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History of Curling
Chapter III. Curling Furth of Scotland

HE introduction of curling into countries furth of Scotland has always been the work of Scotsmen. While other nationalities have readily taken up the game, its progress has also chiefly depended on Scotsmen. At one place in Switzerland, 6000 feet above sea-level, curling, we believe, has been introduced. But we hear of no club having been formed in that country ; and where no club is formed, curling never seems to succeed. It is only by tracing the various clubs which have been formed that we can give the history of the game furth of Scotland. This chapter will therefore be found to be mainly an account of foreign clubs. Without any expectation of permanent results, the channel-stone has been abroad on one or two holiday expeditions. In the Paris International Exhibition of 1867 a pair of curling-stones, made of fine porphyry, appeared in the department set apart for games of sport and amusement. They were sent there by William Chambers of Glenormiston, who was then Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and were set in a glass case with this explanation:—

Pierres à Jouer sur la Glace

"Faites de porphvre de Gleuormiston, clans le comte de Peebles en Ecosse, la propriete de I'houorable William Chambers, Lord Provost d'Edimbourg.

"On emploie ces pierres au jeu Ecossais national qu'on appelIe curling, on on les fait alisser sur la ;lace vers un but, en cherchant a les faire arriver le plus pros de ce but qu'il est possible."

The stones were presented to the Emperor Napoleon III. at the close of the Exhibition, but where they are now we cannot say. Who knows but that Prince Bismarck may have annexed theirs along with Alsace and Lorraine, and that they may yet turn up somewhere in the Low Country, to prove that curling not only originated there, but was played with the most advanced style of implements? This fanciful appearance certainly did not have any practical result in France, and when the Comtesse de la Gasparin, in translating one of "John Strathesk's" stories, rendered curling club into club des barbicrs, she no doubt did full justice to the French idea of the game.

The following table indicates as nearly as possible the present distribution and membership of curling clubs beyond Scotland:— [Clubs under Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, and two (Yonkers and St Andrews) under No. 12 are in full association with the Royal Caledonian Club—in all, 75 clubs, with a membership of 3414, which, added to the Scottish list, make the total number of clubs now affiliated with the Royal 540, and the total number of members 22,061. Nos. 7 and 8, Associated Provinces. Nos. 9, 10, and 11, with a few more clubs, have lately been united in what is called the Maritime Province, which is also in association with the Royal Club, and of which H. P. Whitaker, St John's, New Brunswick, is secretary and treasurer. No. 12, the Grand National Club, is an independent association, but a very friendly correspondence is kept up between it and the mother club—the Royal.]

ENGLAND.—NO one has ever suggested that curling had its origin in England, or that it was known there previous to its introduction from Scotland. Neither Rastell, [The Pastyme of the People. The Chronycles of dyrerse Realms, and most specyally of the Realm of England. By John Rastell. 1529.] who is the oldest authority, nor Strutt, [The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, including the Rural and Domestic Recreations, May Games, Mummeries, Shows, Processions, Pageants, and Pompous Spectacles, from the earliest to the present time. 1501.] who is the fullest and the best, in describing the rural amusements and recreations of the English people, ever refers to curling. We have never heard of a curling-stone of the oldest type having been found across the border. The only discovery of any stone of the second type of which we are aware is that made by Canon Wannop of Haddington, who informs us that when be was a boy Iie was accustomed to bathe in the river Line, in the north of Cumberland, and that one day he carne upon a, number of old boulders, oblong in shape, with iron handles battered into them. He was informed, on inquiring about their use, that the were called curling-stones, and that the rector, when he carne to the parish, had introduced the game, the stones having been taken from the river and played with in their natural state. The rector was then (1836) alive at the age of ninety, and as he was quite a young man when he was appointed, the introduction of the game there carries us back to about the year 1776. Pennant, it will be remembered, made his famous tour a few years previous to this, and found curling a favourite sport in the Border, while (ride p. 56) it was "unknown in England." It is not difficult, therefore, to trace a connection between this earliest English report of the game and the curling of the Scottish borderers. That curling was at that time practised in the north of England may also be inferred from an Ossianic description of a celebrated bonspiel between England and Scotland, played at Kirtlebridge in the year 1795, in which the Cumberland rector may probably have taken a part. [Sir R. Broun, in whose Memorabilia (pp. 68-69) the poem is quoted, ascribes it to Dr Clapperton, the Lochmaben antiquary, and says it was found among the HISS. of the late W. R. W. H. Somerville of Whitecroft. ]

From the northern counties curling seems to have taken a hop-step-and-leap journey to London, for Ramsay in 1811 says: —

"Within these few years curling has even found its way to the capital of the British Empire. There, the first essay was made upon the New River; but the crowd of spectators, attracted by such a novel spectacle, becoming very great, the ice threatened to give way, and the curlers were with reluctance compelled to desist."

The wonder is that curling in a city where so many Scotsmen were collected was then such a novel spectacle. Both before and after that time we hear of visitations of King Frost,

[In 1684 (January to February) the Thames was so frozen that coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple and elsewhere to and fro as in the streets, and for some time there was a carnival of sleighing, skating, bull-baiting, horse-racing, &c., with shops furnished with all kinds of commodities on the ice.

"When maids grow modest, the Dissenting crew
Become all loyal, the false-hearted true,
Then you may probably, and not till then,
Expect in England such a frost again."

Spite of Errapater's prophecy, a similar frost occurred in 17:19-40, and again in 1785-S9, when there was a regular Bartholomew Fair on the Thames from Putney Bridge to Rediff for seven weeks. Another great frost occurred December 27, 1813, to February :S, 1514, when it grand street on the ice, lined on either side with booths of all descriptions, extended from Blackfriars Bridge to London Bridge.]

which prove that London of old time was even better off for ice than Edinburgh. The neglect of Scotsmen to cultivate the game in the Metropolis was discreditable. It is not the way of their countrymen to abandon a cause for such a reason : but those who made this first essay seem to have taken fright, and we hear no more of curling in London till the winter of 1846-47 or 1847-48, when the "novel spectacle" was again witnessed. On this occasion, as we have been toll by Sir James Gibson-Craig of Piecarton, his father—the late Sir William Gibson-Craig, then M.P. for Edinburgh, and the, Hon. Fox Maule, M.P. (afterwards Lord Dalhousie), both keen curlers, with a few other Scotsmen, started a ;acne on the Serpentine, but the curious Londoners again crowded in upon the curlers to such an extent that they hail to relinquish play. At the great Exhibition held in the Crystal Palace in 1851, a pair of Ailsa Craig curling-stones made an appearance more practical in its results than that of the Peebles po71phyrt/ at Paris, if we may judge by the fact that a Crystal Palace curling club now exists. Each of these stones weighed 40 lb., and measured 10 3/4 x 5 1/2.inches. One sole was hollow, the other level. They were made by John Guthrie, mason, Dalmellington, and cost, with handles, £3. They were meant to represent the ordinary shape, weight, and price of a curling-stone of the period. Mr Cassels, the Royal Club secretary, was asked to spew cause why such articles should find a place in the "Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations."

"This he did" (according to the Annual, 1852, p. 207) "by setting forth the number of curlers connected with the Royal Club, and those unconnected with it. The former he stated at 12,000, and the Iatter on a moderate estimate at other 12,000—together, 21,000 curlers, who took an active part in the game. Each curler required to be provided with at least one pair of curling-stones, which, upon an average, were worth £2, 10s.—in all, a capital of £60,000, invested in curling-stones alone. The manufacture of these stones was, in a great measure, confined to tradesmen throughout Scotland, and to a great extent they were made by masons and others during that part of the year when there was little employment."

John M'Diarmid, in one of his articles in the Dumfries Courier [Reprinted in Chambers's Journal, April 28, 1838.], tells how an Englishman, Mr Hill, Inspector of Prisons, when he made his official visit to Dumfriesshire in the winter of 1836, found both the Convener of the County (Mr Leny of Dalswinton) and the Sheriff (Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, Bart. of Gapenoch) engaged in curling with their tenants, friends, and neighbours. Mr Hill greatly enjoyed the sight, and was so impressed with the moral influence of the game that, when lie returned to England, he embodied a glowing eloge on curling in his official report.

The Sussex Express a year or two after this announced that Sir Charles Lamb had introduced the "manly but novel game " into the district, and had played a match with Lord Antrim, six men a side. Mr. l'Anson, when lie settled at Malton, tool; a few pairs of stones with him, and had a game now and then with his stud-grooms, who had seen curling in Scotland. In the Annual for 1855 a touching reference is made to the Cameron Club at Portsmouth, which had lost many of its members in the Crimea, and the secretary of which was at that time absent with his regiment at Sebastopol. In a few places, especially where a Scotch family or two may happen to be found, the sound of the channel-stane is occasionally heard but the progress and extent of curling in England, as well as the location of the Scotch element in the country, may best be inferred from the following list of curling clubs now affiliated with the I^oral Club, and the elates of their institution:-

The oldest of these is the Leeds, Club, but as no records were kept till it was joined to the Royal in 1866, we cannot say much about it. The late Adam Brown was for twenty-five years president. The Wigan Club had, in 1866, as many as 168 members on its roll, much of its early success being due to its first president, James Wood of Haigh, factor to the patron of the club, the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. The first English club to affiliate with the Royal was the L,iverpool Club, which is perhaps the largest and most successful in England. In their early days the Liverpool curlers used to meet at the sign of the Green Man Still," then in the outskirts of the town, and proceed to curl on St Domingo Pit. 'Tie pit is now filled up and built upon, and the "Green Man" has become the "Prince of Wales," in the heart of the city. The club was called Liverpool and Everton until Everton was merged in Liverpool. The curlers, on their return, used to repair to Everton Coffee-House, where mine host, who bore the curling cognomen of Halliday, regaled them with a beverage more potent and more national than coffee. The Liverpool Club had a famous match with Manchester at Haydoch Lodge, Newton, in 1853 which was honoured by being made the subject of a sketch in the Illustrated London .V ws. The Earl of Sefton, the constant friend and patron of the club, about 1850 gave the curlers . the use of an ornamental pond in Croxteth Park, and frequently entertained them at their spiels with victuals and old baronial ale. his successor, the present Earl, did the same. In 1862 he was elected president of the Royal Caledonian Club, the first English nobleman who filled the chair. The loyal Club honoured Liverpool by holding their annual meeting there in 1868, when they were most hospitably received. This meeting gave an impetus to the game, and when the corporation granted them permission to curl in Shiel Park the curlers were in high spirits at their prospects. At their first outing on the pond, however, the skaters in a body besieged the rink, and disputed the right of the curlers to appropriate any part of the ice to themselves. The parks being public property, an appeal to the corporation was in vain, and the curlers had to retire discomfited. Colonel Bourne of Rainhill, having kindly granted them ;round, they then constructed a pond within easy access by rail their membership increased ; they were able to invite their neighbours to a friendly match, and in their own house, by the aid of a nice little stove, to enjoy a glass of the curler's auxiliary. That their experience had not taught them the beauty of the golden rule is, however, evident from this minute:—

"July 11, 1872.—The secretary was instructed to write to Mr Roby, Rainhill, respectfully to request him to keep his duck off the curling-pond."

