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The Scottish Nation

WARDLAW, surname, one of the oldest in Scotland, the meaning of which is evidently a guard or fortress upon a hill, from the Saxon word ward and the Gaelic law, a hill of a conical form. This derivation acquires probability from the fact that there are various places of the name in Scotland, as Wardlaw bank in Berwickshire, where are the remains of an ancient camp, supposed to be of British origin, and Wardlaw or Weirdlaw, a hill, 1,986 feet above the level of the sea, in the parish of Ettrick, Selkirkshire. In the ‘Cameronian’s Dream,’ a poem by James Hislop, mention is made of a hill in Ayrshire of the name as

“On Wardlaw and Cairntable the clear shining dew
Glistened there ‘mong the heath-bells and mountain
Flowers blue.”

There was an ancient parish in Inverness-shire of the name of Wardlaw.


WARDLAW, the surname of an ancient family, the first of which, of Anglo-Saxon lineage, was amongst those who fled to Scotland at the period of the Conquest, and under King Malcolm Canmore obtained possessions in Galloway, and also in Fifeshire. By the adherence of the family to Baliol they lost their lands, called Wardlaw, in the former district, but retained those of Torry in Fife. Sir Henry Wardlaw of Torry, knight, living in the beginning of the 14th century, married a niece of Walter, lord-high-steward of Scotland, and, with two daughters, had two sons, Sir Andrew, his successor, and Walter, Cardinal Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow from 1367 to 1387, and ambassador to England in 1368, and to France in 1374. He compiled a genealogical account of the Wardlaws, from their first coming from Saxony into England about the beginning of the sixth century to his own time, a copy of which was in the Royal library of France until the Revolution. He was buried in Glasgow cathedral, and his arms and name were placed near the middle of the choir, on the right hand of the high altar.

The elder son, Sir Andrew Wardlaw of Torry, knight, had two sons, Sir William, his successor, and Henry, bishop of St. Andrews and founder of the university thereof, of whom a memoir is given below. The elder son, Sir William Wardlaw of Torry, knight, succeeded about the year 1421, and died in 1432. By his wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir John Oliphant, a lineal descendant of the princess Elizabeth, a daughter of Robert the Bruce, he had a son, Sir Henry Wardlaw of Torry, knight, who was one of the retinue that attended the young princess Margaret, daughter of James I., on her way to Rochelle upon her marriage with the dauphin of France. One of the lairds of Torry, Mr. Patrick Wardlaw, “that worthie and religious gentleman,” as Calderwood calls him, took a prominent part, in the reign of James VI., in the opposition offered by the greater part of the Scottish people to the imposition of episcopacy.

From the Wardlaws of Torry were descended several families of the name. Sir Henry Wardlaw, knight, was chamberlain to Queen Ann, wife of James VI., and was in high favour at court. The branch to which he belonged possessed the estates of Pitreavie and Balmule, in the parish of Dunfermline, and his eldest son, Sir Henry, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I. in 1631. From a younger son the family of Wardlaw Ramsay of Whitehill, Mid-Lothian, descends.

