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Fraser's Scottish Annual
The Foundations of Scottish Character


THE purpose I have in view is to point out some of the influences that have helped to form the best side of Scottish character, believing that these influences are of general application, with equally happy results, and that they ought to be cultivated by the young in Canada as in every other country. But it will be necessary to say something as to what Scottish character, as distinctive in itself, is, and where its foundations lie.

Ian Maclaren, who has so graphically described many phases of Scottish character in such books as "The Bonnie Brier Bush," "The Days of Auld Lang Syne," "Kate Carnegie," etc., in a lecture delivered a few years ago in Toronto, picked out for emphasis the "dour" side of the average Scot. The Scots' dourness does not consist of a love for contention or obstruction, nor from a desire to be disagreeable. Indeed, on the contrary, not a few of the virtues of the Scottish character arise from, or are associated with it. Etymologically, the word is easy enough, being derived from durus the Latin word for "hard,"—meaning hardy, vigorous, inflexible, firm as a rock. Here you have some valuable qualities which are discernible in the Scot. If the Scot should lack somewhat of the mental agility of, say the Frenchman, he can generally be relied upon. He lacks neither in firmness of will or force of character, and these are essential to the man who desires to forge ahead. The "dourness" of Ian Maclaren have been made the pivot merely for these remarks, but in itself it is 'an interesting, a somewhat picturesque indeed, feature of Scottish character. Intrepidity, boldness, endurance, austerity, pertinacity, have been ascribed to it, and even Burns finds in it the sting of the north wind when he says in "A 'Winter Night" :-

"When biting Boreas, fell and dour,
Sharp shivers through the leafless bower,
When Phoebus gies a short-liv'd glower,
Far south the lift;
Dim.dark'ning thro' the flaky show'r,
Or whirling drift.

And Anthony Trollope gives the English application of it in a well- turned epigram, worth quoting for its moral :-

"I've been harsh-tempered and dour enough, I know; and its only fitting as they should be hard and dour to me where I'm going."

But all these fail to give an exact equivalent of the characteristic implied by dour, which is distinctly Scotch and is practically without a synonym. Some of its best aspects are a reserve of mind, described by Burns in his "Epistle to a Young Friend," thus

"Ay free, aff ban', your story tell,
When wi' a bosom crony;
But still keep something to yoursel'
Ye scarcely tell to ony,"

a strength of character, not easily worsted, and a patience that can wait.

No one can speak of Scottish character without referring to the national caution.

In the proverbial literature of the nation these sayings are common:

"Better greet (cry) ower your gudes than after your gudes."

"Canny stretch, soon reach."

"If you dinna see the bottom dinna wade."

"Measure twice, cut but ance."

"Ne'er put a sword in a foolish man's hand."

"Ne'er put your hand farther out than your sleeve will reach."

"Silence and thoughts hurt nae man."

"Take care of an ox before, an ass behind, and a monk on all sides."

These pithy and wise sayings speak for themselves. They embody what might be put in a volume on the grace of caution. Another proverb on this virtue, "Better rue sit, than rue flit," which, put in English reads, "Better to remain where you are than to repent of removing," or "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." Even in religious matters, and the average Scot is nothing if not religious, the caution of his people crops out.

In a small town near Aberdeen, a revival preacher having on one occasion met a respected minister of the Gospel, put to him the most momentous question that can be put to man, though sometimes perhaps put lightly: 'Have you found Christ?' The minister remarked that it was rather difficult to answer that question off-hand, but asked if he had done so himself. The answer was in the affirmative. How long since?' enquired the minister. 'About six weeks ago,' replied the man. 'Oh well,' said the minister with earnestness, 'a thud six weeks old has not much to say worth listening to!' and walked away." As an example of the incautious minister on the other hand the following anecdote may be told: - "A certain minister in the City of Aberdeen, was one day, many years ago, walking along Union Street with a friend. He saw a priest, the late Rev. Charles Gordon, who was much respected by all classes, walking towards them. The minister remarked to his friend,_ 'Here's Mr. Gordon, the priest, coming along the street, I'll be at him about the Virgin Mary.' His friend advised him' to let the priest alone, but the advice was rejected, and the following dialogue ensued: —Minister: 'Good morning, Father Gordon.' Priest: 'Good morning. sir.' Minister: 'Well, what about the Virgin Mary, to-day?' Priest: 'I don't know. What about her?' Minister: 'Ah, I wonder at a man like you believing in her as ye do.' Priest: 'How?' Minister: 'She was just a woman. What was the difference between her and my mother, for instance?' Priest: 'I don't know. Never saw her, but there is a great difference between their sons!

