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Memoir of Norman MacLeod, D.D

HIS theological views were gradually expanding into a more spiritual and living apprehension of the purpose of God in Christ. The character of God as a Father had always been the central article of his creed, but there were wider applications of it into which his keen sympathies were constantly leading him. The subject of the atonement of Christ much engrossed his thoughts, and although he had been long familiar with the views held on that subject by his cousin, Dr. J. Macleod Campbell, he now found in them new meaning and adopted them more fully. "As far as it goes, his teaching seems to shed a light on the nature of Christ's sufferings, which cannot pass away, because springing out of the eternal nature of things." He may afterwards have diverged, in regard to some minor points, from what Campbell taught him, but he certainly never recurred to the conception of the sufferings of our Lord as penal, or to those notions of the nature of salvation which it involves. Feeling that fresh light had been shed on the purpose of God in Christ he advanced hopefully into new regions of thought.

From his Journal:—

"April 20, Sunday.—I am confined to the house by bronchitis, and enjoy deeply and thankfully this blessed calm, this holy rest. What a gift from God is this holy day! I thank God that during these last few years I enjoy the pulpit more and more, and find it a rest to my spirit in proportion as I seek in the bonds of Christ's love to do good, and to make others partakers of the rest in Him. I have been seldom in life so exercised in spirit as during the Sundays which preceded the communion and on the communion Sunday itself, in preaching on the Atonement, according to the view taken of it by my beloved John Campbell. As far as I am capable of knowing myself, I can declare before Him who knows me truly, that I sought by earnest prayer, patient reading, and meditation, to know God's revealed will with reference to Christ's work. It has been a subject which has more or less occupied my thoughts for years, and I never allowed myself, I think, to be carried away by mere outward authority, but sought to see it and so to possess it; for seeing (spiritually) is believing. I therefore always preached what I saw and believed; and I never did see the truth as John Campbell sees it until lately. I believed, and still believe, that what Jesus did as an atoning Saviour, He did for all, because God commands all men to believe in Him as their Saviour, and because He necessarily desires all men to be saved, i.e., to be holy like Himself. But what I never could see was the philosophy of the atonement, or that element in Christ's work which constituted the atonement. The usual method of explaining it (commonly called 'the Battle of the Attributes'), as penal suffering from God's wrath, and so satisfying divine justice, I could not contradict, but could not see and rejoice in as true. So I was disposed to allow the whole thing to remain a mystery—a fact, revealed as the ground of certain blessings which I felt I needed and thankfully received, but without any necessary connection being seen between what Christ did and what I received. But, thank God, this . is dawning on me, and what I see now can never, I think, be taken from me, for conscience has its (moral) mathematics as well as the reason."

He was at this time engaged in preparing the " Old Lieutenant," for republication in a separate form. He was quite aware of the defective structure of the story, but he was certainly disappointed when some of the reviews, whose criticisms he most respected, failed to discover its aim and to recognize in its characters portraits from real life. Indeed, so disheartened was he by the reception of his first serious attempt in the domain of fiction, that, for a while, he was resolved it should be the last.

To J. M. Ludlow, Esq. :—
"May, 1862.

"What I should like you to do with my 'Old Lieutenant' would be—(1) to correct the Scotch or Scotticisms, for I never was taught English; (2) to draw your pen through any sentence or expression you think better out than in. As for the ' 'igh hart,' it must remain in nubibus, as 'low hart' is my line. I know I am getting into a fearful mess among the critics for publishing it.

"I know the book has no art in its plot, for alas ! I had to write it from month to month, always thinking the next month would end it. It is besides absurd to write a story, as I intentionally did, for the preaching in it, instead of preaching by it. But I know the characters are genuine, and true to nature, for they were all as living beings who possessed me, and there is not one that does not stand on his own legs as real flesh and blood. I deny with my whole soul and strength that the teaching is unhealthy. It is not true that whatever man asks for in prayer he gets in the form in which he asks it. The reviewer does not trust in God as I do. I mean by this, a trust in God for whatever God gives. He seems to think that it is trust for some specific blessing. And what did poor Ned ever get, except his wife? I tried to picture a lad neither a muff nor a Methodist—a good, honest fellow, trained up sensibly and living honestly, and as any young man may live, and as many do. But nowadays, it seems, young men must be either blackguards, or perfect saints. I will maintain that it is a picture of real life, though not perhaps of London life, with its spasms. And the critic says I don't know the sea! I wish I met him on some deck. The funny tiling is that the Examiner of Sea Captains in Liverpool was so astonished at my knowledge of the sea that he begged to know how I got it, or if a seaman had written the sea parts for me. If I know anything, I know about a ship."

To the Rev. W. F. Stevenson :—
"October 20, 1862.

"I am pretty well convinced, from the reviews received to-day of ' Old Lieutenant' in the London Review and Spectator, that I am not able, to be of use in that line. The book is killed and buried for ever, though self-love makes me think it cannot be so bad as they make it. I shall, in the meantime, get what good I can to my own spirit by the reviews, and learn to seek quiet and peace more in that still region of labour before God which earth cannot disturb."

The Queen had now come to Scotland for the first time since the death of the Prince Consort, and Dr. Macleod was summoned to Balmoral. He had been profoundly moved by the death of the Prince, whom he had regarded as "an ideal of all that is pure, truthful, unselfish, and wise;" and from the confidence with which he had been honoured by his Sovereign, he was able deeply to sympathize with her in her grief.

Although his journals contain many interesting accounts of his different visits at Court and to members of the Royal family, it is in harmony with the reticence he always observed to give only such extracts as may indicate the confidence reposed in him, and the loyalty of his services.

He ever recognised the grave responsibility which these duties entailed. "When I think how the character of princes affects the history of the world, and how that character may possibly be affected by what I say, and by the spirit in which I speak and act, I feel the work laid upon me to be very solemn."

"Your Royal Highness knows," he said to a younger member of the family, whom he was endeavouring to comfort after the death of the Prince, "that I am here as a pastor, and that it is only as a pastor I am permitted to address you. But as I wish you to thank me when we meet before God, so would I address you now."

"I am never tempted," he writes, "to conceal any conviction from the Queen, for I feel she sympathizes with what is true, and likes the speaker to utter the truth exactly as he believes it."

From his Journal :—
"May 8, 1862.—

I am commanded by the Queen to visit at Balmoral from Saturday till Tuesday.

"Few things could be more trying to me than, in present circumstances, to meet my afflicted Sovereign face to face. But God, who calls me, will aid me. My hope is in Him, and He will not put me to shame. May He guide me to speak to her fitting truth as to an immortal being, a sister in humanity, a Queen with heavy, heavy trials to endure, and such duties to perform ! May I be kept in a right spirit, loving, peaceful, truthful, wise, and sympathizing, carrying the burden of her who is my sister in Christ and my Sovereign. Father! Speak by me!"

To Mrs. Macleod :—
"Balmoral, May 12, 1862.

"You will return thanks with me to our Father in Heaven for His mercy and goodness in having hitherto most surely guided me during this time which I felt to be a most solemn and important era in my life. All has passed well—that is to say, God enabled me to speak in private and in public to the Queen in such a way as seemed to me to be truth, the truth in God's sight: that which I believed she needed, though I felt it would be very trying to her spirit to receive it. And what fills me with deepest thanksgiving is, that she has received it, and written to me such a kind tender letter of thanks for it, which shall be treasured in my heart while I live.