Sir Henry Wardlaw of Pitreavie, third baronet of this family, founded in 1675 an hospital at the village of Mastertown, near Dunfermline, called the Pitreavie hospital, for the benefit of four widows, with which he burdened a portion of the lands of Mastertown. He married, on 13th June 1696, Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Charles Halket, second baronet of Pitferrane, authoress of the fine ballad of Hardyknute. This lady was born in April 1677, and died in 1727, leaving a family, and was interred in the family vault within the church of Dunfermline. Her admirable ballad of Hardyknute refers to the battle of the Largs, fought October 2, 1263. It was long handed about in manuscript among the domestic circle of her friends and acquaintance, as a genuine fragment of an ancient ballad. Her brother-in-law, Sir John Hope Bruce of Kinross, in sending a copy of it to Lord Binning, son of the poetical earl of Haddington, and himself a poet, thus wrote: “In performance of my promise, I send you a true copy of the manuscript I found, a few weeks ago, in an old vault at Dunfermline. It is written on vellum, in a fair Gothic character, but so much defaced by time, as you will find, that the tenth part is not legible.” Believing the poem to be a genuine production of antiquity, Lord president Forbes, and Sir Gilbert Elliot, afterwards lord justice-clerk, were at the expense of publishing it in 1718, in a small folio tract of 12 pages. Ramsay printed it in his Evergreen at Edinburgh in 1724, as an ancient ballad. The secret of the authorship was first disclosed by Dr. Percy in his ‘Reliques,’ published in 1755. Mr. Hepburn of Keith, a gentleman well known in the early part of the 18th century, for high honour and probity of character, often declared that he was in the house with Lady Wardlaw at the time she wrote the ballad, and Mrs. Wedderburn of Gosford, her daughter, and Mrs. Menzies of Woodend, her sister-in-law, used to be equally positive as to the fact. “Both Sir Charles Halket and Miss Elizabeth Menzier (the daughter of Mrs. Menzies) concur in stating that Lady Wardlaw was a woman of elegant accomplishments, who wrote other poems, and practiced drawing and cutting papers with her scissors, and who had much wit and humour, with great sweetness of temper.” Lady Wardlaw remodelled the song or ballad of ‘Golderoy.’ Mr. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, in a note to Hardyknute in the additional illustrations to Johnson’s Musical Museum, (vol. iii. page 319,) says: “Notwithstanding the great antiquity that has been claimed for ‘Sir Patrick Spens,’ one of the finest ballads in our language, very little evidence would be required to persuade me that we were not also indebted for it to Lady Wardlaw.”

The estate of Pitreavie has long since passed from the family of Wardlaw. Sir John Wardlaw, the tenth baronet, a colonel in the army, served in America and the West Indies. He was succeeded by his cousin, Sir William, eleventh baronet, born in 1794, residing in Edinburgh, and unmarried, succeeded his brother in 1833. Heir presumptive, his brother, Archibald, born in 1796.

WARDLAW, HENRY, a learned and pious prelate, founder of the university of St. Andrews, and bishop of that see, was the second son of Sir Andrew Wardlaw of Torry, Fifeshire, and nephew of Walter Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow, who, in 1381, was created a cardinal by Pope Urban VI. Having received the usual education of one intended for the church, it is supposed at the university of Paris, he was appointed by his uncle rector of Kilbride, and in virtue thereof became precentor in the cathedral church of Glasgow. He afterwards went to Avignon, and while there was in 1444 preferred by Pope Benedict XIII. To the vacant see of St. Andrews. On his return to his native country soon after, bearing the additional title of the pope’s legate for Scotland, his first care was to reform the lives of the clergy, who had become notorious for their licentiousness and profligacy.

In May 1410, Bishop Wardlaw founded the university of St. Andrews, the first institution of the kind in Scotland. It was established on the model of the college of Paris, for teaching all manner of arts and sciences, for which, in the year following, he procured a confirmation from the Pope, having dispatched one Henry Ogilvie for the purpose. The following account of the foundation of the university, its first professors, and the rejoicings which took place on the arrival of the Pope’s bull of confirmation, is extracted from Leighton’s History of the County of Fife, (vol. i. pp. 763, 74):