Among the Scottish characteris- tics "close fistedness," which means "greed" has been placed. I decline, on this point, to be drawn into telling you that the Scot "keeps the Sabbath and everything else he gets his hands on," because Max O'Rell, Rudyard Kipling, and the belated after-dinner speakers have a joint copyright on that joke, but I shall repeat to you a few earnest words on the subject which have been exemplified in the Scottish life:-

Charity begins at hame, but shouldua end there.
Charity ne'er made a man poor, nor robbery rich, nor prosperity wise.
Giving to the poor increaseth a man's store.
Spend, and God will send; spare, and be bare."

while the motto of one of the great Highland clans, the MacMillans, is: Miseris succurere disco—"I learn to succour the needy," and liberality has accompanied hospitality throughout the land."

On the other hand, the following story is told to show that the stinginess of the Scot includes even his devotions: On the west coast of Scotland two Highlanders were out in a fishing boat not far from the land, when a gale got up suddenly, and the men were nearly drowned. Duncan, on seeing the danger, said, 'Pray, Donald.' 'Pray yourself,' rejoined Donald. Thereupon Duncan closed his eyes and began thus: 'Oh, it's fifteen years that I did nae ask a favour o' ye afore, and if ye grant this ane it may be as lang afore I dae it again!' 'Come under no fresh obligations. Duncan; the boat's ashore?' cried Donald."

I have not learned that greed is a characteristic of any nation-taking the individuals that comprise a state. To be careful in expenditures comes near to the Scottish quality of thrift. Thrift is a great virtue. In the Scottish mind it is related to frugality somewhat as prosperity is to economy.

"Frae saving comes having,
"Ken when to spend, when to spare, and when to buy, and ye'll ne'er be bare."
"Want not, waste not."
"Wide will wear, but tight will tear— true of a boy's trousers."
"Frugality is a fair fortune, and industry a good estate."
"The foot on the cradle, the hand on the reel, is the sign of a woman that means to do weel."
Thrift is thus exalted on sound, reasonable grounds. You thrive by practising industry and economy. As Isaac Watts has it: "Diligence and humility is the way to thrive in the riches of the understanding, as well as in gold." To be thrifty in time is one of the most needed lessons for the youth of to-day. How often in our lives we regret, that precious moments were lost in our young days. "An idle brain is the deil's smiddy," says the proverb.

All will concede to the Scot the character of being a practical man. A long list of names might be cited, but a chronicle of names would be tedious even of those of such distinction as Kelvin, Gladstone, Me- Adam, Dr. Cullen, Telford, Naysmith, Black, James Watt, T. H. Drummond, Robert Fulton, Lindsay of Dundee, the forerunner of Marconi; Pender, Bell, Carnegie, Strathcona, Thomas Coutts, Henry Duncan, and others not less famous in business. The two factors which have moulded the practical side of the Scot, perhaps more than any others, have been the comparative poverty of the country in early times, and its comparative seclusion before the days of modern travel. The lack of storied wealth conditioned a living on the strenuous exertions of the people. They worked hard, endured privation and learned not only how to place a fair estimate on the real prizes of life, but also in the school of practical experience became expert in doing as well as in understanding things. It would have been difficult to come across the head of a family years ago who could not fend for himself and those entrusted to his care, in the most difficult circumstances. That was to some extent because of the ingrained habit of individual thinking indulged in on the mountain side or valley while following the rural pursuits of the day. There was communion with sublime thoughts amid the solitudes of nature, and the problems of life were wrought out, every man for himself. Think of the grit required by a man of 43 to decide upon a University course in order that he might qualify to preach the Gospel, though at the time he had forgotten the rudiments of the elementary education he had had in the parish school as a boy, and had for thirty years shepherded his flock on the lonely hills of Scotland. And yet he faced the ordeal as a soldier would his duty, and he conquered, of course, but conquered brilliantly, capturing a gold medal in Greek and one in mathematics. That is one of similar cases that show how much the mental calibre of the Scottish peasant owed to necessity and solitude.