The members of the Liverpool Club occasionally give a ball, and their annual dinner, under their excellent president, J...Shankland, brings together as many jolly curlers as you can hope to meet furth of Scotland.

The, GLACIARIUM.—The most important contribution which our English friends have made to the development of curling is the construction of the Glaciarium. Time North British Advertiser of December 31, 1842, contains a notice of a "miniature Alpine lake," 70 feet Iong x 50 wide, the composition of which had beeii laid down in London by a Mr Kirke, who claimed to be the inventor of it. "The Glaciarium," as it was called, had been tried by Sir W. Newton and some members of the Skating Club, and pronounced satisfactory, "the ice having a cracking sound as the skaters glided over it or performed their `spread-eagles' and `back-strokes.' " How long the skaters used this "lake" we are not in a position to say, and we do not hear of curlers having tried it. In the Graphic of 24th March 1877 we have a. sketch of a curling match played on the Rusholm Ice Rink, Manchester. This rink was manufactured by a process which was patented at that time by Professor Gamgee as his invention. The Real Ice Co., Manchester, paid the Professor £8000 for the use of the same within a radius of ten miles of Manchester, and including building and plant—£12,000, the cost of the Rusholm Ice Rink was £20,000. Mr Hyde, secretary to Professor Gamgee, seems to have proceeded on a, mission to Scotland with many testimonies from curlers in favour of the new summer-ice, and to have tried in Edinburgh and Glasgow to get up artificial rinks. He appeared at the annual meeting; of the Royal Club in 1877 and laid the subject before the representatives. A letter was also read to the meeting from Professor Gamgee. The Committee of Management were entrusted with further consideration of the matter, but we hear zoo more of it in the Royal Club, nor of the success or failure of the Manchester Company. At Southport, however, a rink was laid down on Gamgee's principle, which has been the scene of many a gallant curling contest. This rink was opened on January 10, 1879, the total cost having been over .£30,000. On February a half-dozen English curling clubs had a. spirited competition for a cup, which was won by Liverpool. Since then the great event at the Glaciarium has always been the tournament for the Holden Challenge Shield, value 30 guineas, presented by Edward Holden, Esq., for competition every half-year. We give the last ties in each of the competitions :--

* In the course of playing this tie the Hamilton men (J. Clark Forrest, skip) scored 8 shots at one end.

t "The best contested and most brilliant exposition of the popular Scottish pastime ever witnessed at the Glaciaritum."--Soul/sport Guaardian, November 10, I88S.

In ten of the eighteen Southport competitions English clubs have won first place, and of the thirty-six in the final ties fifteen are Scottish clubs. The Alloa Prince of Wales Club has done honour to the name of our Royal patron, by three times carrying off the shield from this curling Wimbledon, while on two occasions this club was second, and on another third. Bolton has also three times won the shield, thanks mainly to the redoubtable skip M'Nabb, whose rink was on each occasion composed of the same players.

In recognition of the great benefit conferred on curling by the Glaciarium, the Royal Caledonian Club decided to hold its annual meeting at Southport in July 1885. The competition for the Holden Shield was fixed to come off at the same time, and several other valuable prizes were offered. Mr Nightingale, the excellent manager of the Glaciarium, and the English curlers made every preparation to give the Scotsmen a hearty reception, and as a result the Southport meeting was one of the most successful ever held by the Royal Club. The excellence of the ice and of the English play more than astonished our "Northern representatives, and the hospitality shewn to them by the Southern curlers was unbounded. To crown all, a complimentary dinner, "essentially a Scotch one," was given to the Scottish delegates by the Southport Club in the Prince of Wales Hotel, at which over 200 were present. The .Mayor of Southport extended to the Royal Club a cordial welcome, and Mr .Josiah Livingston, who presided at the Southport meeting, made an eloquent reply, the whole proceedings being characterised by the. utmost enthusiasm and good-feeling.

John Frost, it seems, is to have his revenge on the English curlers for wresting his patent out of his hands. As we write, we are informed that, after a loss of £25,000, the burden of which has mainly to he borne by Mr Holden, the Glaciarium is being dismantled, the company being in process of liquidation. Many will join with regret in the lament of Mr M'Inroy, who has always taken a great interest in the scheme

"Alas; on Southport ice no more
Shall sound again the curlers roar
The song of 'Nightingale ' is hushed,
And Holden's hopes for ever crushed."

Where there is sufficient frost such an institution is not required. As the Wigan secretary expresses it, "the Glaciarium slackens the interest in outdoor curling, while its expense has a tendency to bring the game within certain social limits." There is a natural want about it of which the curler is conscious, even when the air is bracing and the ice is good. On the other hand, where there is little frost and little facility for outdoor curling when frost conies, the Glaciarium is an undoubted boon; and we hope to hear of the Southport machinery being transferred to Manchester or some larger city, so that the benefit of the remarkable invention may not be entirely lost.

IRELAND.—Curling is said to have been carried into Ireland by the Scottish colonies who were planted there so early as the reign of James I. of England. The game was, however, quite unknown in Ireland at the beginning of this century. Indeed, it cannot be said to be known much beyond the neighbourhood of Belfast at the present day. The excellent secretary of the Belfast Club, Alexander Gibb, to whom any curling enthusiasm that does exist in Ireland is very much due, gives us one good reason for the absence of the game:-

"The winters in Ireland," he says, "being so very mild, good curling ice is, and has always been, very rare; and from personal observation over a period of thirty years I may state that ice in Ireland is always six to eight days behind ice in Scotland, should frost last there so long at one time; but when thaw sets in over that country, it is certain to thaw here also at the very same time, or at all events within a few hours either way."

Not only the climate, but also the condition of the country, has been unfavourable to curling; for there never has been in that country the sympathy and cordial understanding between:-

"The tenant and his jolly laird,
The pastor and his flock,"

which in Scotland make curling so enjoyable. To John Cairnie belongs the credit of reviving curling in Ireland, he having prevailed on his friend, James Boomer of Scaview, Belfast, to make a pond in his grounds and establish a club there in 1839. Boomer, like Cairnie, kept a yacht, and often crossed, with his rink on board, to have a game at Curling Hall when there was no ice at home. On his death (1846) the club became extinct, but it was revived by Thomas Callender, a curler well known in Mauchline and the west of Scotland; Robert M'Kenzie, formerly of St John's Club, Perth; David Dunlop, who had been a Tarbolton player; and Alexander Gibb, who served his apprenticeship as a curler on Queen Mary's Loch. For some time after this the Belfast curlers had no pond, and used to meet at the "Thistle" when frost carne, and drive off in an Irish car, "wi' stanes, cramps, and kowes," in search of suitable ice. They fared better the farther they went, for on one occasion, when curling not far from Belfast, the "roughs" invaded the scene, and were about to make off with everything, when a detachment of the Royal Irish fortunately hove in sight. At another time, when, through the liberality of Messrs Callendar and M`Kenzie, they had secured a Pond of their own, and had made preparations for a good day's play, the curlers found that a "hummle cow" had been driven through the pond, and the ice destroyed. Mrs Boorner having renewed the privileges of Seaview Pond, they had peace for a time. John Hill, the gardener, was, like a true Scot, glad to see them hick, and, as Mr Gibb relates,

"John not hold of a real live Highland piper, and made hint march round and round the pond during the game, playing Scotch airs, with now and then a touch of The Protestant Boys, Boyne Water, &c., so that between the boom of the channel-stone, the shouting of the players, and the skirl of the bagpipes, the Irish welkin rang and ran,, again, and the glories of the early days of Seaview were revived."

Toward the Belfast Club all Scotsmen who knew the game, and were within hearing, were naturally drawn, and in the history of the club we conic -across some interesting characters. Here is a sketch of one whom all curlers will recognise as a worthy—Edward Skinner, who died in 1877, aged seventy-eight.

"He was a fine and very intelligent old man, and quite an authority on every outdoor sport. For some winters he played more by hearing than by sight, his eves having become dim, but his curling keenness and vigour remained unabated. He was well known in his younger days with the Penicuick and Currie curlers, and assisted at the drawing of the rink diagrams in the Annual. Having heard there was curling in Belfast, lie left his home, Ivy Lodge, Ballyronan, County Derry, one snell frosty morning in the winter of 1839, travelling by rig and rail some fifty miles, 'stanes an' kowe an' a',' and reached us in the middle of a game, all ready for play. We were very glad to see him, and we gave him a `striking' hearty curler's welcome. He wore a Piper curling coat, with the very button, Glengarry cap with ribbon, vest, hand-embroidered in silk with curling-stones and besoms, and had a walking-stick with `kowe' combined—the latter made of esparto grass and carried in his pocket. his Ailsas were single soled, with handles of peculiar make--his own idea. He was a good-living mail, most enthusiastic and strict in carrying out the rules of curling, and resembled the late Dr Cairnie very much in his dress and physique."