“To this good man (Bishop Wardlaw) belongs the immortal honour of having founded the first university in his native country – of being, as it were, the father of the infant literature of Scotland. The lady Doverguil, the wife of John Baliol, had established Baliol college in the university of Oxford in the 13th century, and a bishop of Moray had instituted the Scots college at Paris in 1326. It was reserved, however, for the enlightened understanding of Henry Wardlaw to afford the means of education to his youthful countrymen, without their being under the necessity of visiting foreign countries for the purpose of obtaining it. The names of the first professors have been preserved, and are worthy of being repeated. Laurence of Lindores, whose zeal for the Catholic faith was very great, explained the fourth book of the sentences of Peter Lombard. Richard cornel, archdeacon of Lothian, John Litstar, canon of St. Andrews, John Sheviz, official of St. Andrews, and William Stevens, afterwards bishop of Dunblane, expounded the doctrines of the canon law, from its simplest elements to its most profound speculations. John Gill, William Fowles, and William Crosier, delivered lectures on philosophy and logic. These learned persons began their labours in 1410, but it was not till 1413 that the university received the sanction and authority of the Pope for its institution. On the 3d of February that year, Henry Ogilvie, master of arts, who had been sent for the purpose, returned from Italy with the papal bull, on which occasion, universal festivity and joy pervaded the city, and the bells of the different churches rung a merry peal. The following Sunday, the bulls containing the privileges of the university were presented, in the refectory of the monastery, which was splendidly fitted up for the occasion, to the bishop, who, arrayed in his pontificals, was surrounded by the dignitaries of the church in their richest dresses. The bulls having been read, they proceeded to the high altar, where Te Deum was sung by the whole assembly, consisting of bishops, prebends, priors and other dignitaries, whilst four hundred clerks, besides novices and lay brothers in front of the altar, and an immense number of spectators, bent their knees in gratitude and adoration. High mass was celebrated, and the remainder of the day was spent in mirth and festivity. In the evening bonfires were lighted, the bells of the churches rung, and processions of the clergy walked through the streets. The people indulged in songs, and played on musical instruments. The wine-cup flowed, the dance succeeded, and all was mirth and boisterous enthusiasm.”

The site of the original buildings of the institution, which for a long period received no higher title than the Pedagogium, was on the ground now occupied by St. Mary’s college, but it had apartments in other parts of the city.

During the time that Wardlaw was bishop, two persons were, by his orders, burnt at the stake for heresy; the one of them, John Resby, an Englishman, in 1422, and the other, Paul Craw, a Bohemian, in 1432. Bishop Wardlaw had the direction of the education of James I., in his youth, and after the return of that monarch from his captivity in England, he had the honour of crowning him at Scone in 1424.

According to Dempster, Bishop Wardlaw was the author of a book, ‘De Reformatione Cleri et Oratio pro Reformatione conviviorum et luxus.’ Which, however, appears to have been nothing more than a speech on the sumptuary laws of the kingdom, delivered by the bishop in the parliament that met at Perth in 1430. He died in the castle of St. Andrews, April 6, 1440, and was buried in the church of that city, “in the wall between the choir and our lady’s chapel,” with greater pomp than any of his predecessors had been.

WARDLAW, RALPH, D.D., an eminent divine and able theological writer and controversialist, was born at Dalkeith, 22d September 1779. When six months old, he was removed to Glasgow, where he spent the remainder of a long and useful life. His father, a merchant of much respectability and consistent Christian character, filled for several years the office of one of the magistrates of that city. His mother was the granddaughter of Ebenezer Erskine, the founder of the Scottish Secession church, being the daughter of Mr. James Fisher, who succeeded his father-in-law, Erskine, as professor of theology in the Secession church.

In his eighth year he was sent to the Grammar school of Glasgow, where he continued for four years. In October 1791 he became a student in the university of that city, when not quite twelve years of age, and while at college he distinguished himself by his diligence and proficiency. On finishing the usual academical curriculum, he entered the theological seminary of the Secession church, for the purpose of studying for the ministry in connexion with that religious body. His instructor there was the venerable Dr. Lawson of Selkirk.

About the end of the last century, evangelical doctrine was at a very low ebb in Scotland, and when the brothers Haldane began their lay preaching in 1797, a great sensation was produced, in consequence of the novelty of their appearance, and crowds were collected everywhere to hear them. So great, indeed, was the excitement that prevailed, that the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland issued a ‘Pastoral Admonition,’ warning the people against the new preachers, and prohibiting the clergy from giving the use of their pulpits to any itinerant ministers that might arrive within their bounds. Two ministers of the established church, the Rev. Greville Ewing, assistant minister of Lady Glenorchy’s chapel, Edinburgh, and the Rev. William Innes, one of the ministers of Stirling, left their charges, and were followed by large numbers of pious and influential people. From this arose the Congregational churches of Scotland, as from a desire to preach the gospel without being hampered by their connexion with any religious denomination whatever, the seceding ministers adopted the principles of Independency. Mr. Ewing removed to Glasgow, where he remained till the close of his life as the pastor of a large and influential Congregational church in West Nile Street.

