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Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil, from Spanish and Portuguese Domination
Vol 2, Chapter XIV


The whole dispute raised by the Brazilian Administration as a pretext for evading my claims, has been--as the reader is now aware--about the sum of 200,000 dollars, given out of the proceeds of our own captures, which cost nothing to the Government; but were made to serve as a substitute for the usual advance of wages! Also about 40,000 dollars ordered by His Imperial Majesty as compensation for the Imperatrice frigate, captured by Captain Grenfell at Para--but never paid, and therefore never accounted for. Finally, with regard to 106,000 dollars reimbursed by the authorities of Maranham, as a compromise for four times the amount generously surrendered by the squadron to the necessities of the province in 1823--on promise of repayment. As regards the whole of the sums, it is alleged that I never furnished accounts of their expenditure, and therefore they are charged against me, as though not expended at all.

For the disbursement of the first item of 200,000 dollars, I have already stated sufficient to satisfy any reasonable person. The accounts set forth at page 169, shews that a balance remained in hand from the 200,000 dollars put on board at Rio de Janeiro, of 39,538 dollars. I shall now state what became of this sum. And first let me adduce the following proclamation:--

By His Excellency the Marquis of Maranhao, First Admiral, &c. &c.

WHEREAS, many officers and seamen are here employed who were not present, last year, at the capitulation of the hostile authorities, and seizure of Portuguese funds and property at Maranhao;

And whereas it is condusive to the interests of His Imperial Majesty, that all those officers and seamen who have now contributed to the restoration of tranquillity, good order, and obedience to His Imperial Majesty, shall receive encouragement and reward;

It is hereby directed that three months additional pay shall, without deduction, be distributed as a gratuity to the said officers and men.

Given under my hand, this 8th day of February, 1825,


I had, it is true, no authority for making this extra payment, but at the same time, I had the authority of His Imperial Majesty to devote the 200,000 dollars to the good of the service--thus clearly leaving its disbursement to my discretion; and this appeared to me to be properly exercised in rewarding those who had been performing double duty afloat and ashore, in the arduous task of putting down, and keeping down revolt and anarchy. On this principle, I had previously doubled the pay of some of the officers, without whose incessant exertion, I could not have effected the tranquillization of the province. It is true that the principle adopted was opposed to that pursued by the Administration, viz. neither to acknowledge these extra services nor reward them; but such a course neither accorded with my judgment nor discretion. The sums paid as above were entered in the usual manner in a pay book, acknowledged by the signatures of the recipients--attested by the officers--and, as has been said, duly forwarded to the Imperial Government.

I shall now give some extracts from the log before quoted in reference to these and other transactions:--

January 5th, 1825. His Lordship left at Hesketh's his last two months' pay, received this month, and also two months' pay for Captain Crosbie. Paid other officers and men two months' pay.

6th. Employed in sorting the paper money in the small iron chest. Found its contents to be only 16,000 dollars. (This was all that now remained of the 200,000 dollars received at Rio de Janeiro.)

8th. Officers having been paid, the men received to-day two months' pay.

9th. Admiral took to Hesketh's three bags of dollars (Each containing 1000 dollars, the remainder of money which I had brought from Chili, and which therefore had nothing to do with the Brazilian Government).

February 10th. Paid third payment of prize-money to Clewley, Clare and January.

11th. Paid prize-money to March and Carter.

26th. Paid Lieutenant Shepherd 1,500 dollars.

28th. Paid Commissary, Escrivao, and Pilot.

March 1st. Paid Portuguese Doctor.

3rd. Paid Corning's account for ship provisions.

The above payments, with others disbursed in pursuance of my proclamation, were all made out of the balance of the 200,000 dollars aforesaid, and 40,000 dollars which had been in my possession ever since the capture of Maranham; the latter being the amount which I had refused to give up to the prize tribunal at Rio de Janeiro, well knowing that it would be returned to their Portuguese friends and connections. When these payments were made, a few hundred dollars alone remained. As this 200,000 dollars was the indisputable property of the squadron before it was assigned for distribution amongst those to whom it belonged--on this ground alone it scarcely became the Government to raise doubts about its proper application; for they well knew that if it were not distributed, the fact could not be concealed from the officers and men, who would not have submitted quietly to my retention of their money, as has been shamelessly imputed to me. Not only was the whole disbursed--but the accounts, as has been stated, were faithfully transmitted to the Brazilian authorities at Rio de Janeiro, as appears by Captain Shepherd's receipt, adduced in the present volume, and years ago photographed, and transmitted with a memorial to the Brazilian Government, which, nevertheless, on the 28th of April, in the present year, published in its official organ, the Correio Mercantil, a report on the prizes made during the war of independence--excluding me from a share, on the ground of not having delivered my accounts. The following is an extract:--

