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The Life and Times of General Sir James Browne
R.E. K.C.B., K.C.S.I. (Buster Browne) by General James John McLeod Innes, R.E., V.C. (1905)


THIS memoir of General Sir James Browne has been drawn up in compliance with the wishes of the late Lady Browne, and is based on information kindly given by his family and friends and brother officers. .

My hearty thanks are due to General Pollard, General Sir Alexander Taylor, and Colonel Henry Blair—all of them Royal Engineers—with whom Sir James was associated throughout the whole of his career; also to the late General Sir Michael Biddulph, Sir G. Molesworth, General Sir R Sankey; Colonels Bum-Murdoch and Boughey, with whom he served from time to time in Engineer or Military operations; and most especially to General Sir Buchanan Scott, his invaluable second in the stupendous task of the Hurnai Railway.

Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, under whose command in India he served as Quartermaster-General of the army, said of him, with emphasis, “ He was grand!"

For advice in regard to Browne’s Frontier Policy, I am very greatly indebted to Sir D. Fitzpatrick, lately Governor of the Punjab.

J. J. M. I.
December, 1904.


Chapter I - Antecedents and Early Years
James Browne introduced—His Father, Dr. Robert Browne—His Childhood and Boyhood in France and Germany— Preparations for India.

Chapter II - The India of Dalhousie and Canning
India under Lord Dalhousie—The First Year of Lord Canning’s Rule—The Course of the Mutiny—Robert Browne’s Adventures, Services, and Death during the Mutiny—Changes in the Sute of India after the Mutiny.

Chapter III - Beginning of Browne's Indian Career: 1860
The Wuzeeree Campaign—Browne joins under Pollard’s Command—Wuzeeree Characteristics—A Night Attack—Advance of the Force—Capture of Kanagorum and Makeen, and End of the War—Work at Attock—Local Fanaticism.

Chapter IV - North Frontier Engineer Work: 1860-3
Work at Attock—The Bara Bridge—Experience of a Flooded River—Browne’s Methods—Punjab Frontier Division.

Chapter V - The Frontier Umbeyla Campaign: 1863
Change in the Frontier Administration—Rise of Fanaticism under Patna Propagandists—Preparations against the Sitana Fanatics—The Umbeyla Campaign—The British Position—
British Attack and Victory.

Chapter VI - Lord Lawrence’s Viceroyalty: 1864-9
Browne and the Frontier System—The Two Policies: the 41 Forward Policy ”and“ Masterly Inactivity "—How the Mullah Episode Began—Furlough, Marriage, and the Roorkee Appointment—Lahore—The Kangra Valley.

Chapter VII - Lord Mayo's Viceroyalty: 1869-72
Lord Mayo's Rule—Russian Movements—Lord Mayo's Frontier Policy—Settlement of the Frontier

Chapter VIII - Foreign Politics and the Sukkur Bridge: 1871-6
Furlough: Engineer Travels—Sukkur Bridge—The Cantilever System — Lord Northbrook's Rule — Russian Advance — Suppression of Slave Trade—Afghanistan and Russia.

Chapter IX - The Belooch 1st A N Appointment: 1876
Lord Lytton’s Preparation for the Viceroyalty—His Arrival in India—Palmerston’s Views about Russian Methods— History and Character of Beloochistan.

Chapter X - The Cutchee and Beloochistan Frontier: 1876-8
Further History of Browne's Double—Brown in the Cutchee—Colley sent to Beloochistan—Lord Lytton’s Policy—Russia’s Movements—Browne’s Post on the Kakur Frontier,

Chapter XI - Eve of the Afghan War: 1877-8
Keeping open the Kakur Door—The Mullah Episode again— Russian Intrigues—The Ameer’s Proceedings—Lord Lytton’s Measures.

Chapter XII - The Afghan War: 1878-9
Start of the Afghan War—Browne with Sir Donald Stewart’s Force—Entry into Candahar—Khelat-i-Ghilzie and Girishk —Stewart’s Memorandum on the Strategical and Political Value of Candahar—Thul Chotiali Expedition.

Chapter XIII - Two Years on Furlough: 1879-81
On Furlough—Russian Studies—Paris—A Fortress Episode— Candahar Question—Death of Colonel Pierson—End of Lord Lytton’s Rule.

Chapter XIV - The Egyptian War: 1882
The Egyptian War—General Sketch—Palmer’s Expedition and Death—Details of the Campaign as regards the Indian Contingent—Deductions from the Campaign.

Chapter XV - The Hurnai Railway: (i) 1882-3
Simla after Return from Egypt—The Humai Railway—Preliminary Measures—The Cutchee Mess—Difficulties of the Engineering Work.

Chapter XVI - The Hurnai Railway: (ii) 1883-7
The Difficulties encountered in the Works of the Hurnai Railway—Its Construction—The Opening Ceremony.

Chapter XVII - The Political Situation: 1884-9
The Penjdeh Incident—Browne's Appointment as Q.M.G. in India—His Views on the Position of Affairs.

Chapter XVIII - Quartermaster-General: 1889-92
General Work as Q.M.G.—Special Subjects dealt with—Frontier Expeditions—Black Mountain Expedition—The Russian and Persian Question—Zhob Valley Expedition—Frontier Policy.

Chapter XIX - Beloochistan: 1888-94
Browne's Appointment to the Agency of Khelat and Beloochistan —Close of Sandeman’s Rule—Affairs of Khelat—Deposition of the reigning Khan—British Beloochistan—The High Courts—Public Works and Improvements in the Province.

Chapter XX - Two Great Durbars: 1893-4.
Press Accounts - Two Great Durbars at Quetta—The Durbar of 1893 held by Sir James Browne—His Speech—Lord Elgin's Speech at the Durbar of 1893—Installation of the Khan of Khelat as Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.

Chapter XXI - Afghanistan: 1888-96
Frontier Administration and Policy—Puiyab and Beloochistan contrasted—Last Phase of the Mullah Episode.

Chapter XXII - The Close of Browne's Career: 1896
Close of Memoir—Close of Career and Death.

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