The youthful Wardlaw had finished his preparatory studies, and was about to take license as a preacher in the Secession church to which he belonged, when this new movement attracted his attention. His views on church polity underwent a change, and, in 1800, he became a member of the church which had been formed at Glasgow, under the pastoral care of Mr. Ewing. He now resolved to exercise his ministry in connexion with the Congregationalists. With the aid of a few of his friends, a chapel was erected by him in Albion Street in that city, and on 16th February 1803, he was inducted by Mr. Ewing to the pastoral charge of the congregation meeting there.

In 1811, when the Theological Academy for the training of suitable persons for the work of the ministry among the Scottish Independents, was instituted at Glasgow, Mr. Wardlaw was appointed theological tutor, and Mr. Ewing professor of Biblical criticism and church history. In the funeral sermon delivered by Dr. Lindsay Alexander on occasion of Dr. Wardlaw’s decease, he thus refers to his lectures in this character: “As a theological professor, Dr. Wardlaw laid the denomination to which he belonged under obligations which it is impossible to over-estimate. It was an immense advantage to have one so singularly fitted for theological investigation placed at the fountainhead of the professional training of our ministry; and it was no small matter to enjoy the distinction of having, as the president of our theological school, one whose reputation as a divine was spread almost as widely as the language in which he wrote. His lectures were admirable specimens of acute disquisition, perspicacious reasoning, and solid conclusion. Their aim was principally directed to the elucidation and defence of that system of truth which their author believed to be revealed in the Scriptures. His theology was primarily Biblical, secondarily polemical. He sought first to reach the mind of the Spirit as unfolded in the written word, and having satisfied himself on this point, he summoned all the resources of his logic to defend the judgment he had formed from cavil or objection. Beyond this he did not go much into the region of systematic or historical theology; while of the speculations of mere philosophical theologians he took little note, as either lying beyond the sphere which he had prescribed for himself, or not likely to be directly useful to those whom it was his ambition to train to be ‘able ministers of the new testament.’ To those who were privileged to attend his prelections, they were valuable not only for the amount of sound theological knowledge which they imparted, but also as models of theological disquisition, and as affording an excellent discipline for the faculties of those who were destined to teach others.” For the greater part of the time that he filled the theological chair he received no remuneration, and when at length he did receive a salary, it was so small that it did little more than suffice to defray the necessary expenses to which he was subjected in fulfilling its duties. But to account for this it may be stated, that at that time the means of the Congregationalists in Scotland were very limited, while the demands upon them for the upholding of their institutions were proportionably heavy. Notwithstanding the gratuitous nature of his services, Dr. Wardlaw took great delight in his professional duties, and from first to last discharged them with the utmost fidelity and success.

As a preacher Mr. Wardlaw became very popular, and his congregation increased so much that the chapel in Albion Street was in course of time found to be too small for it. A larger building was in consequence erected in West George’s Street, and opened for divine worship 25th December 1819. The year before, the honorary degree of D.D. had been conferred upon him by the theological faculty of Yale college, Connecticut, one of the most distinguished of the universities of the Unites States.

