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The Scottish Nation

CAMPBELL, (additional to previous article). Of this surname was the family of Duneaves in Perthshire, the first of which, Duncan Campbell of Duneaves, was the second son of Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, in the same county, lineally descended, in the direct male line, from Archibald Campbell of Glenlyon, second son, (by Lady Margaret Douglas,) of Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurchy, ancestor of the noble family of Breadalbane. Duncan Campbell of Duneaves had a son, Duncan Campbell of Milntown, in Glenlyon, who took to wife Janet, daughter of the Rev. Alexander Robertson, minister of Fortingal, and was father of Archibald Campbell, a lieutenant in the army. This gentleman married Margaret, daughter of James Small, a captain in the army, and their third son was lieutenant-general, Sir Archibald Campbell, baronet, commander of the British forces in the Burmese war.

Sir Archibald entered the service in the year 1787, by raising a quota of twenty men for an ensigncy in the 77th regiment, and, in the spring of the following year, he embarked with that corps for the East Indies. He was present at the operations against the army of Tippo Saib, sultan of Mysore, which led to the reduction of Cananore and other places on the coast of Malabar in 1790. In 1791 he was promoted to a lieutenancy in his regiment, and was appointed adjutant of it. During that and the following year he served in the campaigns in the Mysore country, and was present at the first siege of Seringapatam, its capital, in February 1792. In 1795 he served at the reduction of the Dutch garrison of Cochin and its dependencies on the coast of Malabar, and in 1796 at that of the island of Ceylon. In 1799, as major in the European brigade of the Bombay army, he was present at the battle of Saduceer and the siege and taking of Seringapatam by assault. In the same year he became, by purchase, captain in the 67th regiment, and with the view of remaining on foreign service, he immediately exchanged into the 88th regiment, that corps having just arrived in India.

In 1801, Capt. Campbell was compelled by ill health to return to England, and until 1803, he was employed upon the recruiting service. He was then appointed to the staff of the southern district, as major of brigade. In 1804 he became major of the 6th battalion of reserve, stationed in Guernsey, and he remained there until its reduction in the beginning of 1805. a few weeks thereafter he was placed on full pay of the 71st regiment, and, in general, commanded the 2d battalion of that corps in Scotland and Ireland until 1808, when he joined the 1st battalion on its embarkation for Portugal. He served with it at the battles of Roleia and Vimiera, as also during the campaign in Spain, under the command of Sir John Moore, and the retreat to Corunna, at the battle of which he was present, in January 1809.

In the following month he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and appointed to accompany Marshal Beresford to assist in the organization of the Portuguese army. In this service he was raised to the rank of colonel, and had the command of a regiment of infantry. In 1811 he was appointed brigadier-general, and commanded a brigade during the whole of the war in the Peninsula and the south of France, being present at the battles of Busaco, Albuera, the surprise of the French corps commanded by General Girard, at Arrago Molinos, 28th October 1811, the siege of Badajoz, 6th April 1812; the battles of Vittoria, the Pyrenees, the Nivelle, and the Nive.

In the end of 1813, the Prince Regent of Portugal promoted him to the rank of major-general in the Portuguese service, and conferred upon him the insignia of the order of the Tower and Sword. He was knighted April 28, 1814, by the Prince Regent of Great Britain, afterwards George IV., and appointed one of his royal highness’ aides-de-camp, with the rank of colonel in the army; and in 1815, he was nominated a knight-commander of the Bath. In 1816 he was appointed to the command of the Lisbon division of the Portuguese army.

In 1820, at the first breaking out of the Revolution in Portugal, he offered, in the absence of Field-marshal Lord Beresford, to march, with his division, to suppress the rising at Oporto. His advices, however, were declined by the regency, and he at once gave in his resignation, and soon after returned to England.

