (Traits and Stories of the Scottish People, London, 1867) were called


and their daughters appear to have been likewise eminent, in their case we must suppose both for beauty and accomplishments, as the old rhyme says

"Boughtrig and Belchester
Hatchetknows and Darnchester
Leetholm and the Peel;
If ye dinna get a wife in ane of thae places
Ye'll ne'er do wee!."

Buhtrig, Belchester, Leitholm and the Peel were Dickson baronies. Darnchester belonged at one time to the Trotters.

From Lanark the family soon removed to Peebles and Berwick. In the former county the name ap. pears as early as 1338, and in Berwickshire in 1380, when Hugo Dekounson of Lathame is mentioned.
The Douglasses acquired lands in the county of Berwick in the reign of Robert I (1306-29) and a I{eith was governor of Berwick-on-Tweed in 1333, which may account for the Dicksons settling there.

Chambers in his History of Peeblesshire says: "These Dikesons or Dyckisons (now modernized into Dickson), seem to have been an old and pretty numerous family in the district, for they turn up on all occasions in the burgh and other records."

Ade Dicson was Sheriff-Depute of Peeblesshire in 1338, and Ade Dekysoun was bailie or alderman of Peebles in 1400.

John Diksone was bailie in 1433, Thomas Dickesoun in 1444, William Dekysone in 1464, John Dikesoun in 1466 and Robert I)iksone in 1480. John Dykkyson rendered the accounts of the bailies of Peebles in 1440.

Patrick Dikesone, bailie in 1482, had a grant under the great seal of £8, 3s. 4d. yearly for nineteen years to come for his services in capturing certain rebels to the king. Money was then many times more valuable than it is now. In the year 1300, an English Admiral of the Fleet only received two shillings per day, and as Hallam says an income of £10 or £20 was reckoned a competent estate for a gentleman, and a knight who possessed £'50 per annum passed for extremely rich. And this was equal in command over commodities to £4000 at present. In 1391, a pension of twenty pounds a year was considered sufficient in Scotland for an ambassador, that sum having been settled for life upon Robert Grant, ancestor of the Grants of Grant. "He having been employed on various missions abroad," and about the same time that Bailie Dickson obtained his grant the following entry appears in the church warden's accounts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, A. D. 1476:

"Paid to Roger Fylpot, learned in the law, for his counsel giving, 3s. 8d. with fourpence for his dinner." What would a modern barrister say were such a dole in our present currency offered him?

The bailies of Peebles were chosen from among the burgesses, and some value was attached even to the latter dignity, for in 1486, Allan Ewart furnished one hundred loads of stone for repairing the Tweed Bridge in requital for being constituted a burgess or freeman.

The position was not only an honorary one, but it conveyed several important privileges.

John Dickeson of Winkston was Provost of Peebles in 1572, Dikesoun in 16o6, and John Dickiesonne in 1622. Matthew Dickson was Provost of Dumfries in 1582.

Noblemen often held this office. Among the Provosts of Dumfries were Lord Maxwell, Sir Roger Kirkpatrick and Lord Drumlanrig, and among the Provosts of Annan was the Earl of Annandale (afterward Marquess) who was succeeded in the office by his son Lord Johnstone.

Robert Dyckison of Hutcheonfield, county Peebles, had a charter from King Robert III (1390-1406) and Jolin Dikeson of Smithfield in the same county, who was living in 1457, is the oldest recorded proprietor of that castle.

Henry Dikson was one of a party of five to whom a safe conduct was granted by Henry VI, King of England in 1426, to "George of Fallo, William of Karylers, Patrick Kant, James Banbury and Henry Dikson, Scotsmen, with six attendants, foot or horse, baggage, 'ferdills,' etc., to come and to go between England and other places at pleasure."

William Dicson was in 1445, a companion of Sir James Stewart, Lord of Lorn, called the Black Knight of Lorn, who married Jane Queen Dowager of Scotland, for in that year a safe conduct was granted by Henry VI, to "James Stewert lately husband of the late Queen of Scotland, John Stewert his son and William Dicson, Scots with twenty persons Scotchmen in their company."

This William Dicson was evidently a person of consequence, for although there were twenty others he is the only one mentioned by name in connection with, if not even as the equal of, the step-father and step-brother (Sir John Stewart, afterward Earl of Athol) of the reigning King James the Second.

