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Memoir of Norman MacLeod, D.D

DR. MACLEOD had for several years been convinced that the Church ought to send a deputation to India. There were many important questions connected with missions in that country, which, he believed, could be decided only by Commissioners, who, besides considering matters affecting particular localities, might take a wide survey of the condition of India in reference to Christianity. He had long anticipated, too, the possibility of being himself appointed to such a duty, and was prepared, at almost any personal risk, to undertake it. "I have the most distinct recollection," writes Dr. Clerk, "that in the summer of 1865, speaking to me, as he often did, of the possibility of his being asked to go to India, he told me that medical friends, to whom he had casually mentioned the matter, had assured him it would entail certain death, but that he had counted the cost, and that if the Church asked him to represent her, he would rather die in the discharge of his duty than live in the neglect of it. I am convinced that, in the true martyr spirit, he gave his life for the conversion of India, and that the fruit will appear in due season. He ardently anticipated glorious results from a Christianised India—a youthful Church with the warmth of the Eastern heart and the quickness of the Eastern mind, drawing its inspiration, not from the stereotyped forms of the West, but directly from the Fountain of Eternal Life and Truth. Often did he in the most glowing language picture the effect upon Europe and America, should light again stream from the East to quicken their decaying energies."

He was, therefore, not taken by surprise when the General Assembly of 1867, acting on the unanimous request of the Mission Board at Calcutta, appointed him, along with Dr. Watson of Dundee, to represent the Church of Scotland in India.

Before he left this country he carefully determined the chief questions to which his attention should be directed. Ever since his enthusiasm had been kindled by his intercourse at Loudoun with the noble widow of ex-Governor-General Lord Hastings, he had taken an almost romantic interest in the policy of our Eastern empire ; was familiar with the details of every campaign from the days of Clive to the Indian mutiny; and had read much of the religious as well as civil history of the natives. He had also for years taken an active part in the management of India Missions; and in order to profit by as wide a range of experience as possible, he corresponded with persons in this country well acquainted with, or earnestly interested in. these Missions, and obtained from them various, and therefore valuable, statements of those difficulties and objections regarding which inquiry was needed. From the topics suggested by these and similar authorities, he and his brother deputy drew up, during their outward voyage, a series of queries, embracing the points which most required investigation.

They had also peculiar advantages, when in India, for gaining the best answers to their inquiries. They were welcomed as friends by the representatives and agents of every Church and Mission, from the bishops of the Church of England in India down to the poorest native catechist, and received from them all every possible aid and information. They enjoyed the frankest intercourse with educated natives of all varieties of creed and of no creed, and with the conductors of the Press, religious and secular, Christian and Hindoo. They were honoured likewise with the confidence of the highest and best informed Officers of State, in each of the Presidencies, and were thus able to gauge opinion in different places and among different ranks and types of men, and to form their conclusions from unusually comprehensive data. "We had in our investigations," he reports, "advantages similar to those possessed by a Government Commission, which cites select witnesses and visits select districts, and the value of whose conclusions is not to be estimated by the time spent in inquiry, or to be balanced. against those arrived at by 'the oldest inhabitant' of any one village."

In speaking of the trouble Dr. Macleod took to obtain trustworthy information, not only on the questions bearing directly on his mission, but in regard to everything which came under his notice, and the consequent accuracy of the conclusions he reached (an accuracy which has since been recognised by some of the ablest authorities on Indian affairs), Dr. Watson thus describes the difficulties which had to be encountered:—

"No one who has not had something to do with gathering information can imagine the difficulty of sifting the opinions and statements which are made by residents in India on its internal affairs. If you are content to take the first witness you find as an authority, and to form your judgment according to his evidence, you will avoid much perplexity; but you will run the risk of holding most erroneous and one-sided views. Dr. Macleod used often to express his astonishment at the opposite and contradictory declarations made to him by persons who seemed to have had the best opportunities of knowing what they spoke about. Two men, or half-a-dozen men, who ought to have been each in his own line a guarantee for correctness, would on some point give as many different opinions, formed on their own personal experience.

"Each man had lived in a little world of his own ; in the presence of his own countrymen he had been a stranger to all except his own circle. And, indeed, one is surprised at the separateness and isolation of European society in the great centres of the population; for, if you pass from one little circle to another, it is like crossing into a new region of mental life; and the instruments for gauging facts, opinions, experiences, and modes of thought need to be readjusted. To follow implicitly the traditions and convictions of your informants on almost any subject of wide interest, you must lay aside to-day the impressions you took up yesterday; to-morrow you may have cause to return to your earlier ones, and day by day you may have to modify now one and now another of your notions, proved on what you believed good grounds; and after all you will retain your latest conviction with caution and modesty.

"It was no easy matter, then, for a man like him, who wished to probe everything, and to attain to the truth, to ascertain correct data. . At times he grew impatient, and at other times he used to look on the matter on its ludicrous side, and illustrate it by a story his father had often told, of an incident at the trial of some case at which he was present. The witness in the box was a Highlandman unable to speak a word of English, and he gave his evidence through an interpreter. When a question was put to the witness, he would hesitate and say. ' I think, well, I daresay, yes.' Then the interpreter turns to the judge with this statement, He says, 'Yes,' my lord, but he seems not quite sure.' 'Ask him again,' says the judge; and again the witness hesitated, balanced statements, and concluded with 'I think, well I daresay, no.' Whereupon the interpreter announced the reply, and shouted,' he says 'No,' my lord,' and so the case proceeded, interrupted every now and again by the twofold answer.' He says, 'Yes,' my lord; he says, 'No,' my lord,' until the judge completely lost his temper.

"It was often through similar difficulties of contradiction from the witness-box, and from different lips, that Dr. McLeod was obliged to draw his knowledge of what were the facts and opinions of Indian life: and he seized every chance of correcting his impressions by putting the right questions to the right men, and by a sort of instinctive appreciation of the value of the replies he received to his numerous and sifting inquiries."

The reception accorded to the deputation was enthusiastic, and their labours were constant and onerous. Crowds, in which natives were mingled with English, assembled in the Churches in which they were to preach, or at the meetings they were to address. Every day, almost every hour, had its engagements ; examining schools, conferring with missionaries, and responding to the attentions and hospitalities which were bestowed on them. To the Indian habit of early rising there was too frequently added the home custom of late sitting, with its consequent exhaustion. "It is certainly trying," he writes, "for a stranger, who is entertained hospitably every night, and who consequently retires late, to have his first sleep broken by the card of some distinguished official handed to him about daybreak." This strain upon his system told more perniciously than he was at the time conscious of. "It was very difficult," Dr. Watson says, "to convince him that, for a man like him, labour in Scotland, with its cold and bracing atmosphere, was one thing, and labour in a tropical climate was another thing. He believed it on the whole; but unless the belief was impressed on his mind by physical pain or inconvenience, it was inoperative; and he was apt to forget that he was in a region where exertion such as he was accustomed to at home would entail upon him consequences of a serious kind. The only instance in which he seemed to distrust the climate of India was in regard to his mode of living. He could both enjoy life and forego its enjoyments, as few men could, without a sense of loss; he could avail himself of the most boundless hospitality, and he could at the most sumptuous table fare like a hermit; and when, a day or two after his landing in Bombay, he was told by a physician that everything which was safe for him at home was not equally safe in India, he was perfectly unaffected by the news; and, so far as meat and drink were concerned, he walked strictly by medical rule. In all other respects he forgot his belief in the dangers of India: he spoke in public, he talked in private, he listened, he exerted body and brain from morning till night, he spent himself without grudging and without consideration. On one occasion he preached for about an hour while sailing down the Red Sea, and at the close of the service he was almost dead. His face was flushed, his head ached, his brain was confused; and when he retired to his cabin the utmost efforts were required to restore him. The warning was noted by him, and often remembered, but it was as often forgotten or neglected afterwards.

