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Ramble Round Kilmarnock
Part 1


[The following detailed account of the Inauguration of the Kilmarnock Burns Monument and Kay Park (reprinted from the Kilmarnock Standard of August 16, 1879), will, the publishers believe, be a fitting appendix to Mr. Adamsonís "Rambles," forming as it does a permanent and complete record of events which make up a very interesting chapter of our local history.]

Saturday, 9th August, 1879, may without exaggeration be characterized as the most memorable in the modern annals of Kilmarnock. The assembled crowds were quite unprecedented, and perhaps never before did the ancient burgh present a more brilliant or joyous appearance. And not without reason, for on this day was consummated the long-cherished project by which Auld Killie has sought to discharge in some adequate degree her obligation to honour and perpetuate the memory of Burns; and on that day also was formally handed over to the Corporation for behoof of the public the extensive and beautifully- situated Kay Park, which is calculated to prove such an inestimable boon to the community, as well as the magnificent fountain by which it is adorned--the generous gift of Mrs. Crooks. The Park, although not fully laid out, had been practically open to the public for a considerable time, and the chief interest of the demonstration naturally centred in the unveiling of the Statue, which for the first time was submitted to the gaze of an admiring multitude.

The proposal, first publicly broached at a meeting of the Burns club, for the erection of a Monument to the memory of Burns, was at once recognized as proper and practicable, and the Provost and Magistrates, when appealed to, gave the scheme their sanction and prestige, and heartily co-operated in carrying it out. The rapid progress of the movement demonstrated the tenacious hold which Burns has over all hearts wherever the English language is spoken, for not only in our own country and our own widely scattered colonies and possessions, but throughout the United States of America, as is testified by Halleck in his noble ode, the writings of the poet are livingly cherished; and not merely by those imperfectly educated and having a necessarily meager acquaintance with literature is Burns admired and revered, but by the greatest and most learned minds in our own and other lands. A fame so general, so wide-spread, and attained in so short a period of time by one who, sprung from the peasant class, wrote chiefly in a provincial dialect, is without a parallel in literary annals. It is not possible that such a general appreciation could be a mere caprice of fashion. It must rest on a solid substratum of sterling merit. Burns, a short time before the close of his brief career, anticipating a fatal termination of his illness, endeavoured to comfort his sorrowing wife by assuring her that a hundred years after his death he would be more esteemed than he was then. The centenary has not yet come, but his anticipation has been amply verified. Kilmarnock has not been the first to erect a monument to Burns--Ayr naturally, as the locality of his birth, and Dumfries, as the custodier of his mortal remains, have taken precedence in this matter--but we are certain that the tribute here inaugurated is second to none in beauty and completeness, and in the hearty enthusiasm with which the movement for its erection has been carried out. The stream of donations which flowed in testified in the most tangible way to the fitness of the proposal. Kilmarnock was known to be the place honoured by the publication of the poetís first volume. As a Mcssgiel farmer he was here regularly on market days, and was familiar with our townsmen, with whom he had formed friendship and held happy intercourse. It was in Bailie Gregoryís house at the Cross that he first heard a piano played, and he frequented the tavern kept by the Begbies, who were relatives of his "Lass on Cessnock Banks." He was intimate with Goudie, "terror of the Whigs;" as also with Robert Muir, whom he greatly esteemed; with Parker, our first banker; and with the Samsons, our first nurserymen, whom he delighted to meet at the social board. In his poem, "The Inventory," enumerating his plough horses, he says--

"My hand ahiní a guid brown filly,
Wha aft has borne me safe from Killie."

Many of his poems are on subjects connected with Kilmarnock. Mackinlay, Robertson, Russel, Mutrie, and Moodie he has not failed to petrify in his satire, and of all towns this one seems to have most frequently engaged his thoughts. In his "Holy Fair," he speaks of the wabster lads "black-guarding from Kilmarnock," no doubt full of fun and frolic in their palmy days. We find traces of the poet in his journeys betwixt Kilmarnock and Mossgiel, only eight miles distant; for at a public house at Hurlford (on the Machline Road) the old landlord long preserved a snuff-box which he cherished as a gift of "Rab Mossgiel." It is therefore almost a work of supererogation to enlarge on the close connection of Burns with Kilmarnock and its inhabitants in the close of the eighteenth century, and the erection of a monument here to his memory stands in need of no apology. At first only a statue was intended, and many contended that its proper location was the Cross, or some other central locality in  town. But the money subscribed being in excess of the cost of a statue, a monument in the Kay Park was resolved on, and the scheme has been successfully brought to an issue far exceeding the most sanguine hopes of the projectors.