In the winter 1878-79 there was a good deal of curling in Ireland, and at Clandeboye a club was then formed, with Lord Dufferin as president, his lordship taking the lead in its formation. Irish curlers who have been privileged to enjoy the hospitalities of the Castle, and to have a day's curling on the beautiful and romantic Clandeboye Lake, know how keen an interest the Prince of British Ambassadors takes in the "roaring game." As truly can the curlers on the St Lawrence or the Neva testify to Lord Duferin's personal devotion to this favourite winter sport. No one has ever achieved greater distinction in the "bloodless art of diplomacy."

His rule has made the people love
Their ruler. His viceregal days
Have added fulness to the phrase
Of `gauntlet in the velvet glove.'"

Among curlers it is a matter of congratulation that one so distinguished has done so much to advance curling both at home and abroad, and a special place of honour is allotted to Lord Dufferin among the noble patrons of the rink. Through the praiseworthy exertions of William Sibbald Johnston, J.P., a club was formed at Kiltonga, Newtonards, in 1879. These three Irish clubs have had various interesting contests for Caledonian medals, and they all pay some attention to the point game, though no high scoring is recorded. Belfast has several times been drawn against clubs in Scotland, and its meetings with the Ardrossan Club are always spoken of with great pleasure as having been productive of genuine amusement and good-feeling.

NORWAY.—A curling club appears to have been formed in Norway in the year 1881, which, under the title of the Elverhae Club, was enrolled in the Annual of the following year, the Hon. Mrs Arbuthnott being patroness, and Amtmand Arveschang, president. From the fact that the members of the Evenie Water Club (Forfarshire) are enrolled as honorary members of this Norwegian club, and that the members of the Elverhae Club are enrolled as honorary members of Evenie Water, we infer that there is a strong bond of connection between the two clubs, due, perhaps, to members of the Carnegie family, who appear in the lists of both clubs.

RUSSIA.---In 1870 Charles Cowan introduced to the secretary of the Royal Club William Hopper, "a genuine son of Caledonia, who had raised himself to eminence in Moscow," and who was anxious to establish a curling club there. The "roaring game" had been previously known and practised by Scotsmen resident in the city, but it received more attention when Mr Hopper was successful in carrying out his intention, and organising a club in 1873. In 1876 this gentleman writes that there is a prospect of a club being started at St Petersburg. In 1879 we find Lord Dufferin, who was then British Ambassador at the Russian Court, taking up the proposal and writing to the "Royal" secretary that he is endeavouring "to establish a curling rink at St Petersburg on the Canadian principle." His Lordship promises to let the secretary know later on about the fortunes of the projected club. As no more is heard of the subject in our Annuals, and no St Petersburg club is as yet affiliated with the Royal, the project evidently did not succeed. It is a pity; for Lord Dufferin's idea of having covered rinks on the Canadian principle is the best way to meet the difficulties in the way of curlers in Russia. One night imagine that they were better off for ice there than we could possibly be, but the secretary of the Moscow Club (J. P. Hopper) informs us that---

"They very rarely bet a true rink to play upon. The intense frost (occasionally 40° Fahrenheit) warps and cracks the ice out of all shape, and it is impossible to flood it as the hose-pipe freezes solid. It has therefore to be patched somewhat indifferently with a watering-pot and scraper."

The difficulties which we have mentioned account for the fact that no particularly high point scores are recorded at Moscow, the Rev. H. M. Bernard occupying premier position with a score of 12, made in 1885. Curlers in Russia have a "specialty" in the way of felt boots, called valinki, which afford an excellent foothold on their keen ice, and keep the feet warm and comfortable in the lowest temperature. Notwithstanding the excessive frost, they have not been driven, like the Canadians, to play with iron, but find the Ailsas and other kinds of stones imported from Scotland quite suitable. It need scarcely be added that in the territory of the Czar the low temperature gives a special zest to "beef and greens, and their warm surroundings."

NEW ZEALAND.—In this colony the most active promoter of curling has been Thomas Callender, whose name has already been mentioned in connection with the game in Ireland. He was the means of founding a club at Dunedin in 1873. In that same year a club was formed at Mount Ida, where, at an altitude of 2000 feet, the curlers could generally enjoy the game for about six weeks in the year, while the Dunedin players could not count upon more than a week. The Haldon Club was next instituted. Its secretary, writing in March 1878, while grateful for a fortnight's continuous play in the previous winter, says "We are placed at a great disadvantage compared with most of the other clubs in your list; our pond is distant 100 miles from the nearest town, Tiniaru, and the members of the club are squatters, shepherds, and labourers, scattered about the various stations, distant from six to sixty miles from the pond. Under these circumstances it spews what a. strong love for the roaring game possesses them, when they assemble round the rink for several days' continuous play."

The first bonspiel in New Zealand was played between Haseby and Palmerston in 1879, the latter club driving fifty miles to meet their opponents. The first provincial medal competition south of the Equator came off on August 7, 1884, when four clubs from the interior of Otago met at Naseby to contend for the coveted silver. The clubs were Kyeburn, Upper 11lamtherilkia, Mount Ida, and Otago Central, the last-named proving victorious. Remarking on this memorable gathering, the Naseby secretary, J. T. Ferguson (Annual, 1885, 1). 328), wrote:-

"Newman's dam presented a busy scene from early morn till late at night, the visiting teams remaining over the greater portion of the week. It is no uncommon thing to see representatives of almost every nation under the sun `around the tee.' We venture to say curling here does much to sink caste and make all men equals, for when met around the tee as keen, keen curlers, creed and colour are forgotten in the brotherhood of roan."

While this wider result is manifest, it is evident that at the Antipodes the old curling traditions are not forgotten. The Otago Times of July 28, 1881, in an account of the annual dinner of the Dunedin Club in Wane's Hotel, says:-

"The curlers partook of the time-honoured repast of beef and greens, washed down by copious draughts of the white wine of Scotland."

In the year 1886 the seven New Zealand clubs were formally organised into a province, when a trophy was given by Mr Callender, who was elected president. This will doubtless cause keen competition, and increase the popularity of the game. The stones used by the New Zealand curlers are mostly Ailsas, and average about 38 lb. Not much attention has as yet been given to point play, but 12 and 13 have often been reached, and in 1879 W. Guffie won the Mount Ida Club medal with the fine score of 15 points, while W. MI`Hutcheson made scores of 16 and 17 in the year 1882.


CANADIAN BRANCH, QUEBEC PROVINCE.—"Westward the star of curling takes its way." It is when we cross the Atlantic that we meet with the most remarkable development of curling forth of Scotland. In some parts of North America it is not too much to say that in keenness and enthusiasm they surpass even the curlers of Scotland. Introduced by Scotsmen, the game has now been taken up by Young America, and made the most popular winter sport in Canada and the States. That Scotsmen started it there cannot be denied. It followed the footsteps of the early fur-traders of the North-West,. and the march of Fraser's Highlanders. The eagerness of the Scotch to enlist for active service in Canada during

the old contest between England and France is said to have been due to the opportunities there afforded for curling. This may also explain the popularity of Canada as a field for Scottish emigrants. Our curling countrymen were fortunate in having a fair field and plenty of ice. The Red Indian had vanished and left no trace of his amusements behind, so that curling, which suited the national predilections, might at once take the field, and hold it as the winter sport. Quebec seems to have been the point from whence the game, after coming from Scotland, started on its successful career. We hear of curling there about the close of the last and the beginning of the present century- ; but the first transatlantic curling club was formed at Montreal in January 1807, by "some natives of North Britain, who wished to introduce their favourite national game on the St Lawrence." In that same year a gauze was actually played on the river a little below the Port so late as the 11th April. The membership of this club was limited to twenty, and among the original rules were these :-

"The club shall meet at Gillis's, on Wednesday, every fortnight, at 4 o'clock, to dine on salt beef and greens. The club dinner and wine shall not exceed seven shillings and sixpence a head, and any member infringing on this rule, under any pretext whatever, shall be liable to a fine of four clubs. No member shall ask a friend to dinner, except the president and vice-president, who may ask two each. . . . The losing party of the day shall pay for a bowl of whisky toddy, to be placed in the middle of the table, for those who may chuse it."

In recording a resolution passed its February 18 0, that the club should "(line at the beginning and at the end of winter," the secretary adds:---

"N.B.—This was adopted when the club had not met to dine for more than six years, partly occasioned by the war in which we were engaged with the United States."

At first the Montreal Club, for want of proper stones, had but a feeble existence, but irons of a rude description, in shape something like huge tea-kettles, were adopted, and were found to suit better. These weighed from 46 to 65 lb. each, and were the common property of the club. A regular club was formed at Quebec in 1821. We find the two Canadian clubs engaged in their first tussle at Three Rivers in 1835, when Montreal had to pay the dinner. In regard to the use of wine on the occasion the Montreal secretary wisely enters in the minute-book:-

"The secretary has never seen such a thing, and as this is the first, so he hopes it will be the last time that ever lie shall hear of champaign being exhibited at a bonspiel dinner."

Colonel Dyde, a famous Canadian curler, in describing these early clays, says that the cause of this unusual proceeding was that "there was no good, not even tolerable whisky to be had in Three Rivers," and he adds:—

"There were twenty-six guests at the dinner, which was good and substantial, and though we had no haggis the deficiency was in some degree supplied in roast turkeys, of which it is said no less than nine graced the board. Owing to `the slender means of the club,' the eight Montrealers had to pay £3, 2s. 6d. each as the cost of the meal, and about the same sums for going and returning. An amusing scene took place when the company separated, just before starting at daylight. The wine bill being rather high, some of the Montrealers objected, and, as a convincing proof that the host had charged too much, one of them produced from his pocket the cork of every bottle that had been emptied, and the number of corks and bottles did not correspond. But a little investigation shewed that several bottles had been consumed by some of the guests out of sight of the cork-keeper, and the bill was paid without further parleying."

