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RUSSELL, a surname originally English, having the same meaning as Rufus, Rous, and the French Rousseau, namely red, and derived from colour or complexion.

The family of Russell of Aden, Aberdeenshire, descends from one Rozel or Russell, an English baron who accompanied Edward III. to the siege of Berwick and battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, and settled in Scotland, being designed Russell of that ilk. IN 1600 Alexander Russell of this family purchased property near Elgin, and his son, Patrick Russell, who married a sister of Archbishop sharp, in 1680 bought part of the lands of Moncoffer, Banffshire, which were sold by his grandson, Alexander Russell, who, on his part, purchased Aden and other estates in Aberdeenshire.

Of the family of Russell of Ashiesteel, Selkirkshire, two members have distinguished themselves by their military services, namely, Colonel #William Russell of Ashiesteel, who, when lieutenant of the 79th, led the storming party at the siege of Manilla, and afterwards, as adjutant-general of the Madras army, was engaged in all the memorable expeditions in India, under Clive, Coote, Laurence, &c., and his son, (by his wife, a daughter of John Rutherford, M.D. of Edinburgh,) Major-general Sir James Russell, born in 1781, who served in the East Indies from 1799 to 1825, commanded a brigade of cavalry at the battle of Mahedpoor, and in 1837 was nominated K.C.B. The latter died in 1860. He married in 1834 Katherine, daughter of Sir J. Hall, Bart., with issue. He was succeeded by his daughter, Helen Jane Mountstuart.

RUSSELL, ALEXANDER, an eminent physician and naturalist, the son of a lawyer, was born and educated in Edinburgh. He studied in the university of his native city, and having taken his degree of M.D. he repaired about 1734 to London. Shortly after he sailed for Aleppo, and in 1740 was appointed physician to the English factory there. He soon became the principal practitioner in the place, being honoured by the particular regard and confidence of the pasha. He returned to England in 1754, and in 1756 he published his ‘Natural History of Aleppo,’ with a diary of the progress of the plague in 1742-3-4. In 1759, a vacancy occurring in St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, Dr. Russell was elected physician to that institution, which office he retained till his death, November 25, 1768. He contributed several papers to the Royal and Medical Societies, which will be found in their Transactions. His works are:

Testamen Medicum et Medicastrorum audacitate. Edin. 1709, 8vo.
The Natural History of Aleppo and parts adjacent, containing a Description of the City, and the principal Natural Productions in its neighbourhood; together with an Account of the Climate, Inhabitants, and Diseases, particularly the Plague; with the methods used by the Europeans for their preservation. Lond. 1756, 4to. 2d edition revised, enlarged, and illustrated with Notes, by his brother, Patrick Russell, M.D. Lond. 1794, 2 vols. 4to. This valuable history has been translated into different European languages.
Of a remarkable Marine Production. Phil. Trans. 1762, Abr. xi. 635. Vorticella Ovifera Lin.
Letter describing the Scammony Plant. Med. Obs. And Inq. i. p. 12, 1755.
Account of two Paralytic Cases. Ib. p. 296.
Cases of Lues Venerea cured by a solution of Corrosive Sublimate. Ib. ii. p. 88.
Of several Hydatids discharged with the Urine. Ib. iii. p. 146. 1767.
Experiments made with the Decoction of Mezereon in Venereal Nodes. Ib. p. 189.
Case of almost universal Emphysema. Ib. p. 397.
An Essay on his Character. Lond. 1770, 4to.