(After enumerating the prizes, and estimating their gross value at 521,315 dollars--not one-fourth of the real amount--the Commission goes on to say:--)

Referring to what has been stated, it appears that the First Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Squadron from its commencement to the conclusion of the war, had a right to his share of all prizes--and so the Commission has judged in regard to the total value, amounting to the said sum of 521,315 milreis up to the 12th of February, 1824. From that sum, however, must be deducted 200,000 dollars given to the Admiral on account of prize-money for distribution, which it does not appear by any document that he made. It also appears by the report of the Junta of Maranhao, of the 17th of October, 1825, that the said Admiral received the further sum of 217,659 dollars at different times, there appearing 108,736 dollars under the title of indemnification for prizes made by the squadron in the port of that city, to be divided as such. This division does not seem to have been made.

From this it appears that the said Admiral must be charged as having received the sum of 308,238 dollars on account of prizes to be divided amongst the squadron; with the addition of 40,000 dollars which he received also by decree of the 23rd of February, to be, in like manner, divided amongst those who co-operated in the annexation of the province of Maranhao, and the capture of the frigate Imperatrice--seeing that there is no evidence that such distribution took place--thus increasing the sum due to 348,238 dollars, of which the said claimant is bound to give account to the Imperial Government.

In consequence of the determination of the Regulations let this decree be printed and published.

Rio, April 21, 1858.

(Signed) JOAQUIM JOSE IGNACIO, Chefe de esquadra, President.

ANTONIO JOSE DA SILVA, Contador da Marinha.

JOSE BAPTISTA LISBOA, Auditor e Secretario.

This document, so recently promulgated, after the decision of the Seccoes in 1854, and the expression of opinion given by the most eminent men of Brazil (see page 282), that I ought to have the whole of my claims--is really wonderful. But the false assertions it contains must be met.

And first--the receipt of the 40,000 dollars for the Imperatrice, I altogether deny, and can be easily convicted of untruth if my receipt for that sum can be produced. It is worthy of note, that the date of the decree for the payment of this sum is carefully given in the preceding document, but the data of my acknowledgment of having received is annulled for the sufficient reason that no acknowledgment was ever given. The 200,000 dollars, I trust that I have sufficiently accounted for, as well as for the vouchers sent to Rio by Captain Shepherd, whose receipt I took for the chest containing them. But the 200,000 dollars with which the Government charges me--even supposing the accounts to be lost--destroyed--or purposely made away with--was not the property of the Brazilian Government, but of the squadron, who received it only as part payment of ten times the amount due to them! This sum though the property of the squadron, was made to serve as an advance of wages, no less than as prize-money; and does the Brazilian Government imagine that any squadron could be sent to sea without money? Or that any reader of common sense will acquiesce in the assertion that under such circumstances it was not properly disbursed, even though I had not shewn its precise disbursement? The Brazilian Government well knows that the men composing the squadron were of so mutinous a character, that the slightest deviation from their rights would have been met with instant insubordination. Did this ever occur, even in the slightest possible degree? It is no fault of mine, if the accounts were destroyed, as I have no doubt they were, from pure malice towards myself, in order to bring me into an amount of disrepute, which might justify the withholding of my claims according to the stipulations of the Imperial patents. By whom this infamy was perpetrated, it is impossible for me to say--but that it was perpetrated--there cannot be the smallest possible doubt.

It is altogether unnecessary to say another word about the 40,000 dollars for the Imperatrice, or the 200,000 dollars for distribution--as the evidence adduced is sufficient to satisfy any man not determined to be unconvinced.

I now come to the amount alleged to have been received from the Junta of Maranham, viz. 217,659 dollars, "at different times," which I have no doubt is perfectly correct, though that portion of it under the title of "indemnification for prizes"--is incorrect, the amount being 106,000 dollars--minus the discount, and not 108,736 dollars as represented. The difference is not, however, worth notice. Deducting this sum from the total of 217,659 dollars, would leave 108,923 dollars to be accounted for otherwise than as "indemnifieation." This also is, no doubt, correct. The inhabitants of Maranham cheerfully agreed to pay and subsist the squadron, provided it remained amongst them to preserve the order which had been restored, and the offer was accepted by me. The 108,923 dollars thus went for the pay and subsistence of the squadron during many months of disturbance; and if it prove any thing, it is the economy with which the wants of the squadron were satisfied, despite the corruption of the authorities, in paying double for provisions, because the merchants could only get paid at all, except by bribes to their debtors. Does the Brazilian Government mean to tell the world that it sent a squadron to put down revolution in a territory as large as half Europe, without receiving a penny in the shape of wages, except their own 200,000 dollars of prize-money--that it never considered it necessary to send to the squadron a single dollar of pay whilst the work was in process--and that it now considers it just to charge the whole expenses to me as Commander-in-Chief, though the expedition did not cost the Government any thing? Yet this is precisely that which the Brazilian Administration has done--with what justice let the world decide. I aver that the accounts were faithfully transmitted. The Imperial Government of the present day, says that the accounts are not in existence--not that I did not transmit them! Surely they ought to blame their predecessors, not me. Let this history decide which of the two is deserving of reprobation.