"I shall not attempt," Dr. Watson continues, "to describe the interest which was felt amongst all classes in India in the speeches and sermons of Dr. Macleod. The visit of a man of much less note would have attracted some attention, and would have brought together a very large proportion of the English-speaking population in every city which was visited. Moreover, the novelty of the visit, the first of its kind from Scotland, was sufficient to awaken the sympathies of Christians, and to excite the curiosity, if not a deeper feeling, amongst all the races and religions of India. His name had gone before him in every province. No efforts had been used to draw the notice of the world to his visit; the ordinary publication of a list of passengers by the next steamer, confirming a rumour that Dr. Macleod was on his way to India, was of itself enough. His arrival was looked forward to with eagerness, and, soon after his landing, invitations and enquiries from all parts of the country were sent in. Wherever he went he was received with kindness and cordiality; in many places with that deep respect and veneration which had grown up in the minds of those who had admired his works and had heard of his labours, and in many places he was welcomed with feelings of ardour arising to enthusiasm.

"The foremost men in India in civil and military and ecclesiastical posts were ready to do him honour and to aid him; in public and in private they testified for him their personal respect; and when they found him to be a man whose eyes were observant, whose sympathies were quick, whose large-heartedness was so comprehensive and whose humour was so genial and overpowering, it seemed as if all barriers were broken down, and as if they had known him personally all their lives. He gained access to persons and sources of information which, without any wish to disoblige, would have been shut to most other men.

"Nothing indeed was lacking in the welcome which greeted him; and never did visitor appreciate kindness more. But withal he was not misled by these marks of flattery and good-feeling. He could distinguish between the genuine and the unreal: he knew well enough that whilst there were many who testified their zeal and good-will, many more had the future in view, and were careful to propitiate an author who was likely to command as wide a circle of readers as any writer in Great Britain. And, apart from this, he had set his heart on the special object which carried him to India; and all external attentions, all readiness to listen, all offers of hospitality or public respect, were regarded by him as helps to his work, and as opening up for him a surer path to that knowledge of Indian life and Indian affairs of which he was in search."

From his Journal:—.
"Cuilchenna, Jul 24, 1867.

"Dear place, with what genuine love and gratitude I write its name ! I thought I was too old to love nature as I have done. What a time I have had, what glorious scenery, what fresh mornings, and, oh, what evenings ! With smooth seas gleaming with the hues of a dove's neck; mountains with every shade which can at such times be produced ; Glencoe in sunshine and in deepest crimson; Glengoar, with its sunbeams lighting up the hill sides with the softest dreamy velvet hues; mountain masses of one dark hue clearly defined against the blue sky, and fading into grey over Duart. What cloud shadows, and what effects from pines, and cottages with grey smoke and lines of silver along the shore, and the masts of ships at anchor! Praise God for this glorious world ! the world made and adorned by Him who died on the cross, What a gospel of peace and good-will it ever is to me—not a prison but a palace—hung with pictures of glory, full of works of art, and all so pure and holy. Every bunch of green fern, every bit of burning heather, the birches, the pure streams, the everything, says, 'I love you—love me—and rejoice!' Sometimes I wept, and sometimes prayed, and enjoyed silent praise—I bless Thee for it!

"And then there was my dear family all together, and all so well, and the walks, the pic-nics to the hills, Glencoe, Glengoar, the fishing in the evening—all sunshine—all happiness—most wonderful for so many and all sinners, in this world of sin and discipline. It is of Cod our Father, and a type of what will be forever.

"Forbid that this should hinder us and not rather help us to do our duty, severe duty, and to accept any trial. I feel this is a calm harbour in which I am refitting for a long voyage."

To J. M. Ludlow, Esq.:—
"August, 1867.

"Yes, I go on the 5th of November on a great mission to India, not verily to Presbyterians only, but to see what the eye alone can see, and to verify or test what cannot be seen, but which I either question or believe anent missions in general and education.

"I have been in paradise with my family. The heavenly district is called in maps of earth, Lochaber. But what map could give all the glory in the world without, and the world within?

"It has been a blessed preparation for labour night and day. I had a mission sermon of good-will to man."

To Mrs. Macleod:—
"Balmoral, Friday, September 10th, 1867.

"It was a glorious day; but rather a weary journey from Glasgow yesterday.

"This morning's telegram announced the death of Sir Frederick Bruce suddenly at Boston. Lady Frances Baillie, his sister, is here. I have been with her and prayed with her. She accompanies me to Perth to-morrow. I feel very truly for her. Three such brothers, Lord Elgin, General Bruce, and Sir Frederick dying so suddenly! Mystery!

"I had a long and pleasant interview with the Queen. With my last breath I will uphold the excellence and nobleness of her character. It was really grand to hear her talk on moral courage, and on living for duty."

From his Journal:—
"August 11, Glasgow.—I have long been convinced of the vast importance of sending a deputation to India, and my friends in the Committee know it. I never brought it formally before the Committee from an awkward, silly feeling of fear lest they should suppose it was a mere personal affair. I had, however, I believed, mentioned to friends in private that so convinced was I of its importance, that I was disposed to hazard the offer of my going at my own expense.

"How often did I ponder over India! It possessed me, but I held myself in. I determined not to lead but to follow. The Lord knows how often I asked His counsel.

"When the Sunday question came up, I gave up all thoughts of India. I felt then that I was tabooed. I would, indeed, have resigned the Convenership, except from the determination not to confess any sense of wrongdoing which I did not feel. I learned but the other day that a meeting was called at the time to get me to resign; the vote was taken and carried against them. I thank God for the noble freedom of the Church, which could not only entertain the thought of sending me, but act upon it as they have done.

"After my report for the last Assembly was finished, a letter came from Calcutta, from our Corresponding Board, requesting the Convener to visit India.

"I called a meeting in Edinburgh of a few friends in the Committee, best fitted to advise me. They told me I must lay an official document before the Committee. The meeting was called by the Moderator of Assembly, and I was absent. All I said was that this Assembly should decide one way or other, if I, a man fifty-six years of age, was even to consider the proposal. I telegraphed next day to Dr. Craik to print their deliverance, whatever it was, so that the Assembly might have it before them in a tangible form. It was printed accordingly, and I simply read it, excusing the fact of its not being in the report, from the request having come so late, and in this form taking me aback. The Assembly discussed the question, and were, strange to say, unanimous in granting the request, if the Presbytery of Glasgow agreed thereto, and if Funds were raised independent of the subscriptions for the Mission. Mr. Johnstone, of Greenock, nobly offered to guarantee £1,000 if I went, and so this barrier was removed!

