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The Scottish Nation

CLELAND, a surname belonging to an old family on Lanarkshire, and derived from the lands of that name in the parish of Dalzeil. The Clelands of that ilk were hereditary foresters to the old earls of Douglas, and had for arms a hare saliant, argent, with a hunting horn, proper, about its neck; crest, a falcon standing on a left hand glove, proper. At other times, for supporters they had two greyhounds. James Cleland of Cleland, was one of the patriots who joined Sir William Wallace, and fought, under his command, against the English. He also remained faithful to King Robert Bruce; and for his services received from that monarch several lands lying within the barony of Calder in West Lothian. From him was descended William Cleland of that ilk, who, in the reign of King James the Third, married Jean, daughter of William Lord Somerville. From them branched Cleland of Faskine, Cleland of Monkland, and Cleland of Cartness. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, Sir James Cleland purchased the barony of Monkland from Sir Thomas Hamilton of Binning, first earl of Haddington, but his son and heir, Ludovick Cleland, sold it to James, marquis of Hamilton. On 6th September 1615, this Sir James Cleland of Monkland was, with two others, indicted for trial, for treasonably resetting Jesuits, hearing of mass, &c., offences very seriously punished in those days, but the diet was deserted against them. The Cartness family terminated in an heiress, previous to the middle of the eighteenth century, married to Sir William Vere of Blackwood in the same county.

      Alexander Cleland of that ilk, with his cousin, William Cleland of Faskine, were both killed at Flodden in 1513. James Cleland of that ilk, an eminent man in the time of King James the Fifth, whom he frequently attended while hunting, married a daughter of Hepburn of Bonnytoun, descended from the earl of Bothwell, by whom he had a son, Alexander Cleland of that il, who was a faithful adherent of Queen Mary. He married Margaret, a daughter of Hamilton of Haggs, by whom he had William his successor, who married the sister of Walter Stewart, first lord Blantyre. Their eldest son, Alexander, married the sister of John Hamilton, first Lord Bargeny, and their son and heir sold the lands of Cleland to a cousin of his own name.

      Major William Cleland, the great-grandson of the last mentioned Alexander Cleland of that ilk, was one of the Commissioners of the Customs in Scotland, about the middle of the last century.

      The name was formerly Kneilland, with the K pronounced. In 1603 Mr. Andrew Kneilland was justice depute; and there are several instances of Cleland of Cleland being called Kneilland of that ilk, thus, among the persons who were ‘delated’ for being art and part in the murder of King Henry Darnley were William Kneland of that ilk, and Arthur Kneland of Knowhobbilhill, afterwards softened into Connoblehill, in the parish of Shotts. (See KNELAND, surname of.]

CLELAND, WILLIAM, a brave and accomplished soldier and poet, was born about 1661. Of his family or lineage nothing is recorded. At the conflict of Drumclog, when he was scarcely eighteen years of age, he acted as an officer of foot in the Covenanters’ army; and at Bothwell Bridge he held the rank of captain. After the latter affair, he and his brother were, among other leaders of the insurgents, denounced by proclamation, being described as

“James and William Clelands, brethren-in-law to John Haddoway, merchant in Douglas.” It is likely that, on the defeat at Bothwell, he made his escape to Holland, as we find that he published ‘Disputatio Juridica de Probationibus,’ at Utrecht, in 1684. He was in Scotland, however, in 1685, “being then under hiding,” among the wilds of Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. After the Revolution he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the earl of Angus’ regiment, called the Cameronian regiment, from its being chiefly raised from the extreme presbyterian party.

      On the 21st August 1689, before he was twenty-eight years of age. Colonel Cleland was killed at the head of his corps, while manfully and successfully defending the churchyard of Dunkeld against a superior force of Highlanders, the remains of the army of Dundee, which had been victorious at Killiecrankie in the preceding month.