"Prince Alfred sent for me last night to see him before going away. Thank God I spoke fully and frankly to him—we were alone—of his difficulties, temptations, and of his father's example; what the nation expected of him; how, if he did God's will, good and able men would rally round him; how, if he became selfish, a selfish set of flatterers would truckle to him and ruin him, while caring only for themselves. He thanked me for all I said, and wished me to travel with him to-day to Aberdeen, but the Queen wishes to see me again. I am so thankful to have the Duke of Argyll and my dear friend Lady Augusta Bruce here. The Duchess of Athole also—a most delightful, real woman."

From his Journal :—

"May 14th.—Let me, if possible, recall some of the incidents of these few days at Balmoral, which in after years I may read with interest, when memory grows dim.....

"After dinner I was summoned unexpectedly to the Queen's room. She was alone. She met me, and with an unutterably sad expression which filled my eyes with tears, at once began to speak about the Prince. It is impossible for me to recall distinctly the sequence or substance of that long conversation. She spoke of his excellencies—his love, his cheerfulness, how he was everything to her; how all now on earth seemed dead to her. She said she never shut her eyes to trial, but liked to look them in the face; how she would never shrink from duty, but that all was at present done mechanically; that her highest ideas of purity and love were obtained from him, and that God could not be displeased with her love. But there was nothing morbid in her grief. I spoke freely to her about all I felt regarding him—the love of the nation and their sympathy; and took every opportunity of bringing before her the reality of God's love and sympathy, her noble calling as a Queen, the value of her life to the nation, the blessedness of prayer.

"Sunday, the whole household, Queen, and Royal Family were assembled at 10.15. A temporary pulpit was erected. I began with a short prayer, then read Job xxiii., Psalm xlii., beginning and end of John xiv. and end of Revelations vii. After the Lord's Prayer I expounded Hebrews xii. 1-12, and concluded with prayer. The whole service was less than an hour. I then at 12 preached at Crathie on 'All things are ours.' In the evening at Crathie on 'Awake thou that sleepest.' The household attended both services.

"On Monday I had another long interview with the Queen. She was much more like her old self—cheerful, and full of talk about persons and things. She of course spoke of the Prince. She said that he always believed he was to die soon, and that he often told her that he had never any fear of death.

"I saw also the Princesses Alice and Helena; each by herself.

"No words of mine can express the deep sympathy I have for these mourners. From my soul I shall ever pray for them that God would make them His own dear children.

"What a drive we had on Monday up to the falls of the Garbhalt! The great pines, the mossy flooring of the woods, the pure streams, the herds of deer, the awful purple of the hills, the white snow on their tops, the enamelled grass so characteristic of this season, the marvellous lights? Oh what a glorious revelation of God. I returned yesterday full of praise.

"The more I learn about the Prince Consort, the more I agree with what the Queen said to me about him on Monday, that he really did not seem to comprehend a selfish character, or what selfishness was.' And on whatever day his public life is revealed to the world, I feel certain this will be recognized.

"Dr. Becker, to whom I was complaining of Humboldt's treatment of the Prince, told me that the only thing the Prince said or wrote about it to him was, 'I am sorry for poor Humboldt.' He felt that such things injured one whom he so much loved and admired."

At the end of May, accompanied by Mrs. Macleod and his brother Donald, he took a six weeks tour in Italy, crossing Mont Cenis to Turin, and thence by Genoa and the Riviera to Florence, Bologna, Venice, Milan, and the Italian Lakes, and returning home by Courmayeur, the Great St. Bernard and Basle. His impressions of Italy were afterwards recorded in Good Words. ["Rambling Notes of a Ramble in Italy."— Good Words, 1862. ]

To his Father :—
"Florence, June 3, 1862.

"It would take months of patient study to get even a general idea of the glories of art in Florence; we have not a shadow of an idea in Scotland of what art is. In this respect it is a barbarous country; yet, in a better respect, it is as heaven to this. I wish you saw Popery here to loathe it.

"I preached last Sunday. Protestantism hardly exists. Little is doing or can be done. God alone can help this wretched country. How I know not, nor can see. All is beautiful and grand, but man and his morals."

To his Father and Mother :—
"Lake Maggiore, Sunday, June 15.

"The two places I enjoyed most were Venice and two days rest at Bellaggio, on the Lake of Como. The beauty is really inconceivable. For wild and majestic grandeur I admire our own Highlands most, but for surpassing and majestic beauty, this.

"I preached in the Heckla steamer to the Jack Tars on Sunday last. Campsie men and Glasgow men were on board. It was a pleasant day. The glory of Venice cannot be imagined.

"Baveno, Sunday evening.—We crossed the lake to-day, and have had a nice service. I read the Liturgy and preached. We had a delightful walk through the vineyards, and enjoyed the snowy Alps in the distance."

To A. Strahan, Esq.:— "Monastery of the Great St. Bernard, June 21, 1862.

"Ere I bid farewell to the world, I wish to bid farewell to thee. I have resolved to join the Brothers of St. Bernard. All is arranged. I find that they never heard of Presbyterianism, Free, or U. P. Kirk; know nothing even of Dr.------or Dr.------, and have kept up service here, helping the poor and needy, for 800 years. I find I can live here for nothing, never preach, but only chant Latin prayers; that they never attend public meetings, never go to Exeter Hall, nor to a General Assembly, but attend to the big dogs and the travellers of all nations. In short, it is the very place for me, and I have craved admission, and hope to be received to-night. I shall be known henceforth as Frater Flemingus. (I think I owe it to the Captain to adopt his name.) My wife goes to a nunnery; I leave my children to your care—3½ to you and 3½ to Isbister. Farewell, best of men and of publishers ! Farewell, Isbister, best of men and of smokers. Farewell, Good Words ! Farewell, the world and all its vanities!------ I was interrupted at this point by a procession of monks, who came to strip me of my worldly garments, and to prescribe the vows. Before changing garments, I enquired about the vows. Judge of my amazement in finding I must renounce cigars for ever! I pause------

"P.S.—2 a.m., 22nd.—The monks won't give in. The weather is fearfully cold. No fires in the cells. The dogs are mangy.

"3 a.m.—I am half-dead with cold. I shan't lie in the morgue. I repent!

"6 a.m.—Off for London! Hurrah! "

To Mrs. Macleod :—

"August 18, 1862. "I had a delightful visit from Stanley. He is a noble specimen of the Christian gentleman and scholar. When I come into close contact with such, men as he, John Campbell, Erskine, Scott, Maurice, Davies, Ludlow, Hughes, I feel how I could enjoy heaven with them. Whether it is my defect or theirs I know not, but the narrow, exclusive, hard hyper-Calvinistic schools repel me, and make me nervously unhappy. I cry to God daily for humility to love all, and to feel that I am saved as a sinner who, as such, must have disgusted the angels. Our pride is devilish, and when I know how much better many of those who repel me are than I am, or even have been, I am ashamed of my pride, and that I cannot clasp them to my heart. I should despair, unless I believed that Jesus Christ can and will deliver me, and give me to enjoy the unspeakable heaven of being a humble, meek child without my knowing it, but simply being it, loving it, so that by the supernatural I may become natural, for sin in every form is so unnatural.

"I never had a happier day than yesterday. I preached on the first two parables of the fifteenth chapter of Luke, and felt so strong and happy in preaching. The highest conceivable enjoyment is to preach, even in a small degree, in sympathy with Christ—to feel that He is with us, to speak what you know is right, and in the right spirit of good-will and unselfish love. I believe that God will help our India Mission, and bless us as a congregation by somehow connecting us with this work.