The character of his pulpit ministrations is thus described by Dr. Lindsay Alexander: “He made use of very little action in the pulpit – of none indeed, beyond a very slight and somewhat regulated motion of the hands, with an occasional step backwards when something more than usually emphatic was to be uttered. His sermons too were more didactic than oratorical in their construction; being characterized rather by the gravity of their matter, the perspicuity and force of the reasoning, the grace of the diction, and the persuasiveness of his intonation, than by anything like rhetorical brilliancy or vehement declamation. His main strength lay in his extensive and exact acquaintance with Scripture, in his argumentative distinctness and dexterity, in his refined taste and felicitous expression, in his unimpeachable good sense, in the practical sagacity with which he detected the relation of his subject to the personal interests and responsibilities of his audience, and in the wise and affectionate earnestness with which he pressed that upon their attention. He seldom indulged in any ornament or any play of fancy. He never sought such for its own sake, and beyond the occasional introduction of some select figure of comparison, he never resorted to it even for the sake of illustration. He was never dull or commonplace; but his vivacity was that of the understanding rather than that of the imagination. Sometimes, when handling suitable themes, a burst of feeling would escape him, which was felt to be perfectly genuine, and which seldom failed to communicate its contagion to the hearers; but he spent no time on sentimentalities, and showed no ambition to provoke a tear except as that might be the sign of his arrow having reached the heart. His chief aim seemed always to be to convey fully, clearly and forcibly to the mind of his audience the truth presented by the part of Scripture from which he was discoursing. Hence he was eminently textual as a preacher, and scrupulously faithful as an expositor. Hence, also, the practical nature of his discourses.” In the beginning of his ministry, it was his custom to preach without notes. His manner is said to have been then constrained, and his enunciation monotonous. There is even a tradition that on one occasion he fairly broke down, and being unable to recover himself, he had to retire, while another minister finished the service. At a later period he read his discourses, but with such an exquisite modulation of choice that an effect not less than that of oratory was produced. At first he did not confine his preaching to the chapel in Albion Street, but often officiated also in the villages surrounding Glasgow, his sermons being delivered at cross roads, in fields, barns, schoolrooms, and kitchens. A regular station of his for many summers was at the top of Balmanno Street, the highest street in Glasgow, where, on Sabbath evenings, mounted on a chair, he proclaimed the gospel. Of his regular congregation, it may be stated that a considerable portion were weavers from Bridgetown. On Sunday mornings these people were accustomed to meet and proceed in a body to Albion Street, and in the same way to return. Their departure caused quite a sensation in the then quiet village, and as they passed, the remark might be heard, “There goes Wardlaw’s brigade.”

As an author, Dr. Wardlaw was distinguished no less than as a preacher or divinity professor. He published a great variety of works, which Dr. Alexander divides into three classes: theological, homiletical, and biographical. Of these were sermons, pamphlets, and more lasting works. The Socinian and Sabbath questions occupied a large share of his attention. In the anti-slavery agitation he was scarcely less conspicuous, and in many a debate proved himself a ready logician. In every controversy his aim was truth, not victory.

In 1833 he was chosen to deliver the first of the Series of Congregational Lectures in London; and the course delivered was afterwards published under the title of ‘Christian Ethics, or Moral Philosophy on the Principles of Divine Revelation.’ He also found time to contribute to several of the evangelical Magazines, and even to cultivate his poetical powers. His verses, though devoid of much originality, exhibit a refined taste, and great facility of expression. If not a poet, the spirit of poetry was in him, blending with lofty devotional feeling. Among his felloe-students at college was Thomas Campbell, and it is recorded to Dr. Wardlaw’s credit that he stood in the list of poetical prizemen the same year that the young poet won his laurels, for those celebrated “translations from the Greek” which are still thought worthy of publication with his maturer poems.

Many attempts were made to induce him to leave Glasgow for another sphere of labour, but he successively resisted. The Independent colleges in England sent him repeated invitations, and offered to him, either as principal or professor, positions not only more lucrative but more influential. To Hoxton he was invited in 1817; to Rotherham in 1828, and again in 1833; to Springhill in 1837, and to Lancashire in 1842. In 1828 he had been pointed out as one eminently qualified to fill the chair of mental and moral philosophy in the London university. But in all these cases he decided on remaining where he was.