When the Grand Club was formed in 1838, our Canadian brethren, finding that in a few particulars their rules of play differed from those adopted here, at once threw all differences to the wind, and in a truly patriotic spirit gave in their allegiance to the mother club. The Montreal Thistle Club was formed in 1842. For a good many years these three were the only clubs on the Caledonian list, but we hear of military clubs at Quebec, the officers of the Dragoon Guards at Chambly, and the officers of the 71st Regiment, having their respective clubs in 1841, when they proposed to challenge Montreal. A third club-the Caledonia—was formed at Montreal in 1850. Kingston comes on the scene in 1859, Ottawa in 1862, Belleville in 1867, and Arnprior in 1868. Within the last twenty years ten other clubs have been added, so that we have now nineteen clubs in the province, all affiliated with the Royal Club. From the first, district medals have been awarded there as they are at home. The distance between the competing clubs is often, of course, very great, but it is no obstacle to the bonspiel. Montreal goes 200 miles to play Quebec, and thinks nothing about it. "Some of the medals," says the secretary of the branch in 1860, "cost the winners £50, and a journey of four or five hundred miles, but they are all highly prized." They have the usual "beef and greens" after their matches, and the "haggis and Athole brose" are not forgotten. They toast the Queen, the Governor-General, and then "oor auld respectit wither—the Royal Caledonian Club." Never, through all their history, do we find the Canadians, as they follow the old game, forgetting its old home, and the home of their ,own fathers. At the same time, in the spirit of true brotherhood, they are ever found anxious to enlist the interest of those who belong to other countries and nations in the health-giving; and manly sport. Here is a cutting from a Canadian paper, which illustrates vividly- the progress of curling among the lion-Scottish, and its unchanged attraction for the Scottish citizens of Quebec as far back as 1854:

"The great event of the past creek was the monster curling match. Scotchmen had challenged all who came not from the north of the Tweed to beat them at their national game. The challenge was instantly responded to by the curlers of Quebec, or Barbarians, as they facetiously styled themselves, and immense excitement ensued. Sir James Alexander, A.D.C., acted as umpire. The game commenced at one o'clock, and continued with great zeal until half-past four. The scene on the river was novel and interesting ; hosts of ladies and gentlemen and many gay equipages surrounded the rinks ; bursts of merriment, snatches of broad Scotch, cries of `Soop him, soop him,' resounded on all sides; curling-stones with red or blue ribbons came gliding towards the tee, now quietly, anon with thundering force, as the skips directed; the curlers, besom in hand, seemed all absorbed in the game, occasionally coaxing on some favourite stone with honied expressions, as though their very lives depended on the issue, and not infrequently a great player would lose his footing in the excitement of the moment, to the infinite amusement of the bystanders. In the background arose the fortress of old Stadacona, whose cannon were manned by a company of artillery at target practice, and firing, as it were, a royal salute to the curlers. The playing was keen, aye, as keen as the N.W. wind which forced many of the fair admirers unwillingly from the spot, and the result of the game has clearly proved that the Barbarians are but little behind their civilised brethren in this manly sport. Scotchmen, 94; Barbarians, 83."

One of the most interesting bonspiels in our Canadian Branch is the "Scottish parish game," instituted in the year 1864, when four callants from the parish of Coulter, Lanarkshire, challenged "ony four frae ony ither parish in a' braid Scotland, or the world, to play a friendly game o' curlin'." Four lads from the parish of Ayr accepted the challenge, and were beaten by two shots. Next Year, however, Ayr, under the Hon. John Young as skip, with Davie Mair and his big Kilmarnock bonnet, big Sandy Fleck, and Davie M`Kay, all "frae the auld town," challenged Coulter, skipped by Geordie Denholm, president of the Montreal Club, who had few equals on the ice, with Jamie and Tam Brown and Wee Tam, all well-known Coulter curlers, and beat them, Ayr being victorious by eight shots. The Montreal Club has had a share of Royal patronage, Prince Arthur being elected an honorary member in 1869. The Canadians have been particularly fortunate in the support curling has always received from the Governors-General of the Dominion. One of the first Annuals (1841) refers to the interest taken in curling at that time by His Excellency Sir George Arthur, and in one of the last (1888-89), the departure of the Marquis of Lansdowne from Canada is referred to with regret, as he had " not only conferred on the game the prestige of his name and promoted it by prizes, but had during his residence there learned the game, and become a keen, keen curler." Between these two distinguished Governors several others have endeared themselves to the fraternity by their support and their sympathy. Lord Dufferin during his term of office gave a decided impetus to curling by the personal part he took in the ,game, and his disinterested endeavours to increase its popularity throughout the whole Dominion. A vice-regal club was instituted by His Excellency, of which he was patron, president, and a regular member (as all patrons and presidents ought to be), while the Countess of Dufferin was patroness. The members of the club were chiefly members of his Lordship's suite. The most notable among Lord Dufferin's measures for the advancement of curling was the institution of the Governor-General's prize. This was open to all the clubs in the Dominion. They first competed—eight chosen men of each—on their own ice, the game being one of points. The two clubs with the highest average scores for their eight players then met on the Governor-General's rink to play for the prize, and the winning club was held to be the champion club for the year. When Lord Dufferin was about to leave Canada, the clubs of the Quebec Province, through their president, Colonel Dyde, presented him with an address expressive of their gratitude and esteem, accompanied with a picture of:-

"A Canadian curling match, portraying a thoroughly outdoor whiter scene, with all the characteristics and surroundings of an exciting curling contest, and comprising also faithful portraits of many of Canada's keenest curlers, and some of his Excellency's most attached friends."

The Marquis of Lorne, who had twice been president of the Royal Caledonian Club, very naturally and very enthusiastically took up the cause for which Lord Duffrin, His predecessor, had done so much. The very first year after Lord Lorne's arrival we find the Vice-legal Club winning a Royal medal from the Carilion Club, "his Lordship," according to the report of the match, "playing a fine lead." H.R.H. the Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne, also chewed her interest in the game, as Lady Dufferin had done, by becoming patroness of the Vice-Renal Club. The prize of the Governor-General was continued in the form of a. cup, and in that form successive Governors have continued it, its possession being still the great ambition of the Canadian clubs.

The competition for this cup brought about all important change in the mode of playing the (anie of points in Canada. This game from the first received a (rood deal of attention, and the scoring rose very high. In 1846 the Montreal 'Thistle play averaged 8 to each competitor, two members tieing; with 12 points. For the Montreal gold medal in 1856, 13 players averaged 12 points each, Charles Sumner scoring 21, Captain Gallwey 18, James Tyr, John Clyde, and Walter Macfarlane, 15 points each. In 1875, W. F. Fenwick won the silver medal of the Thistle with a score of 21 points. For the final tie in the Governor's cup coin-petition of 1879, two clubs appeared with averages for their eight players which threw all others into the shade—Ottawa with 20 , points to each man, and Quebec with an average of 19-. -. This tall scoring must have alarmed the Canadian curlers themselves, for immediately thereafter we filed the secretary of the Canadian Branch, Mr A. Murray, writing the secretary of the Royal Club (December 9, 1880), that they had adopted a new series of positions in point play to regulate the competitions for the Canadian Branch tankard and the Governor-General's prizes. "The emulation excited by the latter has," says the secretary,

"Been wonderfully keen, until experience has proved that, either by constant practice or by manipulation, a lead has been established on the ice to the several positions, resulting; in some wonderfully large scores being made at points, thus placing at a great disadvantage such clubs as endeavoured honestly to carry out the competition."

According to the new diagrams which were sent to Mr Davidson Smith at the same time,

"No two stones are played on the same lines, so that any manipulation of the ice for one point will effectually spoil the ice for any other, and the positions given are also more closely assimilated to the actual play of an ordinary rink match than the old positions."

The Quebec system of points is, we believe, generally followed in Canada, but whether it has fully met the difficulties which led to its adoption we are not informed. The crown of the Canadian winter sports is the great carnival held annually at Montreal, when people flock from every district to enjoy the toboganning, sleighing, snow-shoeing, &c., and to witness the wonders of the ice-palace, or attend at the Burns supper. To a great many, however, the one attraction of the carnival is the curling, which is always the principal item in the programme. The international trophy, the gift of Hubert Gordon of New pork, is then played for, and there is a keen contest for the Quebec Province tankard, with gold medal, for the winning club, this competition being conducted on the same lines as those laid down for the Governor-General's cup.

The clubs of the Canadian or Quebec Province are iron-playing clubs, the irons being much improved since they were first used, and having hollow bottoms like ordinary stones, but at the carnival the wooden blocks and granites are allowed to take part in the show, as the following account, by Mr Murray, of the winter gathering of 1883-84 shews:-

"The most novel feature of the whole scene was the competitions, at one and the same time, of clubs playing wooden blocks, granite stones, and iron `stones;' and many a joke was cracked on the respective merits of the different 'stanes:' one of the best—of course being made by an 'iron'-playing curler—to the effect that even in curling the evolution theory held true; and here it was exemplified—first the primitive wooden blocks, like overgrown cheeses; next these developed into granite stones, a, vast improvement; until finally we get perfection in the `iron,' where the full and frolic of genuine curling were just as good and the play infinitely better than in either of its predecessors. It is needless to say the `granites' did not see the joke."

The rinks at this festival (as is usually the case) were all formed under cover, in loin' sheds. The covered rink is an advantage in such intense frost. The ice is, of course, a

solid block, and is thickened by each new watering, so that the old " hack " can safely be used, as it is, by the Canadian players. The Fenwick twist is carried out to perfection on the rinks, and, from all accounts, they have with their irons seduced the game to a, perfect science. The utmost good Humour prevails among them, and seldom has any dispute ever come up from their district matches for settlement. All who have visited Canada. can testify to the hearty hospitality extended to curlers from the mother country, and to the excellent way in which they uphold the ancient traditions of the game.