"I have the most intense desire to spend the next ten years of my life, it these are given me, more earnestly than I have ever done. At sixty I shall be unfit for active work. Whatever I can write for the good of my fellow-men must be done in this time. It is a glorious gift, and by the help of the Almighty I may yet overcome the bad habits of sloth and want of method "

To the Rev. W. F. Stevenson :— "October 1, 1862.

"Thanks for your delightful volume. ["Praying and Working."] No Presbyterian has written before in such a catholic spirit; and this I feel to be a great want of our Church. We ignore sixteen centuries almost; we dig deeper and deeper the trenches,—which genial Nature was kindly filling up with sweet flowers,—to keep up the old division lines, instead of building bridges to connect us as far as possible with the Church Catholic. Judaical separation won't do, far less Pharisaical. The only separation which is good is that of greater praying and working, which, like true love, is at once the most separating and most uniting element. The ' Stand back, I am holier than thou,' must be exchanged for the ' Come near, for I am holier than thou through grace, which is thine as well as mine, and mine too for thee.' God bless your book!"

From his Journal :—

"Nov. 3.—I this day begin my winter's work. I am persuaded that God is shutting me up in His providence to a deeper, inner mission in my own spirit and in my parish. What I am longing to obtain is more of the glory and blessedness of love and humility. Humility towards God and man would be heaven. I have been greatly quickened to aim at this by Vinet's noble sermon on 'Submitting one to another,' and ' Lifting up holy hands.' There is no sermon-writer who masters me as he does—so searching, so faithful, so discriminating and holy. I feel now that the rest of my life will be nobly spent if I can only, by the constant help of Almighty grace, seek daily to go out of myself in love to God and man, showing it by patience, silence, sympathy, forbearance—the esteeming others better than myself—honouring them, submitting to them, being nobody, and my brother all-in-all to me.

" My proposed work will be:—
" Regular visitation of the sick and aged, and weekly visits of communicants.
" Careful preparation of lectures, sermons, and prayers.
" Thursday evening prayer meetings.
" Weekly district meetings.
" Visit the Workhouse and, if possible, the Hospital.
" With God's help, I should like to rise at half-past five. Spend half-an-hour at least in devotion. Write till 9. Keep Friday and Saturday exclusively for pulpit.

"Wednesday night, district; Thursday, 7 to 8, people in vestry; 8, meeting. Monday, sick and sorrowing. Tuesday and Thursday, visitation.

"Tuesday, Nov. 25.—My beloved father died this morning, between one and two, in his seventy-ninth year. We have lost as loving a father as ever blessed a family.

"God has called him, and spared my beloved mother.

"I defer writing anything about his death."

"26th April, 1863.—Having the first quiet Sunday evening since January 1, I wish to go back in my Journal, and to record a few events which I would like to remember in detail.

"I had been out of town, and returned home on Monday. Having much to do, I sat down to work. It was a close, foggy night. Just as I was settled to my writing, I remembered that I had not seen my dear father since Friday. Anxious to save time I went out as I was, intending to spend only a few minutes with him. But I found my mother out, an event which had not happened, I presume, for years. So I stayed a long time, and to cheer him talked over old Morven stories. He had been dull all day, but I did cheer him so that I never saw him more happy. We parted at ten. My door-bell rang about one a.m., and a message was brought to my bed that he was dying. In a few minutes, another. I hurried down—he was dead ! I went to his room, and there he lay as he had died—asleep! I did not weep, nor did I feel the least excited. The Lord knows how this was; but so it was. I felt less a great deal than I had often done in visiting the poorest, even strangers, in time of distress. . . . . There he lay, with that noble head and white hair—but why describe it?

"In all my life I never saw such a glorious face in death. He lay for a week in that coffin, pure and sweet as marble. The red was in his lips, and there was a nobleness, a grandeur, a dignity, about that face and head, which were fascinating. I can describe the feeling they created by no other word.

"The remarkable things on the day of the public funeral were the number of Highland women, old and young, who struggled with obvious difficulty in keeping up with the hearse until it reached the Barony, where we parted from the general company, and went to dear old Campsie. There the spectacle was very remarkable. It was twenty-five years since he had left that parish, and yet in a town of two thousand every shop was shut spontaneously. There we laid him and returned to my beloved mother.

"Since then the house, which for twenty-five years has been the centre of such love and life, has been emptied, and a great chapter has been closed We all intensely realise it."

His experience in the management of an enormous parish had convinced him that, however well it may be administered, the Poor Law necessarily entails moral and social consequences, which, if not counteracted, must seriously affect the well-being of the community. He believed it was worse than a mistake to place the deserving poor on the same level with the idle and disreputable, and thus destroy that self-respect which is the best safeguard against pauperism. The substitution of statutory rates for the exercise of Christian charity, must, 'in his opinion, ultimately demoralise both rich and poor. The gulf
which was every day becoming wider between class and class, between the brother who was "increased with goods," in the West End, and the brother "who had need," in the East End of the City, appeared to him one of the gravest problems with which the Church had to deal, and how to create " bridges" across the gulf became for a while the absorbing topic of his reflections. An article which appeared in Good Words, from the pen of his friend the Rev. W. F. Stevenson, on the practical application at Elberfeldt of Dr. Chalmers' plan for relieving the poor, struck him so much that he determined to see for himself what the writer described. He accordingly made a brief excursion to Germany in the month of February, accompanied by Mr. Stevenson, the Rev. Adolph Saphir, and his brother Donald, and after visiting Pastor Fliedner's Deaconess Institution, at Kaiserswerth, spent two days at Elberfeldt. [An account of this journey was given in Good Words, "Up the Rhine in White, by Four Friends." Each of the travellers contributed a portion ; Stevenson describing Kaiserswerth and Elberfeldt, Saphir a visit to Dr. Lange at Bonn, Dr. Macleod the Carnival at Cologne, and his brother the Rhine scenery in winter.] On his return to Glasgow he gave a lecture "On East and West," to an influential audience in the Corporation Galleries; and as the season was too near an end for gaining any practical result, he intimated his intention to repeat it next winter, and to follow it up by a discourse on "Bridges," in which he would propose a remedy for the evils he had described. This intention he was unable to accomplish, [The unaccountable disappearance of his first lecture was, in the midst of the busy winter, one of the chief hindrances to his resuming the subject.] and a paper in Good Words afterwards published in a separate form, ["How can we best Relieve our Deserving Poor?" Strahan, 1807.] alone remains to indicate the direction in which his thoughts were then turned.

From his Journal:

"March, 1863.—On my return from Germany I went to Windsor. I reached there Monday night, but did not see the Queen. I made the acquaintance of the Dean of Windsor (Wellesley, nephew of the Duke), one of those noble specimens of the pious Christian gentleman which is characteristic of the English Church above all others. Next day I walked with Lady Augusta to the Mausoleum to meet the Queen. She was accompanied by the Princess Alice. She had the key, and opened it herself, undoing the bolts, and alone we entered and stood in silence besides Marochetti's beautiful statue of the Prince. I was very much overcome. She was calm and quiet.

"We parted at the entrance, and I accompanied Lady Augusta to Frog-Eaore, and the tomb of the Duchess of Kent. She, the Duchess, must have been a most unselfish, devoted mother. All the tender things Lady Augusta said about her were quite in keeping with what I had before heard.