The following brief sketch of the movement was deposited in the cavity of the memorial stone:--On the evening of January 26, 1877, at a public demonstration on the anniversary of Robert Burns, held in the George Inn Hall, Provost Sturrock in the chair, and Mr. Andrew Turnbull (president of the Burns Club) croupier, it was proposed and unanimously agreed to, that a statue be erected in some suitable place in Kilmarnock in honour of the poet. The following were appointed a committee to carry out the proposal:--Provost Sturrock, Bailie Craig, Bailie Muir, Bailie Wilson, Dean of Guild Andrews; Messrs John Baird, John Gilmour, Thomas MíCulloch, George Humphrey, James Stirling, John A. Mather, Alex. Walker, Wm. Mitchell, John G. Hamilton, James Roberson, Hugh Shaw, David Phillips, Andrew Christie, James Arbuckle, Ninian Anderson, Dr. MíAlister, Andrew Turnbull, James MíKie, and James Rose--Andw. Turnbull convener; Hugh Shaw, treasurer; James Rose and James MíKie, joint secretaries. At a meeting of the committee on February 23rd, 1877, the Convener, Treasurer, the Secretaries, with Messrs John Baird, Ninian Anderson, Thomas MíCulloch, and James Arbuckle, were appointed a sub-committee to carry out the details of the movement, and it was intimated that the sum of £614 had already been subscribed. At a meeting of the general committee on April 6th, 1877, a report from the sub-committee, recommending open competition by sculptors was agreed to; two premiums--one of £50 and one of £25--being offered for the best and second best models. The amount of subscriptions at this date was £1282. On June 7th, 1877, it was suggested at a meeting of the general committee that, as the subscriptions had far exceeded expectations, an ornamental building and a marble statue of the poet in it should be erected. At a general meeting of the subscribers held in the Town Hall on September 8th, 1877, the sub-committee recommended that a marble statue to cost £800, and an ornamental building estimated at £1500, should be erected in the Public Park--a site for the building having been granted by the Kay Trustees. This was agreed, to, and the sub-committee instructed to carry out the decision. At a meeting of sub-committee on October 9th, 1877, Mr Robert Ingram, architect, on behalf of Messrs J. & R. S. Ingram, submitted amended design of ornamental building, which was accepted, and he was instructed to prepare drawings and specifications of the same. On December 6th and 7th, 1877, the competing models, 21 in all, were publicly exhibited in the George Inn Hall, and on December 14th the committee awarded the commission for the statue to Mr. W. G. Stevenson, 2 Castle Terrace, Edinburgh; the premium of £50 to Mr. D. W. Stevenson, 2 Castle Terrace, Edinburgh; and the premium of £25 to Mr. Charles MíBride, 7 Hope Street, Edinburgh. On the Burns Anniversary, January 25th, 1878, a Burns Concert was held in the Corn Exchange Hall, which was crowded to overflowing. On March, 29th, 1878, the contract between the sub-committee and Mr W. G. Stevenson, Edinburgh, for the marble statue was duly signed. In the months of March, April, and May the sub-committee got working plans and estimates for the erection of the ornamental building in Kay Park. These, after modifications, were finally agreed to, and at meeting of June 4th, 1878, Mr. Ingram, architect, intimated that Mr. Andre Calderwood had signed contract for the erection of the building, the entire cost of which was estimated at £1450. On the afternoon of September 14th, 1878, the memorial stone was laid with full Masonic honours, in the presence of a large concourse of people, by Depute Provincial Grand Master for Ayrshire, R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq. of Woodside.