They have their bad winters on rare occasions, as in 1885-86, when an epidemic of smallpox put a stop to their carnival and their curling, and weakened many of the clubs; but, compared with us, they are the privileged classes in the dominion of frost. An old-fashioned winter with them begins in the middle of November and ends about the middle of April! Truly the ice may well be accounted a great emigration agent in the eyes of Scotsmen tired of the old country.

In the history of curling in this province, perhaps the most notable figure is Colonel Dyde, who was for a long time president of the branch. The colonel died in 1886, full of years and honours, having been up to his latest hour an enthusiast in "the roarin' game." In his day he was one of the most expert exponents of the art, and lie used to ascribe his long-continued vigour and health to his curling. A few Years before his death the colonel, along with three other curlers of the Montreal Club—Sir Hugh Allan, the Hon. John Young, and James Tyre, whose united ages as a rink amounted to 287 years—challenged any other four to a friendly game. In the course of two or three years the challenge was accepted nine times, and the veterans won in every instance. The colonel was one of the six teen Quebecers, all about six feet tall, who played in the match against Montreal, at Three Rivers, as far back as 1835, so that for over half-a-century his commanding influence and good example popularised the game in the Dominion. Two distinguished divines—Dr Cool. of Quebec and Dr Barclay of Toronto—identified themselves with the curlers and their sport, the latter taking a prominent part in its advancement. And now the Canadian Branch has for its chaplain one who is honourably remembered by us all for his excellence in curling and other manly sports, as well as for his abilities as a preacher—the Rev. .Tames Barclay, formerly of St Cuthbert's, Edinburgh.

ONTARIO PROVINCE.— In the year 1874 4 the curling clubs in the Province of ONTARIO were formed into a branch, separate from and independent of the Canadian or Quebec Branch of the Roy a1 Club. The headquarters of this branch was Toronto. It was to be self-governing, with office-bearers of its own, and an Annual; but its proceedings were to be reported for approval to the Royal Club, to which the branch was to be subject " in all curling matters." In 1882 the Royal Clttb resolved, "in the interests of curling in the Ontario District, to allow the Ontario Branch to be a corresponding association, no longer subordinate or contributory to the Royal Club, which, however, retained the right to continue on the roll such clubs as wished to remain in affiliation with the loyal. Since that time the best of feelings have always existed between our Ontario brethren and the mother club: they have our list of office-bearers in their Annuals, and a list of their clubs is given in ours; they distribute our medals, and send its annual reports of their doings. In our Jubilee they took the warmest interest; and the secretary of the branch—J. S. Russel, who is the best authority on the subject of Canadian curling at the present day--drew up for our use a history of the game in the Ontario Province, which we had better give as it stands, for it seems to us to indicate fairly and fully the various streams which have contributed to the full flood of curling as it now rolls along in Ontario:—


The history of curling in the Province of Ontario Ieads us back only to about A.D. 1830, and indicates the date of the first considerable immigration of Scottish families into the Province.

Previous to 1783, when the British Government located about 10,000 United Empire loyalist refugees from the United States of America in the eastern part of the Province, then called Western Canada, it had been known `only as a region of intense cold in winter, a dense wilderness of forest and swamp, tenanted by venomous reptiles and beasts of prey, and the hunting-grounds of numerous savage Indian tribes, whose hatred of white men made its exploration perilous, and with no redeeming feature except abundance of fish and game.'

"This original colony was considerably increased in subsequent years by the removal into the Province of a large number of the same class who had been settled in \ova Scotia, but, growing dissatisfied with their condition and prospects in that Province, sought to better themselves by seeking; a bogie in what was then considered the Far West.

"At the close of the French wars in 1815, the British Government directed a large emigration from the United Kingdom into the Province, and the population increased from 80,000 in 1815 to 120,000 in 1822. The Canada Land Company was formed in 1841, `with the design of acquiring lands in the Province, and promoting their colonisation,' and, being mainly a Scotch company, its efforts were very naturally and most successfully employed in planting Scotch families in the lands it had acquired in the Province of Upper Canada ; and, accordingly, we find characteristic evidence of the presence of Scotch-men in the Province, in the erection of St Andrew's Church in Toronto, 1830, and the introduction of `ye glorious game of curling' about the same time. [By way of illustrating the process of the formation of curling clubs in Ontario, the following may be cited, viz.: — 1st. Of the olden time: Galt Curling Club. In the words of Robert Wallace, one of the players, still surviving: "Our family came to the township of Beverley in 1834, and I moved in April 1S36 to the town of Galt, which then consisted of a few straggling log huts; in the winter following my father came to pay me a visit, and we drove out to see the family of Hugh Wallace, living about two-and-a-half miles west of the town. Among other topics of conversation the subject of curling was raised, and we resolved to get up a game at once; so we went to work, cut blocks out of a beech tree, to which High Wallace, being a blacksmith, quickly fitted rough but serviceable handles, and, adjourning to a pond on a field belonging to John Angus, we had a jolly good game, and a club was formed in Galt in 1835."

2nd. of the more modern time: Waubaushene Curling Club.—"In the fall of 1879 a few of the residents of Waubaushene happened to meet in the village store, and the conversation, drifted to skating, and then to curling. Few of those present knew anything about the game, so an illustration of the mariner of playing it was given by means of coppers on the counter, and quite an interest in the game was raised. A committee was appointed to canvass the village, and ascertain what the chances were of raising money enough to build a rink to be used both for skating and curling, and in a few days the necessary funds were raised, and soon afterwards the rink, a spacious structure 200 feet by 24, was erected. The cost of granite curling-stones to people who had never seen the game was a formidable difficulty, but it was happily surmounted by the opportune visit to the village of an old Port Hope curler, who suggested wooden blocks of the proper shape and size, which were at once turned out of green beech, and strengthened with an iron band two inches wide and three-quarters inch thick, shrunk on hot, and with these the game was played until 1882, when the club procured a full supply of Ailsa Craigs."]

"At first the curlers of each settlement played amongst themselves, and occasionally the curlers of two contiguous settlements would have a `spiel,' and by-and-by clubs were organised, Fergus leading the van in 1834, Flanaborouglc following in 1835, Toronto and Milton in 1837, Galt, Guelph, and Scarborough in 1838, Paris in 1843, and Elora in 1847; and in the next decade Ancaster, Bowmanille, Woodbridge, Hamilton Thistle, and Dundas Clubs were formed. These may justly be called the pioneer clubs of the Province; they are to this day, every one of them, in vigorous activity. The sons and grandsons have all the enthusiasm and the skill of their sires, and they still occupy a first place among the curling clubs of the Province.

"A goodly number of these clubs used from the very first granite curling-stones, made by the curlers themselves from ice-borne boulders, which are found plentifully scattered all over the Province; the metal is very hard, and is susceptible of a good polish, but with rare exceptions it is very `dull' and `sticky' when the ice is soft. They are now given up, being superseded by the Ailsa Craig, and blue and red Hones, and Tinkernhills, which also find considerable favour.

"In later years several clubs made a beginning with iron curling-stones, cast hollow, with a `skin' about one inch in thickness, and having one sole turned, with a slight concave, and chilled and polished these, being of a good shape, size, and weight, were found very suitable in cold and cloudy weather, or under cover; but where the temperature got above the 32 degrees, or the sun's rays fell upon them when at `rest,' they melted hollows in the ice, and left the `tee-head' pitted with circular marks, as if the ice had `come through' a severe attack of monstrous smallpox.

"Others, and by far the largest number, made their first essays in the game with wooden blocks, cut from the solid bowl of a beech or maple tree, or turned on a lathe, and girt about with a massive iron bawl to add weight and prevent splitting, and fitted with handles of bent iron made in the village blacksmith's shop. In the Province of Quebec, and in a few places in Ontario adjoining Quebec, solid iron blocks, weighing from 60 to 75lb., are still used, but everywhere else, all over the Continent of America, the time-honoured 'granite or whinstane' is considered the only proper material for making curling. stones.

"The pattern of stone which is now universally used in all parts of Canada and the United States has the dull sole (that usually played with) made concave, with a well-raised bearing from one-eighth to three-eighths of an inch in width, and having a diameter of from five to five and a half inches; this style of sole gives the best results in playing the game, and as in the points game scores of from 18 to 21 are not uncommon, and 25 has been made, there is substantial proof of the excellence of the pattern and the wisdom of its adoption in Ontario. The 'keen' sole is also made concave, but is not so much ` capped' as the `dull,' the diameter of the `cup' is less, and the width of the bearing is more than that of the `dull' sole; and this sole is used when the ice is rough or damp, and on such ice it is 'just the thing.'

"In the early days of curling in Ontario, and before the introduction of railways, culling intercourse was limited, and could only exist between clubs situated near to each other; horses were not very numerous, and oxen were very slow; and as a shovel was as necessary a part of a curler's outfit as his stanes and his besom, and `shovel exercise' in removing snow from the ice often occupied as much of his time as playing the game did, an early house-leaving and a late return did not admit of a good game and long travel. Stories are told of curlers setting out the night before, travelling all night on shanks' pony, playing the game during the day, and making for home thereafter. But such feats are not generally practicable; it took three days for the Toronto and Hamilton Thistle Clubs to play a match—one day travelling to, one day travelling from, and one day playing—although the cities are only about forty miles apart. And an `annual' match and the `return' was as much as could he reasonably expected between these clubs; while the Toronto and Scarborough Clubs played an annual match with each other every few weeks while the frost lasted.

