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Villages of Falkirk

Of these villages, Camelon has most exercised the imaginative power of antiquaries and local historians over the years. A mighty Roman harbour, a great Pictish city with twelve brass gates, battles galore involving Pict and Scot, Angle and Briton and, of course, the Camelot and round table of King Arthur himself - all have had their champions and such theories continue to appear regularly even in this more sceptical age. Alas for romance, the evidence for such past glory is scant or non-existent and this is not the place to reinforce such fancy. The truth is interesting enough by any standard.

It was on the sloping land above the River Carron that the Romans built a great fort during their brief but eventful occupation in the first and second centuries A.D. The military road which crossed the Antonine Wall at Watling Lodge passed the fort before crossing the Carron at Larbert and it is certainly possible that the river was navigable as far as Camelon during the Roman period and may well have been used as the point of entry and departure for men and materials during the years of occupation and campaigning. But whether there was a harbour or not the north road was important enough to demand a heavily garrisoned fort in its defence and if Roman positions were indeed attacked by tribal enemies then Camelon would have been an obvious target.

After the Romans withdrew from the area for the last time the place we now know as Camelon disappeared from the record for close on fifteen hundred years. Only with the coming of the new age of iron and the cutting of the Great Canal in the 18th Century does the village emerge from the darkness and have an existence which we can identify and describe with any certainty. The stretch of the canal from Bainsford through the farmland of Camelon was completed in the early 1770s and soon attracted manufacturers and traders who recognised the benefits of a swift and dependable transport system. The Lock 16 area, and the junction point where the road from Falkirk dipped under the canal, quickly became growth points and there were no doubt storehouses, loading basins and stables serving the growing canal traffic from quite an early stage. By the beginning of the 19th century the village population was reported to be close to 600 and growing with a considerable number engaged in the manufacture of nails.

It is William Cadell, son of the founder of the famous Carron Company and himself the first manager of the works, who is credited with the establishment of the earliest nailmaking concern in Camelon. In 1790, more than twenty years after he gave up a direct interest in the works at Carron, Cadell brought a group of skilled nailmakers from England to begin manufacturing in the village. The Cadells had bought out Carron's interest in this particular activity in the 1770s and had already established workshops in Bannockburn and Laurieston as well as places much further afield. In Camelon the trade expanded steadily and young men were drawn to the area and apprenticed to masters who taught them the secrets of a hard, heavy and ill-rewarded trade. Houses, workshops, tools and nailrods were supplied by Cadell to the men and to the boys, often no more than nine or ten years old, who slaved for twelve or more hours each day to turn out the thousands of nails that were required to earn a living wage:

Round the central fire hammered away four nailers - no rest, no breathing space for them. From hour to hour the bent back and steady quick stroke, for the nailer must strike when the iron was hot and he had to pay for heating the iron. In the morning they hied to the warehouse for their bundles of rods which were converted into nails ranging in length from inch to 12 inches.

Four nailer's rows or squares appeared in Camelon - the Wee Square at the west end, Fairbairn's Square, owned by George Fairbairn, a leading nailmaster of the early 19th century, George Square, close to Lock 16 on the canal, and Gunn's Square in the same vicinity. Living conditions were extremely poor and the nailers and their families developed a reputation for hard living and hard drinking, which survived until mechanical nailmaking robbed them of a living from the middle of the century on. One observer in 1840 thought things were improving:

The morals of the nailmakers have been improved within the last few years. In particular drunkenness and habits of improvidence are greatly on the decrease.

By then a visit of the dreaded cholera in 1833 had brought many deaths to the nailer's rows with Mr Harrison paying 40 to assist with the burial costs 'which has been repaid from the earnings of survivors. After this, a penny-a-week death fund was established to offer the vulnerable nailers some protection.

The completion of the Union Canal in 1822 confirmed Camelon's status as the fulcrum of the new communication system and soon new inns, workshops, storage facilities and houses appeared along the banks and basins of Port Downie. By 1831 the population was over 800 rising within a decade to 1,340. Sometime around 1840 two brothers from Airth, James and Andrew Ross began building boats in a yard near Lock 16; after only five years Andrew was dead and young James who had discovered the value of pitch as a commodity in the boatyard moved into chemical manufacture at Limewharf just a few hundred yards west of Port Downie. Crude tar from various gas works was shipped. to Camelon where it was converted into naphtha, pitch and refined tar. Business boomed and James Ross directed the expanding company for thirty years until 1878 when Robert Sutherland and Robert Orr assumed control. New products multiplied - sulphate of ammonia, benzine, creosote, and toluene, a key ingredient in the manufacture of TNT explosives-and prosperity followed. The firm did well during the years of war but in 1929, the same year as the sore pressed iron foundries were forming the Allied, the Lime Wharf Chemical Works became part of Scottish Tar Distillers. It survived until a disastrous fire in 1973 destroyed the works and soon afterwards all production on the site came to an end.