Patrick Diksone, Laird of Mersington, parish of Eccles, county Berwick, was living at his bastel-house and Will Diksone of the tower at his tower in Eccles in 1479, when they were charged with treason along with the Duke of Albany and others.

In 1544, the English army destroyed no less than eleven or twelve places belonging to the clan, all of which must have been of more or less importance to have found a place in the report sent to the King of England.

One year after this a bond was subscribed by the Lords, Barons and Gentlemen of the March of Teviotdale, obliging themselves to furnish one thousand horsemen to serve on the Border, and among the signers was John Diksone of Belchester.

In 1591, two bonds were signed by the principal Barons and Gentlemen of the East Marches pledging themselves to serve the King against Bothwell, and of the forty-one subscribers whose names have been preserved four were Dicksons.

Alexander Dickson, one of the above four, who was living in Edinburgh in the last decade of the sixteenth century appears to have been a prominent personage on friendly terms with Queen Elizabeth's ambassador in Scotland, and with the French ambassador in London, and to have been himself appointed Scotch ambassador to the Low Countries.

In Thorpe's State Papers there are two letters written by him and he is mentioned in five others, and as some of the extracts are curious I give them in full, premising that Bowes was the Queen's ambassador, Nicholson, Secretary to the English Embassy, and Sir Robert Cecil, English Secretary of State.

"Edinburgh, May 23, 595. Anonymous to [Mr. Bowes]. The agents of the Catholic Lords very busy in their behalf. An evil spirit conjured from a young maid in Galloway. Angus holding on in the old fashion. An arrival from Paris. A casket of papers sent by Mr. Dickson."

"Edinburgh, July 9, 1595. Anonymous to [Mr. Bowes]. Mr. Dickson's uncle returned, but whether he brought any thing for his nephew he knows not."

"Edinburgh, July 15, 1595. George Nicholson to. Mr. Bowes. Mr. Dickson will undertake the office requested of him. He wishes a passport to go through England. Argyle is sick and thought to be bewitched. McLane's willingness to serve against Tyrone. Lord Sanquhar will satisfy the Kirk. Disagreement between the King and Queen."

"Edinburgh, Aug. 9, 1595. Alexander Dicksone to Mr. Bowes. Thanks him for his loving mind and friendly endeavors, and professes a desire to do all good offices in return toward him and his sovereign. In reply to his request, he informs him that after he left the schools his genius and his youth inclined him mickle to the knowledge of the Affairs of the North, and that he gave himself to follow my Lord of Leicester, Sir Philip Sidney, and divers others the courtiers of the time ; and he liked mickle for the same cause, to be acquainted with strangers and Ambassadors, and this was the ground of his resort to De L'Aubespine, and so he got all such discourses as he could, published or unpublished, as might advance his knowledge of the times he lived in. Describes the papers and books he possessed and offers to write to Mons. De L'Aubespine to prove his statement. Assures him that since he came to Scotland he never had any kind of commerce or intelligence by word or writing with any manner of men in England or any other of her Majesty's territories."

"Edinburgh, Sep. , 1595. Alexander Dickson to George Nicolson. Mr. Bowes to be informed of the arrival of Macwhinnie the priest who has come through England."

In 1596, a passport was given in Edinburgh by Mr. Bowes to Robert Dixon to go to London.

I continue the extracts:-

"The Hague, Nov. 12-22, 1598. Mr. Andrew Hunter, Minister of the Evangel to the Scots Regiment in. Holland to Sir Robert Cecill. The person who conveyed the letters to Scotland is expected again this summer; his name is John Young. Expediency of looking to him in England. Alexander Dixon expected from Scotland; his covert designs. Colonel Murray and Captain Hamilton's efforts to get him (Hunter) removed."

"Edinburgh, Dec. i6, 1598. George Nicolson to Sir Robert Cecill. The King and his Household receive the Communion; Angus and Errol do not; doubts about them. Meeting of the Council. The King's intercession with the Presbyters for the release of Lord Hume from excommunication. An Embassy to go to France. Mr. Dixon to go to the Low Countries. A foray by the Grahams."

This Alexander Dickson must have been a man of some importance when we find that a person deems it material to write to the English Ambassador solely to inform him of the arrival of Dickson's uncle. Then Dickson when offering to return Mr. Bowes' kindnesses writes as if he was assured that the Envoy knew that he (Dickson) had the power, if necessary, to be of service both to the Ambassador and his Sovereign, and lastly, although the French Embassy was not yet composed, it was settled that Dickson was to be Ambassador to Holland.