"My physicians said Yes.

"My wife said Yes, if God so wills. My aged and blessed mother said Yes.

"My congregation? Well, I wrote dear James Campbell, my wise, cautious, loving, and dear friend and elder, and he read to my Session a letter written from Cuilchenna, which told the whole truth, and the Session said Yes. Could I say No? Could I believe in God, as a guide, and say No? It was difficult to say Yes. The wife and bairns made it difficult; bat was I to be a coward, and every officer in the army to rebuke me? No! I said Yes, with a good concience, a firm heart, after much prayer, and I dared not say No.

"No doubt all my personal feelings, the Mission question excepted, would keep me at home. I have seen so much of the world that I would not go to India for the mere purpose of visiting it as a traveller, should I see it in a month for nothing from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin. I would not give a week in Rome, which I have never seen, for any time in India, were it close at hand.

"Apart from Missions, nothing could possibly induce me to run risks, encounter fatigue, and make such sacrifices in my fifty-sixth year.

"I cannot as Convener lay my hand on any one authentic and reliable book or report, enabling me to get a clear, firm, unhesitating grasp of the real state, difficulties, and requirements of our Missions.

"We are at this moment passing through a crisis in our Mission history both in India and at home. There are questions of increased salaries, according to the circumstances of each Mission station; the employment of home native teachers; the employment—its nature, place, pay, &c, of native ministers, with their future relationship to the Board, the local Presbytery, and the Committee; the formation of Corresponding Boards, and the clearing up of constantly recurring misunderstandings with them; the personal examination into the actual condition of each Mission station, and the encouraging of the missionaries; the obtaining accurate information through letters from the Home Government to the Indian Government, and from every leading Missionary Society labouring in India, that so, by confidential communications with representative men of all parties and creeds, we may estimate the actual state and prospects of Missions in India. Such is a faint outline of some of the objects of a deputation as far as India is concerned.

"As to the danger, it is nothing, for God is everywhere. As to family, He can take care of them; so can he of the dear congregation. But it seems to me,—and surely my Father will not let me be in darkness!—to be my duty, and so I go, in the name of God—Father, Son and Spirit.

"August 20.—Dear Watson goes with me. Thank God the way is clear.

"The one grand difficulty is the fact that I have not, since the Sabbath controversy, been much of a pastor. God knows I have not been spending my time selfishly. Every hour has been occupied for the public—that is, my small public—good. There has been no idleness. But I have not been able amidst my work to visit, and though I condemn myself by the confession, yet I will make it, that a chief, yea, the chief ground of ministerial usefulness, is the personal attachment of the people, and this is gained most by personal visitation. It is a righteous ground. I am amazed at their patience and attachment to me ! My only consolation is my heartfelt attachment to them—if they only knew how great it is!

"Come life or death, I believe it is God's will. I ask no more. All results are known to Him. Enough if He in mercy reveals His will. To suspect myself deceived would be to shatter all my faith in God. Again I say I know not in what form He is to be glorified in or by us. All I know is, that I solemnly believe God says, ' It is my will that you go.'

"But when I think of probabilities, I would be overwhelmed unless I knew that I was not to be over-anxious about the morrow, or about anything, but to rest on God for each day's guidance, strength and blessing. The many I shall meet, the importance of all that is said or done, the responsibility of personal influence, emanating from personal being; the sermons and addresses; the questions to be asked, and the judging of the replies to them; the patience, truth, and perseverance, judgment and temper needed; the redeeming, in short, of this magnificent talent when abused. How solemn the thought ! And then the right use of it when I return— the labour and wisdom this implies—the results which depend on its use! How affecting! And I getting so old—little time left—and having so many difficulties from within and without! But the good Master knows all—and He is so good, so patient, so considerate, forbearing, strengthening, over-ruling! Amen.

"I have no legacy to leave in the form of wishes. I leave God to arrange all. For my family I have but one wish, that these clear ones—each a part of my being—should know God, and be delivered from evil. Rich or poor, well or ill, my one cry to God is, 'May they be Thine through faith in Jesus, and obedience to Thy holy commandments.'

"And God will provide for my dear people. Oh, how good they have been to me!"

To James A. Campbell, Esq.

"I think Young's view of sacrifice superficial in the extreme, and that in his desire to give prominence to personal righteousness as the grand end of Christ's work, in which I cordially sympathize, he leaves really no room for pardon as an act of mercy. But as I have not his work on the subject with me, and no space for writing, I won't indulge in criticism. The best book out of sight, I think, on this great question is Campbell's, my very dear friend. It has defects when brought to the severe test of exegesis, but it is the best nevertheless.

"I quite agree with Mr. ------that it ought to be the aim of the legislation of every Church to make its dogmatic basis square more and more with the creed of the Church Catholic. A Church is catholic only when it is capable, as far as its creed is concerned, of embracing living Christendom, so that a member or minister righteously deposed from its communion should thereby he deposed as righteously from the whole Catholic Church.

"I think the Popish Church eminently sectarian, and the most remarkable union, or rather disunion of 'Catholics' I have ever seen was in the Holy Sepulchre, around the symbol of the grand fact which should unite all—Jesus the Resurrection and the Life.

"As to the question of the Sabbath, it never did nor could excite my enthusiasm. It is an outside question, interesting theologically as involving the higher question of the relation between the old and new dispensation;, Judaism and Christianity. Practically, we are all one in wishing and blessing God for a day for social worship; and for enjoying, in its rest from servile labour, a blessed opportunity for deepening our spiritual rest with Christ in God. I protested against the base superstition attached to it, which in the long run would, as education and independent thought advanced, but weaken its basis and turn against it those who wished most to preserve it. I also protested, at the risk of my life, for more elbow-room for the clergy!

"How strange and sudden has been the revolution, that I, who two year's ago was threatened with deposition, and was made an off-scouring by so many, am this year asked by the Assembly to be their representative in India ! God's ways are verily not our ways '"

From Professor Max Muller:—

"I hope your visit to India will give a new impetus to the missionary work in India, by showing how much more has really been achieved than is commonly supposed. One cannot measure the success of a missionary by the number of converts he has made, and it does not seem to me likely that Christianity will, for some time to come, spread in India chiefly by means of direct conversions. Its influence, however, is felt everywhere, and even the formation of new religious societies apparently hostile to Christianity, like to the Brahma Somaj, is due indirectly to the preaching and teaching of Christian missionaries. From what I know of the Hindoos they seem to me riper for Christianity than any nation that ever accepted the gospel. It does not follow that the Christianity of India will be the Christianity of England; but that the new religion of India will embrace all the essential elements of Christianity I have no doubt, and that is surely something worth lighting for. If people had only to go to India and preach, and make hundreds and thousands of converts, why, who would not be a missionary then?"

From Sir Arthur Helps:—
"Council Office, October 3, 1867.

"What on earth takes you to India? I do not think I ever flattered any man in my life, but I do say of you, that you are the greatest and most convincing preacher I ever heard.....Now, are we not wicked enough here?