A professor of my time, whose name, indeed, is in the list of names I gave a moment ago, used to tell of a Lewis crofter who had solved the problem of the earth's motions to his own satisfaction, and perfectly, and had them demonstrated by a rude but sufficient apparatus of his own construction. As an example of practical reasoning the following anecdote is given: A minister, given much to contradiction, was debating with a boatman, while crossing a river, about faith and works. The minister contended that faith without works was good. "No, no," retorted the boatman, with much seriousness, "faith without works 'ill no do. I'll gie you an illustration. We'll call this oar 'faith' and this ither oar 'works.' Very weel. Tak' 'faith' first." The minister took the oar and while rowing with it alone the boat went round and round. "Now," said the boatman, "let's tak' 'works' next." The minister did so, and while rowing with the oar they had called 'works' alone, the boat went round and round the other way. "We will noo," continued the boatman," tak' 'faith' and 'works' thegether. "Noo," he exclaimed, as he rowed with both oars at the same time, "we can get ower the water, an' this is the only way that we can get ower the troubled ocean of the world tae the peaceful shores o' immortality."

Three main sources of Scottish character are obvious to the reader" of Scottish history, a subject which ought to prove most fascinating- and of practical value to citizens of Canada, in as much as conditions. run somewhat parallel in the case of early Scotland and Canada. For example: First, Canada is a country, as Scotland was, of diverse and numerous races; second, here as there, there is a desire for nation'- hood; third, to the south of this country lies a large, richer and more populous country, just as England lies to the south of Scotland; fourth, the attitude of the United States to Canada does not differ materially, if you take the difference between the ancient and the modern civilizations into account, from that of England to Scotland, from the 13th to the 16th century. Besides, the subject is of special interest in itself as that of a country which has had a great deal to do with holding Canada for the British crown, and latterly of participating largely and conspicuously in the settlement and development of our beloved land of the maple.

The first source, or perhaps I should say the main foundation of Scottish character, may be taken as the struggle for independence maintained by Scotland against England in the early days. In those times might was right and the weak went to the wall. It was a code of honour which even the meadowy Wordsworth describes as:

The good old rule, the simple plan,
That they should take who have the power,
And they should keep who can.

So England being the bigger fish fed on the Scottish fry, and came near to effecting the conquest of the northern territory. But as now, there were Scots who valued their independence and they stood by their country. The Scots themselves were then a heterogeneous people. The Scots proper, who' had given the country a name, were a small body of colonists inhabiting the modern Argyleshire and a few strips of land on the west coast. To the north were the Scandinavians; in the mid Highlands the Picts or Caledonians; to the South or in the Low Lands were Celts, Saxons, Normans and Danes. All these elements entered into the making of the Scottish race. They had long waged internecine war among themselves and the rancour and jealousies of ages made them to seem an easy prey to the consolidated power of the Edwards. Now and again the independence of the country had nigh been wrenched from their hands, and the spirit of freedom had nigh succumbed, when William Wallace, Scotland's most heroic historical figure, arose. Moray of Bothwell and Sir Simon Fraser, the patriot, were his truest and most constant allies. Following him came Bruce, who, while unable to compose, succeeded in overthrowing the divergent and hostile factions of the kingdom and brought Scotland, as a whole, under the sway of her own crown. The two characteristics which shine through the war-clouds of those tempestuous days are the patriotism and the perseverance of the Scottish people. England's hammer, instead of crushing them, in reality welded them together. Of the nobles nothing can be said. Only a few of them resisted the power of selfish interests. Many of them, indeed, were not native to the soil, but held richer possessions in England than they did in Scotland, but the gentry and the people who were of the soil, were of sterling stuff and were purified and strengthened by their fiery trials. It is altogether remarkable how persistent the people were. The English King or his generals would make a triumphant march from south to north throughout the land, seizing and garrisoning castles, burning churches and cities and desolating the land. Returning home with the pride of conquest, their first news would be the resurrection of the Scots, the recovery of their castles and a retaliatory raid into England for cattle, grain, and plenishings to replace those destroyed by the British army. King Robert Bruce's story of the spider was but another form of what took place almost every year on the part of the insuppressible Scots. A country won by such sacrifice of blood and treasure was sure to be beloved passionately by its people, and we are not far wrong in finding the foundation of the patriotism of the Scot in the struggles of those days. Then, it was for the land of their fathers that they fought. One of the outstanding features of Scottish character is filial love and reverence, and when that is blended with love of country you have a patriotism worthy that of the Israelite for the Holy Land. The memories of these times have lived through all the intervening ages in tradition and song. Nothing could better indicate the power of patriotic feeling when it becomes part of the national life, than the fact that the most popular poets concentrate their power upon it. Take Tannahill. In thinking of Wallace and the scenes of bloodshed through which he lived, he says:

Thou dark winding Carron, once pleasing to see,
To me thou can'st never give pleasure again,
My brave Caledonians lie low on the lea,
And thy streams are deep tinged with the blood of the slain.