In 1821 he was appointed to the command of the 38th regiment, and the following year he joined that corps at the Cape, and proceeded with it to India. He was stationed at Berhampore when he was selected to take the command of the expedition against the Burmese in 1824. Elated by some recent conquests which they had made over the northern mountainous province of Assam, and being brought into more immediate contact with the British frontiers, the Burmese had begun, towards the end of 1823, to make sundry encroachments upon the possessions of the East India Company. In a sudden night attack, they drove away a small guard of British troops stationed on the small muddy island of Shapuree, in the province of Bengal, but close to the coast of Arracan, and took forcible possession of it. On being remonstrated with, the court of Ava intimated, that unless its right to the island was admitted, the victorious lord of the white elephant and the golden foot, as the sovereign of Burmah is styled, would invade the Company’s dominions. In the meantime, a detachment of British troops landed on the disputed island and expelled the intruders from it. The Burmese ruler now demanded from the government at Calcutta the cession of Northern Bengal, as being a part of Ava, and in January 1824, the Burmese forces marched into Kadschar, which had deposed its rulers, and put itself under British protection. Lord Amherst, then governor-general of India, immediately declared war against Burmah, and general Sir Archibald Campbell, at the head of the British force, ascended the Irrawaddy, took Rangoon, and made himself master of Prome. The Burmese monarch now saw himself obliged to conclude a very unequal peace at Palanagh, December 31, 1825. As, however, the treaty was not ratified, on the part of the Burmese, by the time specified, January 18, 1826, Sir Archibald continued his advance, on the 19th, and stormed the fortress of Melloone. This led to the ratification of the treaty, on February 24, and the conclusion of the war. The king of the white elephant ceded to the Company the provinces of Arracan, Merguy, Tavoy, and Yea, and paid them a sum of money amounting to £1,250,000. The important city of Rangoon was declared a free port. Thus all the western coast of the Burman empire was ceded to the East India Company, and the most powerful of the East India states was divided and weakened.

For his conduct in this arduous war, Sir Archibald Campbell received a vote of thanks from both houses of parliament, from the governor-general in council, and from the court of directors of the Honourable the East India Company. The latter farther testified their approval of his skill, gallantry, and perseverance throughout the war, by granting him a pension of £1,000 per annum for life, and presenting him with a handsome gold medal.

At the termination of the war, he was appointed commander of the forces in the ceded provinces on the coast of Tenasserim, and at the same time had the honour of being civil commissioner in relation to the affairs of the kingdoms of Burman and Siam. While holding these offices, his health began seriously to suffer, and he applied for leave to return to England. In accordance, however, with the earnest desire of the Supreme government at Calcutta, he continued in his command for another year, when increased illness obliged him to leave India, which he did in 1829. On September 21 of that year, he was appointed colonel of the 95th regiment, subsequently of the 77th, and on February 17, 1840, of the 62d.

In the spring of 1831, Sir Archibald was appointed lieutenant-governor of the province of New Brunswick, where he remained for nearly six years. He was created a baronet of the United Kingdom, 30th September of the same year. In August 1839 he was offered the appointment of commander-in-chief in Bombay, which he accepted, but owing to severe indisposition he was not able to enter upon it. At various times he was presented with the freedom of the towns of Strabane and cork in Ireland, and Perth in Scotland. He was also G.C.B. He died in 1843. By his wife, Helen, daughter of Macdonald of Garth, Perthshire, he had two sons and three daughters. The Rev. Archibald Campbell, the elder son, a chaplain in India, died, unmarried, in 1831.

`Major-general Sir John Campbell, the second son, succeeded as second baronet. Born 14th April 1807, he married, 21st July 1841, Helen Margaret, only child of Colonel John Crow, East India Company’s service. He was killed in the assault on the Redan, Sebastopol, 18th June 1855, when in command of a division. In this attack he seems to have displayed a courage amounting to rashness. He sent away his two aides-de-camp just before he rushed out of the trench, and fell in the act of cheering his men. He was buried on Cathcart’s Hill, among many brave officers killed at the same time. He had, with other issue, Sir Archibald Ava Campbell, third baronet, born at Edinburgh in 1844. Heir presumptive to the title, his brother, John James Ava Campbell, born in 1845.


The Campbells of Ardeonaig, Perthshire, were a branch of the Glenurchy family, being descended from Patrick Campbell of Murlaganbeg, in that county, who, in 1623, was forester of the royal forest of Mamlorn, of which his father, Sir Duncan Campbell, the first baronet of Glenurchy, was heritable keeper. In the ‘Black Book of Taymouth,’ mention is made of Patrick Campbell of Murlaganbeg, but none of his mother, the prevalent tradition being, that Sir Duncan had a first wife, -- whose son Patrick was, -- though her name does not appear in that record.

Patrick Campbell of Murlaganbeg married Grissel Campbell, of the family of Glenlyon, and was slain, before 1661, on the hills of Ardeonaig, by a party of the outlawed Macgregors, after killing eighteen of them with his own hand. He was known in the country by the name of Para-dhu-More, and there is in the churchyard of Killin a stone with the inscription, “The burial-place of the descendants of Para-dhu-More,” which, with many other monuments, was removed from a distant burying-place to the present modern one at Killin. His son, Alexander Campbell of Ardeonaig, who died before November 1721, married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, the officer who commanded the military at the massacre of Glencoe, in 1692. Colin Campbell of Ardeonaig, Alexander’s eldest son, married Catherine, daughter of Duncan Campbell of Duneaves, and had six sons and two daughters. The eldest son, John Campbell of Ardeonaig and Lochend, captain 88th regiment, served in Germany in 1761 and 1762, and was wounded in action at Ham. He married Alice, eldest daughter and heiress of Alexander Campbell of Kinpunt, or Kilpont, Linlithgowshire, also descended on the female side from the Glenurchy stock.