The statue was removed from the studio of the sculptor to Kilmarnock by rail on the 2nd July, 1879, and next day was safely placed in position upon its pedestal, where it remained covered until the unveiling ceremony brought its beauties to the light. It is, we believe, the very finest statue of the poet in existence, and the sculptor, we have no doubt, will secure from it a great and lasting fame. The figure is at once dignified and highly characteristic of the bard. In Mr. Stevensonís design the poet is represented in the act of composing. The figure is posed on the right leg, the left being slightly advanced. The left hand grasps a note-book, resting on a broken stump, near the foot of which a daisy nestles; and the right holds a pencil ready to indite the thoughts that shape themselves into musical verse. In the head, as well as the costume, the well-known Nasmyth portrait has been closely followed. As now worked out, the figure looks more massive than the sketch that had led on to expect. It is well set on its legs; and, while the hands have been carefully modelled, the contours generally are expressed through the clothes, the artist having been specially successful in this respect with the treatment of the knee-breeches and "rig-and-fur" stockings which encase the lower limbs. Standing with its base about nine feet high, the statue is placed on a pedestal four feet in height, within a sort of shrine, having an open and pointed arch in front and at either side of the monumental building.

This structure, which was erected from the design and under the superintendence of Messrs J. & R. S. Ingram, architects, Kilmarnock and Glasgow (upon whom it reflects great credit), is in the Scottish baronial style of architecture, and is thoroughly national in character, besides being well suited to the nature of the site. From the elevated position it occupies, it forms a prominent and pleasing feature in the landscape from almost any point of view in the surrounding neighborhood. The building in plan is of the T shape and consists of two storeys and a tower. The total height from fround to apex of terminal in top is 80 feet. In the basement are a retiring room and conveniences for strangers. Immediately over is the ground or principal floor, access to which is provided by two flight of stairs with stone balustrades leading to a platform and balcony, with doors opening off same to museum, the balcony and museum floor level being about 11 feet above the ground level. Immediately in front is formed an alcove having the pedestal and statue placed in centre of same. The side being open, an uniterrupted view can be had of the statue from any point. The pedestal is four feet three inches in height, and the statue proper measures about eight feet three inches. Over the alcove arch are the Burns arms carefully and neatly executed. Immediately behind the alcove is the museum for relics connected with the poet. A stair leads from this apartment to platforms over museum, and which are enclosed by stone balustrades, forming promenades, the levels of said platforms being 26 feet above ground level. In angle of tower is a circular staircase leading to platform on top of tower, the staircase leading to platform on top of tower, the staircase being carried above tower and forming an angle turret. The level of platform on top of tower is 60 feet above ground level.

From the top of the tower an extensive and interesting view is obtained of the town and neighborhoud. To the west, when the weather is clear, can be seen the bold contour of the Arran Hills, and a small patch of Firth of Clyde, brought into prominence by the reflection of the sunís rays. To the north, in the immediate vicinity, stands Dean Castle, bounded by the moors of Fenwick and Eaglesham--the old lurking places of the Covenanters. Eastward is Galston moor, beyond which Loudoun Hill prominently intervenes, veiling Drumclog. To the south east and south are seen in the far distance Blackside-end Hill and the Cumnock range stretching away towards Dalmellington. At a less distance to the southward may be distinguished the position of the poetís old farm at Mossgiel, that "auld biggin" where the "restless rattons" were in nocturnal activity when he had that noble vision in which the Muse of Coila consecrated himher poet with a prophetic truth of which history affords no parallel. There at Mossgiel are the fields where the daisy was uprooted, where the poor mouse was extruded, and where in glory and in joy Burns followed the plough. As Rab now forgetful of the honour of the connection. To the south-west the familiar heights of Craigie and Dundonald present a pleasing prospect, and the plain massive tower erected to the memory of Wallace at Burnweil, whence, according to the legend, he witnessed the burning of the Barns of Ayr, also forms a district feature of the landscape.

Mr. Andre Calderwood, builder, was the contractor for the entire buildings, and under him the following sub-contractors were employed to execute the following respective parts:--Mr. James Rome, joiner work; Mr. Campbell, slater work; Mr. Kier, plumber work; and Mr. William Robertson, the stone carving--Mr. Robert Brown performing the duties of foreman mason. It should be added that the principal stones were supplied by Messrs George Reid & Co. of Boswell Quarry, Mauchline.


It must be regarded as fortunate for both undertakings that the Public Park scheme and the proposal for the erecton of the Monument happened to be simultaneously carried out. By this concurrence of events and unequalled site was obtained for our local tribute to the memory of the poet, and the Park was provided with a feature of architectural adornment highly interesting in itself and very useful to visitors on account of the fine view which the summit of the building commands.