I now come to the 108,736 dollars--or rather 106,000 dollars received from the Junta of Maranham as "indemnification,"--respecting which the Commission unjustly asserts that "no division appears to have been made!" The untruth of this imputation, the most atrocious of all, is very easily met by the publication of every receipt connected with the matter; and to this I now proceed, requesting the reader to bear in mind that in my letter to the Minister of Marine (see page 209), I announced my intention of retaining for my own justification all original documents, sending to the Government, copies or duplicates. The whole of the subjoined receipts are now in my possession, and I demand from the Brazilian Government their verification, by its Ministerial or Consular representatives in Great Britain.


And others for their proportion of 106,000 dollars paid by the Junta of Fazenda of Maranham in commutation of 425,000 dollars--the value of prize property left for the use of the Province on its acquisition from Portugal in 1823; the duplicates having been sent by me to the Imperial Government, the originals now remaining in my possession.

5,000 000.

Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhao, and Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Armada, the sum of five thousand milreis, being four thousand one hundred and thirty-seven, or one-third of the Admiral's share of prize-money; and eight hundred and sixty three to account of double pay for services on shore.


Maranhao, 19th March, 1825. Chief of Division.

* * * * *

Received of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhao, First Admiral of Brazil, and Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces of the Empire, the sum of five hundred milreis, as a recompence for extra services as Commandant-Interim of His Imperial Majesty's ship Piranga, during the absence of Chief of Division Jowett, on service on shore at Maranhao during four months past.

March 32nd, 1825. JAMES WALLACE.

Witness, W. JACKSON.

* * * * *

Received this 18th day of March, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhao, First Admiral of Brazil, and Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces of the Empire, the sum of ten thousand milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, being part of certain monies received from the Junta of Fazenda of Maranhao.


Rs. 10,000 000.

* * * * *

5,000 000.

Received of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhao, First Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces of the Empire, the sum of five thousand milreis, being the amount of additional pay to all the subordinate officers and seamen of His Imperial Majesty's ship Piranga, who have served on shore at Maranhao, between the 18th day of November, 1824, and the 14th day of March, 1825.


Chief of Division, Commandant of the Piranga. Maranhao, 20th March, 1825.

* * * * *

Received this 18th day of March, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand five hundred milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, being part of certain monies received from the Junta of Fazenda at Maranhao.


Rs. 1,500 000. Capt.-Lieut. and Secretary.

Received this 21st day of March, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, Marquis of Maranhao, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand milreis, on account of an allowance of one-half per cent. for my trouble in the distribution of prize-money.


1,000 000. Capt.-Lieut. and Secretary.

* * * * *

Received this 21st of March, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum one thousand five hundred milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, being part of certain monies received from the Junta of Fazenda of Maranhao.


1,500 000. First Lieut. of Pedro Primiero.

* * * * *

Pedro Primiero, March 24, 1825.

Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, being part of certain monies received from the Junta of Fazenda of Maranhao.

1,000 000. S.E. CLEWLEY.

* * * * *

Pedro Primiero, March 24th, 1825.

Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, &c. &c.

1,000 000. FRANCIS CLARE.

* * * * *

Nao Nacional e Imperial,

Pedro Iro, March 24, 1825.

Recebei do Excellentissimo Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. a quartier de hum contos de reis, pro conta de huma divisiao de octento contos de reis, senda parte de certos dinheiros recebidos da Junta da Fazenda do Maranhao.


1,000 000.

* * * * *


Precisely similar receipts, on same date, from the following officers:

FRANCISCO ADEIAO PERA............................... 1,000 000

MANOEL S. SINTO .................................... 500 000

ALEXANDER JOSE (remainder illegible) ............... 200 000

* * * * *

\Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of five hundred milreis, on account of a distribution, &c. &c. 500 000. G. MARCH.