The first of the Kinpunt Campbells was Archibald, son of Archibald Campbell, styled prior of Strathfillan, third son of Sir John Campbell of Lawers, great-grandfather of the first earl of Loudoun. Archibald Campbell, the father, was a confidential agent of the earl of Argyle, under whom he was bailie of the district of Kintyre. In 1614, he was appointed preferrer of suits to his majesty from such of the rebels in the Highlands and Isles as were desirous of obtaining remissions. In that and the following year he rendered himself very active against the Clandonald rebels in Isla, and “many images connected with the Catholic form of worship were destroyed by his zeal.” (Gregory’s Highlands and Isles, page 365.) His son, Archibald, superior of the lands of Kinpunt, was twice married, and by his second wife, Janet, daughter of Sir William Gray of Pittendrum, had a son, James Campbell of Kinpunt, who had two sons and a daughter. The elder son, Alexander, was also twice married, but had issue only by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Alexander Dalmahoy, second baronet of Dalmahoy, hereditary under-master of the royal household of Scotland; namely, a son, James, who died young, and three daughters; 1. Alice, heiress of Kinpunt. 2. Mary, wife of John Douglas, Esq., surgeon, Edinburgh, fourth son of Sir Robert Douglas, fourth baronet of Glenbervie; issue, a son. 3. Elizabeth, who married, first, Evan or Ewen Campbell, Esq., tenant in Chesthill, Glenlyon, brother of Colin Campbell of Ardeonaig. She afterwards became the second wife of Mungo Campbell, Esq. of Crigans, who, about 1745, removed to Mulrogie, Perthshire, to whom she had two sons and three daughters. The elder son, James, major in the 42d regiment, had a son, Major James Campbell of the Indian army. The latter had, with two others, who died young, a son, Thomas Walter Campbell, Esq. of Walton Park, Dumfries-shire, and five daughters, one of whom married W.C. Thomson, Esq. of Balgowan, Perthshire. Mungo Campbell’s youngest daughter, Elizabeth, married Alexander Mackinlay, Esq., of the customs, Greenock, and had a son, Colonel James Houstoun Mackinlay, an officer in the Indian army, who died in 1856, and two daughters, Mary, who died unmarried, and Elizabeth, the wife of John Munro, Esq., planter, Jamaica. The latter had two sons, Alexander Munro, M.D., and John, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Elizabeth, married to Major-general Campbell, C.B., as afterwards stated.

Alice, the eldest daughter, heiress of Kinpunt, married Capt. John Campbell of Ardeonaig and Lochend, above mentioned, and had four daughters and four sons. The eldest surviving son, John Campbell of Lochend, an officer in the Royal marines, served at the siege of Belleisle in June 1761, and was subsequently chamberlain to the earl of Breadalbane. He sold Lochend on Loch Menteith, and bought Kinlochlaich in Appin, Argyleshire, which he named Lochend. He had two sons and seven daughters, one of whom, Christian, married Archibald Campbell, Esq. of Melfort, and another, Margaret Maxwell, the fifth daughter, married Sir John Campbell, baronet of Ardnamurchan. John Campbell of Lochend, the elder son, had, by his wife, Annabella, eldest daughter of John Campbell, Esq. of Melfort, Argyleshire, eight sons and five daughters.

The eldest son, Major-general John Campbell, C.B., of the Indian army, was born in 1801, at Kingsburgh, in the Isle of Skye. He joined the 91st regiment of foot as ensign in 1819, and in 1820 entered the service of the East India Company on the Madras establishment, where he served till 1854, when he was compelled to return to Scotland for the benefit of his health. He passed through the different military grades with credit, and received at different periods, for his conduct in the various military, political, and civil employments which he held, the approval of his superiors. In the suppression of the horrid practice of human sacrifices, and female infanticide, in the hill tracts of Orissa, he was particularly successful. He married first, in 1829, Eliza, youngest daughter of John Harington, Esq., Madras civil service, and had by her two sons and four daughters; secondly, in July 1856, Elizabeth, daughter of John Munro, Esq., Jamaica.

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