      His poetical pieces were published in a small duodecimo volume in 1697. The first in the book, ‘Hollo, my Fancie, whither wilt thou go?’ was written by him the last year he was at college, and before he was eighteen years of age. This poem, which displays considerable imagination, will be found in Watson’s Collection of Scottish Poems. His principal piece, entitled ‘A Mock Poem on the Expedition of the Highland Host, who came to destroy the Western Shires in Winter 1678,’ is in the Hudibrastic vein, and conceived in a style of bitter sarcasm. Colonel Cleland was the father of William Cleland, Esq., one of the commissioners of the customs in Scotland, and author of the Prefatory Letter to the Dunciad. This person, said by Sir Walter Scott, in the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, to have been also a Colonel Cleland, is mentioned by some of the annotators on Pope as the original of Will. Honeycomb in the Spectator. He died in 1741, leaving a son, John Cleland, who was educated at Westminster, and acquired an unenviable reputation from being the author of an infamous novel, entitled ‘Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure,’ published in 1750; for which Ralph Griffiths, a bookseller, gave him twenty guineas, and the profits of which are said to have exceeded ten thousand pounds. Want of money and want of principle were alike the cause of this prostitution of his talents. To rescue him from such pursuits, Earl Granville allowed him a hundred pounds a-year. He afterwards wrote two novels of a more innocent description, and not destitute of merit, entitled ‘Memoirs of a Coxcomb,’ and ‘The Man of Honour,’ He published, besides, an etymological work, entitled ‘The Way to Things by Words, and to Words by Things,’ 1765, 8vo; and a ‘Specimen of an Etymological Vocabulary; or Essay, by means of the Analytic Method, to Retrieve the Ancient Celtic,’ 1768. He died in 1789, aged 82. – Chalmer’s Biog. Dict., Art. John Cleland. – Brown’s History of the Highlands.

CLELAND, JAMES, LL.D., a distinguished statistical writer, was born at Glasgow in the month of January 1770. His parents, though highly respectable, were in a humble station of life; his father’s trade being that of a cabinet-maker, to which his son was likewise brought up. Although he himself had received but a scanty education, Mr. Cleland, senior, who possessed great shrewdness of character, had the good sense to be aware of the advantages of a good one, and, accordingly, James was early initiated in English grammar and the rudiments of the Latin language, and made considerable progress in arithmetic. In the workshop of his father he continued till 1789, when, in order to render himself perfect in his business, he went to London; in which city he remained for two years. On his return, he entered into partnership with his father, and from his peculiar tact and straightforward mode of conducting business, he, in a short period, rendered the trade in which he was concerned one of the most flourishing in Glasgow. It was while thus engaged that he first exhibited his inclination to figures; the foremost of his printed productions being ‘Tables for showing the Price of Packing-Boxes of sundry Dimensions and Thicknesses,’ an opuscule which was highly thought of at the time, and which is still in common use amongst tradesmen.

      In 1814, the office of superintendent of public works at Glasgow having become vacant, Dr. Cleland was unanimously elected to it by the Town Council, and in this situation he continued until 1834, when, owing to some alteration in the distribution of offices – consequent on the operation of the Municipal Reform Bill, he deemed it expedient to resign. Many of his fellow-citizens, however, considering that some compensation should be afforded him, called a public meeting on 7th August of that year, at which it was unanimously resolved, that a subscription should immediately be set on foot, in order to present Dr. Cleland with some tangible mark of the esteem in which he was held by them. This was accordingly done, and in the course of a very few weeks, when the subscription list was closed, the sum collected amounted to no less than £4,600, – which it was agreed upon by a committee should be expended on the erection of a productive building, to be placed in a suitable part of the city, and to bear the name of the “Cleland Testimonial.” that this very superb present, however, was not totally undeserved, will be apparent even from the following isolated trifling fact: – Previously to Dr. Cleland’s election to the office of superintendent of public works in 1814, the caravans of performers, who were accustomed to meet at Glasgow during the fair week in July, had been allowed to be pitched on ground belonging to the town, without paying anything for such a privilege. But when Dr. Cleland entered on his duties, he imitated the example of the corporation of London with regard to Bartholomew Fair, and by charging a small sum for each steading of ground, he was enabled, during the period between 1815 and 1834, to pay into the hands of the city chamberlain, from this source alone, no less than £2,500.