* * * * *

Maranhao, 24th March, 1825. Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of five hundred milreis, on account of a distribution, &c. &c. 500 000. W. JANNARY.

* * * * *

24th March, 1825. Received from the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of five hundred milreis, on account of distribution, &c. &c. 500 000. DAVID CARTER, Second Lieut.

* * * * *

Received, April 9th, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand four hundred and eighty milreis, being prize-money due to Capt.-Lieut. G. Manson. For CAPT.-LT. MANSON, 1,480 000. W. JANNARY.

* * * * *

Received of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of one thousand milreis, on account of a distribution of eighty contos of reis, being part of certain monies received from the Junta of Fazenda of Maranhao. 1,000 000. GEO. MANSON. April 9, 1825.

* * * * *

Received of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of four hundred and eighty milreis, on account of prize-money due to me. 480 000. GEO. MANSON. Maranhao, April 9, 1825.

Authoriso Se Jose Perea de sua Excellencia Marques do Maranhao recober e quantier de quinhentos milreis. March 9th, 1825. (Name illegible.)

500 000.

* * * * *

Maranham, March 3, 1825.

Received of Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. the sum of two thousand six hundred and five milreis, being the amount of my account for provisions supplied to the Brazilian Squadron.

2,605 000. LEONARD COMING.

* * * * *

Received, the 12th of April, 1885, of His Excellency Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. one hundred and ninety-five milreis, being additional pay for extra duty on shore for five months.

Rs. 195 000. G. MARCH.

* * * * *

Received, April 12th, 1825, of His Excellency Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. four hundred and eighty milreis, being additional pay for extra duty as Secretary to His Lordship for the period of five months.

480 000. W. JACKSON.

* * * * *

Received, April 21, 1825, of the Right. Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. thirty-nine milreis, being a month's additional pay for extra services at Maranham.


* * * * *

Received, April 21, 1825, of the Right Hon. Lord Cochrane, &c. &c. sixty-nine milreis, being additional pay for sixty days' extra service at Maranham.


* * * * *

Received, April 3rd, of His Excellency the Marquis of Maranhao, &c. &c. twenty-three dollars for my services as prize master of the vessels Dido and Joaninho.

23 000. C. ROSE, Second Lieut.

* * * * *

Received, May 14th, 1825, of Mr. W. Jackson, two hundred and eighty-five milreis, part of prize money due to me.

285 000. JA'S SHEPHERD.

* * * * *

Piranga, Spithead, July 5, 1835.

Received of Mr. W. Jackson, Secretary to His Excellency the Marquis of Maranham, &c. &c. the sum of two hundred and thirty-five pounds sterling, in order to pay the same as prize-money to those persons, late of the Pedro Primiero, but now belonging to this frigate, to whom the sum is due. L.235 or 1,175 000.

* * * * *

There is, however, one omission. The payment of the crews is not adduced, because the pay books were sent with duplicate receipts to Rio de Janeiro by the Piranga. But as no reasonable man will imagine that I publicly paid the officers and neglected payment to the crews, the omission is of the least possible consequence. But lest the payment of the crews may be disputed, I subjoin the following extracts from the log before quoted, from the commencement of the payment, to its termination.



March 16th. Received from the Junta of Maranham, 30 contos (L6,000) in bills, and 3 contos (L600) in money.

" 17th. Writing new book of distribution.

" 18th. Captain Crosbie brought 30 contas (L6,000). Went with him to Hesketh's, where I found that he had received 10 contos (L2,000) for himself.

" 19th. Lord Cochrane paid Jowett 5,000 dollars as prize-money and double pay.

" 20th. 5,000 dollars paid to Jowett's officers and men as double pay. Paid March his further share of prize-money, 500 dollars. Took at Admiral's desire 500 dollars for my distribution of the 100 contos in part received--from which it appears that I am to have half per cent, for distribution.

March 22nd. Received two months' pay to the 1st of February. Went on board the Piranga, and made Wallacea gratuity from the Admiral of 500 dollars.

" 24th. Paid Shepherd, Clewley, Clare, Commissary, Doctors Escrivao, Jannary, and the Pilot, a proportion of 80 contos, in course of payment by the Junta.Went on board the Piranga, and paid prize-money to Carter and a number of men.

" 26th. Paying prize-money to such of Jowett's men as were absent on shore on the 24th.

" 27th. Paying prize-money to such of the Pedro's people entitled thereto, as are to remain on board that ship.

" 30th. Making book for distribution of double pay to those who have served on shore.

April 6th. Counting out the money for double pay to the men who did shore service.

" 7th. Paid part of the men their additional pay.

" 8th. Paying the additional pay.