Farewell, ye dear partners of peril ! far- well
Tho' buried ye lie in one wide bloody grave,
Your deeds shall enoble the place where ye fell,
And your names be enroll'd with the Sons of the brave.

As to Robert Burns, he would be the poet laureate of his country if for nothing else than his intense patriotism. He often traces back to Wallace and Bruce. His "Scots Wha Hae wi' Wallace Bled," is not merely the Scottish National Ode, but its anthem of national freedom.

Wha for Scotland's king and law
Freedom's sword will strongly draw
Freeman stand, or freeman fa',
Let him follow me.

By oppression's woes and pains!
By our sons in servile chains!
We will drain our dearest veins,
But they shall be free.

Burns, again, and this time taking the view that the union of England and Scotland in 1707 had been purchased from a corrupt Parliament by English gold, lays the lash on thus:

Fareweel to a' our Scottish fame,
Fareweel our ancient glory,
Fareweel even to the Scottish name
Sae famed in martial story.

What force or guile could not subdue,
Through many warlike ages,
Is wrought now by a coward few
For hireling traitor's wages.

O, would, or I had seen the day
That treason thus could sell us,
My auld grey heid had lain in clay
Wi' Bruce and loyal Wallace! etc.

As Burns looked around on the glories of her scenery he could not dissociate the moors and the mountains from those conflicts for freedom which sunk so deeply into the nation's heart. He says:

"Her moors red-brown wi' heather bells,
Her banks an' braes, her dens and dells,
Where glorious Wallace, aft bure the gree as story tells,
Frae Southron billies."

And Henry Scott Riddell, one of Scotland's sweetest, as well as most stirring singers, tunes his lyre, and the beauties of nature blend with past conflicts, too;

The thistle wags upon the fields
Where Wallace bore his blade,
That gave her foeman's dearest blood
To dye her auld grey plaid
And looking to the lift (the sky), my lads,
He sang this doughty glee,
Auld Scotland's right, and Scotland's might
And Scotland's hills for me.

They tell o' lands wi' brighter skies,
Where freedom's voice ne'er rang,
Gie me the hills where Ossian lies
And Coila's minstrel sang.
For I've nae skill o' lands, my lads,
That ken nae to be free,
Then Scotland's right, and Scotland's might,
And Scotland's hills for me.

Such was the struggle for civil freedom. Almost as severe was the cruel struggle for religious freedom, and that I shall designate the second layer in the foundation of Scottish character. The nation had reached manhood and had chosen its form of worship and its religious beliefs when it had to fight for the possession of them. The Reformation in Scotland was in its infancy when its tenets became the subjects of controversy, of civil strife and of war. It is not part of this paper to enter into the persecutions and sufferings of those grievous times; they were sore, and hard to bear, but as gold is refined in the fire, Scotland emerged from her religious trials purified and chastened. If the influence of these contendings on the heart and soul was great, it was equally apparent on the minds of the people. Each one must give a reason for the faith that was within him, and he became versed in his Bible and in the theological dialectics of the day. How these have permeated the nation and left an impress not to be mistaken upon the national character, need not be described. Looking back from the present day when the tendency is for the seventies to soften, it may be that the patriotic ardour of the remoter age has been preserved to a comparatively greater degree than has the religious fervour of the covenanting times

and that there is much truth as pathos in the following lines:-

There's nae covenant now, lassie!
There's nae covenant now
The solemn league and covenant

Are a' broken through!
There's nae Renwick now, lassie,
There's nae gude Cargill,

Nor holy Sabbath preaching
Upon the Martyrs' Hill.

The rallying cry of the Covenanters was "Freedom." Freedom at Bannockburn; freedom at Bothwell Brig. Freedom of conscience. It was purchased dearly, but the Scots of those days knew that

"The best is aye the cheapest."

They paid the price, and

"The lover of freedom can never forget
The glorious peasant band—

His sires—that on Scotia's moorlands met;
Each name like a seal on the heart is set,
The pride of his Fatherland."