"I had a private interview at night with the Queen. She is so true, so genuine, I wonder not at her sorrow. To me it is quite natural, and has not a bit of morbid feeling in it. It but expresses the greatest loss that a sovereign and wife could sustain.

"Next day I went through Windsor, which is the beau ideal of a royal residence. There are some grand pictures in it, and also a number of poor ones. Except the royal apartments in the Kremlin, these are the finest in Europe.

"I returned home and went back to the marriage on the 10th of March. I was in full court dress, but found I could have gone in gown and bands. Why describe what has been given in full detail? I got beside Kingsley Stanley, Birch, and in a famous place. Being in front of the royal pair we saw better than any, except the clergy. It was a gorgeous sight, yet somehow did not excite me. I suppose I am past this.

"Two things struck me much. One was the whole of the royal princesses weeping, though concealing their tears with their bouquets, as they saw their brother, who was to them but their 'Bertie' and their dear father's son, standing alone waiting for his bride. The other was the Queen's expression as she raised her eyes to heaven, while her husband's Chorale was sung. She seemed to be with him alone before the throne of God."

To Rev. A. Clerk, LL.D.:—

"Even you have little idea of the overwhelming business which has been laid on me by Providence. I am able to keep peace at the heart, but with extreme difficulty; for it is so vexing to be able to do nothing well which is attempted, and to leave so much utterly undone.

"The Prince's marriage was, of course, a splendid affair. I could not help smiling at your idea of my requiring much grace to return to my work ! I returned with quiet thanksgiving ; for, believe me, spectacles of that sort don't even excite me. They interest me much ; but a day in Glen Nevis would unfit me much more for the Glasgow closes. I hope in summer to have the joy of visiting King Ben and his Queen, the Glen."

To the Rev. W. F. STEVENSON :—

"March 16, 1863. "I gave my lecture 'On East and West' on Monday to a great audience, but from want of time I could say little about Elberfeldt, so I mean to open next winter's course with a lecture on ' Bridges,' or how to connect East and West. To this end I mean to work during summer, collecting facts about such practical efforts in other places as may be suitable for this city."

From his Journal : —

"Tuesday, May 25th.—I returned last night from Balmoral. The weather magnificent. I was in singularly dull spirits.

"I saw the Queen on Sunday night, and had a long and very confidential talk with her.

"I feel she wishes me to utter, as I do, anything, which in my soul I feel to be true, and according to God's will. She has a reasoning, searching mind, anxious to get at the root and the reality of things, and abhors all shams, whether in word or deed.

"Truly I need a higher wisdom than my own to use the great talent God has given me to speak the truth in wisdom, and in love without fear of man."

"I record a specimen of my boy's theology :—

"J. 'Auntie, what prayer shall I say? Shall I say, "When I lay me down to sleep, angels will me keep?"'

"A. 'Yes; say that.'

"J. 'Mamma says that good angels keep good boys.'

"A. 'Shall I leave the candle burning? Are you frightened?'

"J. 'Yes—no—yes; leave it burning.'

"A. ' What are you frightened for?'

"J. 'Rats.'

"A. 'Think you, dear, about the good angels.

"J. 'Can they kill rats?'"

As it was thought desirable to send deputies from the Church to visit the stations which the Committee of the Jewish Mission was establishing in the Levant, Dr. Macleod and his friend Dr. Macduff volunteered their services for this duty, and offered to fulfil it at their own cost. They resolved, however, not to go except the General Assembly was perfectly unanimous in its decision. This condition not having been fulfilled, they gave up all thoughts of the expedition.

To Dr. Macduff :—

''All will go well, I hope, in the Assembly. We do not go, of course; but I hope enough sense and generosity will be found as to let us off with grace. Fear not! you and I shall come well out of this business."

The opposition to Good Words, which he had anticipated from a section of the religious world, and of which some faint murmurs had already reached him, at last broke out with a violence for which he was certainly not prepared. The Record newspaper published a series of criticisms of the magazine, especially referring to the contributions of Principal Tulloch, Dr. Lee, Dr. Caird, and Dr. Macleod, which, besides wrath and bitterness, displayed so much deliberate dishonesty, that he was utterly shocked by the revelation it gave of the spirit reigning in the narrower circle of the "Evangelical" world. The maledictions of the Record, reprinted in the form of a pamphlet, and widely circulated in England and Scotland, were caught up and re-echoed by kindred organs throughout the country, and had the effect of making the editor of the offending periodical an object of suspicion to many whose good-will he valued. A ludicrous anti-climax was reached in the Controversy when the Presbytery of Strathbogie gravely "overtured " the General Assembly of the Free Church to take Good Words into its consideration. If Dr. Macleod was indignant under this treatment, he was still more grieved and ashamed. He never, however, lost the confidence of the healthier "Evangelical" party in all Churches, and an able exposure of the spiteful character of the criticisms in the Record which appeared in the Patriot, did much even to remove the suspicions under which he lay with the weaker brethren.

From his Journal :—

"A series of reviews on Good Words have appeared in the Record newspaper. What gives these furious attacks any interest to me is the evidence which they afford of the state of a section of the Evangelical Church which sets itself up as the perfection of ' Evangelicalism.'

" . . . . I was quite aware of the risk I should run from the narrow-school of perfectly conscientious people, weak albeit and ignorant of the big world, and of the necessities of the times, and of what might be done for Christ's cause and kingdom by wiser and broader means.

"I had tried the very same experiment in the old Edinburgh Christian Magazine for ten years. It never paid: its circulation was about four thousand. But I held on till the publishers, who had little capital and less enterprise, gave it up in despair. But while I met constant opposition from the weaker brethren, I held on with the hope of emancipating cheap religious literature from the narrowness and weakness to which it had come. Good Words has now risen to a circulation of one hundred and ten thousand monthly, while we print one hundred and twenty thousand. Thus the experiment has so far succeeded. I resolved to publish the names of contributors, so that each man would feel he was responsible for his own share of the work only, while I was responsible for the whole. Until this moment it has been welcomed, but the Record has opened fire—Strahan told me it was to do so. The articles afford frightful evidence of the low state to which Pharisaical ' Evangelicalism' has come. They have been ably answered in a series of articles in the Patriot. I don't know, nor suspect by whom. An attempt is being made to get Good Words rejected by Tract Societies, the Pure Literary Society, &c. It is incomprehensible to me that, at a time when the very citadel of truth is attacked, these men are not thankful for such a sincere and hearty defence, Strahan writes me that since the attack he has sold more than ever. But this is a secondary consideration. My own belief is that the magazine will for a time be injured. So many thousands of well-intentioned people are slaves to religious papers (among the worst in existence), and to their weak-headed ' Evangelical' pastors, as much as any Papists to their church or priesthood ; and so many men are terrified to be held up as 'unevangelical,' that I don't think they are as yet prepared for a magazine which shall honestly represent the various subjects, besides 'religion,' which in point of fact so occupy the thoughts of good men.

" The ' world' is that which is ' not of the Father.' The so-called ' Evangelical party'—for, thank God, they are but a small clique—are becoming the worshippers of mere Shibboleths—phrases. The shortest road to be considered religious is to adhere to the creed in words, and to keep up a cant vocabulary. Let two men appear in a certain circle of society of London, and let one man speak of ' the Lord's people,' ' a man of God,' ' a great work going on of revival,' &c, and another speak of 'good Christian people,' 'good man,' 'good doing,' the first man is dubbed godly, and the other man at least doubtful, and all from phrases! The one man's sins, misrepresentations, uncharitableness, are put down to the frailties of 'a man of God;' the other man's excellencies to vain appearances. The evil of the one is accounted for, the good of the other denied or suspected. This is horrible.