Is there not enough work for you to do here, but that you must go away from us to India? for it appears that you are going to that hot place, if I make out your bad handwriting rightly.

"I am realty, without any nonsense, unhappy at your going. But surely you are coming back soon."

From his Journal:—

"October 27, Sunday.—The last Sunday before I sail has come, and it is almost the ending of the most joyous and most blessed time I have had in all my life.

"The work during these two months has been heavy. I have attended eleven meetings of some importance, and preached eight sermons for other congregations than my own; have had eleven district meetings of my people, at each of which I have given a long lecture on India; had the happiness of shaking hands with those who attended; have taught a communicants' class for five nights; have examined each of forty communicants; have given the communion at Mission Church, Barony, and Parkhead; have had sixty baptisms or so; have been at Balmoral; preached at Dundee; visited friends in Fife, Edinburgh, Helensburgh, and Shandon; have had two public dinners given me; have visited with my wife sixty families, and at least twenty others by myself; had Indian Mission and other meetings; and had a delightful lunch in my own house of thirty of my dear brethren; have finished my sketch of my father's life ; written a month for 'Home Preacher' (four sermons, and very many prayers), besides collects and prayers, which have finished the whole; have written 'Billy Buttons;' have written 'A Pastoral,' and circular for India Mission ; have this week got two licentiates for the Mission Church, &c, &c.

"In short, every day till two, sometimes three, sometimes four a.m., has been so fully occupied that I hardly know how I have a brain at all, for the above is but an outline of work—innumerable interstices have to be filled up."

"But what a time of joy and thanksgiving it has been. Take this last week as a specimen.

"Thursday the Presbytery of Glasgow gave me a dinner, with Dr. Jamieson [Dr. Jamieson had led the debate on the Sabbath question in opposition to the views of Dr. Macleod.] in the chair. He spoke like a Christian and a gentleman, and the whole thing was dignified, Christian, catholic, and good.

"Tuesday, the soiree of two hundred and fifty workers in the congregation.

"Wednesday a dinner given me by about fifty friends—such friends— with my good and true friend Walter Smith representing the Free Kirk ; the Bishop of Argyle, a truly free man, gentleman, and Christian, representing the Episcopal Church. Dr. Robson represented the U. P. Church ; beloved John Macleod Campbell (the first public dinner he ever was at!) representing no Church. There was a troop of dear friends around me.

"Thursday was the Fast; and a prayer-meeting was held in the evening by the Presbytery as a Presbytery, that crammed the Barony; Dr. Jamie-son giving an admirable address, and my friends Dr.Craikand Dr. Charteris led the devotions. What a glorious sight of godliness and brotherly love ! How truly I thank God for this for the sake of the Presbytery and Church as well as for my own sake personally, and as one of a deputation to India.

"On Friday, the presentation of portraits of myself, my wife, and my mother, painted by Macnee, and a marble bust given by 400 of the working-classes to my wife, and a cabinet coming. God bless them!

"This day I had in the Barony some 1,150 communicants; in the Mission Church 243; at Parkhead 85; in all, 1,478. Among these were my darling mother, my wife, John Campbell, Mrs. Macnab, my sister Jane, aunts—all beloved ones.

"I preached on Joy in God, and giving of thanks. It was not written; no vestige of it remains. But it was a great joy verily, and perfect peace to preach it. I never had such a day!

"The Mission Church was crowded in the evening. I preached on 'I know in whom I have believed.' A glorious text! Dear friends, Mrs. Lockhart, the Crums, Mrs. Campbell, were there, and Peel Dennistoun (my own son), who joined in communion for the first time to-day.

"Again I say what a day of joy!

"And now I retire to rest, praising and blessing God. Amen and Amen.

"30th.—This is my last night at home. I have finished my story of 'Billy Buttons'—how, I know not! I hardly recollect an idea of it. Today visited sick, and baptized, &c. I have had a happy party with me: my darling mother—so calm and nice, my aged aunts, my brothers and sisters —my children! What a blessed meeting, finished by prayer. I wrote thirty letters last night, after meeting of Session, from 11 till 4 a.m.

"Thank God I wrote with a full heart a most cordial letter to Dr. Duff, but it grieves my soul to hear that they open the 'Free Barony' to-morrow, the day I leave, and that Dr. Duff opens it! Nine hearers only left the Barony twenty-four years ago and joined the Free Church; on the Sunday question not one, yet they build a Free Barony ! Free ! In contrast with the old? In Doctrine? Discipline? Worship? What?

"God sees all, and He is better than us all.

"I have left everything in order. I believe I shall return safe. But oh! those I leave behind. I joy in God! I know He is with me, and will guide me, and make me, poor as I am, advance His Kingdom. Amen!

"What more can I desire?

"I bless God for the manifold signs He has given me of His goodness. My Father, it is all between me and Thee.

"Father, I am Thy child; keep me as a child ! Amen and Amen.

"31st October, 1 a.m.—P.S.—I must here record the pleasing fact that two engine-drivers from the Caledonian Railway called here to-day to express the wish of themselves and comrades that I would speak a good word to their brother engine-drivers in India ! They were to send me the names of their friends abroad. This is very delightful and encouraging."

Before he left London a farewell dinner was given in his honour at Willis's Rooms, at which Dean Alford presided, and many friends, literary and clerical, were present.

The effects of the fatigue he had suffered during the last few weeks told visibly on his health. When he started for Paris, his limbs and feet were much swollen, and continued so nearly all the time he was in India.

His impressions of India have been so fully narrated in his "Peeps at the Far East" that only a few extracts from his letters are given here for biographical purposes:—

To Mrs. Macleod:—

"We are running along the coast of Sicily. The day superb, a fresh summer breeze blowing after us, and every sail set, the blue waves curling their snowy heads; the white towns fringing the sea, the inland range of mountains shaded with the high clouds. No sickness; children even laughing. Nothing can be more exhilarating. I have been very well, though the limbs are as yet much about it. We have a very pleasant party on board. Such writing, reading, chatting, laughing, smoking, knitting, walking, lounging, eating and drinking on the part of the seventy passengers you never saw!

"I am getting crammed all day by a Parsee, a missionary, two editors, and a judge, and already know more than I knew before starting. Every hour brings a new acquaintance.

"Oh, that I knew that you were as I am! and my children. Had you only this blue sky and warm sun, and laughing sea! It is the ideal of a clay. The sheep, and cocks and hens, and cow are all happy, and the boatswain whistling like a thrush.

"Tell me always about the congregation."

To the Same:—

"The Rangoon Steamer,
18th November.

"Preaching on board has been a difficult task. The pulpit was the capstan, and it was intensely ludicrous to feel one's self embracing it with all one's might as the ship rolled to leeward.

"Red Sea.—I preached yesterday nearly an hour on deck, but had so to exert myself that I was quite exhausted. Old Indians ministered to me, and poured iced water over my head, and gave me some to drink with a little brandy in it, which quite restored me. But everything savours of heat. The sea water is hot. The crew are all Lascars or Chinamen. Punkas are kept going in the cabin, or it would be intolerable. But I just thaw on—laugh and joke, and feel quite happy.