One blessing springing from this struggle was the institution of popular education. The national desire for knowledge was manifested generations before, and there were schools and colleges and universities. But the parish school, the twin sister of the parish kirk, was the conception of John Knox, and how much Scotland and Scottish character owe to him and to the parish school it would be quite impossible to estimate. A great leader, a popular hero, imparts much of his own character to his people. So did Knox, the man "who never feared the face of man;)) the man whose Scots' dourness enabled him to say in presence of his Sovereign: "I am in a place where I am demanded of conscience to speak the truth; and therefore the truth I speak, impugn it whoso list."

The third great formative influence in the Scottish character is to be found in the home and family life of the people. No more beautiful picture of Scottish character and life can be painted than that which might be taken from the family circle. Here, father and mother were supreme. The father ruled, the mother reigned, and while there was joint sovereignty the head of the house sought not to evade responsibility for the whole family. The first great feature of the Scottish home was order, including a well-defined system and discipline. This enabled a household to exploit and engineer its resources and to make the most of them. How much has been thus achieved out of a little the lives of men like Burns, Hugh Miller, and such others disclose. The early struggle, or exercise of frugality, was excellent training; nor was it divorced from happiness. It taught the poor that there were riches of mind and heart and soul with which worldly riches could not be compared. The fat things of the earth not being coveted they looked for comfort and compensation to mental, moral and spiritual excellence and found solace and reward there.
Luath, speaking to Casar, in The Twa Dogs," gives a graphic description of a homely peasant's cares:

'Trowth, Casar, whyles they're fash't enough;
A cottar howkan in a sheugh,
Wi' dirty stanes biggan a dyke,
Bairan a quarry, an' sic like.
Himsel, a wife, he thus sustains,
A sinytrie o' wee, duddie weans,

An' naught but his hand daurk, to keep
Them right an' tight in thack an' raep.
An' when they meet wi' sair disasters,
Like loss o' health or want o' masters,
Ye maist wad think, a wee touch langer,
An' they maun starve o' cauld and hunger:

But how it comes, I never kent yet,
They're maistly wonderfu' contented
An' buirdly chiels, and clever hizzies,
Are bred in sic a way as this is."

And to add to the contentment which honest effort brings, the good man was reverenced by his neighbours more than was the rich. They found godliness with contentment to be great gain. Family discipline was well observed; the parents spent most of their evenings and their Sabbaths with their families, and admonition, exhortation, instruction became the routine of family duty.

The family tie, the strongest bond between human souls, was sacred, the sanctity of family life was maintained. The marriage tie was no mere civil contract; it par- took much of the nature of the sacrament which the church of Rome makes it. The unit of the nation is the family and it cannot be too jealously safeguarded. Family unity as well as family union existed in Scotland. The family was one. Brothers and sisters, parents and children, were not merely members of a family circle, they were the circle, and each was the other's keeper to the end. There might not be much sentiment on the surface, but there was genuine and constant affection. The love for and of home is exemplified most beautifully in the Scottish family, and that love extended to the hearthstone, the roof tree, and to the objects upon which loving eyes had been accustomed to glance with pleasure. The verses of Scotland's most popular songs are full of affectionate reference to the things that cluster around and glorify to the memory, the old homestead. Take, for instance, the following lines from Burns' "Cottar's Saturday Night":

The cheerful supper done, wi' serious face,
They round the ingle form a circle wide;
The sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace,
The big-ha'-Bible, ance his father's pride.
His bonnet reverently is laid aside,
His lyart haffets wearing thin an' bare,
Those strains that once did sweet in Zion glide,
He wales a portion wi' judicious care,
"And let us worship God!" he says wi' solemn air.

They chant their artless notes in simple guise;
They tune their hearts, by far the noblest aim.
Perhaps Dundee's wild warbling measures rise,
Or plaintive Martyrs, worthy o' the name,
Or noble Elgin beats the heavenward flame
The sweetest far of Scotia's holy lays:
Compared with these, Italian trills are tame,
The tickled ears no heartfelt raptures raise,
Nae unison hae they with our Creator's praise.

Compared with this how poor religion's pride
In all the pomp of method and of art.
When men display to congregations wide
Devotion's ev'ry grace, except the heart.
From scenes like these old Scotia's grandeur springs,
That makes her lov'd at home, revered abroad;
Princes and lords are but the breath of kings;
An honest man's the noblest work of God.