"In like manner, though a man believes, as I do, with his whole soul the doctrines of Scripture, yet woe to him unless he believes the precise philosophy, or the systematic form of those doctrines held by the clique ! It is not enough that you believe in Christ's life and death as an atonement, as revealing God's love, as that without which there is no pardon for sin, as that by which we are reconciled to God. They will tell you that you deny the atonement unless you believe that Christ on the cross endured the punishment which was due to each sinner of the elect for whom He died; which, thank God, I don't believe, as I know He died for the whole world. They never seem to be aware of the difficulties connected with the philosophy of the atonement: what it was, how Christ bore our sins, how this stands connected with pardon, or man's spiritual life. And so as regards every other doctrine: a man may believe in the corruption of human nature, and to the extent that it requires the supernatural power of God's Holy Spirit to renew us and make us holy—but Anathema! unless you believe that you are damned for Adam's sin, and that a man has to be passive as a stone till God, on what principle we know not, acts on him. It is not enough to believe that sin is cursed, and that so long as a sinner remains in this world or anywhere loving sin, he is in hell. But you must believe in literal fire and brimstone: a lake of fire, into which infants even may be cast, or you are not 'Evangelical!' In vain you vow that you submit to Christ's teaching, that whatever He says you believe, that you submit to it, and are sure that ultimately reason and conscience will rejoice in it. Anathema ! unless you see A B C to be Christ's teaching, the proof of which is, that not the Pope nor the Church, but that we, the ' Evangelical Church,' the Record, or Dr. This or Dr. That, think so, say so, and curse every man who thinks or says differently.

"Along with all this fury in defending 'the faith' (forsooth!) 'once delivered to the saints' (as if Abraham were a Recordite), there is such a spirit of hatred and gross dishonesty manifested that it has driven more away from real Christianity than all the rationalists who have ever written. God helping me, I will continue Good Words as I have begun. If good men will cast me out of their hearts, I feel most deeply the loss, but I must carry this cross. It is my daily prayer to be guided in it for the glory of my Redeemer, and I wish each number to have such a testimony for Him in it as that I shall be able to put it under my pillow when I die.

"I was threatened in London that unless I gave up Stanley and Kingsley I should be 'crushed!' What a wretched hypocrite I would be if I practically declared that I did not think these men worthy of writing beside me! Only think of it, Editor! Strahan and I agreed to let Good Words perish, perish a hundred times, before we would play such a false part as this. ______ or ______ accepted as Christ's friend, and Arthur Stanley rejected as His enemy ! It might make the devils laugh and angels weep ! Good Words may perish, but I will never save it by such sacrifices of principle as this.

"I believe the warfare begun by that miserable Record—which I have abhorred ever since it wrote about dear Arnold—will end in the question, how far the truly pious Church of Christ in this country is to be ruled by a small synagogue of Pharisees and good old women, including men not a few. We shall see.

"Yet I go this week to the Evangelical Alliance! Yes I do. I have received much spiritual good from its meetings. I won't be driven off by the Record. But I shall see of what spirit it is now, and will continue in it or leave it as I find it right.

"My Father, forgive my keen feeling if I do injustice to the weakest child of God; help me to be humble and meek, but courageous and sincere. Amen."

"May 25.—The Alliance meeting has convinced me that all mind, all grasp, all power arising from love guided by sound judgment has ceased to characterise it. It has become the type of exclusion rather than inclusion, and 'terrified for the adversaries,' it is shrinking into a small cell. I will leave it. The Alliance should include all who acknowledge the supreme authority of the Lord Jesus and that of the Holy Scripture.

"Dear Sir Culling is dead. He has joined the true Alliance, and no man will be more at home in Heaven."

The following letter, written in answer to a respectful remonstrance from one of the Professors in the University of Edinburgh, was printed for private circulation.

"Glasgow, June, 1863.

"I thank you for your note; because I feel assured that you meant it kindly.

"I can hardly express to you the pain, and, I must add, the surprise, with which I received the objections to Good Words which it contains, from one for whose character and culture I entertain such high respect. Perhaps I feel this the more at this time, when I have been made the object of a most unrighteous and untruthful attack by the Record newspaper. . . . I would feel pained to discover even a shadow of such a publication falling for a moment over any portion of the Evangelical Church in Scotland.

"Certain criticisms in the last meeting of the Free Church Assembly make me write thus, although I do not mean to take further notice of that popular demonstration.

"But let me endeavour to obviate, or at least modify, the difficulties which you are pleased so kindly to express in your letter regarding Good Words.

"There is, first of all, the objection which you call the Sabbath reading question. You fear, as I understand it, that young persons may be tempted to read the 'secular' articles of Good Words on Sunday, and that 'the fine tone' which we have so long associated, and, very properly, with Sabbath reading may thereby be deteriorated. Now, Good Words is not specially intended, as too many Christian periodicals, I think are, to furnish nourishment for the young chiefly, but rather to give solid meat for intelligent men and women. But if any members of a Christian family are compelled to endure such severe and dry exercises on the Sunday as would make them long for even the scientific articles in Good Words, or, what is still more common, if they are so ill-trained as to read what parental authority has forbidden, let me ask, in such a case, why not lock up Good Words? The poorest family have generally a press, or a chest of drawers, where this mechanical process can be achieved. It surely must be acknowledged that the periodical, so far as its mere 'secular' element is concerned, may be admitted as a respectable and worthy visitor of a Christian family on at least six days of the week? If so, why not take the visitor by the throat, say at 11.55 on Saturday night, just at the moment when he is being transformed into the character of a dangerous intruder, and then incarcerate him till he becomes once more respectable at 12.05 on Monday morning? Or, if it is found that the villain may escape on Sunday, that John and James have become so attached to him that they are disposed to pick the lock of his prison and let him out, might it not be prudent, in such a case, to adopt the old orthodox Popish fashion of burning him as a heretic?—with the condition only, for the great advantage of the publishers, that a new copy shall be purchased every Monday morning! Even in this case, and in spite of all those holocausts, Good Words would still be ' worth much and cost little.'

But then, my dear----------, you must consider how to dispose of all your other 'secular' literature upon the first day of the week. What of your other secular books and 'secular' periodicals'! and, what is a still more difficult question, how are you to dispose of all your secular conversation, if science be secular? What, for example, are you to do with the secular sun, moon, and stars 1 Are you to look at them? If you do so, are you to think about them? If you think about them, are you to speak about them? If you speak about them, are you to do so scientifically—that is, according to truth? For, if so, you thereby immediately tread upon dangerous ground. You may be led into a talk on Astronomy, and may thus become as bad as Professor----------, who, as you inform me, declared from the chair of the Royal Society that he had read an article on Astronomy in Good Words on a Sunday evening. Your theory carried to this extent is hard to practise in consistency with the most holy idea of the Sunday. But that is not my look-out. 'Let each man be fully persuaded in his own mind.'—'To him that esteemeth anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean.' It is enough for my defence that lock and key can enable any man to dispose of Good Words, if he finds his family tempted, from want of principle or self-control, to read some of those articles which, I admit, are not intended for the Sunday, but for the other days of the week. Pray, my friend, do not suppose that I am speaking lightly of the Sunday, or of its becoming exercises. I will yield to no man living in my profound thankfulness for the Lord's Day and all its sacred influences: nor do I wish, God forbid ! to weaken them, but to strengthen them. I am merely indulging in a little banter with reference to what appears to me to be a wrong application of principles, on which we all agree, to the condemnation of Good Words.