The want of a Public Park had been long felt, and repeatedly had an agitation been raised with the object of inducing the Council to take action in the matter, so that the announcement of the munificent Kay bequest was hailed by all classes with great satisfaction. Few, however, had any idea that so many years would elapse ere the scheme could be carried into effect. The generous founder--Mr. Alexander Kay, a native of Kilmarnock, who amassed a large fortune as an insurance broker in Glasgow--died in January, 1866, and by a deed of settlement and codicil executed by him of dates 5th February and 1st November, 1864, it was found that he had bequeathed the sum of £16,000 to his native town-- £6000 for the erection and endowment of two schools, and £10,000 for a Public Park. The following are the terms of the bequest for this latter purpose:--

"In the sixth place, as I consider it to be one of the greatest benefit to the inhabitants of large towns, and conducive both to their moral improvement and bodily health, that suitable parks or grounds should be provided, and kept open for their recreation and enjoyment; and as in towns which are rapidly increasing such places are seldom thought of till to late to acquire suitable ground for the purpose; and keeping in mind what has been recently done by Sir David Baxter and his sister for the town of Dundee, and that it is my wish, following such a good example, to confer a similar benefit on my native town of Kilmarnock,--Therefore, I hereby direct my Trustees, after payment of the whole of the foresaid legacies and duties to Government, and necessary expenses, to set aside from the remainder of my said means and estate a sum of Ten Thousand Pounds Sterling, to be applied, first, in the purchase of ground to the extent of from twenty to thirty acres as can be conveniently procured in the immediate neighbourhood of Kilmarnock, as they, after consulting and advising with the Provost and Magistrates of that town, and resident Sheriff, and other individuals as they may consider proper to advise with , may find suitable, for being laid out as a Public Park and place of recreation and healthful enjoyment, to be kept in all time coming for the use of the inhabitants of Kilmarnock, all classes of whom shall have at all times free access to it under such regulations as may be necessary for preserving the grounds, trees, walks, &c., in proper order and condition, and to prevent the same being injured; and second, as it will be necessary after suitable ground for the formation of a Park has been obtained, that it should be enclosed and laid out and planted in a suitable manner, so as to be ornamental as well as useful, and that after being so formed it shall be kept up and maintained in a proper state, such proportion of the said sum as shall be necessary for these purposes shall be applied in properly laying out and forming the said Park, and such proportion thereof as shall be necessary to yield an income for keeping it in proper order and condition shall be invested in such security, heritable or personal , such as railway preference stock or others as may be considered safe, and the interest or yearly income be applied accordingly; and I further provide, and hereby direct my said Trustees, so son as the said ground has been acquired, and the plan and formation of the Park has been flxed on and arranged, to grant and execute a Deed of Trust and Disposition of the said Park, delivering over the same with the titles and the remainder of the sum or the securities in which the same shall have been invested, in the following parties or such of them as my said Trustees may select and consider suitable and proper to be permanent Trustees and guardians to hold the said Park in perpetuity in all time coming for the sole use and benefit of the inhabitants of Kilmarnock, viz:--The Provost and Bailies of said town of Kilmarnock; the Sheriff of the County of Ayr; the Sheriff-Substitute of said County at Kilmarnock; the President of the Merchantís Society, Kilmarnock, for the time being; the Dean of Faculty of Procurators or Writers in Kilmarnock; two of the Commissioners of Police for Kilmarnock, to be elected by the Commissioners and their several successors in these offices; and to such other persons heads of public bodies, or others as my Trustees under these presents may consider suitable and proper, the selection of whom I hereby leave to them, and that under such regulations, conditions, and restrictions as my trustees shall consider necessary and requisite for more fully and effectually carrying out my wishes, and in particular providing and declaring that it shall not be in the power of said permanent Trustees or their successors in office to sell or dispose of the said Park or any part of the ground thereof, nor to alienate or divert the same to any other object or purpose whatever, nor shall the said Park be encroached on by buildings except to the extent after explained, but shall be kept up in all time coming free and open for the use, enjoyment, and recreation of the inhabitants of Kilmarnock as before provided. But explaining that if after the said ground has been so acquired, transferred to the permanent Trustees before mentioned, and the Park laid out, it shall at any time appear to three-fourths of said permanent Trustees that it would be of advantage to set aside and lay out a stripe or portion of the ground on the margin of the Park, or of part thereof, for the purpose of being feued for the erection of villas or houses of a better class and description, the said permanent Trustees shall have it in their power to grant feus of portions of such stripe of ground so laid out for feuing, and my Trustees under the presents shall insert a clause of clauses in the Deed to be executed by them permitting steadings to be so feud, the price of ground, however, not being payable in money, but converted into feu-duties, or ground rents, to be applied in the better maintaining and upholding of the said Park in all time coming, and which feu-duties or ground rents it shall not be in the power of the said permanent Trustees to sell or dispose of, but the same as well as the Park itself shall not be alienable, and it shall not be competent to apply the same for any purpose except for the proper maintenance of the said Park in all time coming, and providing also that the stripe of ground which may be so feued shall not on the whole exceed an eighth part of the said Park; and further, providing that in the event of the feu-duties so obtained being in course of time found sufficient for the yearly maintenance of said Park, the proportion of the said bequest originally set aside for providing an income for keeping up the Park shall be invested in the purchase of other ground and enlarging the said Park-or for improving and ornamenting it."