On 16th February 1853, he completed the fiftieth year of his pastorate. Sermons were preached and a festival assembly was held to commemorate the event. It was also resolved to raise a monument to perpetuate his name and worth in the city where he had son long and usefully laboured. Accordingly a large sum of money was collected, and a building afterwards erected in a destitute neighbourhood, to be used as an educational establishment, under the name of ‘The Wardlaw Jubilee School and Mission House.” In the month of August following, his health began to fail, and after several months of acute agony, endured with the utmost patience and resignation, he died 17th December 1853, within a few days of completing his 74th year. He was buried in the Necropolis of Glasgow, his funeral being attended by the lord-provost, magistrates, and council of the city, the professors of the university, the clergy of all denominations, and hundreds of the citizens.

At the commencement of his ministry he had married his cousin, Jane Smith, who survived him, and by whom he had a large family. One of his sons was a missionary at Bellary, in the East Indies, and another a merchant in Glasgow. Two of his daughters were married to missionaries, one of whom, Mrs. Reid, returned to Glasgow, a widow, with her family. It may be stated here that Dr. Wardlaw’s grandfather, a merchant in his native town, Dalkeith, was connected with the Wardlaws of Pitreavie in Fife, and that he could trace his descent on his mother’s side from James V. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Dr. Wardlaw, by William Lindsay Alexander, D.D., were published at Edinburgh in 1835. – Among Dr. Wardlaw’s works are:

SERMONS. – Christian Mercy. A Sermon preached at the request of the Glasgow Female Society. 1810. – Qualifications for Teaching, essential to the Character of a Christian Bishop. A Sermon preached 13th March, 1811, at the institution of the Glasgow Theological Academy. – The Doctrine of a Particular Providence; a Sermon preached August 23, 1812, on the death of the author’s brother, Captain John Wardlaw, who fell in the battle of Salamanca. Glasgow, 1812. Three editions. – Discourses on t he Principal Points of the Socinian Controversy. Glasgow, 1814, 8vo. 2d edition, 1828. with additions. – The Scriptural Unity of the Churches of Christ illustrated and recommended. A Sermon preached on occasion of the fifth Annual Meeting of the Congregational Union for Scotland, 1817. – The Contemplation of Heathen Idolatry an Incitement to Missionary zeal. A Sermon preached before the London Missionary Society May 13, 1818, and published at their request. – Sermon preached on occasion of the Death of the Rev. Dr. Balfour of Glasgow, Oct. 13, 1818. – The Truth, Nature, and Universality of the Gospel; a Sermon preached at Stirling June 29, 1819, at the Anniversary Meeting of the Society for Stirlingshire and its vicinity in aid of Missions and other religious objects. – Charge delivered by Dr. Wardlaw at the Ordination of the Rev. Archibald Jack, Whitehaven. Published with the other discourses delivered on the occasion. Edin. 1820. – The purposes of Divine Mercy to the Seed of Abraham. A Sermon preached April 25, 1820, on behalf of the Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews. – The Christian Duty of Submission to Civil Government. Glasg. 1820, 8vo. – The Vanity of the Earthly Hopes of Man. A Sermon preached Dec. 9, 1821, on occasion of the death of Mr. William Friend Durant, of Poole, Dorsetshire. Student in the University. – The Early Success of the Gospel an Evidence of its Truth. A Sermon preached May 20, 1823, before the Home Missionary Society, and published at the request of its Directors. Lond. 1823., 8vo. – Love to Christ. 1823. – The Divine Dissuasive to the Young against the Enticements of Sinners. Glasg. 1824. – Two Discourses on Man’s Responsibility for his Belief. In reference to a statement in the Inaugural Discourse of Mr., afterwards Lord Brougham, as Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow, delivered April 6, 1825. 2d edition, with addition of Two Sermons on the Responsibility of the Heathen. Glasg. 1826. – Christ the First Fruits. A Sermon preached September 21, 1828, on occasion of the lamented death of Mrs. Gerville Ewing. – Collected Sermons. Glasg. 1829. – Love to Christ the Constraining Principle of the Christian Ministry. A Charge delivered in the Scots Church, Crown Court, London, at the Ordination of John Reid, M.A., as a Missionary to Bellary in the East Indies. August 18, 1829. Published by request. – Christ’s Care of his Servants; a Sermon preached May 23, 1830, on occasion of the death of the Rev. John Hercus. With an Appendix, containing a brief Memoir. Glasg. 1830, 12mo. – The Voice of the Spirit to the churches, A Sermon preached at the Annual Meeting of the Scottish Congregational Union at Edinburgh, in May, 1832. – Civil Establishments of Christianity tried by their only authoritative test, the Word of God. Glasg. 1833, 8vo. – The Jubilee; A Sermon preached in West George Street Chapel, Glasgow, August 1, 1834, the day of Negro Emancipation in the British Colonies. Glasg. 1834, 8vo. – The Ministry of the Gospel the Service of Christ. An Ordination Charge. 1840. – The Revival of Religion; A Discourse. Glasg. 1841, 12mo. – The End of Living and the Gain of Dying to the Faithful Servant of Christ.. A Sermon preached August 8, 1841, on occasion of the death of the Rev. Greville Ewing. – On Christian Communion. A Sermon. Glasg. 1842. – Discourses on the Nature and Extent of the Atonement of Christ. Glasg. 1844, post 8vo. Pp. 285. – The Final Triumph of God’s Faithful Servants. A Sermon preached June 18, 1843, on occasion of the death of the Rev. Dr. Fletcher. – The End, the Time of Divine interpretation; and the Duty and Peace of Waiting for it. A Sermon preached on occasion of the death of the Rev. John Morell Mackenzie, by the melancholy lose of the steamer Pegasus, which struck upon the Goldstone Rock, off the coast of Northumberland, between night and morning of July 20, 1843. Nearly one-half of the Sermon is devoted to a sketch of the Life and Character of Mr. Mackenzie, who was Dr. Wardlaw’s Colleague in the Theological Academy. – Sermon preached on occasion of the death of the Rev. Alexander Campbell, Pastor of the Congregational Church, Greenock. Appended to his ‘Select Remains.’ Glasg. 1845. – Sermon preached on the death of the Rev. Dr. Heugh, published along with two others, Glasgow, 1845. – Sermon and Speech on the Purity of Church Fellowship, contributed to ‘The Jubilee Memorial of the Scottish Congregational Churches,’ held at Edinburgh in Oct. 1848. – The Call to Repentance. A Sermon. 1851. – What is Death? A Sermon delivered in Poultry Chapel, London, on the Evening of Nov. 27, 1851, on occasion of the death of the Rev. John Philip. D.D., for thirty years Superintendent of the Missions of the London Missionary Society in South Africa. With an Appendix. Edin. 1852, 8vo. – The Christian’s final Home. A Sermon preached February 29, 1852, on occasion of the death of the Rev. Christopher Anderson, Pastor of the Baptist Church, Charlotte Street Chapel. Edin. 1852, 8vo. – In the Scottish Pulpit for Saturday, March 31, 1832, appeared a Sermon on ‘The Agency of God in Human Calamities,’ preached by Dr. Wardlaw on the day of the National Fast appointed on account of the visitation of the Cholera.

LECTURES. – Three Lectures on Rom. iv. 9-25. With an Appendix on the Mode of Baptism. Glasg. 1807. – Lectures on the Book of Ecclesiastes, 1821, 2 vols. 8vo. 2d edit. 2 vols, 12mo. Glasg. 1838. – Christian Ethics, or Moral Philosophy on the Principles of Divine Revelation. Being Lectures delivered in London as the first course in a series instituted by the Committee of the Congregational Union and Library in the Metropolis. 1833. Third edition, 1836. Subsequent editions. For these lectures he received from the Committee £130. – The Importance of the Church Controversy and the Manner in which it ought to be conducted. 1838. – Lectures on Church Establishments delivered in Free-masons Hall, London. London, 1839, 8vo, pp. 391. – Lectures on Female Prostitution; its Nature, Extent, Effects, guilt, Causes, and Remedy, &c. Glasg. 1842. post 8vo. – Lecture on the Headship of Christ as affected by National Church Establishments. Glasg. 1847. – Lectures on Systematic Theology. A Complete System of Polemic Divinity. By Ralph Wardlaw, D.D. Edited by the Rev. James R. Campbell, M.A. 3 vols. 8vo. Posthumous.