"As to the objection about the mixture of secular and sacred in Good Words, which is involved in 'the Sabbath reading question,' what can I say? Ought I to leave out the sacred? Would the magazine thereby become more Christian? You seem to object to its title, as a magazine for all the week. Will it become good if I leave out that title, or construct another, suggesting that it is a magazine for all the week except the Sunday? Would either this change in its title, or the withdrawal of its 'religious' contents make it really more religious, and, therefore, more worthy of the support of Evangelical men? I have no sympathy with these objections. Either of us must have a way of looking at the matter which the other cannot understand.

"Your other objection is worthy, however, of a more lengthened and serious reply. I quite sympathize with those who may urge it:—I mean the fact of writers belonging to different schools in theology, and different departments in literature, such as Mr. Trollope, Professor Kingsley, and Dr. Stanley, writing in the same journal with other men of acknowledged 'Evangelical' sentiments. Now, whether the plan or idea be right or wrong, of a religious magazine which shall include among its writers men of all parties and Churches, or occupying different walks in literature, I beg to assure you that I alone am responsible for it. It was not suggested to me by the publishers or by others, but was made a condition by myself before accepting the editorship of the magazine. Moreover, I can very sincerely say, that it was not conceived or adopted without most grave, mature, and prayerful consideration. I say prayerful, not as a mere phrase, but as expressing a real fact. I admit also that I have been from the first alive to the possible offence this plan might give to some good and thoroughly sincere men who had been accustomed to associate with what was called 'Evangelical literature' a different and narrower idea.

"... I believed, that if our cheap religious publications were to exercise real influence upon our intelligent mechanics, much more upon that immense mass which occupies the middle ground between the 'Recordite' Church party on the one side, and the indifferent and sceptical on the other, popular Christian periodical literature must be made, within, of course, certain-limits, much wider, truer, more manly, and more human—i.e., more really Christian in its sympathies than it had hitherto been. With these convictions naturally and soberly formed, I resolved to make the experiment and to face all its difficulties.

"... My rule has been to obtain assistance from the best men in every church and party I can find able and willing to write for me on such subjects as all men may read with interest or with profit. This rule is limited by one principle only, which has ever guided me, and that is, never to accept the contributions of any writer, male or female, however talented, who is known to be anti-Christian in creed or life. No infidel, no immoral man or woman, no one whom I could not receive, in so far as character is concerned, into my family, will ever be permitted to write in the pages of Good Words. Nay more, what they write must be in harmony at least with the essentials of the Christian faith, and with its morals. But, short of this, I hold that he who is not against Christ is for Him—for Him more especially when the author, whoever he be, is willing to write side by side with men who preach the Gospel out-and-out. And, therefore, I have no hesitation in saying to you, that I believe every person who has written in Good Words publicly professes his faith in Jesus Christ, and maintains a character not inconsistent with that profession.

"As to the fear you express of persons being thus induced to read Kings-ley or Stanley, no person, I believe, who has not read them already, will be inclined to do so merely by reading Good Words. But I presume that most people who read general literature are already acquainted with their writings. Yet I begin to think that these are condemned by many who have never read them, but have received from others, equally ignorant, a vague impression of something horrible about them, they know not what. I am not aware of anything they have ever written which should necessitate their being excommunicated from the pages of Christian periodical literature. Anyhow, I have little faith in an Index Expurgatorius being wise or efficient among people of ordinary education and intelligence. For once that it makes a young man pious, in a hundred cases it makes him either ignorant, false, or sceptical. To know both sides is, I think, the only safeguard for men who may feel called upon to study the present phases of religious thought. Good Words, however, gives them but the good side.

"What then has been the practical result of my editorial plan? It is this: that I defy any man to select a number in which there has not been again and again repeated a full statement of Gospel truth, and that too without any one article, or even any passage in any number contradicting it, but every article being, at least, in harmony with it. No doubt yon may pick out here and there once in a year, and out of a hundred articles, some sentence which may have crept in through inadvertency, and which might have been perhaps better left out. And in a few articles also of a more strictly religious character there may be the omission of doctrines which we might wish had been in, or more fully stated. But the Magazine must be judged of as a whole, and by the general tendency of all its articles, and the impressions which it is likely to make upon any truthful, honest, fair man. Let me say it with all reverence, that there are books and epistles in the Scriptures themselves which could be proved defective, doubtful, and liable to be misunderstood, if the same principles of carping Colenso criticism are applied to them as those which have been applied by the Record to Good Words.

"... I must presume that you, my dear Sir, are neither acquainted personally with Kingsley nor Stanley, and that you have not read their works with care. Writing hurriedly, as you have done, you may have accepted without mature reflection the application of the verses from 2 Cor. vi. 15, 16, first suggested by the Record. But were I, who have the honour and privilege of knowing these men—while differing, as I have said, very decidedly from many of their views—to indulge such a thought regarding our relative position, I should loathe myself as a Pharisee of the Pharisees, and despise myself as the meanest hypocrite on earth. I have great personal respect for the characters of Trollope, Kingsley, and Stanley, as well as admiration of their genius, though they occupy very different walks in literature. I have the privilege of knowing Dr. Stanley more intimately than the others, and I am glad to have even this opportunity of expressing to you my profound conviction that he has a fear of God, a love for Christ and for his fellow-men, a sense of honour, truth, and justice, such as I should rejoice to believe were even seriously aimed at by the conductors of the Record. The passage you hastily apply to such a man as Stanley—I feel assured, without the full meaning I attach to it—was, nevertheless, coolly written and printed in the Record, and applied also to myself, Lee, Tulloch, Caird, and has been transferred to the separate publication of its so-called criticisms on Good Words. As to the application of the more harmless and peaceful image from Deuteronomy which you quote:—'Thou shalt not plough with an ox and an ass together,' I shall, with confidence, leave your own good taste to make it, if you can suppose Arthur Stanley and the 'Chelsea Pensioner' writing together in Good Words.

"... But whatever may become of Good Words, I am grieved to see the tendency, on the part of some good men in the Evangelical Church, to cast away from their heart and sympathies in such a crisis as the present, the cordial aid which men most devoted to Christ and His kingdom are willing to afford to the cause which all have at heart, the very moment they refuse in some one point, to shape their plans, or even their phrases, to the stereotyped form which some small party have sanctioned, as being the only type of 'evangelicism.' They are too apt to be governed by the mere letter and words, instead of looking into the spirit and realities of things, and thus unconsciously accept the well-known advice given in Faust to a student by one whom I need not name, but who is, I suspect, not ignorant of many of the private conspiracies against good men in the office of the Record.

"' Im ganzen—haltet euch an Worte!
Dann geht ihr durch die sich're Pforte
Zum Tempel der Gewissheit ein.' . , .

* * * * *

'Mit Worten lasst sich trefflich streiten,
Mit Worten ein System bereiten,
An Worte, lasst sich trefflich glauben,
Von einem Wort lasst sich kein Iota rauben.'