In 1866 and 1867 the Trustees visited the town and examined various sites, and Brabadoes Green was fixed upon as the most suitable of several then suggested. The proprietor, the Duke of Portland, was communicated with , but no reply was received until March, 1877, when intimation was given that His Grace was willing to grant a site on his lands for the Park. Meanwhile powers had been obtained under the Kilmarnock Municipal Extension and Improvement Act, 1871, whereby the Corporation were authorized to levy a small assessment for the maintenance of the Park, and relieve the Kay Trustees of their obligation to hand it over with due provision for its maintenance from the funds of the trust. Action was now taken for the purchase of a site on a larger scale than had previously been contemplated, the fund having accumulated to about £13,000. The Trustees, accompanied by the Magistrates of the town, visited various sites proposed for the Park, and the ground beyond Braehead House, belonging to the Duke of Portland, was finally decided upon as the most suitable. The land, extending to about 40 ĺ acres, was valued at the instance of the Trustees by Mr. Hugh Kirkwood, who estimated it at £8991 16s. 10d. Negotiations were entered into with the agents of the Duke, and the price was ultimately fixed at £9000, His Grace subsequently agreeing to form at his own cost a way of access to the Park from London Road, and another from Holehouse Road at Parkhead farm. The price paid for the land was on all hands felt to be excessive, and objections were raised to the site itself as too much subject to the smoke nuisance. The decision of the Trustees was nevertheless adhered to, and since the ground has been opened up there is a singular unanimity of opinion as to its suitability and beauty. The funds not being sufficient to purchase the whole of the ground, and at the same time provide for its maintenance, the question was submitted to the Council whether , in order to secure the whole of it, they would be willing to assist in the maintenance of the Park if necessary under the powers contained in the Improvement Act, 1871. Some discussion arose on this point, but ultimately the Corporation agreed to come under the required obligation, on the understanding that the laying out of a portion of the ground would be deferred so that the balance available for maintenance might be as large as possible. By this agreement the Town Council undertake to pay over to the permanent trustees for the maintenance of the Park a sum not exceeding £100 per annum, as may be required--it not being obligatory to impose an assessment if the money be forthcoming from the common good or other funds available for such purpose--and in lieu of the Merchantís Society and two Commissioners of Police named in the will (these being now defunct bodies) the Corporation are authorized to nominate three Councillors as permanent trustees along with the Provost and Magistrates, the Sheriff of the County, the Sheriff-Substitute in Kilmarnock and the Dean of Faculty in Kilmarnock. By this arrangement, it will be seen, ten of the thirteen permanent trustees fall to be members of Town Council, thus giving the Corporation the practical control of the management. Entry was obtained to the ground at WhitSunday, 1878, and the laying out was actively proceeded with under the experienced direction of Mr. MíLelland, landscape gardener. In the course of the summer the Clerkís Holm portion was thrown open to the public, and the remainder is now so far completed as to admit of the formal transfer of the Park to the hands of the permanent trustees.