By the end of the Victorian era a number of chemical companies had followed James Ross into business in Camelon and were employing hundreds of men in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, iodine, and dozens of other compounds by then in high demand in the rapidly expanding Scottish economy. The Hurlet Works (1851), Camelon Chemical Works (1878) and Crosses (1900) flourished briefly but never attained the prosperity of Lime Wharf though they did help bring the infant chemical industry to the Falkirk district where it would reach its full flowering in the Grangemouth developments of the present century

From the start the people of Camelon village looked for the services which confirmed their status as a new community. As part of Falkirk Parish they depended on the Minister there for their spiritual needs and on the heritors for the provision of education. In 1786 a rented house paid for by subscription among the villagers, was converted to a schoolroom and five years later a 'thatched but and ben' was built on land feued from Forbes of Callendar. Thus in 1797 the Minister of Falkirk could report that 'in the village of Camelon there is a dwelling house and schoolroom for the encouragement of a schoolmaster, but no salary'. The establishment of the 'School and Well Committee' in 1799 to maintain what were seen as the community's principal or only assets, was another example of the villagers' willingness to band together to fight for the common good of all, a tendency which has marked the people of Camelon in all the years since then. The Committee appointed seven 'stint-masters' from their number and while they found it as difficult as their opposite numbers in Falkirk to raise the sums due, the school did continue to grow and the teacher's salary was usually paid. Sometimes though, their poverty was to his disadvantage as in 1847 when the Committee resolved that 'all the panes of glass awanting in the school to be replaced by the teacher', later clarified as 'such glass as is broken in school hours'. A new school building was provided in 1874 but it proved to be too small and a much larger building, the present Carmuirs primary was opened by the Parochial Board in 1901.

The explosion of iron founding in the district in the second half of the 19th century had a major impact on Camelon and again the Forth and Clyde canal had a great deal to do with the choice of site. The first was established in 1845 near Lock 16 and was known variously as Port Downie or Camelon Iron Works. It survived until the 1950s. It was followed by the Union (1854-1879), the Forth and Clyde (1870-1963), R and A Main's Gothic Works (1899-1964), Grange (1900-1960s), Carmuirs (1899-1968) and Dorrator founded in 1898 which survived until very recent times - it finally closed in the late summer of 1994. At their height in the years before the first war the Camelon foundries employed over 1,300 men manufacturing the familiar range of domestic and industrial ironware including grates, stoves, pipes, cookers, gates, fences and mantelpieces.

The rapid growth in the population increased demands for a church in Camelon and, with the support of the Minister of Falkirk William Begg and William Forbes of Callendar who provided a site free of charge, a new building was erected at the west end of the village to the design of Edinburgh architect David Rhind. It was opened in August 1840 and a few weeks later William Branks from Lanarkshire became the first Minister. After the great disruption in 1843 the charge was vacant for six years as the established church struggled to find ministers for the hundreds of deserted congregations throughout the land. In 1849 John Oswald was inducted as the second Minister and due to his perseverance Camelon was erected into a Parish in its own right in 1853. The life of Victorian communities was very closely tied to that of their Parish Church and the long ministry of the Rev John Scott (1867-1918) in many ways symbolised the true coming of age of Camelon. He was a leading figure not only in Camelon but in the wider Falkirk district and it was during his time that the village, with a population of nearly 6,000, and the town joined together in 1900 when Camelon became part of the Burgh. Since then, the 'mariners' as the sons and daughters of the village call themselves, have played a very full part in the life of the larger community and the list of the institutions which serve the area from a base in Camelon is long and impressive. There are firms like Alexander's, both bus building and driving, and Barr's; the Mariner leisure centre and the cemetery and crematorium; the new Sheriff Court and Falkirk Golf Club. Since 1900 no fewer than nine out of twenty four Provosts of Falkirk have come from the village.

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