RUSSELL, PATRICK, M.D., a younger brother of the preceding, was born at Edinburgh in 1726. After completing his medical studies at the university of that city, he went out to Aleppo, where he resided with his brother, whom he succeeded, in 1754, as physician to the British factory there. During his residence at Aleppo, the great plague of 1760 and the two following years broke out in Syria; and his quarto Treatise on the subject, published in 1791, some years after his return to England, contains an historical and medical account of the disease in all its varieties. Besides superintending the publication of an enlarged edition of his brother’s ‘Natural History of Aleppo,’ in 1796 he published an account of the Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel. He was a fellow of the Royal Society, and contributed various articles to the Transactions of that body. He died July 2, 1805. His works are:

A Treatise on the Plague, containing an Historical Journal, and Medical Account of the Plague at Aleppo in the years 1760-1-2; also, Remarks on Quarantines, Lazarettoes, and the administration of Police in times of Pestilence. With an Appendix, containing Cases of the Plague, and an Account of the Weather during the Pestilential Season. Lond. 1791, 4to.
An Account of the Indian Serpents, collected on the Coast of Coromandel, containing descriptions and drawings of each Species; together with Experiments and Remarks on their several Poisons. Lond. 1796, fol. Lond. 1801-5, 2 parts, 4to.
Of the late Earthquakes in Syria. Phil. Trans. xi. 1760, 437.
On the Inoculation in Arabia. Ib. 1768, xii. 529.
Account of the Tabasheer. Ib. 1790, xvi. 653.
Observations on the Orifices found in certain Poisonous Snakes, situated between the Nostril and the Eye; with Remarks, by Everard Home, Esq., F.R.S. Ib. 1804, 70.
Remarks on the voluntary Expansion of the Skin of the Neck, in the Cobra de Capello, or Hooded Snake of the East Indies; with a Description of the Structure of the Parts which perform that office. Ib 353.
An Account of two Cases, showing the existence of the Small-Pox and the Measles in the same person at the same time; and an Account of a Case of Ague in a Child in Utero. Trans. Med. And Chir. ii. p. 90, 1800.

RUSSELL, WILLIAM, an able historian, poet, and miscellaneous writer, eldest son of Alexander Russell and Christian Ballantyne, was born in 1741 at Windydoors, a farm-house in Selkirkshire. He was educated at the school of Innerleithen and Edinburgh, and was bound apprentice to the book-selling and printing business. About 1763 he published at Edinburgh a ‘Collection of Poems,’ which seems to have attracted some temporary attention, and recommended him to the notice of Lord Elibank.

In May 1767 Russell set out for London, and became corrector of the press to Mr. Strahan. In 1769 he was appointed overseer of the printing office of Brown and Adlard. He published various pieces in prose and verse, and in 1779 brought out the first and second volumes of his ‘History of Modern Europe,’ the work by which he is best known. The three volumes which complete ‘The History of Modern Europe’ made their appearance in 1784. He died in 1793. His works are:

Collection of Modern Poems. Printed at Edinburgh about 1763.
An Ode to Fortitude. Lond. 1769, 4to. Reprinted at Edinburgh same year.
Sentimental Tales. 1770.
Collection of Fables, Moral and Sentimental, in Verse. Lond. 1772, sm. 8vo.
Essay on the Character, Manners, and Genius of Women; from the French of M. Thomas. 1772.
Julia; a Poetical Romance. 1774.
The History of Modern Europe; with an Account of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and a View of the Progress of Society from the 5th to the 18th century; in a series of Letters from a Nobleman to his son. Lond. 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. Part II., from the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, to the Peace of Paris 1763; with a View of the Progress of Society during the present century; in a series of Letters from a Nobleman to his Son. Lond. 1784, 3 vols. 8vo. The first of these was anonymous, but the author in the last subscribed his name, in the Dedication to the duke of Bedford. An enlarged and improved edition of the two parts conjoined was published, 1786, 5 vols. 8vo. New edition in 6 vols, 8vo; the last volume written by Dr. Coote.
The History of America, from its first Discovery by Columbus, to the conclusion of the late War. Lond. 1779, 4to.
The Tragic Muse. 1783. A just compliment to the abilities of Mrs. Siddons.
The History of Ancient Europe; with a View of the Revolutions in Asia and Africa; in a series of Letters to a young Nobleman. Lond. 1793, 2 vols, 8vo.

Besides the above Dr. Russell wrote an immense number of Articles for the Various London Magazines, which, if collected, would form several volumes. He also left a great many unfinished Productions, which have not been printed.

A Life of him, by Irvine, was published in 1801, 12mo.

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