"It was so odd to-day to see all the crew mustered—about fifty blacks in their gay turbans, like a long row of tulips, with half-a-dozen Chinamen with their little eyes, broad-brimmed hats, and wide trousers. They are most earnest at the wheel, and are the steersmen."

To the Same :—
"On the Indian Ocean.

"We were immensely gratified by the address [See Appendix A.] which was presented to us by the captain and officers and all the passengers. It took us quite aback—its spontaneity, his heartiness. I send you a copy as published in the Times of India. The original I shall preserve as one of the most precious documents in my possession. I told the passengers that I was pleased with it, were it for no other reason than that it would please my wife and mother, and congregation and friends at home. I preached to them with all my heart, on holding fast their confidence in Christ—and I felt the power of the gospel. It required all my strength to speak for forty-five minutes and the thermometer 85 deg., to about a hundred and sixty people, and to dominate over the engine and screw. But all heard me."

Letter from Dr. Watson to Mrs. MACLEOD:—

"On board the Rangoon, on the Indian Ocean.
Monday. November 25th, 1867.

''We are here in expectation of landing at Bombay to-morrow, and all in a bustle of preparation. The fountains of the great hold of the ship are opened, and a score of fellows, black, brown, copper-coloured, of all dark hues, from soot to pepper and salt, are lifting the luggage on deck, from one tier to another. Some passengers are eagerly peeping down, to watch when theirs shall appear; others, like your husband, are busily arranging their cabin, and gathering together cuffs, ties, caps, coats, hosen and hats, that have been tossing about for nearly a fortnight. Norman, you must understand, has a cabin to himself, and this arrangement has developed his admirable habits of order. 'Come here,' he sometimes said to me as we were steering down the Red Sea, or in this pleasanter Indian Ocean, ' come here and see my draper's shop,' and there it was, like a village draper's, with all manner of clothes hanging from the roof—here a shirt hung up by a button-hole, there a neckerchief tied by the corner, bags, books, papers, forced into unwilling company and appearing uneasy in the society into which they had fallen. There was a decent black hat with its sides meeting like a trampled tin pan. 'Man,' says he, by way of explanation, ' last night I felt something very pleasant at my feet. I put my feet on it and rested them—I was half asleep. How very kind, I thought, of the steward, to put in an extra air cushion, and when I looked in the morning it was my hat!' To-day, however, everything is magnified in character a hundredfold. I have just stepped into his cabin, and the draper's shop is like a dozen drapers' shops; a lumber-room before a washing day; a travelling merchant's stall on the morning of a country fair; a pawnbroker's establishment in the process of dismantling will give you an idea of it. There is not an inch of the floor or bed to be seen, all covered with boxes, and the contents of boxes. You look up to the ceiling but there is no ceiling. Never did a public washing green show such exquisite variety, and for two yards outside of the cabin door are open trunks waiting like patient camels to be loaded and filled. 'Steward,' I hear him say, 'did you see my red fez?' Is it a blue one? is the counter inquiry. 'No!' roars Norman, 'it's a red one. If you see it, bring it, and if any fellow won't give it up, bring the head with it.' ' All right, sir,' replies the obsequious steward. 'Any man,' I hear him say again, any man who tries to open a portmanteau when it won't open, or to shut it when it won't shut, for half an hour, and keeps his temper------' the rest of the sentence is drowned in the laughter of bystanders. Poor man, it is not for want of muscle and labour that these ill-conditioned portmanteaus misbehave.

"We have had a very prosperous voyage, and a very happy one. Long talks of our friends at home—now in merriment, and again pausing to let the corners of the eye right themselves—talks of what has been, and talks of what we expect to see and do."

To Mrs. Macleod:—

"I was awakened at three on Tuesday morning by our guns signalling for a pilot. Soon the whole vessel was alive with excited passengers, and sleep was gone. The sun was rising as I went on deck, and never in my life did I see anything more gorgeous than the golden clouds, the picturesque hills, the splendid bay, and the palm-trees everywhere.

"My eyes are closing with sleep.

"I am writing all alone under the verandah in Mr. Crum's house. The shades of evening are rapidly closing, ' for in one stride comes the dark,' and the weather is hot, and the crickets are chirping, and the mosquitoes are buzzing, and the sultry air closes the eyes. I must sleep.

"The features which struck me most on landing, and when driving five miles or so to this, were crowds of naked men with thin lanky legs, some with huge earrings or huge red turbans, not a stitch on but a cloth round their loins, ugly, miserable-looking creatures; but the whole crowd, without the colour or picturesqueness of the East. They look black, ugly, poverty-stricken wretches; the native huts, such as one would expect to see in the poorest villages in Africa: the streets confused rubbish, unfinished, a total absence of order or anything imposing, huggery-muggery everywhere. The one good feature, until I came to Malabar Hill, where we live, is the glorious masses of cocoa-trees and palms, here and there, with houses or huts nestling near them, and troops of naked bronze children running about.

"December 3, Tuesday.—We have had a great St. Andrew's dinner. Morning meeting of missionaries of all denominations. Dr. Wilson most kind. I preached on Sunday. Such a crowd. The governor, commander-in-chief, and a number of high-class natives were present. I never saw such a scene. Had a long meeting with the Corresponding Board yesterday.

* * * * *

"Colgaum.—As we left the village to return at eight, the scene was very striking. The huge red moon was rising over the village, between us and the sky was the outline of the temples, with banyan and other trees. Shepherds were driving in flocks of sheep and goats, while in the centre of the picture was the group of white-robed Christians, pastors, elders, and people, with the missionaries from the great Western world.

"The night will soon pass!

"At eight we returned to the same place, accompanied by------, who, like most Europeans, knows nothing almost of the American Mission or any other; and though seventeen years in the district, had never visited or examined into it, and would have no doubt told the people at home that they were doing nothing. He confessed his surprise at what he saw. There were thirty Christians and about seventy heathens present. Psalms were sung in Mahratti, and the tunes Mahratti also, the precentor being a pastor, who accompanied the air on a big guitar, held vertically like a bass fiddle. Then prayer, then an address on Transmigration of Souls. Then one by a famous native preacher, intellectual, calm, and eloquent, Ramechuna, on the only true religion which, he said, was in accordance with the character of God, the wants of men, and was revealed in Scripture. Among other evidences he mentioned the moral character of Christians, and appealed to the very heathen to judge as to the difference between the native Christians and the native heathen. I gave an address on both occasions, which was translated, and so did Watson. They gave an address to us. The Moderator sent in his own hand-writing a letter after me, which I beg you to copy and keep as gold.