"In 1859 the first `big Canadian bonspiel' was played on Toronto Bay, the Province being divided into East and West, with 21 rinks a side, Fergus, Guelph, Scarborough, and Toronto Clubs contributing 5 rinks each, Bowmanville and Hamilton Thistle 4 each, Ancaster and Flamborough .3 each, Harlington, Dundas, and Newcastle 2 each, and London and Montreal 1 each. The next large bonspiel took place in 1865, and was played at Black Rock, near Buffalo, between Ontario and the United States, with 2:3 rinks a side, Ontario having 4 rinks over—in all 27 rinks, the representative curlers of 1:) Canadian clubs. On this occasion a rink from the Toronto Club, called `Her Majesty's Rink,' and wearing cardigan jackets of the royal scarlet, played against a rink of the Buffalo Club, called `The President's Rink,' and wearing small U.S. flags (stars and stripes). The Americans dubbed the Canadian rink with the name of 'Red Jackets,' and in a few years, and somewhat changed in its members, it became famous as the `Red Jacket Rink' of the Toronto Club, which played against picked rinks of the best clubs in the Province with wonderful success, and also carried the name and fame of Canadian curlers throughout the United States from New York to Chicano, and greatly extended the interest taken in the game.

"Since that time several large bonspiels have been played, at Burlington Bay near Hamilton, and at 'Toronto on the bay, or divided among the rinks belonging to the city clubs; and to these have been attracted from 100 to 110 rinks of players from all parts of the Province. But for many reasons they have been discontinued; one of the main reasons being the difficulty of finding n large enough field of good ice and suitable weather, a Canadian snowstorm making curling out of doors impossible; and another being the frequent `misfits' of opposing rinks. There is no pleasure to either party when the scoring is all made by the one side, and in promiscuous matches, such as these large bonspiels are, such unfortunate competitions are bound to occur.

"Of late years a very interesting annual match has been played by the combined clubs of the city of Toronto, against one rink from each of the other clubs of the Province, and they have been most successful. The playing has been good, and the competitors well matched ; and as there is a well-marked dividing line between the two sides, the interest often rises to anxiety and excitement before the final issue is ascertained.

"The competitions, `primary' and `final,' for the Ontario tankard are the great events of each curling season. For the `primary,' the clubs in connection with the branch club are arranged into sixteen groups, with about six clubs in each, and these engage in a playing-off contest, club v. club, until only one club in each group remains undefeated; the champion clubs of the sixteen groups then meet in Toronto to play off the `final' in the same manner; this contest occupies two full days, two sets of matches being played each (lay and as the players are all experts, tried and true, the ice as level as a, billiard table, and the result the highest honour attainable in curling in Ontario, it may be justly considered to afford the finest possible illustration of the game.

"The Ontario Branch Club makes au annual allocation of Royal Caledonian district medals, to be played for between each two clubs in the association which did not win one the preceding year ; and these medals are competed for with the greatest enthusiasms.

"Besides these more public competitions, all of the clubs have numerous contests to be played by and between their own members, such as the points game, at which the winning scores run from 16 to 21, and sometimes higher, 25 points out of the 32 possible having been made; single hand matches with three pairs of stones; and an inter-rink match between all the rinks of the club, each against every other ; and thus during our curling season, extending from the middle of December until about the end of i arch, our curlers are busily engaged in their most exciting pastime.

"In January 1887 twenty-nine rinks of curlers from the United -States paid a friendly visit to Ontario by way of a return to the international match played at Black Rock in 1865. A much larger company had arranged to visit Toronto on the occasion, but a series of heavy snow-falls occurring immediately before the date named for the 'gathering' rendered railway travelling almost impossible, and thus prevented many from `keeping the tryst.' Those who did come were greatly impressed by the number and extent of our rinks, by the resources and skill of the caretakers of the various rinks, and by the wonderful facilities available for the practice of the game; and most of them remained the whole week, curling forenoon, afternoon, and evening on such ice as they had never seen before.

"At the formation of the Ontario Branch of the R.C.C.C. in 1881 His Excellency Lord Dufferin, Governor-General of the Dominion, graciously accepted the office of patrons of the club, and, taking to the game, became a good and keen curler. His successor, the Marquis of Lorne, a former president of the Royal Caledonian Club, was, before his arrival in Canada, an adept at the game; and the Marquis of Lansdowne, who followed him in the vice-regal dignity, became, during the terns of his high office, an enthusiastic curler ; and thus, by their official patronage, by their annual donations of curling prizes, by many eloquent speeches in praise of the game, but most of all by taking an active part in the practice of it, these noblemen, occupying the highest position in the Dominion, greatly promoted the game of curling, and gave it a 'standing' in public estimation it had not previously held.

"The A. M. Stewart Scottish Counties medal, presented as a challenge trophy, to be played for between natives of Scottish counties now residing in any part of the American Continent, although it has perhaps not done much to promote the -rinse of curling directly, has been the occasion of a great many interesting matches. The medal was brought into Ontario by natives of Lanarkshire, and has been held by that county very successfully, although it has been won by Roxburghshire, and is at present held by Stirlingshire, whose `brave lads,' after several unsuccessful attempts, slid at the 'lang last' manage to run up the better score against the Lanarkshire callants.

This medal deserves notice, because the competition for it is open to Scotsmen living anywhere on the Continent of America, and because it brings together in friendly rivalry men now 'sindered far and wide,' who as schoolboys at on the same forms, were taught to dread the same 'tawse,' engaged in the same frolics, and maybe courted the same lass ; and because it revives and promotes friendships among `one's am,' which is one of the principal ends sought to he obtained by ' the grand  old game.' There is little doubt that Mr Stewart would gladly extend the right to contend for this medal i to any eight natives of any county in Scotland who would cross the Atlantic to make an effort to win it, and 'tak' it hame;' the three counties already named are sufficiently well represented in Canada, but there is a fine opening for the other counties, or shires, to win immortal renown by sending out eight curlers to contest for this trophy, and especially if they succeed in winning it, and carrying it 'over the sea' to auld Scotland.

"The early curlers of Ontario were not unappreciative of the honour and benefit of being connected with the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, although the first club to join the Royal was that of Toronto, and not until 1845, and was followed by the Paris Club only, after a long interval, in 1857; and when the Ontario Branch of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club was established in 1874, only twenty out of forty-two clubs then in active existence were connected with the parent club.

"Two reasons sufficiently account for this seeming apathy, the first being that a Canadian Branch of the Royal had been established with its headquarters in Montreal, in the Province of Quebec, and the distance was too great to admit of regular attendance at the meetings held there of any deputies from the clubs in Ontario; and the second was that the curlers of the Province of Quebec then, as now, used solid iron blocks, weighing from 60 to 80 lb., in the practice of the game, while those of Ontario used the time-honoured granite stones, conform in weight and size to the rule of the parent club.

"In 1861 a Royal Caledonian medal was played for at Montreal between the Toronto Club and the Stadacona Club of Quebec city, the former travelling 700 miles, and the latter about 350, in going to and returning from the match ; one rink of the Stadaconas played `stone,' and one Toronto rink played `iron,' and the result was what might have been anticipated—each rink playing its accustomed `metal' was winner, and those playing with the unfamiliar were losers. Such an arrangement, while probably `fair,' was not satisfactory, and this difference in the stones used in the game presented an insuperable barrier to curling intercourse between the curlers of the Provinces, and led to the establishment, in 1874, of a branch of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club for the Province of Ontario, with its headquarters in Toronto.

"From this date, and under the auspices of the Ontario Branch, curling has developed marvellously throughout the whole of the Dominion of Canada. A branch of the parent club similar to that for Ontario has been established for the Maritime Provinces, and steps are now being taken to establish another for Manitoba and the North-West; and a Grand Canadian Curling Association, to be formed by a confederation of these various provincial clubs, and maintaining an intimate connection with the Royal Caledonian, `the mither of us all,' seems to be looming in the not far distant future.

" With the Ontario Branch ninety-nine clubs are now affiliated, having a membership of over 3000. Since the formation of the Ontario Branch, and more particularly since, in the wise liberality of the parent club, the branch was granted a measure of 'Home Rule,' including the privilege of making its own regulations, and of using its funds to promote curling in Ontario, the game has been taken up largely by Canadians generally, without respect to original nationality, and the game, which a few years ago was looked upon as slow and devoid of interest, good enough, perhaps, for a lot of 'old fogey Scotch-men,' is now followed with the keenest enthusiasm by 'young and middle-aged Canada,' who have found it to be of most engrossing interest, and a grand relief to the worry of business and the weariness of prolonged mental application.

"The erection of covered rinks in almost every city, town, and village in Ontario is, in some measure, both the cause and effect of this state of things in regard to curling ; every club has a covered rink, where, by day or by night, `whatever storms may blow,' the voice of the skip and the `curving' of the curling-stone may be heard as long as frost continues. Some of these are built of slabs, many of rough boards, while in the larger towns and cities brick and stone are tie materials most commonly used. In the city of Toronto alone there are five rinks, affording under cover ample space for twenty-eight curling rinks, and thirty-seven in the open air—the covered rinks being preferred for play only when snow is falling or darkness comes on. The property is valued at over $250,000, and affords a means of delightful and healthful recreation to about 600 curlers belonging to the city clubs, while it is found indispensable to the curlers of the country in playing off the more important matches of the Ontario Branch.

"In fine, the warmest admirers of the game are completely satisfied with the progress it is making in Ontario, and with the healthful influence it is exercising on the physical and moral condition of those who engage in it; excesses of every kind are fatal to the clearness of eye and steadiness of arm required to attain and retain a good position in the game.

"One most desirable object still remains to be accomplished, and that is the initiation of curling intercourse between the curlers of old Scotland and Canada: it can be carried on only in `this Canada of ours.' Our Scottish brithers of the 'stanes and besom' who first make the. venture to spend a month or two with us in curling weather will receive a welcome which they will never cease to remember with joy and pride—joy in the remembrance of the pleasure they received and conferred by their visit to Canada, and an honest pride in being pioneers in the establishment of another link of friendly intercourse between the mother country and her colony. It rests with the keen, keen curlers of old Caledonia to say when this desirable consummation shall be attained."