The Park, as our readers are aware, lies to the north-east of the town, and closely contiguous to it. The principal entrance for foot passengers diverges from the London Road along the base of the slope on which Braehead House is situated. This house is the one erected by Mr. Paterson, a lineal descendant of the Paterson who was factor for the last Lord Kilmarnock, and it was latterly possessed by William Hamilton, grandson of the Gavin Hamilton to whom Burns dedicated his poems. The rising ground is wooded with  well-grown trees, in which a colony of rooks is established, and their hoarse cawings, as they flutter about, make the place quite a rus in urbe. On the left, towards the water, are the nursery grounds of Thomas Samson, the subject of Burnís humorous elegy and epitaph, and in their midst is the Kilmarnock Bowling Green, surrounded with noble trees. By a finely-made gravelled walk the visitor proceeds, and passing under one of the arches of the G. & S.-W. Railway bridge enters the spacious Park. There are various walks through it leading in different directions. One conducts along the water side to the northern entrance of the Park at the Townhead bridge, and another, in a winding direction, leads up to the height on which stands the Monument. This ridge, known in former years as the Belvidere, and which may be termed the backbone of the ground, extends from the railway to "Willie Mairís Brae" on the north. On the western side, which extends to the waterís edge, is the Clerkís Holm--a fine expanse of land forming a magnificent natural amphitheatre. It is covered with a thick velvety carpet of grass, which no plough has touched for a century. Here, about 60 years ago, the Fasternís Eve sports were often held, and it was well suited for the object, for the high ground encircling it afforded a fine view of the games. At the upper end of the Holm a spur comes down from the high side to the edge of a precipice overlooking a picturesque waterfall and affording a fine stand for witnessing the river when in flood dashing along in its rocky channel. Beyond this spur of the ridge, we enter a wood luxuriant with fine old trees, beneath whose leafy shade conveniently graduated walks wind romantically along the steep bank of the stream to the bridge at Townhead. This portion of the Park, which seems specially prepared by nature for the purpose to which it is now applied, is in beautiful contrast to the open grassy fields on the eastern side of the ridge, gently sloping towards the New Cemetery. The proximity of the Cemetery, with its tasteful floral decorations, is by no means a drawback, but rather an advantage to the Park, forming as it were a continuation of it and a prolongation of its pleasant walks. From the rising ground the view is most extensive and exhilarating, and when the visitor ascends to the top of the Monument, as we have already indicated, his eye is delighted with a yet wider and more entrancing prospect. Altogether Kilmarnock has every reason to be proud of her Park, no less than of the stately Monument to our national bard which crowns its summit.


A prominent and very pleasing object in the Park is the splendid Fountain presented by Mrs Crooks, Wallacebank. This lady (since deceased) was a daughter of the late Provost Strang, and the widow of Bailie James Crooks, who also rendered excellent service to the town. She always took a deep interest in the welfare of the community, and the munificent gift which has added so much to the beauty of the Park will be a lasting memorial of her generosity. The Fountain was supplied, through Messrs Thomas Stewart & Sons, by the Coalbrookdale Iron Company. It is a very imposing, gracefully proportioned, and artistically executed structure, and at once attracts the admiring gaze of the visitor to the Park. Its total height is 22 feet 9 inches. The ground basin is 30 feet 6 inches in diameter, and made of concrete, having a handsome iron rim with eight ornamental trusses on which are placed four drinking urns or fountains and four shields arranged at equals distances. The first shield has the following inscription:--"Presented to the Inhabitants of her native town, Kilmarnock, 1879, by Mrs Margaret Strang Crooks." On the second shield is the coat of arms of the Corporation of Kilmarnock, with the mottos "Gold Berry" and "Confido." The third shield contains the Stang coat of arms, a bunch of grapes are the Crookís coat of arms, leopard rampant, with the motto Nihil sine do. The workmanship of the shields is well worthy of attention for its exquisite beauty of finish. Inside the basin of water, thirty feet wide, sport five mermaids, five feet high, holding shells to their mouths and throwing jets of water. The centre column of the fountain is fixed on masonry supporting a cast-iron octagonal plinth on which rest four dolphins, each throwing two jets of water, surrounded with rockwork, bulrushes, &c. >From this rises the octagonal pillar carrying lower iron basin, 10 feet 6 inches diameter, from the centre of which another pillar springs, surrounded by rockwork rushed, water-lily leaves, and reeds, on which rest four herons, giving a very light and graceful appearance. This again carries another octagonal stalk, supporting the second basin, 5 feet 9 inches diameter, from the centre of which rise rockwork leaves, &c., and four small dolphins. The whole is surmounted by a finial figure of a boy and serpent. The total number of jets when Fountain is in full play is 51.

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