Sir Walter Scott in his Border Antiquities says that "a little work called Monipenny's Chronicle, published 1597 and 1603, gives, among other particulars, a list of the principal clans and surnames on the borders, not landed, as well as the chief riders and men of name among them." It commences "Bromfields (Chief, Bromfield of Gordon Mains, or of that Ilk), Trotters (Chief unknown), Diksons (Chief unknown)."

There were more than two editions of this work, but I have not met with the one from which Sir Walter made the extract. As before stated, however, the title should be "landed, and not landed," for the Records of the Privy Council are alone sufficient to prove that some of the Dicksons were "Landit Men," and as regards the words "Chief unknown," it would seem, on the contrary, that Buhtrig was the chief as in a Bond of 1573-4, Buhtrig, Belchester and three others are styled the principals and representatives for the surname of Dickson, and in four other Bonds from 1563 to 1591, where they also appear as a body Buhtrig always signs first. That of August, 1591, was probably signed in the order as they arrived, for near the head is Alexander Diksoun, without local designation, and lower down Buhtrig and Belchester.

Nisbet in his Heraldry (Edinburgh, 1722), says: "There are several families of the name of Dickson of good old standing in the shire of Berwick," and names Dickson of Buhtrig, Dickson of Belchester, now the only old family of the name since Buhtrig has failed (i. e., become extinct) ; Dickson of Newbigging next to Belchester; Dickson of Wester Binning and Sir Robert Dickson of Sornbegg, now designed of Inveresk, but the author here contradicts himself, and •probably meant to say several families of "good standing," Belchester being then the only "old family. He did not, however, seem to be aware that Sir Robert claimed descent from the house of Buhtrig, and he overlooked the families of Hartrie and others.
From the year 1558, to the end of the last century fifteen of the clan were members of Parliament, as will be seen in the sequel, and the eldest son of the last laird of Belchester has represented an English constituency for several years.

Some of the clan left Scotland at an early date and became tenants of Furness Abbey, county Lancaster, one of whom, Sir Nicholas Dixon, Rector of Cheshunt, Prebendary of Howdon and Baron of the Exchequer, died in 1448; and from John Dixon of Furness Falls sprang Richard Dixon, Lord Bishop of Cork, A. D. 1570, and also Sir Richard Dixon who married the widow of the Lord Chancellor Eustace, and whose daughter Eliza (ob. 1745) married Sir Kildare Borrowes, 3d Baronet, who assumed the additional name of Dixon, and was ancestor of the present Sir Erasmus Dixon-Borrowes, Bart. John Dixon was also ancestor of the Dixons of Beeston, county York, now of Seaton Carew, county Durham.

It is of course impossible now to form any idea of the number of the clan in feudal times, but in 1556, Buhtrig and Belchester attacked Douglas of Kilspindy, Provost of Edinburgh, they having then two hundred and eighty men.

These may have been a part only or perhaps the whole of their own immediate followers, and if so when those of the other chiefs, viz.: Hirdrig, Hassingtonmaynes and Leitholm were united, as in the case of a war with England, together with those of the lesser branches as Newbigging, Westerbinning, Newtown, Kennetsydehead, Kames, Loanhead, Peill, Overmains, etc., in Berwick, Ormeston and others in Peebles, the clan must have been able to muster a considerable number of fighting men.

There is no county history of Berwick. In Chambers' Peeblesshire and other recent works where our name occurs it has been modernized, but where I have obtained my information from older works or records I have always given it as it appears. When the records are in Latin the Christian name only, as a rule, is Latinized, and that I have translated.

The parish of Eccles in Berwickshire where many of the clan were seated was anciently divided into four quarters, viz.: (I) Lochton, Newtoun, Temp-land, Fairnyrigg and Birghem. (II) Mersingtoun, Overplewland, Littlethank, Herdrig and Burnhouses. (III) Lawrig, Buhtrig, Belchester, Newbigging, An. ton's Hill, Peill, Stainerigg and Litem. (IV) Kennetsydehead, Hassington, Nethermaynes,Whythouse, Hardaikers, Stainfeeld and Dedriges.

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