Or, again, "The Rowan Tree" by Baroness Nairne, a Perthshire lady, whose genius gave to the world such songs as "The Hundred Pipers," "The Land o' the Leal," "Caller Herrin," "The Lass o' Gowrie," "The Laird o' Cockpen," "Will Ye no Come Back Again," and "The Auld loose." "The Rowan Tree" describes a phase of family life different from the "Cot- tar's Saturday Night" of Burns, yet not inconsistent with it:

O rowan tree, O rowan tree, thou'lt aye be dear to me,
Entwined thou art wi' mony ties o' hame and infancy.
Thy leaves were aye the first o' Spring,
thy flowers the simmer's pride;
There was nae sic a bonny tree in a' the country side.
O! Rowan Tree.

How fair wert thou in simmer time,
WI' a' thy clusters white,
How rich and gay thy autumn dress, wi' berries red and bright
On thy fair stem were mony names, which now nae mair I see,
But they're engraven on my heart, forgot they no'er can be!
O! Rowan Tree.

We sat aneath thy spreading shade, the bairnies round thee ran,
They pu'd thy bonny berries red, and necklaces they strang;
My mother I oh! I see her still, she smiled our sports to see,
Wi' little Jeanie on her lap, an' Jamie at her knee
O! Rowan Tree.

Oh! there arose my father's prayer, in holy evening's calm,
How sweet was then my mother's voice singing the Martyr's psalm
Now a' are gane! we meet nae mair aneath the rowan tree;
But hallowed thoughts around thee twine o' hame and infancy.
O! Rowan Tree.

How strong the memories of childhood in such a home become as years roll by is revealed in "The Auld loose," by the same gifted poetess :-

Oh, the auld house, the auld house,
What though the walls were wee?
Oh, kind hearts were dwelling there,
And bairnies fu' o' glee.
The wild rose and the jessamine
Still hang upon the wa',
How many cherished memories
Do they, sweet flowers, reca'.

Still flourishing the auld pear tree
The bairnies liked to see,
And oh, how often did they speir
When ripe they a' wad be.
The voices sweet, the wee bit feet
Aye runnin' here and there,
The merry shout—Oh I whiles we greet
To think we'll hear nae mair.

For they are a' wide scatter'd now,
Some to the Indies gane,
And ane alas to her lang hame
Not here we'll meet again.
The kirkyaird, the kirkyaird,
Vi' flowers o' every hue,
Shelter'd by the holly's shade,
An' the dark sombre yew.

I have thus named three foundations of the Scottish character. The first nourished patriotism. I believe patriotism itself has its best nourishment in a love for the home. The home first, the county, the province, the Dominion, the Empire. Love for one's birthplace is strong in Scotland. It ought to be equally strong in Canada, but it is not. And, yet, why should it not be so? The homestead has been consecrated by the toil and hardships of our pioneer fathers and ought to be loved beyond compare. In the homestead rescued from the dense forest lies the hope of Canadian patriotism, and not in New York, Chicago or other commercial centres of the continent. Born of the soil, love the soil. Be it ever so humble there's no place like home." Canada will some day families but take the right view of family duty. And what land under the sky could so worthily contain a worthy populace as glorious Canada which attracts to herself the best 'of earth's peoples:


Strong men have turned, O Canada! to thee,-
Turned from their fathers' graves, their native shore,
Smiling to scorn the floods' tempestuous roar,
Gladly to find where broader, ampler room,
Allured their steps, —a happy Western home.

The toil-worn peasant looked with eager eyes
O'er the blue waters to those distant skies;
Where no one groaned 'neath unrequited toil;
Where the strong laborer might own the soil
On which he stood; and, in his manhood's strength,
Smile to behold his growing fields at length ;-
Where his brave sons might easily obtain
The lore for which their fathers sighed in vain,
And, in a few short seasons, take their stand
Among the learned and gifted of the land.

The beam that gilds alike the palace walls
And lowly hut, with genial radiance falls
On peer and peasant,—but the humblest here
Walks in the sunshine, free as the peer.
Proudly he stands with muscle strong and free,
The serf—the slave of no man, doomed to be.
His own, the arm the heavy axe that wields;
His own, the hands that till the summer fields
His own, the babes that prattle in the door;
His own, the wife that treads the cottage floor;
All the sweet ties of life to him are sure,
All the proud rights of MANHOOD are secure.

Fair land of peace! O may'st thou ever be
Even as now, the land of Liberty!
Treading serenely thy bright upward road,
Honored of nations, and approved of God!
On thy fair front emblazoned clear and bright,

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