"With a good conscience towards God and man, I therefore crave as a Christian brother pastor, seeking to aid his Master's work, the sympathy of the good men of all parties, and of all Churches—for Good Words belongs to all. If this is denied me, by even a few, on those few be the responsibility of weakening my hands and my efforts. Profoundly convinced, however, of a higher sympathy, I shall go on as I have begun, with a firm, clear purpose, and a peaceful, courageous heart. As I have sung long ago, I sing now, and hope to do so till my voice is silent—

"'Trust no party, church, or faction,
Trust no leaders in the fight;
But in every word and action,
Trust in God, and do the right!

'Some will hate thee, some will love thee,
Some will flatter, some will slight.
Cease from man, and look above thee,
Trust in God, and do the right!' "

From the Rev. A. P. Stanley, Professor of Ecclesiastical History :—

"Christ Church, Oxford, June 13, 1863. "For my part I would at once relieve you of my presence in Good Words, but I consider the principle which you advocate in your letter to be so good, that I shall be sorry to do so. 'The ox and ass' must plough together in the Christian dispensation, though they were forbidden to do so in the Mosaic."

From the late Canon Kisgsley :—
"Cambridge, Saturday Night.

"I have sent off my copy. If anything in it seems to you not fit for your readers, you are to strike your pen through it without fear.

"I can trust utterly your liberality and good sense. I am old enough to know, with Hesiod, that half is sometimes better than the whole. I have full means in England of speaking my whole mind as often as I wish. It is for you to decide how much thereof can be spoken without offence to your 70,000 readers. So do what you like with the paper.

"I should say this to very few editors upon earth, but I say it to you as a matter of course."

To A. Strahan, Esq. :—

"Let us be very careful, not to admit through oversight one sentence which ought to pain a Christian, however weak he may be. In one word, let us honestly, sincerely, humbly, truthfully do what is right, and dare the devil whether he comes as an infidel or a Pharisee.

"We have an immense talent given us, let us use it well.

"I have no doubt Good Words will be injured, but it will perish before I truckle to any party."

To the Same :—

"I have read Number 1 of the Record; but the louder the wind pipes, and the gurlier the sea gets from that quarter, the more calm, steadfast I feel to steer right on by the compass of a good conscience, by the old chart, the Bible.

"Thank God, I have you as my first mate, and not some Quaker. I know you won't flinch in a gale of wind, nor will I, take my word for it!

"I don't mean to take any notice at present, although I would like to speak out on the whole subject of religious periodical literature as it was and is—what is good in it and what is bad, what its duties are and its shortcomings. I think this will do much good to the religious atmosphere. It is very close at present. In the meantime I shall act on my old motto, ' Trust in God and do the right,'"

In the same year in which he was attacked by the Record, he had an opportunity of showing how little ground there was for the most serious of the charges brought against him as editor. He had asked a celebrated novelist, a personal friend, for whose charactor and opinions he ever retained unqualified respect, to write the tale for the following year. But when the story was submitted to him, he saw that it was not suitable for the Magazine. There was, of course, nothing morally wrong in its tone, but as all its "religious" people were drawn of a type which justly deserved the lash of the satirist, he felt that to publish it in Good Words would be to lend the sanction of its conductors to what he had long considered the injustice of modern novelists in ignoring healthy Christianity. A friendly correspondence followed, [The novelist who is referred to above thus writes :—"I need not say that Dr. Macleod's rejection of the story never for a moment interfered with our friendship. It certainly raised my opinion of the man."] from which it appeared that the editor and his friend had misunderstood each other; but so determined was Dr. Macleod and his publishers not to compromise the character of Good Words, that the forfeit of £500 was paid and the story declined.


"N.B.—This letter will keep cold till you are at peace with all the world, with a pipe well filled, and drawing well. Head it then, or a bit each day for a month.

"Glasgow, June 11, 1863.

"... You are not wrong; nor have you wronged me or my publishers in any way. I frankly admit this. But neither am I wrong. This, 'by your leave,' I assert. The fact is that I misunderstood you and you me, though I more than you have been the cause of the misunderstanding.

"What I tried to explain and wished you to see when we met here was, the peculiar place which Good Words aimed at occupying in the field of cheap Christian literature. I have always endeavoured to avoid, on the one hand, the exclusively narrow religious ground—narrow in its choice of subjects and in its manner of treating them—hitherto occupied by our religious periodicals; and, on the other hand, to avoid altogether whatever was antagonistic to the truths and spirit of Christianity, and also as much as possible whatever was calculated to offend the prejudices, far more the sincere convictions and feelings, of fair and reasonable 'Evangelical' men. Within these extremes it seemed to me that a sufficiently extensive field existed, in which any novelist might roam and find an endless variety of life and manners to describe with profit to all, and without giving offence to any. This problem which I wished to solve did not and does not seem to me a very difficult one, unless for very one-sided 'Evangelical' or anti-'Evangelical' writers. At all events, being a clergyman as well as an editor—the one from deepest convictions, though the other, I fear, is from the deepest mistake—I could not be else than sensitive lest anything should appear in Good Words out of harmony with my convictions and my profession. Well, then, was I wrong in assuming that you were an honest believer in revealed Christian truth? I was not. Was I wrong in believing and hoping that there were many truly Christian aspects of life, as well as the canting and humbug ones, with which you heartily sympathized, and which you were able and disposed to delineate? I was not.

"Perhaps I had no ground for hoping that you would give me a different kind of story from those you had hitherto published. If so, forgive me this wrong. Possibly the wish was father to the thought. But the thought did not imply that any of your former novels had been false either to your own world within or to the big world without—false to truth or to nature. It assumed only that you could with your whole heart produce another novel which, instead of showing up what was weak, false, disgusting in professing Christians, might also bring out, as has never yet been done, what Christianity as a living power derived from faith in a living Saviour, and working in and through living men and women, does, has done, and will do, what no other known power can accomplish in the world, for the good of the individual or mankind. If no such power exists, neither Christ nor Christianity exists; and if it does, I must confess that most of our great novelists are, to say the least of it, marvellously modest in acknowledging it. The weaknesses, snares, hypocrisies, gloom of some species of professing Christians are all described and magnified; but what of the genuine, heaven-born Christian element? Why, when one reads of the good men in most novels, it can hardly be discovered where they got their goodness; but let a parson, a deacon, a Church member be introduced, and at once we guess where they have had their badness from—they were professing Christians.

"Now all this, and much more, was the substance of my sermon to you.

"Now, my good------, you have been in my humble opinion guilty of committing this fault, or, as you might say, praiseworthy in doing this good, in your story. You hit right and left; give a wipe here, a sneer there, and thrust a nasty prong into another place; cast a gloom over Dorcas societies, and a glory over balls lasting till four in the morning. In short, it is the old story. The shadow over the Church is broad and deep, and over every other spot sunshine reigns. That is the general impression which the story gives, so far as it goes. There is nothing, of course, bad or vicious in it— that could not be from you—but quite enough, and that without any necessity from your head or heart, to keep Good Words and its editor in boiling water until either or both were boiled to death. I feel pretty certain that you either do not comprehend my difficulties, or laugh in pity at my bigotry. But I cannot help it.

"You do me, however, wrong in thinking, as you seem to do, that apart from the structure of your story, and merely because of your name, I have sacrificed you to the Record, and to the cry it and its followers have raised against you as well as against me. My only pain is that the Record will suppose that its attack has bullied me into the rejection of your story.

"I know well that my position is difficult, and that too because I do not write to please both parties, but simply because I wish to produce, if possible, a magazine which, though too wide for the 'Evangelicals' and too narrow for the anti-'Evangelicals,' and therefore disliked by both cliques, may nevertheless rally round it in the long run the sympathies of all who occupy the middle ground of a decided, sincere, and manly Evangelical Christianity."