" 9th. Paying additional pay. Sent Capt. Manson by January 1480 dollars prize-money.

" 10th. A decree arrives by the Guarani from the Imperial Government, directing the Interim President that no money shall be paid to the squadron on account of the taking of Maranham. Admiral suspects Barros to be at the bottom of it.

" 11th. Went on shore with the Admiral, with sixteen bags of dollars, besides Clewley's bag and mine.

" 13th. Paid Inglis and his men additional pay.

" 14th. Admiral proposed to Hesketh to ship cotton to the extent of forty or sixty contos, to which Mr. Hesketh (British Consul) agreed.

" 25th. Remainder of the money from the Junta promised to-morrow.

April 26th. Captain Crosbie received 2,000 dollars as his further share. Received 285 dollars, seventy-six for distribution. More money from the Treasury.

May 5th. Wrote to the Junta, with further demand of 13,000 dollars to make up the stipulated amount.

" 11th. Paying his Lordship's bills.

" 12th. Paying his Lordship's bills.

" 17th. Received my last three months' pay to the 30th of April.

" 18th. Received the remaining money from the Treasury.

" 19th. Sailed in the Piranga.

" 20th. Sent sixty dollars by pilot to two soldiers on shore.

June 6th. Captain Crosbie appointed Captain of the Fleet, with rank of Chief of Division.

July 2nd. At Portsmouth. Agent arrived from London with two months' pay.

" 4th. Paying prize-money to men who had not been paid. Received two months' pay to the 1st instant.

" 11th. Paid John Skirr L.10 for wounds.

The amount paid by the Junta was, in fact, 105,800 dollars, partly in bills, from which a discount of 1800 dollars had to be taken. But these trifles are unworthy of notice: I have thus accounted for every shilling received from the Brazilian Government for the use of the squadron--to the satisfaction of my own conscience, and, I trust, to the satisfaction of all who may read this narrative.

From what has been herein stated, it is obvious that Brazil was, by my instrumentality--though with inadequate means--entirely freed from a foreign yoke, not only without national cost, but with positive gain, arising from the vast territories and revenues annexed--as well as from prizes, the value of which alone exceeded the cost of all naval equipments. It is true that, after a lapse of thirty-five years, a profession is made of adjudicating these prizes--but as nearly all the claimants are dead, and as an intention is manifested to retain my share, unless I produce accounts already transmitted--Brazil will have thus monopolized the fruits of our exertions in the cause of independence--achieved without trouble or thought to the Imperial Government. For, beyond the usual orders on the departure of the squadron, not a single instruction was given--all being left to my discretion, and accomplished on my sole responsibility. Even the favourable contraction of a loan in England--the acknowledgment of Brazilian independence by European states--and the establishment of permanent peace--were the direct consequences of my services, but for which Brazil might still have presented the same lamentable specimen of weakness without, and anarchy within, which forms the characteristics of other South American states.

Can any government then justify the conduct pursued towards me by Brazil? Can any government believe that the promises held out to me as an inducement to accept the command--may be optionally evaded after the more than completion of my part of the contract? The services rendered were fully acknowledged by those with whom that contract was made, and only repudiated by their factions successors, to whom Brazil owed nothing but prospective confusion. Can any one, then, judge otherwise--than that the present Brazilian Government is bound, in honour and good faith, to fulfil the national contract with me--not only on account of professional services accomplished--even beyond national expectation; but also on account of extra-official services which did not come within the scope of my professional duties, viz. the pacification of the Northern provinces? That the fulfilment of these obligations is due, I once more quote the Imperial invitation to adopt the cause of Brazil:--"Votre Grace est invitee, pour--et de part le Gouvernement du Bresil, a accepter le service de la nation Bresilienne; chez qui je suis dument autorise a vous assurer le rang et le grade nullement inferieur a celui que vous tenez de la Republique. Abandonnez-vous, Milord, a la reconnaissance Bresilienne; A LA MUNIFICENCE DU PRINCE; A LA PROBITE SANS TACHE DE L'ACTUEL GOUVERNEMENT; ON VOUS FERA JUSTICE; ON NE RABAISSERA D'UN SEUL POINT LA HAUTE CONSIDERATION--RANG--GRADE--CARACTERE--ET AVANTAGES QUI VOUS SONT DUS." "VENEZ, MILORD, L'HONNEUR VOUS INVITE--LA GLOIRE VOUS APPELLE. VENEZ, DONNER A NOS ARMES NAVALES, CET ORDRE MERVEILLEUX ET DISCIPLINE INCOMPARABLE DE PUISSANTE ALBION."

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