Essay on Mr. Joseph Lancaster’s Improvements in Education; the substance of which was read before the Literary and Commercial Society of Glasgow. 1816.
Unitarianism incapable of Vindication. Glasgow, 1816, 8vo.
A Collection of Hymns for Public Worship. 5th edit., Glasg. 1817, 12mo. 12th edit. Edin. 1847, 18mo.
Essay on Benevolent Institutions for the Relief of the Poor; the substance read to the Literary and Commercial Society of Glasgow, April 1817, Glasg. 1817, 8vo.
An Appeal against Misrepresentation and Calumny, written in defence of the Rev. Mr. Campbell, Independent minister at Oban, who had been assailed by a party belonging to the Established Church, in an ‘Address to the Religious Public.’ 1820.
A Second Appeal to the Public, in answer to the Reply of a Committee of the Inhabitants of Oban. 1820.
A Dissertation on the Scriptural Authority, Nature, and Uses of Infant Baptism. Glasg. 1825, 8vo. New edition, 1847.
A Reply to the Letter of the Rev. John Birt, of Manchester, to Dr. Wardlaw, ‘On some Passages in his Dissertation on Infant Baptism.’ Glasg. 1825, 8vo.
Two Essays. I. On the Assurance of Faith. II. On the Extent of the Atonement, and Universal Pardon. 1830. Third edition. Glasg. 1836, 12mo.
Exposure Exposed; A Statement of Facts relative to West George Street Chapel, Glasgow. Glasg. 1834, 8vo. This pamphlet was one of the innumerable publications which were called forth by the Voluntary Controversy.
Speech of the Rev. Dr. Wardlaw, at the Public Meeting in Glasgow, for the Separation of Church and State, March 6th, 1834, with the Memorial to Earl Grey, and the Petition to Parliament, adopted at the Meeting. 2d edition. Glasg. 1834, 12mo.
Friendly Letters to the Society of Friends. Glasg. 1836, 12mo.
Sketch of the Life and Character of the Rev. Robert S. M’All of Manchester, LL.D., prefixed to his Collected Discourses. 2 vols. 8vo, 1840.
Letters to the Rev. Hugh M’Nelie, M.A., on some portions of his Lectures on the Church of England, 1841.
Memoir of the Rev. John Reid, late Missionary at Bellary. Glasg. 1844, 8vo.
The Life of Joseph and the Last Days of Jacob. A Book for Youth and for Age. Glasg. 1844, small 8vo. pp. 426.
A Catholic Spirit, its Consistency with Conscientiousness. Being one of the ‘Essays on Christian Union’ by eight ministers of different denominations, published in one volume at Glasgow in 1845.
Congregational Independency, in contradistinction to Episcopacy and Presbyterianism, the Church Polity of the New Testament. Glasg. 1848, post. 8vo. pp. 379.
Treatise on Miracles. Edin. 1852, post 8vo.
He contributed an Introductory Essay to Doddridge’s Practical Discourses on Regeneration, one of the series of Select Christian Authors published by Mr. Collins, Glasgow, 1829; also an Introductory Essay to Clark’s Collection of Scripture Promises, another of Collin’s Select Christian Authors, 1830. He also supplied an Introductory Essay to an edition of Bishop Hall’s Contemplations on the Historical Passages of the Old and New Testaments, in 2 vols. 8vo. Glasgow. 1830.
He also edited an edition of ‘The Hebrew Wife; or the Law of Marriage Examined.’ By Mr. Dwight, an American lawyer. Glasgow, 1837.
To the Missionary Magazine, and the Scottish Congregational Magazine he was an occasional contributor.
Posthumous Works. Published by Fullarton & Co., 1862.

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