"I never spent a more delightful evening in my life! The Americans have six hundred members, seventy or eighty teachers, six native pastors, with excellent schools for Christian children only. Preaching is their forte.".... It is one of the mysteries in this land to hear natives teach Christianity, who have been possessed of every argument in its favour, for years, but are as far from accepting it as ever. Their difficulties are not from immorality, for their lives are equal to the average of most professing, though not real, Christians at home. They are happy, on the whole, in their families, live all together, and are fond of their relations, and are sober, and, among each other, tolerably truthful and honest—and, on the whole, faithful servants, &c. Nor are their difficulties chiefly intellectual, though the Christianity which they oppose is often misapprehended—I fear, in some respects and in some cases, misrepresented—by missionaries with little culture. But their difficulties are social; they have not, as yet, the deep convictions and the moral strength to give up Caste. This would, in almost every case, imply the breaking up of their whole family life—parents, wife, children, and friends being separated from them as literally out-casts. But, nevertheless, I cannot comprehend the want of soul, the apparent want of a capacity to be possessed, overpowered, mastered by the truth, Many will fly round and round the light, but never see it. They will give the fullest account of Christianity, and say they disbelieve in all idolatry, yet every day perform at home their idolatrous rites—be almost ready for ordination, and take a whim to go as a pilgrim to the holy cities. Superstition and Fetisch live in them."

To the Same:—
"Bombay, December 1.

"It seems an age since I left home. I feel as if I were an old Indian, and had become familiar with heat and heathenism. I have been very well. The swelling in my feet is as bad as ever, but I have no pain of any kind.

"As to our work here, everything has succeeded beyond our most sanguine expectation. We have seen much, heard much, and, I hope, learned much. We feel that we have done good.

"I communicated yesterday with the native congregation of the Free Church. About eighty communicants."

From a letter of Sir Alexander Grant to a friend at home:—

"I had a select party of educated natives to meet Dr. Macleod. He talks to them in a large, conciliatory, manly way, which is a perfect model of missionary style. I had the most charming talks with him, lasting always till 2 a.m., and his mixture of poetry, thought, tenderness, manly sense, and humour was to me perfectly delightful. I had no idea his soul was so great. His testimony about India will be most valuable, for he has such quickness of apprehension as well as largeness of "view, and has had such wide previous experience of all European Churches and countries."

To Mrs. Watson:—
"Bombay, November 29th, 1867.

"If you are in the least degree inclined to pity your beloved absentee, to feel anxious about him, to imagine anything whatever wrong with him in soul, spirit, or body, or in his conduct to superiors, interiors, or equals. I beg to assure you that all such thoughtful, spouselike cares are thrown away. He is, if anything, too much carried away by a sort of boyish enthusiasm for palm groves, and laughs too much at the naked wretches called Hindoos who crowd the streets. He is also very weak about his beard; it is growing so rapidly that it threatens to conceal his whole body, and to go beyond the skirts of his garments. All you can see in his face are a mouth, always laughing, and two black eyes, always twinkling. But for my constant gravity, he would ruin the deputation!

"Those who don't know him, as I do, are immensely taken with him!"

To his Mother:—
"Madras, 23rd December, 1867.

"I have never forgotten this anniversary of the first break in our family. [His brother James' death.] It was a terrible time, but has passed away as such long ago, its memory associated with that of a saint in heaven, and many spiritual blessings to those who partook of the sorrow, and to myself especially. I have full faith that all my dear ones above sympathize with my work here."

To Mrs. Macleod:—
"Bangalore, Last Sunday of 1867.

"I have had a peaceful hour for devotion; and who but God can interpret my thoughts as on this day I recall all the way He has led me during those many years—thirty of which have been passed in the ministry—all ending in India, with the greatest and noblest work ever given me to do, a-doing! The whole review, with all its sin, its darkness, selfishness, vanity, the best hours how bad! and with all I have been, and have done, and have left undone, and all I am, with all the blessed God has been, and done, and is, and ever will be to me—all this finds expression in falling at the feet of my Father in adoration, wonder and praise; seeing the glory of salvation by grace, of justification through faith in my God, of the magnificent suitableness to all my wants, to all which ought to be towards God, in what was done by my Head, Jesus Christ, for me, and what He is doing, and will perfect in me. I have had great peace and joy in pouring out my heart for His grace and guidance that our time and talents may be used for His glory; in confessing our sin as a missionary Church, and praying that He Himself would build up our Sion, and bless us by enabling us to take a part worthy of a Christian Church in advancing His kingdom in this grand but degraded land; in praying for you and all my darlings by name, that they may not be merely well instructed, polished heathen, but truly attached to God in faith and love, which through the Spirit are in Christ Jesus; and that you, my own self, may be strong in faith and kept in perfect peace; and for my beloved people, that they may be ministered to by the Spirit this day and every day. May the Lord reward you all—family and people—for your love to me and prayers for me ! But to my Mission work!

"I wrote to you up to Friday, 27th. That was a busy day! Eight a.m., till ten, visited Dr. Patterson's medical mission and hospital; eleven, a meeting till one, with about thirteen native pastors of all the Churches, in the presence of the European missionaries. Rajahgopal and others spoke as well as I could. We asked, and got, information showing the great changes which have taken place in the native mind in regard to persecuting converts, &c. At half-past five we had a magnificent meeting in the great Memorial Hall, with the bishop in the chair. The Governor, Commander-in-Chief, present, and all the elite of Madras. I suggested the meeting, to tell on Madras and Home, and to challenge contradiction on the spot to the statements which each missionary gave of the history and condition of his mission. I spoke, and so did Watson. The Bishop is a most Christian man: his meekness makes him great. At eight, conference in our Institution ; dinner at nine. Pretty hard day!

"December 31.—The last day of the year! It is impossible to write, 1 am weary of 'attentions'—people at breakfast, people at tiffin, people at dinner, people calling; then meetings, visiting of schools, &c., &c, so that I have not one second to myself. It is now two, and not a moment.

"We had about twelve yesterday here to breakfast—Wesleyans—one of whom came out the same year as Duff. We talked till one. Many of them did not seem acquainted with any difficulties. -------said, I go to a village, sit down, tell them they must live after death, and forever be in hell or heaven, and then tell them how to get out of hell by Jesus Christ.'Galvanism, and Plymonthism, and indifference, seem to divide the Europeans. There are noble civilians, and bad ones; fine, manly missionaries, and weak ones. We recquire a broad, manly, earnest Christianity, and not formal orthodoxy, weak ' Evangelicalism,' or sickly Plymouthism.

"We drove through the Rettah, or native town, with its crowded bazaars. The houses are low and the bazaars poor; yet many are very rich in it. Saw silk-weaving by the native loom. Saw the best female school I think to be found in India, taught by two truly noble women—so clever and energetic, such genuine ladies—the Misses Anstey. They have money of their own; their work is one of true love. What teaching! what influence! what power! The senior class of fifty girls; the junior, with two hundred or more. I could not puzzle the senior class on the Old Testament from Genesis to Samuel, nor on the New in the Gospels and Acts. All are Canarese; but my questions were interpreted. They do not yet profess Christianity, but never can these be idolaters; and whether they marry Christian husbands or heathen, they must exercise a leavening influence. My heart and eyes were full."

"January 1, 1868, Bangalore.—This is my first greeting for '68 Our plans are again changed, and instead of bringing in the year in the railway we are spending it calmly and quietly here. The fact is I took a disgust yesterday at travelling and work of every kind. "We had intended to tour it very hard till Saturday, and to go over some hundreds of miles to see either Seringapatam or Tanjore. But because we had rested and did nothing yesterday we began to feel weary and to realise how we had been kept up by constant excitement, and that we required perfect quiet. So after our things were packed I took a fit of disgust at Idolatry, Missions, sight-seeing and everything, and saw but one paradise—rest—and so we return to Madras, where we shall have little to do till we sale on the 9th for Calcutta. I am glad we did so, as we are enjoying this cool, or rather cold, weather intensely, and doing nothing.