      In 1821 Dr. Cleland was employed by government to draw up and classify the enumeration of the inhabitants of Glasgow; and, from the following high eulogium contained in the government enumeration volume, it will be observed in what point of view his services were regarded at headquarters; – “It would be unjust,” observes the writer, “not to mention, in this place, that Mr. Cleland has transmitted documents containing very numerous and very useful statistical details concerning the city and suburbs of Glasgow, and that the example has produced imitation in some other of the principal towns in Scotland, though not to the same extent of minute observation by which Mr. Cleland’s labours are distinguished.” In 1831 Dr. Cleland again drew up the enumeration for government, and the very flattering mode in which it was received, both at home and in several of the countries of the European continent, attests its value.

      From 1820 until 1834 the bills of mortality for Glasgow were drawn up by him, and from the following panegyric on them by the highest authority on the subject, we may judge of their accuracy and value: – “Of all the statements derived from bills of mortality and enumerations of the people,” observes Joshua Mylne, Esq. in the Encyclopedia Britannica, “only those for Sweden and Finland, Dr. Heysham’s for Carlisle, and Dr. Cleland’s for Glasgow, have been given in the proper form, and with sufficient correctness to afford the information, which is the most important object of them all, viz. that which is necessary for determining the law of mortality.” In the year 1836 a number of gentlemen having united themselves into a society for promoting the advancement of statistical inquiry, Dr. Cleland was unanimously elected president, and in the first part of their Transactions there appeared a paper written by him on his favourite subject, the State of the City.

      From the date of his resignation to his death, which took place after an illness of nearly a year’s duration, on 14th October 1840, Dr. Cleland never ceased to entertain a lively regard for the interest and prosperity of his native city, and not a month before he expired, he published a pamphlet, ‘On the Former and Present State of Glasgow.’ By the university of Glasgow he was honoured with the degree of doctor of laws. He was a member of the Society of Civil Engineers of London; a Fellow of the Statistical Societies of London, Manchester, and Bristol; a corresponding member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; and a short period before his decease, he was elected an honorary member of the Société François de Statistique Universelle.

      The following is a list of Dr. Cleland’s works:

      Annals of Glasgow. 1816, 2 vols. 8vo.

      Abridgment of the Annals of Glasgow. 1817, 8vo.

      Rise and Progress of the City of Glasgow. 1820, 8vo.

      Exemplification of Weights and Measures of Glasgow. 1822, 8vo.

      Statistical Tables relative to Glasgow, 8vo; and Enumeration of Scotland. 1823, 8vo.

      Specification for Rebuilding Ramshorn Church, 8vo; and Account of Ceremonial at Laying Foundation-Stone of First House in London-street, Glasgow. 1824, 8vo.

      Historical Account of the Steam Engine. 8vo.

      Historical Account of the Grammar School, Glasgow; and Account of Ceremonial at Laying Foundation-Stone of John Knox’s Monument, Glasgow. 1825.

      Specification for Rebuilding St. Enoch’s Church, 8vo, and Poor Rates of Glasgow. 1827, 8vo.

      Maintenance of the Poor, 8vo.

      Account of Cattle Show at Glasgow, 8vo.

      Statistical and Population Tables relative to Glasgow, 8vo.

      Enumeration of the Inhabitants of Glasgow. 1828, 8vo.

      Abridgment of Annals, second edition. 1829, 8vo.

      Enumeration of Glasgow and Lanarkshire, folio, small, 1831; a second edition of the same appeared in folio, large, in 1832.

      Ceremonial at Laying Foundation-Stone of Broomielaw Bridge. 1832, 8vo.

      Historical Account of Weights and Measures for Lanarkshire. 1833, 8vo.

      Statistics relative to Glasgow. 1834, 8vo. (Read before the British Association at Edinburgh).

      On Parochial Registry of Scotland. 1834, 8vo.

      Glasgow Bridewell or House of Correction. 1835, 8vo. (Read before the British Association at Dublin).

      A Few Statistical Facts relative to Glasgow. 1836, 8vo. (Read before the British Association at Bristol).

      The articles Glasgow and Rutherglen for the New Statistical Account of Scotland, 1838; the article Glasgow in the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

      On the Former and Present State of Glasgow. 1840. (Read before the British Association at Glasgow).

      An Historical Account of the Bills of Mortality and Probability of Human Life in Glasgow, and other Large Towns. 1840, 8vo.

            Dr. Cleland also wrote the article Glasgow for Brewster’s Encyclopaedia, and likewise a description of that city for the Edinburgh Gazetteer.

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