MANITOBA BRANCH.—The secretary of Ontario Branch (Mr Russel), in his report of the year 1882, says:-

"The large emigration from our Province to the new Province of Manitoba 'and the North-West Territories has thinned the ranks of many of our curling clubs; but the emigrants are everywhere carrying with them the love of the game, and already about half-a-dozen clubs have been organised in that land, so eminently adapted for curling; and we who remain in Ontario are calmly awaiting our fate, when these curlers, perfected by six or seven months' daily practice every year, will come down and `scoop us out,' not giving us a shot; soutering is, I believe, the proper term."

Since these words were written emigration to Manitoba has doubled the number of curlers and clubs there, and at a convention held at Winnipeg in 1888 it was agreed to form a branch of the Royal Caledonian Club for Manitoba and the adjoining territories. This branch has now 14 clubs, with an active membership of 737 curlers, Mr J. P. Mather being president, and Mr J. P. Robertson secretary and treasurer of the branch. The first great bonspiel of the branch was held at Winnipeg in March 1889, and was looked upon as one of the most successful events in connection with curling that has ever come off in America. A sum of $1127.70 was raised as a bonspiel fund, from which a grand challenge medal, an international trophy, and several gold medals were secured. Other handsome prizes being offered by private parties, the association was able to institute at once a series of very interesting and exciting competitions, and to attract curlers from other associations in Canada and the United States. A bright and prosperous future is doubtless in store for this young branch, and its progress will be marked with attention by curlers in the old country.

NEWFOUNDLAND.—About the year 1843 a few Scotchmen formed a curling club at St John's, Newfoundland, which used to meet on Guide Vidi and other lakes near the town. Year by year this club increased in numbers. There was always plenty of ice to be had, but the snowstorms in some winters made curling impossible, and several attempts were accordingly made to secure a covered rink, where the game could be enjoyed without hindrance. It was only in 1869 that Mr P. Grieve and a few other leading gentlemen by a determined effort succeeded in raising a sufficient sum for the purpose. A handsome covered rink; was constructed at a cost of £2000. It measured 160 feet by 90 feet, and as the skaters of the city had assisted in raising the money, a part in the centre, 60 feet wide, was reserved for them, and a curling rink, 150 feet by 15 feet, was left available on each side, where with every comfort the curlers were able to have their matches. This Avalon Club (as it was called) received a Caledonian medal to play for in 1874, and this created such a furore for curling in St John's that another club, the Arctic, had to be started. The Heart's Content Club followed in 1878, and the competitions between the clubs lint new life into the curlers in Newfoundland. A district medal was awarded between the Avalon and the Arctic, but owing; to the many obstacles in the way, it was some years before it could be played. Neither club could find it convenient to reach the other's ice. At last the people of Harbor Grace, twenty miles from Heart's Content and eighty-five miles from St John's, erected a rink, and placed it at the disposal of the clubs and having made all preliminary arrangements, a team of the Heart's Content proceeded there, and a team of the Arctic Club left St John's to meet them on the ice.

"After a very tedious journey by rail," says the skip of the winning Arctic, C. Ruder, `'being snowed up in the train for some hours, and having to cut several snow-drifts of from 7 to 10 feet deep, we arrived at Harbor Grace at 6.30 p.m., and the opposing team having had the ice prepared, we played the match that evening, and returned to St John's next day.... The undertaking of a journey in the middle of a Newfoundland winter of twenty miles across our open barrens by the Heart's Content Club, and a rail journey of eighty-five from St John's by the Arctic, will shew you that the dear old `roarin' game' is as keenly enjoyed in the `oldest colony' as it is on any of the bonny lochs of auld Scotia ; and the pleasant meeting of total strangers on the ice told the onlookers that `curlers are brithers' all the world over."

A few point scores from their returns shew what these Newfoundland curlers can do in that department of the game:—

NOVA SCOTIA.-The the early part of this century curling was practised by Scotsmen in Nova Scotia, and Captain Houston Stewart (whose name occurs in our account of the Penninahame Club) had, prior to 1843, organised a club at Halifax, where I)r Grigor, a fiddler "second only to Neil Gow," Colonel Gray, and others, were keen supporters of the game. The .Halzfecx Thistle, Dartmouth, and Pictou Clubs joined the Royal in 1852, the Nezc Caledonian and New Glasgow in 1854. Clubs were also instituted at Stellarton, Sydney, Truro, and Cape Breton. Among the earliest Nova Scotian matches we have one in 1854 between the president and vice-president of the branch for the benefit of the poor, £5 a side, to which were added sundry bets among the members, making the sum £12, 8s., which was handed over to the Mayor of Halifax." Another match for "firewood to the poor" took place that same year. In 1862 a great match calve off between the Halifax and Pictou Clubs, on a mill-darn about two miles from Truro, three rinks a side, with five players in each rink. Of this match the secretary of the New Caledonian Club, Pictou, W. N. Rudolph, writes:-

"The play excited deep interest, and was witnessed by 2000 people. A sleigh accommodating about fifty persons, and drawn by six horses, conveyed passengers to and from the pond throughout the day. Numbers of the fair sex were on the spot, and added in no small degree to the beauty of the scene. The day was very fine. The utmost good-feeling prevailed during the whole play, and on the termination of the game the opposing forces adjourned to the `Prince of Wales' Hotel for dinner. Here speeches and songs passed the time merrily until a late hour, when the company separated with expressions of mutual esteem to return to their homes."

The New Glasgow Club, which subsequently adopted the shivering designation of the Blue-Hose Club, has acquired high distinction for excellence of play, having for three years in succession won the Governor-General's prize, open to all stone-playing clubs in the Dominion of Canada. In the lists of the club we find a rood many M'Gregors and other Highland names, which may account for the club's success. To play the final tie for the cup in 1881 the Blue-Nose curlers travelled 1100 miles each way—a striking proof of the keenness of our transatlantic brothers. The curling-stones in general use in Nova Scotia average about 43 lb. each, and ` are usually flat-bottomed, not cupped. They are mostly Ailsas. Some of the scores at points reported from the province are very high, the medal of the Halifax Club having been won in 1887 by Sydenham Howe with 22 points, while seventeen competitors averaged 13 points each.

NEW BRUNSWICK.— Previous to the year 1869 there must have been a good deal of curling here., for in that year we hear of a snatch between native curlers and Scotsmen, in which the former were victorious. Then we have a match between those hailing from north of the Forth and those from the south. The earliest clubs we meet with are the Frederickton and the St Andrew's. The secretary of the latter, writing from St John in 1862, says:-

"A great accession to the interest of our proceedings arose from several of the officers of the regiments at that time in St John's honouring us with their countenance, and heartily entering into our sports, most of them being first-rate curlers, and qualified to honour Scotland in any part of the world."

In 1875 the same gentleman, in his report to the loyal Club, remarks:-

"I sometimes think that the curlers on this side of the water are even more enthusiastic than you are, for we do not hesitate to go some 300 miles for a bonspiel with the thermometer below zero."

The highest point scores reported from New I Brunswick are 15, made by S. F. Matthews in 1814, and 16 by H. F. Messurier in 1885.

UNITED STATES.—In the year 1867 the great majority of the curling clubs in the United States were formed into a Grand National Curling Club, the object of which was to do for the States what had been done for Scotland by the Royal Club. Alongside of its own list of office-bearers the Grand National published in its Annual a list of the oflicebearers of the parent club, and at their annual dinner the States curlers do not forget to toast the Royal as "oor auld respectit mither," ever, like their Canadian brethren, paying the old lady the highest respect. A report of their proceedings is also transmitted annually to the Royal, Mr David Foulis having for many years, as secretary of the Grand National, drawn up these reports, which never fail to interest curlers in Scotland. Mr Foulis has not, however, like the Ontario secretary, sent any special statement for our volume, and in the absence of such we must do our best to give an account of curling in the United States. The oldest club is the Orchard Lake Club, organised about the year 1830 by eight hardy Scotsmen away in the wilds of Michigan, on the banks of the lake from which the club took its name. The curlers there used hickory blocks for want of their native whinstone.

Alexander Mitchell, who, in the year 1887, was elected to the high office of patron of the Grand National Club in succession to Robert Gordon of New York, along with other pioneer Scotsmen, introduced curling at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, so far back as the year 1847. No better instance could be given to illustrate the Scotsman's undying attachment to Scotland's ain game and the connection between curling and the highest development of character than Alexander Mitchell's career. When they settled there he and his companions were poor emigrants, but they stuck to their work, their channel-stanes, and their good principles, and when the Grand Club makes Alexander Mitchell their patron it is because " his name is a household word in the Far West, and is synonymous with progress and business integrity." He is then the owner of a palatial residence in the Grand Avenue, Milwaukee, but his delight is to meet the curlers, and, "with his braid blue Kilmarnock bonnet," to mingle among them as one of themselves, and take a personal interest in all their proceedings. "His heart," says their Annual for 1888, in announcing his death. "was as large and kindly as his influence, and his name will go down to posterity as a striking example of what can be accomplished by integrity and business capacity."

It was by such Scotsmen that here and there throughout the States clubs were formed in the first half of this century. Portage Club followed Milwaukee in 1850, and then the game spread through Columbia. Boston Club, which was entirely composed of Scotsmen, was formed in 1854. Poston New England Club was formed in 1856, Philadelphia, New York Thistle, and Caledonian in 1857, St Andrew's in 1858, Paterson and 1Yezv Jersey in 1860, Yonkers in 1864, and .Detroit in 1865. Those were the pioneer clubs of the States previous to the formation of the Grand National Club, which, since it was instituted, has added fully thirty to the five who were originally affiliated with it, so that it now ,contains about forty clubs, with a membership of over 800. Curling has not made such progress in the United States as it has in Canada. But it must be kept in mind, in estimating its progress in the States, that the facilities there me not so great, the Scotch element is not so large, and, besides, the progress of the dame was considerably interrupted by the American War. Thus we find the secretary to the New York Thistle writing Mr Cassels in 1862:-

"On the whole, the roaring game is on the increase in this section, .although our ranks have been much weakened by some of our members joining the army. Nevertheless, there is a curling spirit of the right kind manifesting itself, and no doubt it will increase with better times and peace from war."