"We returned last night at 8, and here I am writing as well and hearty as ever I was in my life, actually enjoying the weather, so that I begged them at breakfast to stop the punkah, as it was making me sneeze. In fact, I am getting too fond of India. Take care you get me home, as they are spoiling me fast. Actually asked to a ball at the Governor's!!"

"Calcutta, Jan. 23rd, 18G3. "My only touch of illness since I left has been this week. I had my old gout, which quite lamed me and compelled me to keep my bed since Tuesday, and so I missed a state dinner at Government House, at which many were invited to meet us. I was all right except the heel. But you know my love for a day in bed. I had twelve missionaries in conclave around me. Church Missionary, London, Baptist, Free and Established. So I was honoured while on my throne. One old missionary was the friend of Carey and Ward. While I keep my leg up I am quite well, and shall be as usual to-morrow. I never enjoyed better health and spirits; but must take it more calmly. It is not away! A public dinner is to be given us on Friday week. We leave for Gyah on the 3rd. Like a school-boy I say, 'The month after next I hope to leave India for home!'"

"Calcutta, 31st January.

"One line to say we are well and hearty, very hard wrought indeed, having had much care; but all things going on well.

"All parties strive to do us honour from the Governor and Bishop down to the Fakir. I have much to say."

From the Friend of India, Jan. 23rd, 1868:—

"The presence of Dr. Macleod has cheered many a worker and helped to enlighten many a doubter. More remarkable than his receptive powers, amounting to genius, which enable him to appreciate the merits of abstruse political questions; more striking than his marvellous conversational gifts; more impressive than his public speeches, have been his sermons. That is the perfection of art without art. Of his three sermons in Calcutta two were addressed to doubters, being devoted to a semi-philosophical exposition of our Lord's Divinity and Atonement. He spoke as a man to men, not as a priest to beings of a lower order; he reasoned as one who had himself felt the darkness, avowedly to help those who were still in the gloom. Affectation seems as foreign to the character as it is to the thought of this John Bright of the pulpit. The lesson taught to preachers by the crowds of high and low who flocked to hear him, was, as it seems to us, that truth and honesty, guided by faith and unconsciousness of self, and expressed in manly speech face to face, will restore to the pulpit a far higher function than the Press has taken from it."

His work in India reached its climax as well as its unexpected close in Calcutta. The reception there accorded to the Deputies was peculiarly hearty; but the fatigue and mental excitement produced by speeches, sermons, conferences, and addresses were excessive; and when, to mark the close of their three weeks' labour in the capital, a public dinner was given to them—the first which the Governor-General ever honoured with his presence—Dr. Macleod made a speech which proved the last he was to deliver in India. From Dr. Watson's account of the work gone through on that single day, it is not wonderful that, at midnight, he found himself prostrated with illness.

"In the morning he drove from the suburbs, where he was living, to a meeting in the city, where he spoke about half an hour. From that he went to the General Assembly's Institution, and took an active part in the examination which was held of the various classes: this over, the advanced students of the Free Church Institution assembled along with the students who had just been examined; and in that great hall, which was full, and which accommodated about a thousand persons, he delivered a vigorous and stirring address, which lasted a full hour. When the proceedings came to a close, a large company were entertained to lunch by Dr. Ogilvie at his house, and then, of course, no one cared to hear anybody say a word except the guest of the day. When he reached home that afternoon, after a drive of five or six miles, he was in a state of sheer exhaustion; and though he was most nervous about the evening, he tried to snatch an hour of sleep; for he wished to do perfect justice to his work, and he felt that in one sense the work of his mission was to terminate with the dinner, which was arranged for eight o'clock that night, when every phase of English life in India would be represented from the Viceroy downwards.

"He had spoken often of his desire to give expression on this occasion to some of his strong convictions on the relation of India to England, or of Englishmen to India; and though he had had an opportunity at a large meeting previously, presided over by the Bishop of Calcutta, to speak on missionary affairs, he felt that the last occasion when he was to open his lips in public before he left Bengal, was one which necessitated a wider range of subject than any ecclesiastical topic, however interesting or important. His reception in the evening was most hearty. He rose with a heavy sense of what he was to say; and, as was often the case with him in his most earnest moments, he started with a few unpremeditated strokes of humour and homely words which touched all hearts, and in a minute or two brought himself into rapport with the audience and the audience with him.

"Only on one occasion, when he delivered his last memorable speech in the General Assembly, a few weeks before his death, have I seen him so agitated, and, to use a common expression, ' weighted' as he was then ; and it was with a deep sense of relief that, towards midnight, he stretched out his feet and smoked his cigar before going to bed, having received the assurance, from those he relied on, that all his anxiety and care in regard to that last appearance in public in India had not been thrown away."

To Mrs. Macleod :—
"Calcutta, 7th February.

"On comparing this date with that on telegram you will be surprised at my being here, especially if you have read the Friend of India and learn that I have been 'prostrated by fatigue' you will be in delightful anxiety, and my mother will have food for alarm until I return home.

"Just after the telegram was off I was threatened with dysentery. So the doctors gave me forty grains of ipecacuanha in two doses in a few hours. This was on Wednesday. I at once said Amen, lay in bed, obeyed orders, and slept all day, read newspapers, &c, when awake, saw no one, and thoroughly enjoyed the blessed rest. The complaint was checked yesterday, and between the perfect rest and medicines I feel gout all gone, and except the weakness of being in bed, nearly perfectly well, very jolly and not the least dowie, though very thankful indeed that I am so well. To show you how sensible and good I am, I have allowed Watson go off alone to Gyah, the only really rough and rude drive on our route, and I remain here doing nothing, seeing nobody, in the full rollicking enjoyment of idleness, till Tuesday or Wednesday. I am even now able to join him, but I take four days' holiday, though my not going to Gyah is a terrible loss and self-denial. This will prove to you what I always told you, that I would return direct home, if necessary, the moment any doctor said or believed I should do so. Are you satisfied? Don't you feel I am telling you the whole truth? Took at me ! Don't I look honest?

"The fact is the back of the work is broken ! It is, I may say, done, and well done, and all to come is plain sailing, so that if I did not go to Sealkote at all (but only went by rail to Delhi to see sights), I should feel a work was already accomplished far beyond my most sanguine expectations. It was not the work only, but the excitement that put me wrong. I never preached to such congregations. The admission was by ticket, and stairs and lobbies were crammed, and many went away.

"The Mission Meeting was a great event. Such was never before held in Calcutta, called by the Bishop, and attended by all denominations, and such an audience to welcome us.

"Then came on Saturday an evening meeting as great on City Missions. I was taken all aback. But it was a great success, and they tell me I have re-established an agency which was declining. The public dinner made me ashamed of having so much honour paid us, though it was given to us as deputies. The Viceroy had never gone to a public dinner in Calcutta, and to see such guests meet to do us honour and bid us farewell! It passed off splendidly!