To J. M. Ludlow, Esq. :—

"I really cannot ascertain anything reliable about the election of librarian.

"In summer the College is dead, the professors fled—no one but waiters or seagulls know whither. For aught I know, the books are off too, to wash their bindings, or to purge themselves of their errors. The very porters have vanished, or locked themselves up. I believe the animals in the museum are gone to their native haunts. The clock is stopped. The spiders have grown to a fearful size in the class-rooms. Hebrew roots have developed into trees; divinity has perished.. Who knows your friend in that desert? I went to inquire about him, and fled in terror from the grave of the dead sciences."

The letter which follows refers to a bereavement which had overtaken his uncle, the minister of Morven, and which had left him peculiarly desolate and lonely in the old home of Fiunary. Norman was preparing for a short tour on the Continent when the sad news reached him. He at once gave up his promised holiday abroad and went to Morven.

To Mrs. Macleod: —
"Fiunary, June 27, 1863.

"It is blowing and raining outside, the Sound looks cold and dreary, and within there is a dead wife and a husband who would rejoice if he were laid beside her.

"Everything here seems dead—the hills, rocks, and sea—all are but things; the persons who were their life have gone, and there are few even to speak of the old familiar faces. Verily a man's life can be found in God only. Peace we can have—it must be; happiness may be.

"Monday, 6th July.—Yesterday was a holy day. Without it was one of surpassing splendour; within, of holy peace. I preached. There was a large congregation of the living, but almost as large of the dead, or rather the Church above and below were visibly present to my spirit, so that we verily seemed, 'whether alive or asleep, to live together with Him,' and to be all partaking the communion of His Body and Blood—eating of the living Bread. The old Manse family—father, grandfather and grandmother, aunts and uncles, down to dear Margaret—seemed to be all present, and I never enjoyed more peace, and never was my heart so full.

"The scene in the churchyard was perfect, as I sat at the old cross and gazed on the sea, calm as the sea of glass, with scattered sails and blue hills, and the silence broken by no footfall on the green grass, but by the distant voice of the preacher or the sound of psalms; with the lark overhead singing in joy, or the lambs bleating among the hills, or the passing hum of the bee, busy and contented. Life was over all, and in spite of death, I think a breath of God's own life revived dear John's heart.

"I send you a number of the Christian Observer on Good Words.

"It is too kind to me. I thank God it has lifted off the burthen of dislike I was beginning to feel to the 'Evangelical' party in England, as if there was no justice, mercy, or truth in them. The Record, I see, does but misrepresent them all.

"I feel deeply the kind advice he gives, and sympathize, as you know, with it. They don't know how I have fought 'the world' for the Church, and what I have kept out. But I accept with thanks the caution.

"May God help me to know and do His will, and to have kind thoughts of all men."

From his Journal :—

"Early in October I went to fulfil engagements in England. Preached in Liverpool, London, Stockport, and Ashton, and collected for the different objects, in all £1,087. Spent a day at Bolton Abbey—a glorious day,— delighted with the scenery, and made glad by human kindness.

"Mr. ------, M.P. for------, was angry because I preached for Nonconformists ! The Church of England won't let me preach in her pulpits, and out of respect for the Church he thinks I should preach for no one else!

"I think it not only allowable, but right, in the Stockport Sunday schools, to teach reading, writing, and music to the poor, who are obliged to work all the week, and who can go nowhere else. What I object to is—?, that well-to-do children should be thus taught; 2, that arithmetic should be taught on Sunday.

"I like the Nonconformists for their liberality ; but I am more and more convinced that a country must have many Churches to express and feed different minds, and that the Establishment is a huge blessing along with Dissent.

"October, Saturday.—Went to Balmoral—found Gladstone had gone. Found the old hearty and happy friends. Preached in the morning on 'Peace not happiness,' and in the church on 'The Gadarene demoniac.'

"'What do you think?' said little Princess Beatrice to me. 'I am an aunt, Dr. Macleod, yet my nephew William (of Prussia) won't do what I bid him! Both he and Elizabeth refused to shut the door! Is that not naughty?' I never saw truer, or more natural, healthy children. God bless them!

"Monday.—Lady Augusta, Dr. Jenner, and I, drove to Garbhalt. At night I read Burns and ' Old Mortality' aloud to the Court. The Royal Family were not present. General Gray is quite up to the Scotch.

"Tuesday.—Drove to Aberdeen to the inauguration of the Prince Consort's statue.

"Here let me go back to impress on my memory the glorious Monday at Garbhalt. The day was delicious. The river was full, and of that dark-brown, mossy hue which forms such a fine contrast of colour to the foam of the stream and the green banks. The view of the woods, the valley, Inver-cauld, and the mountains, was superb. The forests were coloured with every shade, from the deep green of the pines and firs, to the golden tints of the deciduous trees. Masses of sombre shadow, broken by masses of light, intermingled over the brown hills and broad valley, while the distant hills and clouds met in glorious confusion. It was a day to be had in remembrance.

"I was asked Friday fortnight to go to Inverary to meet the Crown Prince and Princess of Prussia. I did so, and returned Saturday. It was a happy visit.

"The Monday following I went to visit Prince Alfred at Holyrood, and staid till Wednesday. The Crown Prince and Princess there. I think the Crown Prince a simple, frank, unaffected, and affectionate man.

"We had an evening party, and they left on Tuesday night at ten.

"We have had a small newspaper-letter controversy about the Established Church becoming Episcopalian. Nonsense ! We must hold fast by our own past, and from this national root grow up in adaptation to the necessities of the times in all things non-essential, and from their nature variable. But such a union is impossible ! The Free Church speaks of uniting with the United Presbyterian. It will be a queer evolution in history, utterly inexplicable on any principle save that of Church ambition.

"They will cease to exist the moment they join. They will have lost all, the U. P.'s gained all, and we much. Our strength must be in the width of our sympathies—in our national inclusiveness, not exclusiveness.

"An amusing, silly, yet not unimportant event has occurred in relation to Good Words. The Free Presbytery of Strathbogie has overtured the General Assembly of the Free Church against it. Against a 6d. periodical, with which they have nothing to do ! This is to me very interesting as a social phenomenon. Oh, my God, help me to be charitable! Help me to be weak to the weak, to be silent about them, and to do Thy will!

"November 27th.—Thank God, my working-man's church is in a fair way of being finished. I have realised £1,700, and I feel assured God will give me the £2,500.

"We have taken ground for a school and a church at Parkhead. All in faith that God will provide the money for both.

"The working-men's services have been carried on since November! and never were better attended. Thank God!

"But I have been two years trying to get up a working man's church. There are noble exceptions; but I have found shocking illustrations of the spirit of greed among the wealthy.

"The sun of life is setting. Let me work, and rest in soul.

"Thackeray is dead, a most kind-hearted man. Macnab told me that he had him in charge coming home from Calcutta, and that the day after he parted from him in London, the boy returned, and throwing his arms about his neck, burst into tears, from sheer affection in meeting his friend again. He said he never knew a more loving boy. Thackeray was in Weimar the year before I was there. We had a long talk about the old place and people. I felt he had a genuine heart.

"Delivered again my lecture on East and West in Glasgow. I think God is giving me a great work to do in Glasgow for the poor. It must and will be done by some one, why not me? I am nothing except as an instrument, and God can make use of me.

"D.V., let this be my word for '64."

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