The war did not stop the play, for we find the New England Club repairing on February 24, 1862, to Spot Pond, Kelvingrove, the residence of their patron, John Leishman, who was a good curler and a strong supporter of his club, to play for two medals. The "yill coup," with something to put in it, was planted, for the comfort of the day, under the shadow of a granite bluff which projected into the pond, and in the evening the players had a substantial dinner at their patron's residence, when:-

"The sentiment and song, embellished with stirring narratives of bygone days in the land of the heather and blue mountains, closing with the singing of `Auld Lang Sync,' made the occasion one of happy remembrance."

Still there was a skeleton at the feast, for after such a happy picture by Samuel Gibson, the secretary, there follows this PS..—

"I am sorry to see our friends at home having so strange views of the unhappy rebellion in our country. For the sake of 'erinq humanity, for the sake of civil and religious liberty and good and free institutions, let the cause in which we are engaged go on, and the world will bless us for the heavenly efforts we are making."

The headquarters of United States curling and of the National Club is New York, where the annual meetings are usually held ; but the club follows the example of the Royal, and has visited various centres of influence in the States, such as Buffalo, Chicago, Albany, Yonkers, Coney Island, Utica, and Milwaukee. These summer gatherings are made the occasion of a great annual quoiting competition, the principal prize in which is the Bell gold medal, presented by David Bell, a Dumfriesian gentleman, who was first president of the Grand National Curling Club, and who has himself won the medal three times out of the four occasions on which he played for it. This revival of the custom of the old Duddingston Club (vide footnote, p. 36), and of the still older connection between curling and quoiting, is very interesting. It certainly makes the summer gathering more of an event to the representatives who attend. The occasion is further improved by the curlers, With their wives and daughters, taking excursions into the surrounding country after the business is over.

The New York Corporation has set a noble example to public bodies by the liberality shewn to the curling clubs in giving them ice to play upon in the Central Park, and fitting up for them a movable house, with eight club-rooms, shelved to hold stones, brooms, &c. The National Club, to develop the game, gives district medals, as we do at home, and these are keenly contested. Private patrons have endowed the club with many valuable national trophies. They have two champion rink medals, presented by their two patrons, Hobert Gordon and Alexander Mitchell ; an interstate medal, the gift of John L. Hamilton, a president. Several States have medals of their own of great value, while a grand match. between North v. South of Scotland is fought annually for the Dalrymple medal, and the M'Lintock medal pits the Scotch v. All other Nationalities. The most important prize of all is the Gordon medal, to be played for between the United States and Canada.

This match was first pIayed in 1865, at Buffalo Rock Harbour. Over fifty of the players are said each to have travelled 850 miles to take part in it. It was, of course, "a Montreal bank to a shaving shop " in favour of Canada, the States players being mostly beginners at the time, and Canada won easily. The last account of this snatch which is before us tells a similar tale: Canadians, 789; United States, 501. This was at Toronto in 1887. The "reasons annexed" by the Grind National secretary are interesting as throwing light on the points in which the States and Canada diverge in play. Omitting superabundant hospitality, which all curlers know to be fatal previous to a bid; match, we have covered rinks and hack playing assigned as causes of defeat. From this it may be inferred that curling in the United States bears a closer resemblance to curling in Scotland than the Canadian style. How closely they are bound to us, these curling Americans, is shewn by many an incident in the history of their curling, by the names they bear and the language they use. Everything is redolent of the Land o' Cakes, and curling, Americanised as it happily is, wears the old countenance and follows the old ways. One of the oldest of the New York clubs took the name of the Thistle. In the days when there were no medals, and the Thistle wanted a bonspiel with the Caledonian, Andrew Barr, a member of the Thistle, gave his Glengarry bannet to be played for! Andrew had to go home bannetless, having lost the match; and for twenty years did he address the Thistle men in van, "Bring back my bannet,' for the Caledonians sternly held on to it. When, in 1879, the bannet was regained at last, every "brug" of the Thistle was assembled together at William Meikle's, and the curlers' wives and children were there, and there was great rejoicing. Poor Andrew died happy very soon thereafter. To the curlers of the States the monuments to Burns and Scott in New York were in great measure due. In the foundation. stone of each, along with the usual newspapers, there was deposited a copy of the curling Annual. Dumfriesshire, as we have seen, gave them their first president. John Johnstone, who held the office more than once, belonged to the county of Aberdeen; and in 1878 he writes them from Inverurie, where he has been scampering among the heather hills, "near where Gaudie rins, at the back o' Benachie." John Patterson, another president, was from Minnigaff. Their worthy secretary, if we mistake not, is from Inverkeithing, in the kingdom of Fife. The slogan of the beloved William Ritchie, which will not soon be forgotten, was "Kilbarchan for ever!" James M`Laren, who wins the gold quoit medal, is announced as from Clackmannan, "a Scottish county justly famed for its small size, good soldiers, and good quoiters!" Then who in all the States has not heard of Willie Kellock, the renowned skip of the renowned rink of the renowned Yonkers Club, who carried off the blue ribbon of American curling, the Gordon championship medal, no less than five times between 1869 and 1886? Willie was "a native of one of the bonniest villages in Scotland—viz., Thornhill, Dumfriesshire." And so on. We cannot but feel at home among these American curlers, for their names are our own. When under their star-spangled banner they form their Grand National Curling Club, they are not content with the States' motto, "E pluribus unum," they add a motto still more suggestive, "We're brithers a'!" They seldom burst into son; over their curling as their brethren do at home ; but if on rare occasions they do, it is in quid braid Scotch

"Hae ye trouble? Hae ye sorrow?
Are ye pinched wi' warldly care?
Redd the roaring rink to-morrow,
Pench! they'll fash ye never mair."

The songs at their social gatherings are mostly "the auld Scotch sangs," the dinners are like ours, if that to the Wisconsin rinks given by Milwaukee may be taken as a specimen :-

"From half-past seven till nearly twelve the crowd of jolly curlers ate, drank, sang songs, proposed toasts and healths, and testified to their good opinion of each other's skill in the roaring game, and their love for the grand game itself."

When the convention met at Milwaukee in 1885, it is said in an account of the dinner that:-

"During the evening a corps of bagpipers paraded round the (lining-hall, flawing wi micht and main, and thrilling; the pulse of every Scotchman within hearing; with their wild, weird strains."

In recognition of the kindly relationship in which it stood to the Grand National Club of America, the Royal Club, in 1872, elected Mr M`1)oiigall of the St Andrew's (New York) Club, who was then American Consul at Dundee, to be one of their vice-presidents. Deputies have sometimes been sent to Scotland by the two clubs which keep up the old alliance with us—St Andrew's and Yonkers, and at the fiftieth anniversary meeting of the Royal Club in July 1888, Mr J. B. Gillie appeared as the first accredited delegate of the Grand National Club who had attended our annual meeting. It is surely matter of regret that we have not more " comings and goings" with each other, united as we are by the ties of kinship and curling. A proposal has more than once been made to have a match between Scotland and the United States. In 1870 Sir William Elliot sent a challenge across the Atlantic to play any rink for a sum of £500. This was discussed at the Grand National Convention of 1871, but set aside, because of the objection urged by Mr Hoogland, that a match for money, even though the sum should be devoted to a charity, would drag down curling to the level of baseball. John Johnston, president of the Grand National Club, brought a challenge with hint to the Royal Club in the year 1878, but only three curlers were found to volunteer their services. As far back as 1858 our Canadian Branch, through David Mair, their secretary, sent us a. challenge, which has been several times renewed. The Ontario Branch, when the Marquis of Lorne was Governor-General of Canada, thought that would be a suitable time for a match between the Canadians and the curlers of the old country, and sent, by the Pei-. Dr Barclay of Toronto, a message, which was " not a challenge, but a kindly invitation to a friendly match." Still nothing was done. The Marquis of Lorne and H.R.H. the Princess Louise, on leaving Canada, both promised their assistance in the matter. Lord Melgund did his best to bring off the match during his presidency. Since then several invitations have been sent from our brethren in Ontario, but up till this time the difficulties in the way have evidently been too great. If it is merely a friendly match that is proposed, there are surely too many formalities being observed. Home curlers with time and money may any winter visit America, and be sure of a hearty welcome on the rink, and transatlantic curlers may rely on the same in the ol(l country. Why not let us have an international match, which would at once be a test of curling skill, and a friendly match with no dubiety about it, the Beaver and the Eagle combining, if they choose, to attack the Lion Rampant? Or, since our Scottish clubs outnumber all the others put together, why should it not be Furth of Scotland .v Scotland? Such a Grand Match would indeed be an epoch in the history of the game. It is due to Scotland that it should first be played there, and the contest would be all the keener if "oor auld respectit wither "—the Royal Club, whose position in the matter ought to be neutral—held in her hand a trophy, subscribed for by the whole curling brotherhood, to be awarded to the side of the house which asserted the right to hold it till another match should be played.


Air—Auld Lang Syne.

Losh man! I'm glad to see yoursel',
I'm glad to meet a freen' ;
But, man, the pleasure's greater still
When he's a curler keen.
Sae gie's the curler's grip, my freen',
Sae gie's the curler's grip. Losh man!
I'm glad to see yoursel',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.

We've played thegither mony a time
Around the curlin' tee;
I've sooped ye aften up the ice,
You've dune the same to me.
Sae gie's the curler's grip, my freen',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.
Losh man! I'm glad to see yoursel',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.

Man! when I feel a grip like that,
I'm unca sweir'd to part;
The blood rins din'lin' up my arm
An' warms my very heart.
Sae gie's the curler's grip, my freeze',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.
Losh man! I'm glad to see yoursel',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.

But as the nicht is gye «eel thro',
Let's hae anither "nip,"
An' drink success to ilka ane
That kens the curler's grip.
Sae gie's the curler's grip, my frcen',
Sae gie's the curlers grip.
Losh man ! I'm glad to see yoiirsel',
Sae gie's the curler's grip.


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