"We have had many deeply interesting private meetings with missionaries—Zenana included, which I cannot dwell on ; but one meeting I must mention. I addressed the lads attending our Institution, and at my request all the lads of the Free Church Institution, who understood English, came to hear me, and all the missionaries, as well as many of the ladies. They have met me with unbounded confidence. They are a nice lot of follows. In one word, God has helped us, and helped us in a way that quite amazes and overpowers me. May He give me grace never to pervert those great tokens of His mercy to personal sectarian objects.

"The Bishop has been very kind, and Sir John Lawrence has acted like a brother to me; in fact, all have contrived how to please and oblige us."

"Calcutta, Saturday, February 9.

"Since writing to you yesterday, what a change has taken place in all my plans ! I intend leaving this for home on March 3, so that as you are reading this I am on the ocean going home. Are you not glad and thankful? I, on the whole, am. It happened thus : last night Dr. Charles said, ' if you had asked me, I should have forbid your going to Sealkote.' 'Hallo!' I said ; ' asked you V ' Take my word I shall ask you, and that most seriously, and no mistake.' So I insisted that he, Dr. Farquhar, my old friend, and Dr. Fayrer, Professor of Surgery, should meet here to-day, and give an official opinion. They have done so. They don't object to my going along the railway as far as Delhi, especially as the climate is better there than here, but object to dak travelling,—i.e., going in a cab and two horses as far as from Glasgow to London and back!—in my present state; and they object to my being later than the first week of March, as the climate might from present symptoms prove dangerous. I feel thoroughly well today, except weakish from so much medicine. I am quite lame again in the heel; but they laugh at that. Thank God the real work is done and well done! Had this come on one day sooner! As it is, I am full of gratitude for all that has been done, and bow my head for what I cannot accomplish. Dear Watson is thoroughly able to do it as well as I am, and since he is so well he will enjoy it as I would have done. Amen! Verily God's plans are not ours."

After a brief tour to Benares, Allahabad, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Agra, and Delhi, he sailed from Calcutta on the 25th February. Owing to the kindness of Sir John Lawrence, his voyage to Egypt was made peculiarly happy and comfortable. Lady Lawrence was returning to England with her daughter, and was to sail as far as Suez in the Feroze, an old man-of-war, then used for the service of the Governor-General, and Sir John, with a friendliness which was heartily appreciated, asked him, as a guest, to share the ease which the roomy accommodation of the yacht afforded. The perfect rest and comfort he thus enjoyed proved most helpful to his recovery.

To Mrs. Macleod:—

"I parted with William Craik, whose kindness, constant, considerate, unwearying, was that of a brother more than a friend. I cannot tell you all he and his wife were to me. The Governor-General came down to the Feroze in his tug, and talked with me for about two hours in the frankest manner, giving me an immense number of most interesting facts about his life and government in the Punjaub, the mutiny, Delhi, &c. I was greatly touched by his goodness, and I loved him the more when I saw him weeping as he parted for one year only from his wife and daughter. I cannot tell you what kindness I have received. Sir William Muir came on Monday morning, to see me; and Sir R. Temple came the night before I left, drove about with me, dined at Craik's alone with us, all the while giving me volumes of information."

The only adventure which occurred on his voyage to Suez was a harmless shipwreck some twenty miles from port, caused by the Feroze running on a sandbank, and having no worse consequences than the delay of waiting till a passing steamer took off the passengers. He was met by Mrs. Macleod at Alexandria, and they came home by Malta, Sicily, Naples, Rome, Civita Vecchia, and Marseilles. In spite of some benefit derived from the voyage, his strength was visibly broken, and his limbs betrayed increased liability to gout, accompanied by ever-recurring attacks of acute pain, which he called neuralgia, but which were really due to a more serious derangement of the system.

To Rev. Dr. Watson:—
"February, 1868.

"We got on board the steamer—an old, broad-decked, strong-built, and high-masted man-of-war, with a huge steam-engine, and able to go when we started six miles an hour. India soon vanished into a few palm-trees rising out of the water in the horizon; and as I thought of all we had seen and done, and not seen and left undone, it appeared a strange dream, and I could not say whether shame and confusion of face for my wretched work, or great thanksgiving to God for His tender mercy, were most in my mind. Perhaps both alternated. Anyhow, I thanked God with all my heart for His having given you as my companion, for all you were to me, for His giving you the honour of completing the work, and for the happy, happy hours we had together, unbroken by a single shadow to darken our sunshine.

". . , . We have had a summer sea every day since we left. Some days a glorious breeze, and all sail set; other days very hot. I have never felt vigorous on board, and fear, unless it is this hot damp climate, that I am in for gout and sciatica for life, and that I never shall be fit for as much work as before. But we shall see. I have prayers and exposition every day, and find it pleasant. Sunday services as usual. Had a capital day with the sailors last Sunday."

To Mrs. Macleod:—

"Sunday, March 8th.—A glorious day. I have preached on the quarterdeck, and at four I met all the sailors in the forecastle, and read to them 'The Old Lieutenant' for an hour and twenty minutes to their great delight. The sun is nearly set; it goes down like a shot about six, and no twilight. The sea is blue as indigo, and the white crisp curling waves add to its beauty. Two white birds, 'boatswains,' as Jack told me, 'with their tails as marling spikes,' are floating in the blue, hundreds of miles from land; thousands of flying-fish skim the water like swallows, each flying about sixty yards or so. All the sailors are in their Sunday best; the Lascars dressed in white with red caps on, squatted in a circle mending their clothes. The half-naked coolies and firemen lounging and sleeping, or eating curry and rice, making it up with their fingers into balls and chucking it into their mouths. Old Pervo, the steward, dressed in pure white calico and turban, is snoring on his back on a carpet spread near the funnel; and I in my hot cabin writing to those I love, and wondering if I am indeed to have the joy of seeing them again, blessing God for the health and perfect peace He is giving me, and in heart trying so to adjust the difference of Longitude (71°) as to follow the Sunday services of my beloved people. Such is our Sunday at sea outwardly.

"Ceylon—The foliage! The glorious foliage ! Every kind of tree, palm and chestnut; bread-fruit tree, with its large furrowed glittering leaves— with the huge dark fruit hanging by strings from the bark; the graceful bamboo, whose yellow branches remind one of old-fashioned beds and chairs or sticks; the plantain, with its large green leaves; down to the sensitive plant which creeps along the ditches, while beautifully coloured flowers and creepers colour the woods. I missed the flocks of paroquets and bright-coloured birds one sees in North India, but the woods resound with the jungle fowl, and birds with sweet notes. Sunrise from St. Nicolas tower was glorious. The sun rose like a ball of fire out of the sea to the right, and his horizontal rays, shooting across the island, separated the many ranges of low hills, and brought out the higher hills to the north, up to Adam's Peak, fifty miles off. All those hills are covered with forests of palms and every splendid tree. A light mist lay between each ridge, and a sleepy radiance of wondrous beauty over all. The smoke of comfortable cottages, which nestle in the woods, rose here and there in white wreaths, giving a sense of comfort and of home to the scene."

Days in North India
By Norman MacLeod, D.D. (1870) (pdf)

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